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Sample records for affect sleep quality

  1. [Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802

  2. Mind Wandering, Sleep Quality, Affect and Chronotype: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Du, Feng; Song, Nan; Zhang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270) were completed with Chinese adults aged 18–50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative). Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which may be

  3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  4. Shifts Toward Morningness During Behavioral Sleep Interventions Are Associated With Improvements in Depression, Positive Affect, and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Brant P; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Morningness-eveningness (M-E) is typically considered to be a trait-like construct. However, M-E could plausibly shift in concert with changes in circadian or homeostatic processes. We examined M-E changes across three studies employing behavioral or pharmacological sleep treatments. Baseline and posttreatment M-E scores were strongly correlated across all three samples. M-E showed small but systematic changes toward morningness in sleep-disturbed military veterans receiving behavioral interventions. No systematic M-E changes were observed in the two pharmacological studies (sleep-disturbed military veterans and adults with primary insomnia, respectively). In the behavioral study, M-E changes correlated with changes in depression, positive affect, and sleep quality. M-E changes also correlated with changes in positive affect in the adult insomnia group. M-E appears to exhibit state-like aspects in addition to trait-like aspects. PMID:26549156

  5. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Brett, Kaighley; McCreary, Donald R; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in the high Arctic place particular strain on the human circadian system, which leads to trouble sleeping and increased feelings of negative affect in the winter months. To qualify for our study, potential participants had to have been at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30' 00″ N) for at least 2 weeks. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected at regular intervals on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals with a melatonin rhythm that was in disaccord with their sleep schedule were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatment prescribed to seven of the twelve subjects was effective in improving sleep quality both subjectively, based on questionnaire results, and objectively, based on the actigraphic data. The treatment also caused a significant reduction in negative affect among the participants. Since the treatment is noninvasive and has minimal associated side effects, our results support the use of the light visors at CFS Alert and other northern outposts during the winter for individuals who are experiencing sleep difficulty or low mood. PMID:25580574

  6. Positive affect and pain: mediators of the within-day relation linking sleep quality to activity interference in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Dhwani J; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Tennen, Howard A

    2015-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often resulting in functional impairments. Nonrestorative sleep is a prominent symptom of FM that is related to disability, but the day-to-day mechanisms relating the prior night's sleep quality to next-day reports of disability have not been examined. This study examined the within-day relations among early-morning reports of sleep quality last night, late-morning reports of pain and positive and negative affect, and end-of-day reports of activity interference. Specifically, we tested whether pain, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between sleep quality and subsequent activity interference. Data were drawn from electronic diary reports collected from 220 patients with FM for 21 consecutive days. The direct and mediated effects at the within-person level were estimated with multilevel structural equation modeling. Results showed that pain and positive affect mediated the relation between sleep quality and activity interference. Early-morning reports of poor sleep quality last night predicted elevated levels of pain and lower levels of positive affect at late-morning, which, in turn, predicted elevated end-of-day activity interference. Of note, positive affect was a stronger mediator than pain and negative affect was not a significant mediator. In summary, the findings identify 2 parallel mechanisms, pain and positive affect, through which the prior night's sleep quality predicts disability the next day in patients with FM. Furthermore, results highlight the potential utility of boosting positive affect after a poor night's sleep as one means of preserving daily function in FM. PMID:25679472

  7. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  8. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  9. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient’s sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among diabetics and delineates how individual factor influences sleep. The article also discusses potential interventions and lifestyle changes to promote healthy sleep among diabetics. PMID:26131327

  10. Eveningness and poor sleep quality independently contribute to self-reported depression severity in psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias Johannes; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Background Chronotype and insomnia have been related to the development and to an unfavourable course of depression. However, the mutual relationship of both risk factors is as yet unclear, especially in acute, clinically manifest depressive disorders. Aims The present study was carried out to elucidate the separate direct and indirect influence of chronotype and poor sleep quality on depression severity in patients hospitalized for depression. Methods Depression severity (BDI-II), chronotype (Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire), and subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index total score) were assessed concurrently in inpatients with a depressive syndrome and insomnia during routine treatment. Correlations, multiple regression and bootstrapping methods for testing mediation models were applied to assess the independent direct and indirect effects of chronotype and sleep quality on depression severity, after adjusting for effects of age and gender. Results Data from 57 consecutively admitted patients (88% with major depression) were analyzed (68% women, mean age 41 ± 13 years). Significant correlations between morningness-eveningness (p <0.05) or sleep quality (p <0.01) and depression severity were found; in a multiple regression model comprising chronotype, sleep quality, age and gender, only chronotype (p <0.05) and sleep disturbances (p <0.01) remained as independent significant concurrent predictors of depression severity (R(2) = 0.184, p <0.01). Two mediation models revealed no significant results. Conclusions Eveningness and poor subjective sleep quality were independently and directly associated with higher depression severity in inpatients with depressive syndromes. Chronotype and sleep quality should be taken into account not only in risk assessment and prevention but also in hospitalized patients to develop and improve treatment options. PMID:26634390

  11. Sleep Quality and Risk for Sleep Apnea in Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Holly M.; Budescu, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about characteristics of women's sleep during incarceration. Objectives The study objectives were to: describe incarcerated women's sleep quality; document incarcerated women's risk for sleep apnea; and identify other factors that contribute to poor sleep quality during incarceration. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory investigation was conducted in a maximum security women's prison in the United States. Incarcerated women's sleep quality and their risk for sleep apnea was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Multivariable Apnea Prediction Score (MAPS), respectively. Results Four hundred thirty-eight incarcerated women participated in this investigation. Results indicate that 72% of the sample met the PSQI criteria for “poor sleepers.” Poor sleepers were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances, and scored significantly higher on the risk for sleep apnea scale compared to women who did not meet the poor sleep threshold. Approximately 10% of the sample had a probability for sleep apnea higher than .50. Factors that contributed to poor sleep included: (a) “racing thoughts/worry/thinking about things”; (b) environmental noise and other factors; (c) physical health conditions/pain; (d) nightmares and flashbacks; and (e) not taking sleep medication. Discussion Most participants reported poor sleep quality during incarceration. Poor sleep might exacerbate existing health conditions and contribute to the development of new health problems for incarcerated women. Furthermore, poor sleep quality may reduce a woman's ability to fully participate in beneficial prison programming. This investigation provides a first look at how women sleep in prison and offers recommendations for future research. PMID:24785244

  12. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  13. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Moghaddam, Parichehr; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods:In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic data, sleep-wake schedule in weekday and weekend, and sleep duration were collected. Students' sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver 13. Results: Overall, 164 (57.5) of students had poor sleep quality. Mean global PSQI score and average score of four subscales were significantly higher in male than female. Regression analysis showed that male students (β=-0.85, P<0.05), students at senior level (β=-0.81, P<0.05), married students (β=-0.45, P<0.05), and those with improper sleep hygiene practices slept worse. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality in medical students is high. Improper sleep hygiene behaviors might be a reason for poor quality of sleep in medical students. PMID:27354979

  14. Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students.

    PubMed

    Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow

    2002-01-01

    College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality. PMID:12244643

  15. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  16. Sustained sleep fragmentation affects brain temperature, food intake and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Baud, Maxime O; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Sleep fragmentation is present in numerous sleep pathologies and constitutes a major feature of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity has been shown to be associated to obstructive sleep apnea. While sleep fragmentation has been shown to impact sleep homeostasis, its specific effects on metabolic variables are only beginning to emerge. In this context, it is important to develop realistic animal models that would account for chronic metabolic effects of sleep fragmentation. We developed a 14-day model of instrumental sleep fragmentation in mice, and show an impact on both brain-specific and general metabolism. We first report that sleep fragmentation increases food intake without affecting body weight. This imbalance was accompanied by the inability to adequately decrease brain temperature during fragmented sleep. In addition, we report that sleep-fragmented mice develop glucose intolerance. We also observe that sleep fragmentation slightly increases the circadian peak level of glucocorticoids, a factor that may be involved in the observed metabolic effects. Our results confirm that poor-quality sleep with sustained sleep fragmentation has similar effects on general metabolism as actual sleep loss. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that sleep fragmentation is an aggravating factor for the development of metabolic dysfunctions that may be relevant for sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:22734931

  17. Sleep quality in professional ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Fietze, Ingo; Strauch, Jutta; Holzhausen, Martin; Glos, Martin; Theobald, Christiane; Lehnkering, Hanna; Penzel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Ballet dancers are competitive athletes who undergo extreme physical and mental stress and work according to an irregular schedule, with long days of training, rehearsal, and performance. Their most significant potential risks entail physical injury and altered sleep. The elaborate training requirements for ballet dancers do not allow regular chronobiological patterns or a normal sleep-wake rhythm. Our aim was to investigate the sleep-wake rhythm and sleep quality during rehearsal phases prior to a ballet premiere. We used wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for a period of 67 days before the ballet premiere performance to study 24 classical ballet dancers. We likewise applied the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), SF-12 Quality of life Assessment, and d2 Test of Attention to assess quality of sleep, aspects of cognitive performance, and health status. We found significant reduction in sleep duration, from 418+/-43 min to 391+/-42 min, and sleep efficiency, from 81+/-4% to 79+/-5%, over the 67-day course of the rehearsal. We also found a decline in time in bed and an increase in wakefulness after sleep onset. Sleep onset latency did not change. However, the changes in sleep as documented by actigraphy were not reflected by the subjective data of the sleep diaries and sleep scores. As a result of the facts that total sleep efficiency and sleep duration values were already lower than usual for the dancers' age group at the beginning of the study and that mental acuity, concentration, and speed were likewise impaired, we observed exacerbated health deterioration in terms of sleep deprivation in ballet dancers during preparation for a premier. We conclude that individual activity-rest schedules, including daytime naps, may be helpful, especially during the stressful training and rehearsal experienced prior to ballet premieres. PMID:19731116

  18. Guided imagery: an innovative approach to improving maternal sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Linda; Jallo, Nancy; Howland, Lois; James, Kathy; Glaser, Dale; Arnell, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Mothers of preterm infants are at risk for poor sleep quality, which may adversely affect their health, maternal-infant attachment, and infant caretaking activities. This study examined the relationship of an 8-week relaxation guided imagery intervention on sleep quality and the association between sleep quality and maternal distress (perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and state anxiety) in 20 mothers of hospitalized preterm infants. Mothers received a CD (compact disc) with three 20-minutes recordings and were asked to listen to at least 1 recording daily for 8 weeks. This analysis used self-report data gathered at baseline and 8 weeks. Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationships between mean cumulative relaxation guided imagery use and measures of maternal distress and sleep quality scores at 8 weeks. Complete data on 19 mothers were available for analysis. At 8 weeks, higher mean relaxation guided imagery use was inversely correlated with sleep quality scores (r = -0.30); sleep quality scores were positively correlated with stress (r = 0.42), depressive symptoms (r = 0.34), and anxiety (r = 0.39) scores. In mothers of preterm infants, sleep quality was negatively affected by mental distress and may be improved by a guided imagery intervention. PMID:23618936

  19. Associations of Heart Failure with Sleep Quality: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Lisette A.; Luik, Annemarie I.; Leening, Maarten J.G.; Hofman, Albert; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Franco, Oscar H.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of sleep disturbances and heart failure increases with age. We aimed to evaluate the associations of incident heart failure and cardiac dysfunction with changes in sleep quality. Methods: This prospective population-based study was conducted in the Rotterdam Study. Of the 3,445 eligible persons (mean age 72.0 ± 7.1 years) available for cross-sectional analyses, 8.9% (n = 307) had prevalent clinical heart failure. In longitudinal analyses, 1,989 eligible persons (mean age 70.0 ± 5.8 years) were followed for an average of 6.5 ± 0.4 years, of which 4.6% (n = 91) had prevalent or incident clinical heart failure. Heart failure was assessed according to European Society of Cardiology criteria. To estimate cardiac function, we measured left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic function, and E/A ratio by echocardiography. Heart failure and cardiac dysfunction were studied with linear regression in relation to sleep quality, assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results: No associations between clinical heart failure and sleep quality were observed in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical heart failure predicted a reduction of sleep quality (B = 1.00 points on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; 95% CI 0.40, 1.60) in longitudinal assessment. This association was driven by the sleep onset latency and sleep quality components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Cardiac dysfunction was not related to sleep quality in cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions: Clinical heart failure, but not cardiac dysfunction measured by echocardiography, increases the risk of poor sleep quality in the general population over time. These findings suggest that clinical manifestations of heart failure negatively affect sleep. Citation: Zuurbier LA, Luik AI, Leening MJ, Hofman A, Freak-Poli R, Franco OH, Stricker BH, Tiemeier H. Associations of heart failure with sleep quality: the Rotterdam Study. J Clin Sleep Med

  20. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  1. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  2. Association between sleep quality and quality of life in nursing professionals working rotating shifts

    PubMed Central

    Palhares, Valéria de Castilho; Corrente, José Eduardo; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between sleep quality and quality of life of nursing professionals according to their work schedules. METHODS A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between January and December 2010, with 264 nursing professionals, drawn from 989 subjects at Botucatu General Hospital and stratified by professional category. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the WHOQOL-bref were administered to evaluate sleep quality and quality of life, respectively. Self-reported demographic data were collected with a standard form. Continuous variables were reported as means and standard deviations, and categorical variables were expressed as proportions. Associations were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. The association of night-shift work and gender with sleep disturbance was evaluated by logistic regression analysis using a model adjusted for age and considering sleep disturbance the dependent variable. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS Night-shift work was associated with severe worsening of at least one component of sleep quality in the model adjusted for age (OR = 1.91; 95%CI 1.04;3.50; p = 0.036). Female gender was associated with sleep disturbance (OR = 3.40; 95%CI 1.37;8.40; p = 0.008). Quality of life and quality of sleep were closely correlated (R = -0.56; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Characteristics of the nursing profession affect sleep quality and quality of life, and these two variables are associated. PMID:25210818

  3. Disturbed dreaming and sleep quality: altered sleep architecture in subjects with frequent nightmares.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Horváth, Klára; Gombos, Ferenc; Takács, Krisztina P; Bódizs, Róbert

    2012-12-01

    Nightmares are intense, emotionally negative mental experiences that usually occur during late-night sleep and result in abrupt awakenings. Questionnaire-based studies have shown that nightmares are related to impaired sleep quality; however, the polysomnographic profile of nightmare subjects has been only scarcely investigated. We investigated the sleep architecture of 17 individuals with frequent nightmares and 23 control subjects based on polysomnographic recordings of a second night spent in the laboratory after an adaptation night. Nightmare subjects in comparison with control subjects were characterized by impaired sleep architecture, as reflected by reduced sleep efficiency, increased wakefulness, a reduced amount of slow wave sleep, and increased nocturnal awakenings, especially from Stage 2 sleep. While these differences were independent of the effects of waking psychopathology, nightmare subjects also exhibited longer durations of REM sleep that was mediated by heightened negative affect. Our results support that nightmares are related to altered sleep architecture, showing impaired sleep continuity and emotion-related increase in REM propensity. PMID:22526731

  4. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881313

  5. Endothelial Function and Sleep: Associations of Flow-Mediated Dilation With Perceived Sleep Quality and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Denise C.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Milic, Milos S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J.; Loredo, José S.; von Känel, Roland; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endothelial function typically precedes clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and provides a potential mechanism for the associations observed between cardiovascular disease and sleep quality. This study examined how subjective and objective indicators of sleep quality relate to endothelial function, as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In a clinical research center, 100 non-shift working adults (mean age: 36 years) completed FMD testing and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, along with a polysomnography assessment to obtain the following measures: slow wave sleep, percentage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep latency, total arousal index, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, and apnea hypopnea index. Bivariate correlations and followup multiple regressions examined how FMD related to subjective (i.e., Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores) and objective (i.e., polysomnography-derived) indicators of sleep quality. After FMD showed bivariate correlations with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, percentage REM sleep, and REM latency, further examination with separate regression models indicated that these associations remained significant after adjustments for sex, age, race, hypertension, body mass index, apnea hypopnea index, smoking, and income (p's<0.05). Specifically, as FMD decreased, scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index increased (indicating decreased subjective sleep quality) and percentage REM sleep decreased, while REM sleep latency increased (p's<0.05). Poorer subjective sleep quality and adverse changes in REM sleep were associated with diminished vasodilation, which could link sleep disturbances to cardiovascular disease. PMID:24033699

  6. Quality of Sleep in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Askarian, Zahra; Najafi, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing motor and non-motor symptoms. The latter are common and include autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and sleep difficulties. Many of the non-motor aspects of PD such as sleep disturbance are more common and significantly affect the day-to-day activities of patients and their quality of life. The most important aim of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality in patients with PD. Methods: This case-control study was performed on patients with PD referred to the Neurology Clinic of our teaching hospital in 2011. Thirty-four patients with PD and 34 healthy people as control group were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality of patients and control was evaluated by Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS) questionnaire. PDSS is a reliable and valid tool to measure sleep disorders in PD. Results: The mean total PDSS score in patient group was 55.29 (SD = 26.92) indicating moderate to severe sleep disturbances whereas, the mean total score in control group was 20.34 (SD = 10.65). Difference between the two groups’ mean scores was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that patients with PD experienced poorer nocturnal sleep quality than the control group. PMID:23776729

  7. Predictors of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students: association between evening typology, lifestyle behaviors, and sleep habits

    PubMed Central

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2014-01-01

    Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping <6.5 hours and more than half scored in the poor-sleeper category on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the “neither type” category on the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated with reduced sleep duration and shifts in sleep timing between weekdays and weekends, especially among evening types. While chronotype and certain behavioral choices interact to affect sleep dimensions and quality, raising awareness about the importance of obtaining adequate nighttime sleep on daily performance and avoiding risky behaviors may help Lebanese students make

  8. The interplay between sleep behavior and affect in elementary school children's daily life.

    PubMed

    Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Leonhardt, Anja; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Recent reviews raised the idea of a bidirectional relation between sleep behavior and affect in adults, but little is known about this interplay in general and especially regarding children. In this micro-longitudinal study, the interplay of sleep and affect was captured directly in children's daily life context in and out of school through ambulatory assessment. For 31 consecutive days, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) provided information about their last night's sleep and reported their current affect at four daily occasions in school and at home on smartphones. A multilevel approach was used to analyze the relation between sleep and affect the next day (morning, noon, and afternoon) and the relation between evening affect and subsequent sleep. At the within-person level, sleep quality was related to all observed facets of affect the next day and the strongest effects were found in the morning. The effect of sleep quality on positive affect was particularly pronounced for children who on average went to bed early and slept long. There were, however, no direct within-person effects of sleep quantity on affect. Furthermore, evening affect was related to subsequent sleep. The findings support the idea of a bidirectional relation between affect and sleep in children's daily life (including school). They suggest that good sleep provides a basis and resource for children's affective well-being the next day and demonstrate the importance of analyzing within-person variations of children's sleep. Micro-longitudinal findings can contribute to explain how macro-longitudinal relations between sleep and affect develop over time. PMID:27236036

  9. Sleep quality as a mediator between technology-related sleep quality, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sue K; Kisler, Tiffani S

    2013-01-01

    This study examines (a) relations among technology use during sleep time, sleep quality, and depression/anxiety and (b) time awake due to technology use. Two hundred thirty-six college students completed self-report questionnaires and week-long sleep diaries. Results revealed that 47 percent of students reported night-time waking to answer text messages and 40 percent to answer phone calls. Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of technology use after the onset of sleep predicted poorer sleep quality, and poorer sleep quality predicted symptoms of depression/anxiety. Finally, sleep quality is a mediator between technology use after the onset of sleep and depression/anxiety. College students who have difficulty setting boundaries around technology use may be at increased risk for psychological health concerns. PMID:23320870

  10. Sleep and affect in older adults: using multilevel modeling to examine daily associations

    PubMed Central

    McCRAE, CHRISTINA S.; McNAMARA, JOSEPH P. H.; ROWE, MEREDETH A.; DZIERZEWSKI, JOSEPH M.; DIRK, JUDITH; MARSISKE, MICHAEL; CRAGGS, JASON G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The main objective of the present study was to examine daily associations (intraindividual variability or IIV) between sleep and affect in older adults. Greater understanding of these associations is important, because both sleep and affect represent modifiable behaviors that can have a major influence on older adults’ health and well-being. We collected sleep diaries, actigraphy, and affect data concurrently for 14 days in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the sleep–affect relationship at both the group (between-persons) and individual (within-person or IIV) levels. We hypothesized that nights characterized by better sleep would be associated with days characterized by higher positive affect and lower negative affect, and that the inverse would be true for poor sleep. Daily associations were found between affect and subjective sleep, only and were in the hypothesized direction. Specifically, nights with greater reported awake time or lower sleep quality ratings were associated with days characterized by less positive affect and more negative affect. Gender was not a significant main effect in the present study, despite previous research suggesting gender differences in the sleep–affect relationship. The fact that self-ratings of sleep emerged as the best predictors of affect may suggest that perceived sleep is a particularly important predictor. Finally, our results suggest exploration of affect as a potential intervention target in late-life insomnia is warranted. PMID:18275554

  11. Technology Use and Sleep Quality in Preadolescence and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Sette, Stefania; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze differences between preadolescents and adolescents on the use of technology and to test the contribution of using Internet and mobile phone, and circadian preference on sleep quality. Methods: We recruited a sample of 850 (364 males) preadolescents and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires about sleep schedule, sleep wake behavior problems, circadian preferences, and the use of technology (e.g., Internet and mobile phone) were administered. Students were asked to fill out the School Sleep Habits Survey, a self-report questionnaire on the use of technology, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and the Shorter Promis Questionnaire (SPQ). Results: Adolescents reported more sleep problems, a tendency toward eveningness, and an increase of Internet and phone activities, as well as social network activities, while preadolescents were more involved in gaming console and television viewing. The regression analysis performed separately in the two age groups showed that sleep quality was affected by the circadian preference (eveningness) in both groups. Adolescents' bad sleep quality was consistently associated with the mobile phone use and number of devices in the bedroom, while in preadolescents, with Internet use and turning-off time. Conclusions: The evening circadian preference, mobile phone and Internet use, numbers of other activities after 21:00, late turning off time, and number of devices in the bedroom have different negative influence on sleep quality in preadolescents and adolescents. Citation: Bruni O, Sette S, Fontanesi L, Baiocco R, Laghi F, Baumgartner E. Technology use and sleep quality in preadolescence and adolescence. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1433–1441. PMID:26235161

  12. Quality of Sleep and its Relationship to Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Parvan, Kobra; lakdizaji, Sima; Roshangar, Fariborz; Mostofi, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite many advances in the treatment of chronic renal failure, the quality of sleep in patients who suffer from this disease is at the risk. The high prevalence of sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients, which is concomitant with physical, behavioral, and psychological problems, has always affected these patients' quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Methods: By using a descriptive and correlational design, this study was conducted on 245 hemodialysis patients in 2012. Patients were selected by convenience sampling from the hemodialysis ward of four training hospitals of Tabriz and Maragheh. Quality of sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the quality of life for patients was measured by the Kidney Disease Quality Of Life questionnaire (KDQOL-SF). Results: 83.3% of hemodialysis patients had poor quality of sleep. Poor quality of life was significantly associated with poor quality of sleep. There was a significant negative correlation between global PSQI and important aspects of quality of life including physical health, symptoms and problems, the impact of kidney disease on daily life, burden of kidney disease, mental health, social support, and sexual function. Conclusion: The low quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients has an effect on the deterioration of their quality of life. Therefore, training, counseling, and advocacy programs should be developed to improve the patients' quality of sleep and quality of life, especially those with lower education level and income, and older people. PMID:25276738

  13. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1-28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:23471477

  14. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  15. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M.; Henry, Owen S.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18–22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  16. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26097451

  17. Sleep deprivation affects extinction but not acquisition memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-11-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were used as indicators of sleep. We found that the bees sleep more during the dark phase of the day compared with the light phase. Sleep phases were characterized by two distinct patterns of antennal activities: symmetrical activity, more prominent during the dark phase; and asymmetrical activity, more common during the light phase. Sleep-deprived bees showed rebound the following day, confirming effective deprivation of sleep. After appetitive conditioning of the bees to various olfactory stimuli, we observed their sleep. Bees conditioned to odor with sugar reward showed lesser sleep compared with bees that were exposed to either reward alone or air alone. Next, we asked whether sleep deprivation affects memory consolidation. While sleep deprivation had no effect on retention scores after odor acquisition, retention for extinction learning was significantly reduced, indicating that consolidation of extinction memory but not acquisition memory was affected by sleep deprivation. PMID:19864296

  18. Menopausal Symptoms and Sleep Quality During Menopausal Transition and Postmenopause

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yao-Qin; Yan, Mei-Qin; Li, Zhao-Ai; Du, Xiu-Ping; Wu, Xue-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menopausal symptoms and sleep difficulty were physiological processes that were affected by genetic and other factors. This study was to investigate the prevalence of menopausal symptoms and sleep quality in menopausal transition (MT) and postmenopause (PM) women in Taiyuan, Shanxi. Methods: A community-based survey of women's menopausal symptoms and sleep quality was conducted between July 2012 and May 2013 at six municipal districts of Taiyuan, Shanxi. A sample of 2429 women aged 40–59 years was divided into four groups: early MT, late MT, early PM, and late PM. Sleep quality in the past 2 weeks before the interview was recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was 49.8%. Mild, moderate, and severe symptoms were observed in 28.9%, 18.5%, and 2.5% of participants, respectively. The highest prevalence of menopausal symptoms occurred in the early postmenopausal stage; the subsequences were the late postmenopausal stage and the early MT stage. Interestingly, among the 13 items of modified Kupperman index, the five most common symptoms were fatigue, arthralgia and myalgia, decreased libido, insomnia, and nervousness. Meanwhile, 55% perimenopausal women had poor sleep. Conclusions: Menopausal symptoms are common but mild among women in Taiyuan, Shanxi during MT and PM. In these stages, the prevalence of poor sleep is high. PMID:26996470

  19. Effects of sleep hygiene education and behavioral therapy on sleep quality of white-collar workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nishinoue, Nao; Takano, Tomoki; Kaku, Akiko; Eto, Risa; Kato, Noritada; Ono, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Because poor sleep quality can reduce quality of life and increase prevalence of illness in workers, interventions are becoming increasingly important for businesses. To evaluate how sleep quality is affected by one-on-one behavioral modification when combined with group education, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial among day-shift white-collar employees working for an information-technology service company in Japan. Participants were randomly allocated to groups receiving either sleep hygiene group education (control group), or education combined with individual sleep modification training (one-on-one group). Occupational health professionals carried out both procedures, and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). PSQI scores were obtained before and after the intervention period, and changes in scores were compared across groups after adjustments for age, gender, job title, smoking and drinking habits, body-mass index, and mental health as assessed using K6 scores. The average PSQI score for the control group decreased by 0.8, whereas that of the one-on-one group decreased by 1.8 (difference of 1), resulting in a significantly greater decrease in score for the one-on-one group (95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 2.0). These results show that, compared to sleep hygiene group education alone, the addition of individual behavioral training significantly improved the sleep quality of workers after only three months. PMID:22293726

  20. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  1. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  2. Correlation between Severity of Atopic Dermatitis and Sleep Quality in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tae Seok; Lee, June Hyunkyung; Son, Sook Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background The atopic dermatitis (AD) can limit a patient's physical and psychosocial development as well as lower their overall quality of life (QOL), including sleep quality. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between clinical disease severity, QOL and sleep quality in children and adults with AD. Methods The SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was examined to evaluate the severity of AD in fifty adult AD patients and 50 children AD patients. A questionnaire based on the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) and the children's dermatology life quality index (CDLQI) were used to evaluate QOL and sleep disturbance in children AD patients. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) were used in adult AD patients. Results The SCORAD and CSHQ score, the SCORAD and CDLQI score and the CSHQ and CDLQI score demonstrated significant correlations. The SCORAD and PSQI score showed no significant correlation. However, there were significant correlations between the SCORAD and DLQI score and the PSQI and DLQI score. Conclusion Increasing severity of AD affects sleep quality in child AD patients. In adults, even though the total score of the sleep questionnaire is not associated with the severity of AD, two components of sleep questionnaire are associated with the severity of AD. There is a significant correlation between sleep quality and QOL in both children and adults. Therefore, we suggest that evaluating the sleep quality as well as clinical severity of the disease is necessary in the management of AD patients. PMID:27274630

  3. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables. This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression. The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items “Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes” (P < 0.001), “Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning” (P < 0.001), “Bad dreams” (P = 0.001), “Pain” (P = 0.004), and “Quality of sleep” (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011). High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura. PMID:27124064

  4. Children's Sleep and Autonomic Function: Low Sleep Quality Has an Impact on Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV Participants: Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). Interventions: N/A. Methods: Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. Results: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Conclusions: Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children. Citation: Michels N; Clays E; De Buyzere M; Vanaelst B; De Henauw S; Sioen I. Children's sleep

  5. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers. PMID:26244485

  6. Poor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Christina M; Banks, Jonathan B; Fins, Ana I; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Poor sleep quality has been demonstrated to diminish cognitive performance, impair psychosocial functioning and alter the perception of stress. At present, however, there is little understanding of how sleep quality affects emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which sleep quality, measured through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, influences affective symptoms as well as the interaction between stress and performance on an emotional memory test and sustained attention task. To that end, 154 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.27 years, standard deviation = 4.03) completed a series of measures, including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Sustained Attention to Response Task, an emotion picture recognition task and affective symptom questionnaires following either a control or physical stress manipulation, the cold pressor test. As sleep quality and psychosocial functioning differ among chronotypes, we also included chronotype and time of day as variables of interest to ensure that the effects of sleep quality on the emotional and non-emotional tasks were not attributed to these related factors. We found that poor sleep quality is related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety and mood disturbances. While an overall relationship between global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score and emotion and attention measures was not supported, poor sleep quality, as an independent component, was associated with better memory for negative stimuli and a deficit in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. Importantly, these effects were not sensitive to stress, chronotype or time of day. Combined, these results suggest that individuals with poor sleep quality show an increase in affective symptomatology as well as a negative cognitive bias with a concomitant decrease in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. PMID:25913483

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the quality of life

    PubMed Central

    COMAN, ANDREEA CODRUTA; BORZAN, CRISTINA; VESA, CRISTIAN STEFAN; TODEA, DOINA ADINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) affects the quality of life (QOL) due to the effects on the patient’s physical and mental function. QOL in sleep apnea may improve under continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the OSA patients QOL before and after 3 months of CPAP therapy using Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI). Methods We conducted a study in 79 sleep apnea subjects diagnosed using cardiorespiratory portable monitoring, under CPAP therapy, monitored in our Sleep Laboratory from January 2011 to December 2014. This is a cross-sectional study, achieved through quantitative research (SAQLI questionnaire application) about the perception of quality of life in patients with sleep apnea in the moment of diagnosis and 3 months after CPAP therapy. Results Of the 79 subjects, 59 (74.7%) were men and 20 (26.3%) women; mean age was 54.13 years (SD±10.87), the mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 52.46±20.83 events/h. In all 4 domains of SAQLI: daily functioning with mean pretreatment score 4.13±0.58 versus mean post treatment score 5.43±0.52; social interactions with mean pretreatment score 3.68±0.55 versus post treatment mean score 5.36±0.57; emotional functioning with mean pretreatment score 3.83±0.53 versus mean post treatment mean 5.38±0.56 and symptoms with mean pretreatment score 0.81±0.12 versus mean post treatment score 1.15±0.14, quality of life was improved after 3 months of therapy, with significantly statistical correlation (p=0.00). Also, an improvement was seen in mean total score of SAQLI after therapy as compared to baseline 3.11±0.32 versus 4.24±0.39 (p<0.01). Conclusion The quality of life in sleep apnea was better after CPAP therapy than from baseline, according Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index. The SAQLI is a useful toll to evaluate quality of life in sleep apnea, especially to highlight the benefits of CPAP therapy, even with short time

  8. Sleep deprivation in adolescents and adults: changes in affect.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Lisa S; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Kaplan, Katherine A; Dahl, Ronald E; Harvey, Allison G

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the impact of sleep deprivation on several aspects of affective functioning in healthy participants selected from three different developmental periods: early adolescence (ages 10-13), midadolescence (ages 13-16), and adulthood (ages 30-60). Participants completed an affective functioning battery under conditions of sleep deprivation (a maximum of 6.5 hours total sleep time on the first night followed by a maximum of 2 hours total sleep time on the second night) and rest (approximately 7-8 hours total sleep time each night for two consecutive nights). Less positive affect was observed in the sleep-deprived, compared to rested, condition. This effect held for 9 of the 12 positive affect items on the PANAS-C. Participants also reported a greater increase in anxiety during a catastrophizing task and rated the likelihood of potential catastrophes as higher when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. Early adolescents appraised their main worry as more threatening when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. These results support and extend previous research underscoring the adverse affective consequences of sleep deprivation. PMID:21058849

  9. Effects of Interface Pressure Distribution on Human Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zongyong; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Rong; Gao, Dong; Chen, Quanhui; Hu, Zhian; Guo, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed “over-concentrated” distribution of pressure; one was displayed “over-evenly” distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep. PMID:24924427

  10. Effects of interface pressure distribution on human sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zongyong; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Rong; Gao, Dong; Chen, Quanhui; Hu, Zhian; Guo, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep. PMID:24924427

  11. Nightmares in Patients With Psychosis: The Relation With Sleep, Psychotic, Affective, and Cognitive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sheaves, Bryony; Onwumere, Juliana; Keen, Nadine; Stahl, Daniel; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of nightmares in people with psychosis and to describe the link between nightmares and sleep quality, psychotic, affective, and cognitive symptoms. Methods: Forty participants with psychotic symptoms completed an assessment of nightmares, sleep quality, positive symptoms of psychosis, affect, posttraumatic stress, social functioning, and working memory. Results: Among the patients, 55% reported weekly distressing nightmares. Experience of more frequent nightmares was related to poorer sleep quality and sleep efficiency. More distressing nightmares were positively associated with greater delusional severity, depression, anxiety, stress, and difficulties with working memory. Conclusions: Nightmares might be common in those with psychosis and are associated with increased day- and nighttime impairment. Future research should investigate treatments for nightmares, for people presenting with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26454557

  12. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Results Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03–1.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14–1.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.81–3.11) for <6 hours. Using very good sleep quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01–1.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32–2.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.67–3.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. Conclusions There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies. PMID:25912096

  13. Ayurvedic Doshas as Predictors of Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Pathak, Shivangi; Kumar, Ankur; Mishra, Prabhat; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Background The 3 Ayurvedic constitutional types or Doshas – vata, pitta, and kapha – are responsible for homeostasis and health. The doshas determine various functions, including sleep. According to the Ayurvedic texts, sleep is caused by increased kapha and insomnia by increased vata or pitta, which may follow physical or mental exertion, or disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether this relationship could be found using contemporary standardized questionnaires. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional single-group study, 995 persons participated (646 males; group average age ±S.D., 49.1±15.2 years). Participants were attending a 1-week residential yoga program in northern India. Participants were assessed for dosha scores using a Tridosha questionnaire and the quality of sleep in the preceding week was self-rated using a sleep rating questionnaire. Results Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine if each dosha acted as a predictor of quality and quantity of sleep. Vata scores significantly predicted the time taken to fall asleep [p<0.01], and the feeling of being rested in the morning [p<0.001]; with higher vata scores being associated with a longer time to fall asleep and a lesser feeling of being rested in the morning. Kapha scores significantly predicted day-time somnolence [p<0.05] and the duration of day-time naps in minutes [p<0.05], with higher kapha scores being associated with longer day-time naps. Conclusions The results suggest that the doshas can influence the quality and quantity of sleep. PMID:25982247

  14. The interaction between sleep quality and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Ahrberg, K; Dresler, M; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Genzel, L

    2012-12-01

    Sleep quality has significant effects on cognitive performance and is influenced by multiple factors such as stress. Contrary to the ideal, medical students and residents suffer from sleep deprivation and stress at times when they should achieve the greatest amount of learning. In order to examine the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance, 144 medical students undertaking the pre-clinical board exam answered a survey regarding their subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), grades and subjective stress for three different time points: semester, pre- and post-exam. Academic performance correlated with stress and sleep quality pre-exam (r = 0.276, p < 0.001 and r = 0.158, p < 0.03, note that low performance meant low sleep quality and high stress), however not with the stress or sleep quality during the semester and post-exam. 59% of all participants exhibited clinically relevant sleep disturbances (PSQI > 5) during exam preparation compared to 29% during the semester and 8% post-exam. This study shows that in medical students it is not the generally poor sleepers, who perform worse in the medical board exams. Instead students who will perform worse on their exams seem to be more stressed and suffer from poor sleep quality. However, poor sleep quality may negatively impact test performance as well, creating a vicious circle. Furthermore, the rate of sleep disturbances in medical students should be cause for intervention. PMID:23040161

  15. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26709860

  16. [Sleep quality in aged patients with peripheral vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Karina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2008-03-01

    Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are prevalent among the elderly, and, due to their chronic character, result in poor quality of life and poor sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating sleep quality of elderly people diagnosed with PVD who undergo clinical ambulatory treatment in a university hospital in Campinas, in the State of São Paulo. Subjects (n=50, aged 74 +/- 8 years old) answered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and provided basic demographic data and PVD history (35 subjects had arterial blockage in lower limbs). Results showed that 34 subjects presented bad sleep quality; sleep length was 5.8 (+/- 2.3) hours, and, according to 23 subjects, night sleep was frequently disturbed by pain (thrice a week or more). Eighteen subjects took analgesics; four took sleep medicines. Findings may have important implications for nurses working with PVD patients, stressing the need to take into account consequences of PVD on sleep disturbances when planning their interventions. PMID:18450142

  17. Sleep quality of women with gynecological and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Furlani, Renata; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2006-01-01

    Subjective sleep quality has been recognized as a valuable indicator of health and quality of life. This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at describing habitual sleep quality of women suffering from gynecological and breast cancer and comparing habitual versus sleep quality during hospitalization. Twenty-five women admitted in hospital for clinical treatment of cancer completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) within 72 hours after admission and again just before discharge. Fifty-two percent of subjects reported habitual bad sleep quality, and this proportion increased to 80% of subjects during hospital stay. Subjects indicated the following most frequent causes of night sleep disturbance: need to go to the toilet, waking up early and receiving nursing care during the night. Results point to the importance of including careful assessment of sleep quality and environment in nursing care planning for oncology patients, mainly during hospitalization. PMID:17294020

  18. [Sleep habits, sleep quality and sleep medicine use of the Swiss population result].

    PubMed

    Tinguely, Gilberte; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-11-01

    A survey in a representative sample of the Swiss population revealed an average sleep duration of 7.5 hours on workdays and of 8.5 hours on free days, which reflected a more than half an hour (38 min) shorter sleep duration than 28 years ago. The mean time in bed was between 22:41 and 06:37 on workdays and between 23:29 and 08:27 on free days. On workdays as well as on free days the bedtime was delayed by 47 minutes in comparison to a similar survey 28 years ago. By contrast, the mean rise times on workdays and free days did not change. The sleep duration required to feel refreshed was indicated with 7 hours, which was 41 minutes less than 28 years ago. Roughly 90 % of the interviewees answered that they felt healthy, and 75 % described their sleep as good or very good compared to 79 % 28 years ago. The most frequent reasons stated for bad sleep were personal problems and strain at the workplace. The effect of bad quality sleep on every day functioning was considered as essential by 65 % of the respondents compared to 69 % 28 years ago. The use of medication to improve sleep was declared by 2.8 % (2.7 % 28 years ago), most often benzodiazepines, but also Valerian products and so-called z-drugs. In comparison with similar surveys in other countries (France, Great Britain and USA), Swiss residents slept roughly half an hour longer, but these other countries alike showed a sizable shortening of their habitual sleep duration over the last decades. PMID:25377287

  19. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Wei-Wen; Landis, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the associations of sleep hygiene and actigraphy measures of sleep with self-reported sleep quality in 197 pregnant women in northern Taiwan. Third-trimester pregnant women completed the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (SHPS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and wore an actigraph for 7 consecutive days. Student's t-test was used to compare the SHPS scores and means as well as variability of actigraphy sleep variables between poor sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score >5) and good sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score ≤5). Compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers reported significantly worse sleep hygiene, with higher SHPS scores and higher sleep schedule, arousal-related behavior, and sleep environment subscale scores. Poor sleepers had significantly greater intra-individual variability of sleep onset latency, total nighttime sleep, and wake after sleep onset than good sleepers. In stepwise linear regression, older maternal age (p = .01), fewer employment hours per week (p = .01), higher CES-D total score (p < .01), and higher SHPS arousal-related behavior subscale scores (p < .01) predicted self-reported global sleep quality. Findings support avoiding physically, physiologically, emotionally, or cognitively arousing activities before bedtime as a target for sleep-hygiene intervention in women during pregnancy. PMID:26650922

  20. Sleep and Quality of Life in People With COPD: A Descriptive-Correlational Study.

    PubMed

    Dignani, Lucia; Toccaceli, Andrea; Lucertini, Carla; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto

    2016-08-01

    Sleep disorders are very common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is not clear how sleep disorders and quality of life (QoL) affect each other in the different stages of disease progression. This descriptive-correlational study investigated the relationship between QoL, quality of sleep, and degree of disease progression in 102 outpatients with COPD. The results showed that the QoL in patients with COPD is compromised and worsens with disease progression, and the quality of sleep is significantly associated with QoL and worsened as the disease progressed. The early identification of a risk of alteration of the quality of sleep, especially in nursing care, could facilitate a preventive approach for COPD patients that could positively affect their QoL. PMID:26045572

  1. Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Sleep Quality, Cognition, and Driving Performance in Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Thacker, Leroy R; Leszczyszyn, David; Taylor, Samuel A; Heuman, Douglas M; Raman, Shekar; Sterling, Richard K; Siddiqui, Muhammad S; Stravitz, R Todd; Sanyal, Arun J; Puri, Puneet; Luketic, Velimir; Matherly, Scott; Fuchs, Michael; White, Melanie B; Noble, Nicole A; Unser, Ariel B; Wade, James B

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims: In patients with cirrhosis, sleep disturbances are assumed to result from hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on cognition, sleep parameters, or driving in patients with cirrhosis are unclear. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, prospective study of 118 subjects. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: those with OSA and cirrhosis (without HE or ascites, n=34), those with only cirrhosis (n=30), those with only OSA only (n=29), and those without OSA or cirrhosis (controls, n=25). None of OSA patients were receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Subjects underwent cognitive testing (paper–pencil tests for psychomotor speed and attention, as well as executive function tests), sleep assessment (daytime sleepiness and night-time sleep quality) and a monotonous driving simulation (worsening lane deviations over time indicate poor performance). We also tested patients with OSA, with cirrhosis (n=10) and without cirrhosis (n=7), before and after CPAP therapy. Results: Daytime sleepiness and sleep quality were worse in subjects in the OSA groups (with or without cirrhosis) than subjects with cirrhosis alone or controls. Of subjects with only OSA, 36% had impaired psychomotor speed and attention, compared to >60% of subjects in both cirrhosis groups. In contrast, executive function was uniformly worse in subjects with OSA, with or without cirrhosis, than groups without OSA. Simulator performance (lane deviations) worsened over time in both OSA groups. CPAP therapy significantly increased executive function and sleep quality, and reduced simulator lane deviations and sleepiness, in subjects with and without cirrhosis. After CPAP therapy, performance on the paper–pencil test performance improved significantly only in subjects with OSA without cirrhosis. Conclusion: OSA should be considered in evaluating sleep impairment in patients with cirrhosis. In patients with cirrhosis and OSA

  2. The Effect of Footbath on Sleep Quality of the Elderly: A Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedrasooli, Allehe; Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Kalantri, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The progressive increase in the elderly population of developing countries has drawn attention to their health. Sleep Pattern and quality can affect life quality in old people. We need more documents about footbath (a non-invasive method). The purpose of this research was to examine footbath on sleep quality of the elderly. Methods: This study is a blinded, randomized, clinical trial on 46 old men that had health documents in health center, 2013. Participants in the research were divided into two groups. One group had footbath (experimental group) and another group did not have footbath (control group). The experimental group participants were asked to put their feet in warm water (41-42 ºC) for 20 minutes before sleeping for 6 weeks. The co-researcher completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and after the intervention by individual interview. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The comparison of changes in sleep quality score the old men showed the sleep duration and total sleep quality has significantly improved in the experimental group. Conclusion: According to the study results, the maximum effect of footbath was on sleep latency and sleep duration disturbances. In this study, the researchers had limited access to the elderly in Tabriz; therefore, it is recommended that future research be conducted in a higher number of health centers. PMID:25276739

  3. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population

    PubMed Central

    Dobing, Selina; Frolova, Natalia; McAlister, Finlay

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep. Methods GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH) questionnaire, to characterize the previous night’s sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use. Results Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001). Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371), effectiveness (190), and supplementation (115) subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%), nursing interruptions (30%), uncomfortable beds (18%), bright lights (16%), unfamiliar surroundings (14%), and pain (9%). Conclusions Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients. PMID:27280292

  4. Factors Associated With Sleep Quality Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Pohl, Joanne M.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Blue collar workers generally report high job stress and are exposed to loud noises at work and engage in many of the health behavioral factors, all of which have been associated with poor sleep quality. However, sleep quality of blue collar workers has not been studied extensively, and no studies have focused Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) among whom daytime fatigue would place them at high risk for accidents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine variables associated with sleep quality among Operating Engineers. This was a cross-sectional survey design with a dependent variable of sleep quality and independent variables of personal and related health behavioral factors. A convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers was recruited from approximately 16,000 Operating Engineers from entire State of Michigan in 2008. Linear regression was used to determine personal and related health behavior factors associated with sleep quality. Multivariate analyses showed that personal factors related to poor sleep quality were younger age, female sex, higher pain, more medical comorbidities and depressive symptoms and behavioral factors related to poor sleep quality were nicotine dependence. While sleep scores were similar to population norms, approximately 34% (n=143) showed interest in health services for sleep problems. While many personal factors are not changeable, interventions to improve sleep hygiene as well as interventions to treat pain, depression and smoking may improve sleep quality resulting in less absenteeism, fatal work accidents, use of sick leave, work disability, medical comorbidities, as well as subsequent mortality. PMID:23393021

  5. Galantamine improves sleep quality in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Naharci, Mehmet Ilkin; Ozturk, Ahmet; Yasar, Halit; Cintosun, Umit; Kocak, Necmettin; Bozoglu, Ergun; Tasci, Ilker; Doruk, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influences of cholinesterase inhibitors on sleep pattern and sleep disturbance. A total of 87 mild to moderate stage dementia patients who were not on cholinesterase enzyme inhibitor and memantine treatment were included in the study. The dementia patients were treated with donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine, depending on the preference of the clinician. Fifty-five dementia patients (63.2 %) completed the study. Twenty-three elderly subjects, who had normal cognitive functions, were included in the study as the control group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used for evaluating the sleep quality at the beginning and at the final assessment. The improvement in sleep quality was better with regard to changes in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores with galantamine treatment compared to the donepezil and the control groups. A significant decrease in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores was detected in the galantamine group after treatment. Although statistically not significant, rivastigmine decreased and donepezil increased the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores after treatment. Dementia patients who had a poor sleep quality (n: 36), the rate of improvement in sleep disturbance was 81.8 % in the galantamine group, 75 % in the rivastigmine, and 50 % in the donepezil group. Galantamine may be the first choice of cholinesterase inhibitor in mild to moderate dementia patients in terms of improving sleep quality. PMID:25777522

  6. Quality of sleep in postoperative surgical oncologic patients.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Elizabeth; Sawada, Namie Okino; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate surgical-oncologic patients' quality of sleep through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. It is an exploratory study with transversal-observational design, in 46 postoperative head & neck and urology cancer patients. The PSQI questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective quality of sleep and the occurrence of sleep disorders. Six PSQI components were statistically significant and 78.3% of the interviewees had impaired subjective quality of sleep. Among factors leading to sleep disorders we point out: taking too long to fall asleep; waking up in the middle of the night; getting up to go to the bathroom and napping during the day. This study is expected to sensitize the nursing team regarding the need to investigate quality of sleep and causes of its disorders in cancer survivors for an effective course of action. PMID:19820854

  7. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

  8. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  9. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    PubMed

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. PMID:26311481

  10. Measurement of Quality to Improve Care in Sleep Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aronsky, Amy J.; Carden, Kelly A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: restless legs syndrome, insomnia, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, and obstructive sleep apnea in children. This paper describes the rationale, background, general methods development, and considerations in implementation for these sleep disorder quality measures. The Workgroup papers are published in this issue under the following titles: Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome, Quality Measures for the Care of Patients with Insomnia, Quality Measures for the Care of Patients with Narcolepsy, Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Quality Measures for the Care of Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Citation: Morgenthaler TI, Aronsky AJ, Carden KA, Chervin RD, Thomas SM, Watson NF. Measurement of quality to improve care in sleep medicine. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):279–291. PMID:25700883

  11. Correlates of sleep quality in persons with HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Nokes, K M; Kendrew, J

    2001-01-01

    This study used the Symptom Experience dimension of the revised UCSF Symptom Management Conceptual model to examine correlates of sleep quality in HIV-infected persons. According to this model, person, health/illness, and environment categories influence perception of a symptom. The average person in the sample (N = 58) reported being HIV-infected for 8.5 years and was 46 years old, not working, and a person of color. Depending on the level of data, either chi square or Pearson correlations were computed between the person, health/illness, and environment categories and the dependent variable, sleep quality, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Person variables significantly related to sleep quality were employment status, trait anxiety, and general well-being. Health/illness variables significantly related to sleep quality were length of time living with HIV disease and five health status measures (depressive symptoms, state anxiety, symptom severity, daytime sleepiness, and functional status). The environmental variables associated with sleep quality were sleeping alone, having a separate bedroom, and sleeping in a noisy room. Correlates of better sleep quality are positive general well-being, less anxious personality trait and emotional state, less daytime sleepiness, less depressive symptoms, and less symptom severity. Correlates of worse sleep quality are impaired functional status and longer duration of living with HIV disease. PMID:11211669

  12. Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.

    PubMed

    Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

  13. Manipulation of adenosine kinase affects sleep regulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Palchykova, Svitlana; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Shen, Hai-Ying; Boison, Detlev; Gerling, Andrea; Tobler, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and sleep intensity are enhanced by adenosine and its receptor agonists, while adenosine receptor antagonists induce wakefulness. Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the primary enzyme metabolizing adenosine in adult brain. To investigate whether adenosine metabolism or clearance affects sleep we recorded sleep in mice with engineered mutations in Adk. Adk-tg mice over-express a transgene encoding the cytoplasmic isoform of ADK in the brain, but lack the nuclear isoform of the enzyme. Wild-type mice and Adk+/− mice that have a 50% reduction of the cytoplasmic and the nuclear isoforms of ADK served as controls. Adk-tg mice showed a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies in all vigilance states and in theta activity (6.25–11 Hz) in REM sleep and waking. Adk-tg mice were awake 58 min more per day than wild-type mice and spent significantly less time in REM sleep (102±3 vs 128±3 min in wild-type). After sleep deprivation slow-wave activity (0.75–4 Hz), the intensity component of NREM sleep, increased significantly less in Adk-tg mice and their slow-wave energy was reduced. In contrast, the vigilance states and EEG spectra of Adk+/− and wild-type mice did not differ. Our data suggest that over-expression of the cytoplasmic isoform of ADK is sufficient to alter sleep physiology. ADK might orchestrate neurotransmitter pathways involved in the generation of EEG oscillations and regulation of sleep. PMID:20881134

  14. Sleeping position and reported quality of sleep. A comparison between subjects demanding treatment for temporomandibular disorders and controls.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Anna-Kerstin Göthe; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate if there are differences concerning preferred body posture during sleep between 100 patients, 66 women and 34 men, mean age: 49 years (range: 20-85 years) referred to a specialist clinic because of TMD and 100 matched controls from a public dental clinic. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire with questions about TMD symptoms and neck or shoulder pain. They were also asked about preferred sleeping position as well as about perceived sleep quality. No differences could be found between the two groups in respect of sleeping position. However, significantly more individuals in the TMD group compared to the controls had changed their preferred sleeping position due to their face and/or jaw and/ or neck-shoulder symptoms. Subjects in the TMD group also more frequently stated that they often felt insufficiently rested at awakening and/or felt tired or sleepy in the daytime because of symptoms from face/jaws. A significant number in the control group reported TMD symptoms indicating a latent need for TMD treatment. It is concluded that sleep position seems to have little or no significance for the development or maintenance of TMD symptoms. However, the study indicates that TMD symptoms and associated neck- and shoulder pain affect the quality of sleep. PMID:22372306

  15. The Relationship between Chronotype and Sleep Quality in Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Ae; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung-Sook; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and assessed various factors that might be associated with sleep disturbance in Korean firefighters. Methods Self-administered questionnaires assessing chronotype, depression, alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress response and sleep quality were examined in 515 firefighters. Results Evening type firefighters more reported depression, alcohol use, PTSD, stress response and sleep disturbance. Also evening chronotype was the most significant risk factor for poor sleep quality (odds ratio [OR], 4.812; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.448–9.459), even after controlling for all other variables (OR, 3.996; 95% CI, 1.806–8.841). Conclusion Chronotype was the factor most strongly associated with sleep disturbance, and therefore should be considered an important variable in sleep quality, particularly in occupations involving stressful activities, such as firefighting. PMID:26243849

  16. Sleep Quality Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina: Examination of the Job Control-Demand-Support Model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Nguyen, Ha T; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Summers, Phillip; Walker, Francis O; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Sleep problems are associated with physical and mental health disorders and place individuals at an increased risk of workplace injuries. The demand-control-support model posits that job demands and the capacity to control work processes influence workers' level of distress, thereby affecting their physical and mental health; supervisor support can buffer the negative effect of high demands and low control. Data on the sleep quality and the organization of work of Latino men were collected in agricultural areas in North Carolina in 2012. 147 Mexican-born farmworkers ages 30 and older, most of whom had H-2A visas, provided information about sleep quality and organization of work. Most (83 %) farmworkers reported good sleep quality. The association between working more than 40 h per week and reporting poor sleep quality approached statistical significance. Additional research is needed to understand whether job demands, job control, and social support affect farmworkers' sleep quality. PMID:26143366

  17. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves sleep quality in chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Soler, Xavier; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ries, Andrew L

    2013-04-01

    Sleep-related disorders are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, possibily, other lung disorders. Exercise has been shown to improve sleep disturbances. In patients with COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) produces important health benefits with improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and quality of life. However, the effect of PR on sleep quality remains unknown. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease and the role of PR as a non-pharmacologic treatment to improve sleep. Sixty-four patients with chronic lung disease enrolled in an 8-week comprehensive PR program, and completed the study (48% male; obstructive [72%], restrictive [20%], mixed [8%]; 44% on supplemental oxygen). Baseline spirometry [mean (SD)]: FEV1% pred = 48.9 (17.4), FVC% pred = 72.5 (18.1), and FEV1/FVC% = 53.1 (18.9). Exercise tolerance and questionnaires related to symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were obtained before and after PR. 58% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) at baseline. Sleep quality improved by 19% (p = 0.017) after PR, along with significant improvements in dyspnea, exercise tolerance, self-efficacy, and HRQL. Sleep quality in patients with chronic lung disease was poor. In addition to expected improvements in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and HRQL after PR, the subgroup of patients with COPD had a significant improvement in sleep quality. These findings suggest that PR may be an effective, non-pharmacologic treatment option for sleep problems in patients with COPD. PMID:23514215

  18. Evaluation of sleep quality in subjects with chronic nononcologic pain.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Mendoza-Reyes, Jonathan J

    2013-08-01

    A survey conducted by the National Sleep Foundation found that 20% of Americans have sleep disorders and 45% experience chronic pain. Several authors evaluated the interrelationship between these functions using various instruments such the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and identified that 34% of subjects in the general population have a poor quality of sleep, but there are few studies that assess the quality of sleep in patients with chronic pain of nonmalignant origin. We undertook this study to evaluate the quality of sleep using the PSQI in patients with chronic pain unrelated to cancer. We conducted a clinical, nonrandomized, uncontrolled, descriptive, and prospective study, applying the PSQI through a direct one-time interview to 311 subjects with chronic pain unrelated to cancer. According to the categorization of the PSQI between good and poor sleepers, 89% of the subjects were poor sleepers (n = 276). There are significant differences in pain intensity according to the categorization of the PSQI, with a higher intensity shown in the "poor sleepers" (analysis of variance [ANOVA], P = .030). Using a linear regression model to estimate the curve, a higher score is rated on the PSQI global score (ANOVA, P = .000, R(2) = .46) with the increase of the intensity of the pain. We conclude that "poor sleepers" or those who considered their sleep as "poor quality" have significantly higher pain intensity. This suggests that intensity of pain plays a role in evaluating the quality of sleep in the subjective perception of sleep and instruments that assess quality. PMID:24004315

  19. The Effects of Alcohol on Quality of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soon-Yeob; Lee, Bum-Soon; Kim, Haa-Gyoung; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Ji-Ho; Lim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol is traditionally known to have a relaxing effect. However, persons who consume alcohol in excessive amounts suffer from poor sleep quality and patients with alcohol use disorders commonly report insomnia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of alcohol use on sleep quality. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 234 men and 159 women who had visited a general hospital. We used structured questionnaires, including Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Korean version (PSQI-K). We analyzed the association between scores for all subcategories of the PSQI-K and the AUDIT-KR and then analyzed the correlation between AUDIT-KR and global PSQI-K scores. Results The global PSQI-K score for men was positively correlated with the AUDIT-KR score (P=0.008) after adjusting for age, chronic disease, tobacco use, exercise, depression, and anxiety. The AUDIT-KR score was significantly associated with subjective sleep quality (P=0.005), sleep duration (P=0.047), and sleep disturbance (P=0.048); it was not associated with sleep latency, sleep efficiency, or daytime dysfunction. Sleep disturbances due to snoring were significantly associated with total AUDIT-KR score (P=0.008). There was no correlation between the global PSQI-K and AUDIT-KR scores for women (P=0.333). However, daytime dysfunction showed a significant association with total AUDIT-KR score (P=0.048). Conclusion Men with higher AUDIT-KR scores tended to suffer from poor sleep quality. AUDIT-KR scores showed significant correlations with subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, and sleep disturbances in men. PMID:26634095

  20. Sleep Quality in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Dementia: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsi-Ling; Lorenz, Rebecca A; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Poor sleep quality in family caregivers may impact their health status and cause quality of life to decline. Nurses are conducting an increasing number of studies that use sleep quality or related concepts as a main indicator to assess caregiver's sleep. Therefore, a clear understanding of sleep quality and how it is different from other relevant sleep domains is essential. This article aimed to analyze the concept of sleep quality using the steps outlined by Walker and Avant. Findings include (a) attributes of sleep quality including subjective perception of sleep, sleep hours, and evaluation of activity after awaking; (b) antecedents of sleep quality including the ability to get naturally into the sleep cycle and status of conscious state; and (c) consequences of sleep quality including bio-psycho-social and global dimensions of health. This article intends to help clinicians and researchers better understand and define sleep quality in dementia caregivers. PMID:26514965

  1. Association of Sleep Quality and Waking Time with Prediabetes: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Ziaee, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47%) were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality. PMID:26351585

  2. Evaluation of sleep in women with menopause: results of the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Ağan, Kağan; Özmerdivenli, Recep; Değirmenci, Yıldız; Çağlar, Mete; Başbuğ, Alper; Balbay, Ege Güleç; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate subjective sleep quality among women in the menopausal period and to confirm and diagnose the possible sleep disturbances with polysomnographic (PSG) evaluation objectively. Material and Methods Sixty-seven women with menopause were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and the features of menopause were recorded. We assessed subjective sleep quality with Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). To confirm sleep disturbances and further diagnose the underlying cause, PSG evaluation was performed to women with PSQI scores of >5 who gave their approval. Results Mean PSQI score of women with normal PSG evaluation was 12.00±3.16, while it was 11.00±2.32 in women with abnormal PSG evaluation (p=0.466); 59.7% (n=40) of women had poor sleep quality. Among these, 11 (64.7%) had abnormal results in the PSG evaluation and were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS); 54.5% had mild OSAS, 27.3% had moderate, and 18.2% had severe OSAS. Conclusion PSQI and PSG evaluations would give a chance to demonstrate sleep problems and shed a light on treatment options according to the underlying causes of sleep disturbances in menopause. PMID:26401107

  3. Marital quality and the marital bed: Examining the covariation between relationship quality and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Robles, Theodore F.; Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of adults sleep with a partner, and for a significant proportion of couples, sleep problems and relationship problems co-occur, yet there has been little systematic study of the association between close relationships and sleep. The association between sleep and relationships is likely to be bi-directional and reciprocal—the quality of close relationships influences sleep and sleep disturbances or sleep disorders influence close relationship quality. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the extant research on 1) the impact of co-sleeping on bed partner's sleep; 2) the impact of sleep disturbance or sleep disorders on relationship functioning; and 3) the impact of close personal relationship quality on sleep. In addition, we provide a conceptual model of biopsychosocial pathways to account for the covariation between relationship functioning and sleep. Recognizing the dyadic nature of sleep and incorporating such knowledge into both clinical practice and research in sleep medicine may elucidate key mechanisms in the etiology and maintenance of both sleep disorders and relationship problems and may ultimately inform novel treatments. PMID:17854738

  4. Mediator Effect of Sleep Hygiene Practices on Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Other Sleep-Related Factors in Chinese Mainland University Students.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zhou, Kaina; Li, Xiaomei; Liu, Miao; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Duolao; Xin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediator effect of sleep hygiene practices (SHP) on relationships between sleep quality and other sleep-related factors in Chinese mainland university students using structural equation modeling analysis. Of the 413 students, 41.4% had poor sleep quality. Gender, academic stress, relaxed psychological status, good physical status, and SHP had significant direct effects on sleep quality; relaxed psychological status had significant direct effect on SHP and indirect effect on sleep quality via SHP. The direct, indirect, and total effects of gender, academic stress, relaxed psychological status, good physical status, and SHP explained 25% of the variance in sleep quality. The Chinese mainland university students had relative poor sleep quality. SHP was a mediator between sleep quality and relaxed psychological status. PMID:25356919

  5. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  6. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S.A.; Ross, Ian L.; Thomas, Kevin G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory—II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  7. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2015-11-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  8. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  9. Fatigue, Sleep Quality, and Disability in Relation to Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Moloud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QOL) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) in part due to physical disability. MS-associated fatigue and poor sleep are common and treatable features of MS that affect QOL. We assessed the association between fatigue, sleep quality, and QOL in people with MS. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 217 patients with MS. Health-related QOL (MS Quality of Life-54), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory [PSQI]) were assessed. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were also provided by a qualified neurologist. Results: The mean ± SD age of the 217 patients was 32.6 ± 8.6 years, and 79% were female. One hundred fifty-two patients (70.0%) were classified as poor sleepers based on PSQI scores; 122 (56.2%) had significant fatigue based on FSS results. The mean ± SE physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health composite scores of the MSQOL-54 were 40.12 ± 1.27 and 43.81 ± 1.61, respectively. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between PCS scores and MCS (r = 0.58), FSS (r = 0.49), and PSQI (r = 0.52) scores. MCS scores were strongly correlated with FSS (r = 0.53) and PSQI (r = 0.35) scores. Age exhibited statistically significant negative correlations with PCS (r = −0.21) and MCS (r = −0.58) scores, and was statistically significantly correlated with FSS (r = 0.23) and PSQI (r = 0.21) scores. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were strongly correlated with FSS scores. Conclusions: These findings support screening of fatigue severity and sleep quality and their effects on QOL. PMID:26664332

  10. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  11. Correlates of Quality Sleep and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Adams, Troy; Orr, Caroline; Quilter, Lyndsay

    2008-01-01

    Sleep problems have become epidemic and traditional research has discovered many causes of poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to complement existing research by using a salutogenic or health origins framework to investigate the correlates of good sleep. The analysis for this study used the National College Health Assessment data that…

  12. Anger Expression and Sleep Quality in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    PubMed Central

    Caska, Catherine M.; Hendrickson, Bethany E.; Wong, Michelle H.; Ali, Sadia; Neylan, Thomas; Whooley, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if anger expression affects sleep quality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Research has indicated that poor sleep quality independently predicts adverse outcomes in patients with CHD. Risk factors for poor sleep quality include older age, socioeconomic factors, medical comorbidities, lack of exercise, and depression. Methods We sought to examine the association of anger expression with sleep quality in 1020 outpatients with CHD from the Heart and Soul Study. We assessed anger-in, anger-out, and anger temperament, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2, and measured sleep quality, using items from the Cardiovascular Health Study and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine the association between anger expression and sleep quality, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results Each standard deviation (SD) increase in anger-in was associated with an 80% greater odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.6–2.1; p < .0001). This association remained strong after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, medications, cardiac function, depressive symptoms, anger-out, and anger temperament (adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.5–1.7; p = .001). In the same model, each SD increase in anger-out was associated with a 21% decreased odds of poor sleep quality (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64–0.98; p = .03). Anger temperament was not independently associated with sleep quality. Conclusions Anger suppression is associated with poor sleep quality in patients with CHD. Whether modifying anger expression can improve sleep quality or reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality deserves further study. PMID:19251866

  13. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Lanteri, Paola; Durando, Paolo; Magnavita, Nicola; Sannita, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent (18%–23%) and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work) are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary) has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders. PMID:27548196

  14. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Sergio; Lanteri, Paola; Durando, Paolo; Magnavita, Nicola; Sannita, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent (18%-23%) and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work) are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary) has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders. PMID:27548196

  15. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  16. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  17. Effects of music listening on stress, anxiety, and sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, ChihChen Sophia; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sleep disturbance has been associated with undesirable birthing outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of listening to music at home in improving sleep quality, 121 Taiwanese pregnant women with poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] score > 5) were systematically assigned, with a random start to music listening (n = 61) or control (n = 60) group. Participants in the music listening group self-regulated listening to music in addition to receiving general prenatal care similar to that in the control group for 2 weeks. The PSQI and State-Anxiety Inventory were used to assess outcomes. ANCOVA analyses were used with the pretest scores as covariates and showed significant improvement in sleep quality, stress, and anxiety in the music listening group compared with the control group. The most frequently used music genre by participants in the experimental group was lullabies, followed by classical music and crystal baby music. This study supported the theory that 2-week music listening interventions may reduce stress, anxiety, and yield better sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women. The analysis of participants' journals also implied that the expectant mothers' choices of musical genres may correlate more with perceived prenatal benefits or the desire to interact with their unborn child. PMID:26361642

  18. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  19. Development of a Five-Dimensional Measure of Adult Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Vincent J.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of adult sleep quality: the Adult Sleep-Wake Scale (ADSWS). The ADSWS is a self-report pencil-and-paper measure of sleep quality consisting of five behavioral dimensions (Going to Bed, Falling Asleep, Maintaining Sleep, Reinitiating Sleep, and Returning to Wakefulness). Data were collected from…

  20. Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students: A Wake-Up Call for College Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven P.; Weaver, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Both sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality are prominent in American society, especially in college student populations. Sleep problems are often a primary disorder rather than secondary to depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sleep deprivation and/or poor sleep quality in a sample of nondepressed university students…

  1. Exploring Sleep Quality and Related Factors in Chinese Midlife Women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qunyan; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Hui; Jing, Jianling

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the percentage of women with poor sleep quality and its related factors among mainland Chinese women. Sleep quality and menopausal status were self-reported. We explored the contribution of possible risk factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, lifestyle, psychological status, stressful life events, and vasomotor symptoms. We found that 38.6% of midlife Chinese women were poor sleepers. This percentage was higher in comparison with women from other Asian countries. Our multiple logistic regression showed that anxiety, comorbidities, perceived stress, and vasomotor symptoms were risk factors for poor sleep quality. PMID:25868869

  2. Effects of sittercise on elderly subjects’ depression and sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Suk; Kim, Seon-Rye; Min, Gyung-Hun; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of sittercise on elderly subjects’ depression and sleep quality. [Subjects] The subjects of this quasi-experimental study were divided into an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] The subjects of the experimental group performed sittercise and the control group received no intervention. [Results] The results demonstrate that the subjects who performed sittercise had significantly decreased depression levels compared to the control. They also reported significantly improved sleep quality. [Conclusion] A favorable change in depression levels was seen after sittercise which alse had a significant effect on sleep quality. PMID:27190438

  3. Emotional trait and memory associates of sleep timing and quality.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Rubin, Zoe S; Tracy, Lauren E; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Orr, Scott P; Verga, Patrick W

    2015-10-30

    Poor ability to remember the extinction of conditioned fear, elevated trait anxiety, and delayed or disrupted nocturnal sleep are reported in anxiety disorders. The current study examines the interrelationship of these factors in healthy young-adult males. Skin-conductance response was conditioned to two differently colored lamps. One color but not the other was then extinguished. After varying delays, both colors were presented to determine extinction recall and generalization. Questionnaires measured sleep quality, morningness-eveningness, neuroticism and trait anxiety. A subset produced a mean 7.0 nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries. Median split of mean sleep midpoint defined early- and late-"sleep timers". Extinction was more rapidly learned in the morning than evening only in early timers who also better generalized extinction recall. Extinction recall was greater with higher sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency and morningness were negatively associated with neuroticism and anxiety. However, neuroticism and anxiety did not predict extinction learning, recall or generalization. Therefore, neuroticism/anxiety and deficient fear extinction, although both associated with poor quality and late timing of sleep, are not directly associated with each other. Elevated trait anxiety, in addition to predisposing directly to anxiety disorders, may thus also indirectly promote such disorders by impairing sleep and, consequently, extinction memory. PMID:26257092

  4. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  5. A study on the sleep quality of incoming university students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Shih, Chi-Chen; Lee, I Hui; Hou, Yi-Wen; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Kow-Tong; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching

    2012-05-30

    This study was designed to examine the prevalence and the risk factors of poor sleep quality in 4318 incoming university students in Taiwan. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal medical history and lifestyle habits, the Measurement of Support Functions (MSF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision (CIAS-R), neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Of the total study population, 2360 students (54.7%) were classified into the poor sleep quality group, as defined by a PSQI score ≥6. Based on the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with undergraduate students, female gender, skipping breakfast, tea drinking, a higher tendency toward internet addition, poor social support, higher neuroticism, and higher CHQ scores. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among incoming university students in Taiwan, and more work is needed on the identification of the factors influencing poor sleep, and in providing systematic education in the importance of sleep and time management skills to university students. PMID:22342120

  6. The effects of daily mood and couple interactions on the sleep quality of older adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Mogle, Jacqueline; Martire, Lynn M

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of daily negative and positive mood on the sleep quality of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients (N = 152) and whether a partner's daily responses to a patient's pain behaviors moderated these associations. Patients and their partners completed a baseline interview and 22 daily diary assessments. After controlling for demographic characteristics, OA severity, comorbidities, medication use, relationship satisfaction, and depressed mood, multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated main effects of negative and positive mood on sleep quality indicators. Mood and partner responses interacted such that high solicitous and punishing responses strengthened the association between negative mood and worse sleep. Further, high solicitous responses increased the degree of association between low positive mood and poor sleep, and empathic responses combined with positive mood were associated with better sleep. Results demonstrate that daily negative and positive mood fluctuations can interact with partner responses to affect sleep quality among older adults with chronic pain. PMID:26143147

  7. Lack of sleep affects the evaluation of emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Daniela; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Curcio, Giuseppe; Moroni, Fabio; Marzano, Cristina; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2010-04-29

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects various cognitive performances, but surprisingly evidence about a specific impact of sleep loss on subjective evaluation of emotional stimuli remains sparse. In the present study, we assessed the effect of SD on the emotional rating of standardized visual stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System. Forty university students were assigned to the sleep group (n=20), tested before and after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, or to the deprivation group, tested before and after one night of total SD. One-hundred and eighty pictures (90 test, 90 retest) were selected and categorized as pleasant, neutral and unpleasant. Participants were asked to judge their emotional reactions while viewing pictures by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin. Subjective mood ratings were also obtained by means of Visual Analog Scales. No significant effect of SD was observed on the evaluation of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. On the contrary, SD subjects perceived the neutral pictures more negatively and showed an increase of negative mood and a decrease of subjective alertness compared to non-deprived subjects. Finally, an analysis of covariance on mean valence ratings of neutral pictures using negative mood as covariate confirmed the effect of SD. Our results indicate that sleep is involved in regulating emotional evaluation. The emotional labeling of neutral stimuli biased toward negative responses was not mediated by the increase of negative mood. This effect can be interpreted as an adaptive reaction supporting the "better safe than sorry" principle. It may also have applied implications for healthcare workers, military and law-enforcement personnel. PMID:20117179

  8. Rise and Fall of Sleep Quantity and Quality with Student Experiences across the First Year of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Howard, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Covariations of self-reported sleep quantity (duration) and quality (disturbances) with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences across the first year of university in 187 Canadian students (M age=18.4) were examined with multilevel models. Female students reported sleeping fewer hours on average than did male students. In months…

  9. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  10. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  11. The Effect of Continuous Care Model on the Sleep Quality of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Otaghi, Masoumeh; Bastami, Mohamadreza; Borji, Milad; Tayebi, Ali; Azami, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most prevalent problems in hemodialysis patients is sleep disturbance. Poor sleep quality has unpleasant bio-psycho-social outcomes. The positive effects of implementing the continuous care model (CCM) were verified with different variables, including sleep quality. This study was done with different populations, using two groups. Objectives This study aims to identify the sleep quality of hemodialysis patients in the city of Ilam and determine the effects of CCM on sleep quality. Patients and Methods We performed a quasi-experimental research study with 56 hemodialysis patients at the Shahid Mostafa Hospital in Ilam during 2014 and 2015. Pretests and posttests were conducted with the study groups and the control groups. Pretests were conducted over a one-month period, then repeated immediately before the study. Posttests were conducted immediately after the study and then repeated one month later. Participants were selected by census method and randomly divided into two groups. Ethical considerations were observed. Based on the continuous care model, interventions were performed through educational sessions over a three-week period. Consultations for continuous sleep monitoring, controls, and evaluations were conducted with the study group over the next nine weeks. Data were gathered from patient demographics questionnaires and PQSI, then introduced in SPSS 22 and analyzed with descriptive and analytic statistics (t-paired, ANOVA with repeated measures, follow-up tests such as S-N-K, Duncan, Sheffe and Tukey). Results One month prior to the study, 94.6% of the participants suffered from poor sleep quality. Immediately before and after the study, 91% complained of poor sleep quality. And one month after intervention, the figure dropped to 82%. Applying the CCM positively affected the sleep quality of hemodialysis patients in Ilam, and was statistically meaningful one month after intervention (P = 0.001). Conclusions Hemodialysis patients need

  12. Sex Steroid Hormone Profiles are Related to Sleep Measures from Polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Mary Fran; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Gold, Ellen B.; Owens, Jane; Consens, Flavia; Hall, Martica

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To relate reproductive hormones (and the preceding 7-year rates of their change) to objectively and subjectively assessed sleep measures, independent of age, vasomotor symptom frequency, depressive symptoms, and body size. Design: A cross-sectional sleep substudy nested in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 365 Caucasian, African American, and Chinese women. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured during two nights of in-home polysomnography (PSG) studies. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality, sleep diaries for medication, vasomotor symptoms, lifestyle information and questionnaires for depressive symptoms. Blood collected annually in the years prior to sleep study was assayed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and total testosterone (T). More rapid rate of FSH change was significantly associated with higher delta sleep percent, longer total sleep time (TST), but less favorable self-reported sleep quality (PSQI). Baseline E2 was modestly and negatively associated with sleep quality. Women in the lowest total testosterone quartile at baseline had more wake time after sleep onset (WASO) than women in the highest quartile. Lower E2/T ratio, an index reflecting the increasing androgenic environment with the menopause transition, was associated with less WASO. Conclusions: More rapid rate of FSH change was associated with longer sleep duration but poor sleep quality. Women with higher T or who were closer to the completion of the transition process (as indexed by a lower E2/T) had less sleep discontinuity (less WASO). Citation: Sowers MF; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Matthews K; Bromberger JT; Gold EB; Owens J; Consens F; Hall M. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures From polysomnography and the pittsburgh sleep quality

  13. Mindfulness Meditation and Improvement in Sleep Quality and Daytime Impairment Among Older Adults With Sleep Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Black, David S.; O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Sleep disturbances are most prevalent among older adults and often go untreated. Treatment options for sleep disturbances remain limited, and there is a need for community-accessible programs that can improve sleep. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of a mind-body medicine intervention, called mindfulness meditation, to promote sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep disturbances. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial with 2 parallel groups conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2012, at a medical research center among an older adult sample (mean [SD] age, 66.3 [7.4] years) with moderate sleep disturbances (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] >5). INTERVENTIONS A standardized mindful awareness practices (MAPs) intervention (n = 24) or a sleep hygiene education (SHE) intervention (n = 25) was randomized to participants, who received a 6-week intervention (2 hours per week) with assigned homework. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The study was powered to detect between-group differences in moderate sleep disturbance measured via the PSQI at postintervention. Secondary outcomes pertained to sleep-related daytime impairment and included validated measures of insomnia symptoms, depression, anxiety, stress, and fatigue, as well as inflammatory signaling via nuclear factor (NF)–κB. RESULTS Using an intent-to-treat analysis, participants in the MAPs group showed significant improvement relative to those in the SHE group on the PSQI. With the MAPs intervention, the mean (SD) PSQIs were 10.2 (1.7) at baseline and 7.4 (1.9) at postintervention. With the SHE intervention, the mean (SD) PSQIs were 10.2 (1.8) at baseline and 9.1 (2.0) at postintervention. The between-group mean difference was 1.8 (95%CI, 0.6–2.9), with an effect size of 0.89. The MAPs group showed significant improvement relative to the SHE group on secondary health outcomes of insomnia symptoms, depression symptoms, fatigue interference, and fatigue severity (P

  14. Quality of sleep and health-related quality of life in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xia; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Hong; Wallace, Linda; Teng, Sha; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Hao, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients after renal transplantation and to explore the relationship between the quality of sleep and the HRQOL. Background: Sleep disorders are still an important clinical problem after renal transplantation. Previous studies mainly focused on patients’ sleep quality before kidney transplant. More studies are needed to document sleep quality after renal transplantation. Design: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Methods: A convenience sample of renal transplant recipients was recruited at an outpatient transplant clinic of a general hospital in Beijing, China. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure quality of sleep. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (MOS SF-36) was used to measure health-related quality of life. Results: The average PSQI score of the 204 renal transplant recipients was 5.81±3.52, significantly lower than the norm. Fifty (24.5%) recipients were classified as having poor sleep quality (global PSQI > 7). The mean scores of renal transplant recipients for SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) were 47.57±6.71 and 48.26±9.66 respectively. Compared with residents in Sichuan province, recipients’ scores for SF-36 dimensions were statistically lower except the dimension of mental health. SF-36 scores of poor sleepers (PSQI > 7) were significantly lower than the good sleepers (PSQI ≤ 7) in both the MCS and PCS. Significant differences exist between the groups in physical function, bodily pain, vitality, and mental health dimensions. Conclusions: Sleep quality and HRQOL of patients after renal transplantation were lower than the norm. Poor sleep is associated with lower HRQOL. Relevance to clinical practice: Health professionals need to pay attention to sleep quality and HRQOL in renal transplant recipients and take appropriate measures to

  15. Impact of a nursing-driven sleep hygiene protocol on sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Faraklas, Iris; Holt, Brennen; Tran, Sally; Lin, Hsin; Saffle, Jeffrey; Cochran, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact on sleep quality of a nursing-driven sleep hygiene protocol (SHP) instituted in a single burn-trauma intensive care unit. Criteria for eligibility were adult patients admitted to the Burn Service who were not delirious, able to respond verbally, and had not received general anesthesia in the prior 24 hours. Patients were surveyed using the validated Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire prior to implementation ("PRE"; May to December 2010) and following implementation ("POST"; January to August 2011) of a SHP that sought to minimize environmental stimuli and limit disruptions during the night. This analysis includes only initial survey responses from each patient. A total of 130 patients were surveyed, 81 PRE and 49 POST; 60% were burn admissions. There was no significant difference in responses to the questionnaire between burn and nonburn patients. All patients in the POST group were significantly older and more frequently endorsed taking sleep medication at home. Although not significant, POST patients reported falling asleep somewhat more quickly, but no other differences were identified between the two groups. Among patients who reported having sleep difficulties prior to admission, POST patients not only reported a significantly higher pain score than PRE patients, but also reported significant improvement in falling asleep and being able to go back to sleep. Frequency of complaints of sleep disruption was unchanged between PRE and POST patients. POST patients did complain significantly less than PRE patients about sleep disruptions by clinicians. Implementation of the SHP permitted acutely injured or ill patients in our intensive care unit to fall asleep more quickly and to experience fewer sleep disruptions. A sleep protocol may be helpful in improving sleep and overall well-being of burn center patients. PMID:23412331

  16. Correlation Analysis of Sleep Quality and Youth Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunqing; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Juan; Song, Bo; Fang, Hui; Xu, YuMing

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study risk factors related to ischemic stroke (IS) in youth and the influence of sleep quality on youth ischemic stroke incidence. Methods. 223 patients aged 18 to 45 years who were admitted to Puyang People's Hospital from June 2011 to February 2013 with a first-ever ischemic stroke were selected as the research cases. 158 young people with a normal physical examination were selected as the control group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used to analyse the correlation between sleep quality and youth IS incidence. The US National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (MRS) scores were used to assess cases' state of illness and prognosis three months after IS. Results. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the association of these risk factors with youth IS incidence, from highest to lowest, was hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, smoking history, high homocysteine, the quality of sleep, family history of stroke, and alcoholism. Poor sleep quality ranked fifth among all risk factors and was positively correlated with poor prognosis for youth IS patients. Conclusion. The results of this study showed that sleep quality is an important factor in the pathogenesis and prognosis of youth IS. PMID:25161340

  17. Sleep Quality Improves During Treatment With Bryophyllum pinnatum

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Taziri Al; Müller-Hübenthal, Boris; Pittl, Sandra; Kuck, Angela; Meden, Harald; Eberhard, Jutta; Decker, Michael; Fürer, Karin; von Mandach, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis. Cancer patients frequently suffer from poor sleep quality. Bryophyllum pinnatum is a herbal medication used in anthroposophic medicine, which has been shown to be associated with improvements in sleep quality during pregnancy with only few and minor or moderate side-effects reported. In this study, the sleep quality of cancer patients during treatment with B pinnatum was investigated. Study Design. In this prospective, observational study, cancer patients suffering from sleep problems were treated with B pinnatum (350 mg tablets, corresponding to 50% of leaf pressed juice [Weleda AG, Arlesheim, Switzerland], dosage at physician’s consideration, but most frequently 2 tablets with evening meal and 2 before going to bed). Methods. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleeping Scale [ESS]), and fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]) were assessed at the beginning of the treatment and after 3 weeks. Possible adverse drug reactions perceived by the patients during the treatment were recorded. From the 28 recruited patients, 20 completed both questionnaires and were considered in the present analysis. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results. Patients were 61 ± 10.4 years old and the majority were female (17 out of 20). During treatment with B pinnatum, the PSQI decreased from 12.2 ± 3.62 to 9.1 ± 3.61 (P < .01), and ESS changed from 8.4 ± 3.18 to 7.1 ± 3.98 (P < .05). There was no change in FSS. The treatment was well tolerated by the majority of patients, with only 6 patients reporting discomfort that might have been caused by B pinnatum (fatigue n = 3, dry throat n = 1, agitation n = 1, difficult digestion n = 1). No serious adverse drug reactions were detected. Conclusion. B pinnatum may be a suitable treatment for sleep problems of cancer patients. Controlled, randomized clinical trials of the use of B pinnatum in sleep disorders are urgently needed. PMID:25873294

  18. The relationship of sleep problems to life quality and depression

    PubMed Central

    Sarıarslan, Hacı A.; Gulhan, Yıldırım B.; Unalan, Demet; Basturk, Mustafa; Delibas, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the level of depression, the level of life quality, and the relationship between these, in patients applying to sleep centers for various sleep problems. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 229 patients who applied for polysomnography at sleeping centers under supervision of the Neurology and Chest Diseases Clinics of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between June and August 2013. The data collection tools were a socio-demographical data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). For statistical analyses, the Student t-test, Kruskal-Wallis-variant analysis, and chi-square tests were used. Significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: In our study, patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom were observed to have significantly poorer sleep quality. While patients with any chronic disease had significantly higher scores for total PSQI and depression, their physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF scores were significantly lower. The PSQI total scores, and depression scores of the smoking patients were significantly higher for physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF fields. There was a positive correlation between PSQI scores and BDI scores while there was a negative correlation among BDI, PSQI, and WHOQOL-BREF life quality sub-scale scores. Conclusions: Sleep quality was significantly poorer in patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom. There was a significantly negative correlation among depression, sleep quality, and life quality, while there was a significantly positive correlation between life quality and depression. PMID:26166591

  19. Poor Sleep Quality and Sleep Apnea Are Associated with Higher Resting Energy Expenditure in Obese Individuals with Short Sleep Duration

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiongce; Mattingly, Megan S.; Zuber, Samuel M.; Piaggi, Paolo; Csako, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Context: Epidemiological studies reported an inverse or U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and weight. The relationship between sleep and resting energy expenditure (REE) has not been well characterized. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between sleep, REE, and stress hormones. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral research clinical center. Subjects: Subjects included 126 obese individuals (30 males, 96 females; age, 40.5 ± 6.9 yr; body mass index, 38.6 ± 6.5 kg/m2; sleep duration, 360 ± 50 min/night; and sleep efficiency, 79.5 ± 7.5%). Main Outcome Measure(s): REE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were assessed by indirect calorimetry. Sleep duration and sleep efficiency were assessed by actigraphy. Sleep quality was estimated by questionnaires, and sleep apnea was evaluated by respiratory disturbance index (RDI). Morning plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and 24-h urinary free cortisol and catecholamines were also measured. Results: RDI was positively correlated with REE adjusted by fat-free mass (r = 0.307; P = 0.003) and RQ (r = 0.377; P < 0.001). Sleep efficiency was inversely correlated with RQ (r = −0.200; P = 0.033). The relationship of RDI score and REE was stronger in men than women (P = 0.03). In women, serum cortisol was positively correlated (r = 0.407; P < 0.001), and Epworth sleepiness score tended to be inversely (r = −0.190; P = 0.086) correlated with adjusted REE. The RQ was positively related to RDI in women, whereas subjective sleep time was related to RQ in men. In a multiple regression model, RDI, serum cortisol, and urinary norepinephrine were directly related to REE, whereas serum cortisol also directly related to adjusted REE. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was associated with increased REE, a higher RQ indicating a shift from fat toward carbohydrate oxidation, and activation of the stress system. PMID:22689694

  20. Sleep Quality, Pain and Self-Efficacy among Community-Dwelling Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to report the findings of a study examining relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes of community-dwelling adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sleep difficulty has been self-reported among adults with chronic pain. Past studies have demonstrated that chronic pain results in sleep difficulties and other complications that threaten effective functioning. Community-dwelling adults with SCD are living longer and need to be evaluated for sleep quality, pain, and self-efficacy. Little is known about whether adults with SCD-related pain have disturbances in sleep and self-efficacy, and if these disturbances are affected by age and/or gender. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes among community-dwelling adults with SCD, and who use support services of state SCD Associations in the United States. For this secondary data analysis, the study was conducted from June, 2014 to December, 2014 and used a descriptive correlational design to analyze data from a primary study of a convenience sample of 90 subjects with SCD, who were 18 years of age and older. Linear regression was used to compute the relationship between dependent and independent variables. All measures were self-reported. It was found that gender did not significantly affect reports of sleep, pain, or self-efficacy. Self-efficacy accounted for direct relationships with sleep and inverse relationships with pain. Some individuals (16.7%) reported sleeping very well, however, the majority (83.3%) was not sleeping very well, and a greater number of individuals (93.3%) reported having some pain. Among adults with chronic SCD pain, self-efficacy is important in maintaining a stable quality of health. Future assessments, interventions, and research should include comprehensive sleep and pain evaluations, and measures to improve self-efficacy and sleep

  1. Sleep Quality, Pain and Self-Efficacy among Community-Dwelling Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to report the findings of a study examining relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes of community-dwelling adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sleep difficulty has been self-reported among adults with chronic pain. Past studies have demonstrated that chronic pain results in sleep difficulties and other complications that threaten effective functioning. Community-dwelling adults with SCD are living longer and need to be evaluated for sleep quality, pain, and self-efficacy. Little is known about whether adults with SCD-related pain have disturbances in sleep and self-efficacy, and if these disturbances are affected by age and/or gender. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes among community-dwelling adults with SCD, and who use support services of state SCD Associations in the United States. For this secondary data analysis, the study was conducted from June, 2014 to December, 2014 and used a descriptive correlational design to analyze data from a primary study of a convenience sample of 90 subjects with SCD, who were 18 years of age and older. Linear regression was used to compute the relationship between dependent and independent variables. All measures were self-reported. It was found that gender did not significantly affect reports of sleep, pain, or self-efficacy. Self-efficacy accounted for direct relationships with sleep and inverse relationships with pain. Some individuals (16.7%) reported sleeping very well, however, the majority (83.3%) was not sleeping very well, and a greater number of individuals (93.3%) reported having some pain. Among adults with chronic SCD pain, self-efficacy is important in maintaining a stable quality of health. Future assessments, interventions, and research should include comprehensive sleep and pain evaluations, and measures to improve self-efficacy and sleep

  2. The effects of Pilates exercise on sleep quality in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan; Sadeghniiathaghighi, Khosro; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Chen, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilates exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women. PMID:24725785

  3. Delayed sleep phase syndrome is related to seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rex, Katharine M.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Kelsoe, John R.; Kripke, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Both delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may manifest similar delayed circadian phase problems. However, the relationships and co-morbidity between the two conditions have not been fully studied. The authors examined the comorbidity between DSPS and SAD. Methods We recruited a case series of 327 DSPS and 331 controls with normal sleep, roughly matched for age, gender, and ancestry. Both DSPS and controls completed extensive questionnaires about sleep, the morningness-eveningness trait, depression, mania, and seasonality of symptoms, etc. Results The prevalences of SAD and subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) were higher in DSPS compared to controls (χ2=12.65, p=0.002). DSPS were 3.3 times more likely to report SAD (odds ratio, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.41–7.93) compared to controls as defined by the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Correspondingly, DSPS showed significantly higher seasonality scores compared to controls in mood, appetite, and energy level subscores and the global seasonality score (t=3.12, t=0.002; t=2.04, p=0.041; t=2.64, p=0.008; and t=2.15, p=0.032, respectively). Weight fluctuation during seasons and winter-summer sleep length differences were also significantly higher in DSPS than controls (t=5.16, p<0.001 and t=2.64, p=0.009, respectively). SAD and S-SAD reported significantly higher eveningness, higher depression self-ratings, and more previous mania symptoms compared to non-seasonal subjects regardless of whether they were DSPS or controls. Conclusions These cases suggested that DSPS is partially comorbid with SAD. These data support the hypothesis that DSPS and SAD may share a pathophysiological mechanism causing delayed circadian phase. PMID:21601293

  4. The Influence of Break Timing on the Sleep Quantity and Quality of Fly-in, Fly-out Shiftworkers

    PubMed Central

    PAECH, Gemma M.; FERGUSON, Sally A.; BANKS, Siobhan; DORRIAN, Jillian; ROACH, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Although shift and break timing is known to affect the sleep of shiftworkers, this has not been demonstrated in Fly-in, Fly-out (FIFO) settings which, compared to residential based settings, may be favourable for sleep. This study investigated the sleep quantity and quality of shiftworkers working a FIFO operation comprising of shifts, and therefore breaks, across the 24-h day. The sleep of 24 males (50.43 ± 8.57 yr) was measured using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Morning breaks were associated with less sleep (09:00–12:00 h; 4.4 ± 1.3 h) and a poorer sleep quality (06:00–09:00 h; 3.1 ± 1.0, “average”) compared to breaks beginning between 00:00 h and 03:00 h (6.8 ± 1.7 h; 2.2 ± 0.9, “good”). Sleep efficiency remained constant regardless of break timing (85.9 ± 5.0% to 89.9 ± 3.5%). Results indicate that even in operations such as FIFO where sleeping conditions are near-optimal and the break duration is held constant, the influence of the endogenous circadian pacemaker on sleep duration is evident. PMID:25224336

  5. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  6. Sleep duration change across breast cancer survivorship: associations with symptoms and health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Catherine M.; Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Vander Wal, Gregory S.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Reeve, Bryce B.; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Sleep duration among breast cancer survivors correlates with fatigue, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, this has not been studied longitudinally. This study investigated patterns of sleep duration change across the early breast cancer survivorship period, their demographic and clinical predictors, and their relationships with subsequent cancer-related symptoms and HRQOL. METHODS Breast cancer survivors (n=572), were assessed 6 months post-diagnosis (current sleep & retrospective reports of pre-diagnosis sleep), 30 months post-diagnosis (sleep), and 39 months post-diagnosis (symptoms, HRQOL). Sleep duration change was determined by examining sleep at each time point in relation to published norms. Analysis of variance and logistic regression models tested demographic and clinical differences between the sleep change groups; linear regression models tested differences in symptoms and HRQOL. RESULTS Half of the survivors reported no sleep duration change over time; however, 25% reported sleep changes indicating a temporary (5.6%), late-occurring (14%), or sustained (5.9%) change. Survivors reporting sustained or temporary sleep changes were more likely to have been treated with chemotherapy (OR=2.62, p<.001) or gained weight after diagnosis (OR=1.82, p=.04) than those with no sleep change. Sustained sleep changes were related to greater subsequent severity, affective, and sensory aspects of fatigue (βs=2.0, 2.3, 1.8; all p <.0001) and lower vitality (β=−10.8, p=.005). CONCLUSIONS Survivors treated with chemotherapy and those who gain weight after diagnosis may have increased risk for sustained sleep duration changes, which may increase their fatigue. These results point to the need for routine assessment of sleep as part of survivorship care. PMID:21567239

  7. Acupressure on Self-Reported Sleep Quality During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Neri, Isabella; Bruno, Raffaele; Dante, Giulia; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of acupression at the H7 point on sleep quality during pregnancy. After oral consent had been obtained, the midwife invited the women claiming to have poor sleep quality and anxiety symptoms to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-1. Then, the same midwife, previously trained by an expert acupuncturist (I.N.), advised the women to put on the wrist overnight compression H7 Insomnia Control half an hour before going to bed and to take it off upon awakening, for 10 consecutive days and thereafter every odd day (active group). Women refusing to wear the device for low compliance toward acupression were considered as the control group. After 2 weeks, a second questionnaire evaluation was completed. In the active, but not in the control, group, a significant improvement of sleep quality was observed after H7 device application. The study suggests that H7 acupression applied for 2 weeks improves sleep quality in pregnant women. This preliminary result should serve to stimulate further studies on the long-term effects of acupression. PMID:26896071

  8. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance.

    PubMed

    Genzel, L; Ahrberg, K; Roselli, C; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Dresler, M; Roenneberg, T

    2013-07-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a questionnaire-based study with 31 medical students of the University of Munich (second and third clinical semesters; surgery and internal medicine). The students kept a diary (in 30-min bins) on their daily schedules (times when they studied by themselves, attended classes, slept, worked on their thesis, or worked to earn money). The project design involved three 2-wk periods (A: during the semester; B: directly before the exam period--pre-exam; C: during the subsequent semester break). Besides the diaries, students completed once questionnaires about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), their chronotype (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire [MCTQ]), and their academic history (previous grades, including the previously achieved preclinical board exam [PBE]). Analysis revealed significant correlations between the actual sleep behavior during the semester (MS(diary); mid-sleep point averaged from the sleep diaries) during the pre-exam period and the achieved grade (p = 0.002) as well as between the grades of the currently taken exam and the PBE (p = 0.002). A regression analysis with MS(diary) pre-exam and PBE as predictors in a model explained 42.7% of the variance of the exam grade (effect size 0.745). Interestingly, MS(diary)--especially during the pre-exam period-was the strongest predictor for the currently achieved grade, along with the preclinical board exam as a covariate, whereas the chronotype did not significantly influence the exam grade. PMID:23750895

  9. Use of personal EEG monitors in a behavioral neuroscience course to investigate natural setting sleep patterns and the factors affecting them in college students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep. PMID:23626495

  10. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081

  11. Chronotype influences activity circadian rhythm and sleep: differences in sleep quality between weekdays and weekend.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; Galasso, Letizia; Weydahl, Andi; Caumo, Andrea; Carandente, Franca

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have shown the differences among chronotypes in the circadian rhythm of different physiological variables. Individuals show variation in their preference for the daily timing of activity; additionally, there is an association between chronotype and sleep duration/sleep complaints. Few studies have investigated sleep quality during the week days and weekends in relation to the circadian typology using self-assessment questionnaires or actigraphy. The purpose of this study was to use actigraphy to assess the relationship between the three chronotypes and the circadian rhythm of activity levels and to determine whether sleep parameters respond differently with respect to time (weekdays versus the weekend) in Morning-types (M-types), Neither-types (N-types) and Evening-types (E-types). The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to 502 college students to determine their chronotypes. Fifty subjects (16 M-types, 15 N-types and 19 E-types) were recruited to undergo a 7-days monitoring period with an actigraph (Actiwacth® actometers, CNT, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate their sleep parameters and the circadian rhythm of their activity levels. To compare the amplitude and the acrophase among the three chronotypes, we used a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm (MESOR) among the three chronotypes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by pairwise comparisons that were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analysis of each sleep parameter was conducted using the mixed ANOVA procedure. The results showed that the chronotype was influenced by sex (χ(2) with p = 0.011) and the photoperiod at birth (χ(2) with p < 0.05). Though the MESOR and amplitude of the activity levels were not different among the three chronotypes, the acrophases compared by the ANOVA post-hoc test were significantly

  12. Daytime sleepiness and sleep quality among Malaysian medical students.

    PubMed

    Zailinawati, A H; Teng, C L; Chung, Y C; Teow, T L; Lee, P N; Jagmohni, K S

    2009-06-01

    Poor sleep quality and daytime somnolence is reported to be associated with cardiovascular events, road traffic accident, poor academic performance and psychological distress. Some studies documented that it is prevalent in most populations but its frequency among medical students has not been documented in Malaysia. This is a self-administered questionnaire survey of medical students from International Medical University, Malaysia. Daytime sleepiness of medical students was assessed using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Student scoring ESS > 11 was regarded as having excessive daytime sleepiness. Psychological distress was measured using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A total of 799 medical students participated in this survey (response rate 69.5%). Daytime sleepiness occurred in 35.5%, psychological distress was present in 41.8% and 16.1% reported bad sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly more common among the clinical students, those with self-reported bad sleep quality and psychological distress; but unrelated to the number of hours sleep at night. We have documented high prevalence of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality and psychological distress. Higher frequency among clinical students and the significant relationship with psychological distress suggest possible link to the stressful clinical training. PMID:20058567

  13. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Instability, and Health Related Quality of Life in Parents of Ventilator-Assisted Children

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Sanchez-Ortuno, Maria M.; Edinger, Jack D.; Avis, Kristin T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Parents of children with chronic illnesses have poorer health related quality of life (HRQoL), shorter sleep duration, and poorer sleep quality than parents of healthy children. However, night-to-night variability of sleep in parents has not previously been considered. This study compared the sleep patterns of parents of ventilator-assisted children (VENT) and healthy, typically developing children (HEALTHY), and examined the relationship between sleep variability and perceived HRQoL. Methods: Seventy-nine mothers and 33 fathers from 42 VENT families (n = 56) and 40 HEALTHY (n = 56) families completed the SF-36 and wore an actigraph for 2 weeks. Reported bedtime and wake time, along with actigraphic total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) were examined using both average values and night-tonight instability (mean square successive differences). Results: VENT parents showed significantly later bedtimes, shorter TST, longer WASO, and lower SE than HEALTHY parents. VENT parents also exhibited greater instability in their reported wake time, WASO, and SE. Adjusting for family type and gender, greater instability of wake times, WASO and SE were related to poorer SF-36 subscale scores, while averaged sleep values were not. Conclusions: Many parents of ventilator-assisted children experience deficient sleep and show significant instability in their sleep, which was related to HRQoL. Similar to shift workers, variable sleep schedules that may result from caregiving responsibilities or stress may impact parental caregivers' health and well-being. Additional studies are needed to determine how support and other interventions can reduce sleep disruptions in parental caregivers. Citation: Meltzer LJ, Sanchez-Ortuno MM, Edinger JD, Avis KT. Sleep patterns, sleep instability, and health related quality of life in parents of ventilator-assisted children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):251–258. PMID:25515280

  14. Prevalence and correlates of poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in Belgian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Lutgart; Verpraet, Rini; Van Risseghem, Marleen; Pevernagie, Dirk; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    Sleepiness and sleep complaints are common among professional drivers. Sleepiness is a considerable problem not only because it affects the drivers' well-being, but also because of the consequences for performance and safety. Assessment of the (self-reported) prevalence and research into the risk factors are thus an important health issue and are also indispensable to prevent productivity loss and work-related accidents and injuries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe sleeping, driving, and health characteristics of Belgian truck drivers and to determine occupational and individual factors associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Cross-sectional data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). The mean (SD) age of the 476 studied truck drivers was 42.7 (10.2) yrs and the mean (SD) body mass index was 27.3 (5.1) kg/m(2). Approximately 47% declared that they drove >50 h/wk and found their work schedule unrealistic. The mean (SD) PSQI score was 4.45 (2.7); poor quality of sleep (PSQI >5) was found in 27.2%. The mean (SD) ESS score was 6.79 (4.17); 18% had a score >10. The BQ indicated that 21.5% had a higher risk on obstructive sleep apnea. In multiple logistic regression analysis, low educational level (odds ratio [OR] 1.86), current smoking (OR 1.75), unrealistic work schedule (OR 1.75), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OR 2.97) were found to be independent correlates of daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 1.95), unrealistic work schedule (OR 2.85), low job satisfaction (OR 1.91), and less driving experience (OR 1.73). These results show that poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were prevalent in Belgian truck drivers. Taking into account that several significant correlates with respect to these sleep problems were identified

  15. Sleep, Mood, and Quality of Life in Patients Receiving Treatment for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Grace E.; Redeker, Nancy S.; Wang, Ya-Jung; Rogers, Ann E.; Dickerson, Suzanne S.; Steinbrenner, Lynn M.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To distinguish relationships among subjective and objective characteristics of sleep, mood, and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving treatment for lung cancer. Design Descriptive, correlational study. Setting Two ambulatory oncology clinics. Sample 35 patients with lung cancer. Methods The following instruments were used to measure the variables of interest: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment–Lung (FACT-L), a sleep diary, and a motionlogger actigraph. Main Research Variables Sleep, mood, and QOL. Findings Significant differences were found between sleep diary and actigraph measures of sleep efficiency (p = 0.002), sleep latency (p = 0.014), sleep duration (p < 0.001), and wake after sleep onset (p < 0.001). Poor sleepers (PSQI score greater than 5) were significantly different from good sleepers (PSQI score of 5 or lower) on sleep diary measures of sleep efficiency and sleep latency and the FACT-L lung cancer symptom subscale, but not on mood or actigraphy sleep measures. Conclusions Although patients with lung cancer may report an overall acceptable sleep quality when assessed by a single question, those same patients may still have markedly increased sleep latencies or reduced total sleep time. The findings indicate the complexity of sleep disturbances in patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer symptoms had a stronger association with sleep than mood. Research using prospective methods will help to elucidate their clinical significance. Implications for Nursing Patients receiving treatment for lung cancer are at an increased risk for sleep disturbances and would benefit from routine sleep assessment and management. In addition, assessment and management of common symptoms may improve sleep and, ultimately, QOL. Knowledge Translation A high frequency of sleep disturbances in patients receiving treatment for lung cancer was evident, and poor sleepers had

  16. Perceived poor sleep quality in the absence of polysomnographic sleep disturbance in women with severe premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baker, Fiona C; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Kahan, Tracey; Palaniappan, Latha; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M

    2012-10-01

    Women with severe premenstrual syndrome report sleep-related complaints in the late-luteal phase, but few studies have characterized sleep disturbances prospectively. This study evaluated sleep quality subjectively and objectively using polysomnographic and quantitative electroencephalographic measures in women with severe premenstrual syndrome. Eighteen women with severe premenstrual syndrome (30.5 ± 7.6 years) and 18 women with minimal symptoms (controls, 29.2 ± 7.3 years) had polysomnographic recordings on one night in each of the follicular and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Women with premenstrual syndrome reported poorer subjective sleep quality when symptomatic in the late-luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (P < 0.05). However, there were no corresponding changes in objective sleep quality. Women with premenstrual syndrome had more slow-wave sleep and slow-wave activity than controls at both menstrual phases (P < 0.05). They also had higher trait-anxiety, depression, fatigue and perceived stress levels than controls at both phases (P < 0.05) and mood worsened in the late-luteal phase. Both groups showed similar menstrual-phase effects on sleep, with increased spindle frequency activity and shorter rapid eye movement sleep episodes in the late-luteal phase. In women with premenstrual syndrome, a poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with higher anxiety (r = -0.64, P = 0.005) and more perceived nighttime awakenings (r = -0.50, P = 0.03). Our findings show that women with premenstrual syndrome perceive their sleep quality to be poorer in the absence of polysomnographically defined poor sleep. Anxiety has a strong impact on sleep quality ratings, suggesting that better control of mood symptoms in women with severe premenstrual syndrome may lead to better subjective sleep quality. PMID:22417163

  17. Impact of nasal obstruction on sleep quality: a community-based study of women.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Caroline; Jonsson, Lars; Holmström, Mats; Svensson, Malin; Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the impact of self-reported nasal obstruction on sleep quality in women. A community-based sample of 400 women underwent a full night of polysomnography. Airway diseases, allergies and sleep-related symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. Women with subjective nasal obstruction were subdivided into three groups: persistent nasal obstruction (PNO, n = 46), hay fever (n = 88) and nasal obstruction at night (NON, n = 30). Sleep problems and related daytime symptoms were most prevalent among women with NON. After adjusting for age, BMI, smoking and asthma, NON was an independent predictor of 'Difficulties inducing sleep due to nasal obstruction' [adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI): 89.5 (27.0-296.7)], 'Snoring' [4.2 (1.7-10.2)], 'Sweating at night' [2.6 (1.1-6.1)], 'Difficulties maintaining sleep' [2.7 (1.2-6.2)], and 'Waking up hastily gasping for breath' [32.2 (8.7-119.1)]. 'Dry mouth on awakening' [7.7 (3.2-18.4)], 'Waking up unrefreshed' [2.7 (1.2-6.0)], 'Excessive daytime sleepiness' [2.6 (1.1-6.0)], and 'Daytime nasal obstruction' [12.2 (4.8-31.2)] were also associated with NON. Persistent nasal obstruction and hay fever were both associated with some reported sleep problems due to an overlap with NON. When women with NON were excluded, only 'Daytime nasal obstruction' was still significantly associated with PNO, while hay fever was associated with 'Daytime nasal obstruction' and 'Waking up hastily gasping for breath'. There were no significant differences in objectively measured sleep variables between any of the three subgroups and the study cohort. Self-reported nasal obstruction at night in women has a significant effect on several subjective day- and nighttime symptoms, but it does not appear to affect objectively measured sleep quality. PMID:24792065

  18. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  19. Restless legs syndrome is associated with poor sleep quality and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Seden; Demirci, Kadir; Doğru, Atalay; İnal, Esra Erkol; Koyuncuoğlu, Hasan Rifat; Şahin, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and the associations between RLS and quality of sleep and life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and eight AS patients and 64 controls were included in this study. Demographics, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. The presence of RLS was determined with face-to-face interview by an experienced neurologist based on the International RLS Study Group criteria. RLS severity was evaluated using International RLS Study Group rating scale. Sleep quality and insomnia severity were assessed by Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and insomnia severity index (ISI), respectively. Disease-related quality of life was evaluated by AS quality of life questionnaire (ASQoL). The frequency of RLS was significantly higher in AS patients than in controls (36.4 vs. 14.0 %, p = 0.004). RLS severity score for AS patients was significantly higher than that for controls (p = 0.03). The AS patients had higher scores in the subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleep medication domains of PSQI, and also total PSQI and ISI than controls (p < 0.05, for all). ASQoL scores were higher in AS patients with RLS compared to those without RLS (p < 0.001). RLS severity was observed to be independently associated with total PSQI, ISI and ASQoL (p < 0.05, for all). As RLS may adversely affect the sleep and quality of life in AS patients, clinicians should be aware of RLS for early diagnosis and management in AS patients. PMID:26563408

  20. Sleep Deprivation affects Extinction but Not Acquisition Memory in Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were…

  1. Predictors of Poor Sleep Quality Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Duffy, Sonia A.; Ronis, David L.; Garetz, Susan L.; McLean, Scott A.; Fowler, Karen E.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of sleep quality among head and neck cancer patients 1 year after diagnosis. Study Design This was a prospective, multisite cohort study of head and neck cancer patients (N = 457). Methods Patients were surveyed at baseline and 1 year after diagnosis. Chart audits were also conducted. The dependent variable was a self-assessed sleep score 1 year after diagnosis. The independent variables were a 1 year pain score, xerostomia, treatment received (radiation, chemotherapy, and/or surgery), presence of a feeding tube and/or tracheotomy, tumor site and stage, comorbidities, depression, smoking, problem drinking, age, and sex. Results Both baseline (67.1) and 1-year post-diagnosis (69.3) sleep scores were slightly lower than population means (72). Multivariate analyses showed that pain, xerostomia, depression, presence of a tracheotomy tube, comorbidities, and younger age were statistically significant predictors of poor sleep 1 year after diagnosis of head and neck cancer (P < .05). Smoking, problem drinking, and female sex were marginally significant (P < .09). Type of treatment (surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy), primary tumor site, and cancer stage were not significantly associated with 1-year sleep scores. Conclusions Many factors adversely affecting sleep in head and neck cancer patients are potentially modifiable and appear to contribute to decreased quality of life. Strategies to reduce pain, xerostomia, depression, smoking, and problem drinking may be warranted, not only for their own inherent value, but also for improvement of sleep and the enhancement of quality of life. PMID:20513034

  2. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

  3. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  4. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan: does it affect sleep?

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Almushailhi, Khalid; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Sharif, Munir M

    2014-02-01

    Islamic intermittent fasting is distinct from regular voluntary or experimental fasting. We hypothesised that if a regimen of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake is followed during intermittent fasting, the effects of fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness will be minimal. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of Islamic intermittent fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness. Eight healthy volunteers reported to the Sleep Disorders Centre on five occasions for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests: (1) during adaptation; (2) 3 weeks before Ramadan, after having performed Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting); (3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline); (4) 2 weeks into Ramadan (Ramadan); and (5) 2 weeks after Ramadan (non-fasting; Recovery). Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the multiple sleep latency test. The participants had a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years, a body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg m(-2) and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 7.3 ± 2.7. There was no change in weight or the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the four study periods. The rapid eye movement sleep percentage was significantly lower during fasting. There was no difference in sleep latency, non-rapid eye movement sleep percentage, arousal index and sleep efficiency. The multiple sleep latency test analysis revealed no difference in the sleep latency between the 'non-fasting baseline', 'baseline fasting', 'Ramadan' and 'Recovery' time points. Under conditions of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake, Islamic intermittent fasting results in decreased rapid eye movement sleep with no impact on other sleep stages, the arousal index or daytime sleepiness. PMID:23937329

  5. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gebhart, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n = 44) were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints. PMID:23471095

  6. Can mental healthcare nurses improve sleep quality for inpatients?

    PubMed

    de Niet, Gerrit; Tiemens, Bea; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    This article describes a pilot study that was carried out to in order to gain an indication as to whether mental healthcare nurses can apply evidence-based interventions for sleep problems effectively in inpatient mental health care. The study had a pre-test/post-test design and a comparison group was used. The study was performed on three psychiatric admission wards, located in three different towns in one province of The Netherlands. The participants were inpatients (18-60 years old) admitted owing to severe mental health problems like psychotic, mood or anxiety disorders. Of the newly admitted patients, 62.8% perceived having a sleep problem. Two brief, evidence-based interventions were introduced on two of the wards: the first with stimulus control (SC) as active component; the second with music-assisted relaxation (MAR). A third ward, with no interventions other than usual care, served as a point of comparison. Sleep quality was monitored using the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). The change score means of the treatment groups were compared with the mean score of the comparison group by means of a t-test. Estimates of effect were calculated. The results of this study showed that MAR produced a statistically significant improvement of sleep quality and showed a large effect size. The total RCSQ score did not improve significantly. SC failed to produce statistically significant improvement of sleep quality, nor of the RCSQ total score. This pilot study provided a strong indication that mental health nurses can apply MAR effectively. No such indication was found for stimulus control. PMID:20871513

  7. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population-and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients-there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality-the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)-with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and actigraphy). PMID

  8. Working "out-of-phase" with reference to chronotype compromises sleep quality in police officers.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arjita; Rani, Sangeeta; Singh, Sudhi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the sleep characteristics, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) of the police officers working during out-of-phase (OP) and in-phase (IP) duty schedules with respect to their chronotypes. Adult male and female police officers (n = 85) were asked to answer Hindi/English version of different questionnaires to assess their chronotype (morningness-eveningness questionnaire; MEQ), PSQI scores (Pittsburgh sleep quality index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale, ESS) and fatigue levels (fatigue severity scale, FSS) and fill a sleep log. Based on their PSQI scores, the participating subjects (n = 85) were divided into two categories: good sleepers (58/85) and poor sleepers (27/85). Of these 85 subjects, 23 subjects (good sleepers n = 13; poor sleepers n = 10) volunteered for the next part of the study. At the beginning of the study, the existing duty schedule of these subjects was OP and lasted for 4 days (OP1). Thereafter, they were allotted their preferred (IP) duty schedule for 4 days, followed by OP2 for further 4 days. Over the 12-day period, subjects were monitored for their BP and sleep-wake cycle. Results showed that the poor sleepers improved their sleep quality and HR during IP duty schedule; however, good sleepers were not affected significantly. PMID:26785837

  9. Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-11-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  10. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-01-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  11. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Best, John R.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population—and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients—there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality—the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)—with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and

  12. Psychopathological Variables and Sleep Quality in Psoriatic Patients.

    PubMed

    Luca, Maria; Luca, Antonina; Musumeci, Maria Letizia; Fiorentini, Federica; Micali, Giuseppe; Calandra, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease frequently associated with psychiatric disturbances and sleep disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of depression, interaction anxiety, audience anxiety, and sleep quality in psoriatic patients. One hundred and two psoriatic patients were enrolled and underwent the following questionnaires: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), Audience Anxiousness Scale (AAS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The severity of skin lesions was assessed by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). The presence of a link between clinical variables and with demographic data has been investigated. Psoriasis was linked to depression, interaction and audience anxiety, as well as to poor sleep quality; 37.5% of patients were depressed, 46.1% scored above 37 at the IAS, 47.1% scored above 33 at the AAS. Thirty-nine subjects (38.2%) presented a PSQI ≥ 5. An association between interaction anxiety and lower limbs psoriasis-related erythema as well as between PSQI and head psoriasis-related erythema was found, particularly among male patients. Hence, psoriatic patients should be assessed from a holistic point of view, in order to identify associated disorders that could benefit from targeted treatments. PMID:27455241

  13. Psychopathological Variables and Sleep Quality in Psoriatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Maria; Luca, Antonina; Musumeci, Maria Letizia; Fiorentini, Federica; Micali, Giuseppe; Calandra, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease frequently associated with psychiatric disturbances and sleep disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of depression, interaction anxiety, audience anxiety, and sleep quality in psoriatic patients. One hundred and two psoriatic patients were enrolled and underwent the following questionnaires: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), Audience Anxiousness Scale (AAS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The severity of skin lesions was assessed by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). The presence of a link between clinical variables and with demographic data has been investigated. Psoriasis was linked to depression, interaction and audience anxiety, as well as to poor sleep quality; 37.5% of patients were depressed, 46.1% scored above 37 at the IAS, 47.1% scored above 33 at the AAS. Thirty-nine subjects (38.2%) presented a PSQI ≥ 5. An association between interaction anxiety and lower limbs psoriasis-related erythema as well as between PSQI and head psoriasis-related erythema was found, particularly among male patients. Hence, psoriatic patients should be assessed from a holistic point of view, in order to identify associated disorders that could benefit from targeted treatments. PMID:27455241

  14. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%), as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors. PMID:23710363

  15. How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

    1997-11-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. PMID:9394089

  16. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Lu, Brandon; Naylor, Erik; Wolfe, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Methods Seventeen sedentary adults aged ≥55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 (SD±4.3) years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration < 6.5 hours and a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score > 5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). Results The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (p<0.0001), sleep latency (p=0.049), sleep duration (p=0.04), daytime dysfunction (p=0.027), and sleep efficiency (p=0.036) PSQI sub-scores compared to the control group. The physical activity group also had reductions in depressive symptoms (p=0.044), daytime sleepiness (p=0.02) and improvements in vitality (p=0.017) compared to baseline scores. Conclusion Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. PMID:20813580

  17. Insomnia Severity, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Veterans With Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Chao, Linda L; Abadjian, Linda R; Esparza, Iva L; Reeb, Rosemary

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that sleep disturbances are common in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI), there has been a paucity of published sleep studies in this veteran population to date. Therefore, the present study examined subjective sleep quality (assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia severity (assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (assessed with the STOP questionnaire) in 98 Gulf War veterans. Veterans with GWI, defined either by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, had greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (i.e., higher STOP scores) than veterans without GWI. This difference persisted even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic (e.g., age, gender) and clinical variables. Veterans with GWI, defined by either the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, also had significantly greater insomnia severity and poorer sleep quality than veterans without GWI (p < 0.05), even after accounting for potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, there were significant, positive correlations between insomnia severity, subjective sleep quality, and GWI symptom severity (p ≤ 0.01). In stepwise linear regression models, insomnia severity significantly predicted GWI status over and above demographic and clinical variables. Together these findings provide good rationale for treating sleep disturbances in the management of GWI. PMID:27612364

  18. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  19. Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Cortical Synchrony During Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maret, Stéphanie; Franken, Paul; Dauvilliers, Yves; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.; Chambon, Pierre; Tafti, Mehdi

    2005-10-01

    Delta oscillations, characteristic of the electroencephalogram (EEG) of slow wave sleep, estimate sleep depth and need and are thought to be closely linked to the recovery function of sleep. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of delta waves at the cortical and thalamic levels are well documented, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate in the mouse that the gene encoding the retinoic acid receptor beta determines the contribution of delta oscillations to the sleep EEG. Thus, retinoic acid signaling, which is involved in the patterning of the brain and dopaminergic pathways, regulates cortical synchrony in the adult.

  20. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21-2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  1. Relationship between Sleep Quality and Health Risk Behaviors in Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael; Becker, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The Sleep Quality Index (SQI) and the Centers for Disease Control's National College Health Risk Survey (NCHRS) were administered to 859 undergraduates at a large southeastern university. Results indicated that 76.6% reported occasional sleep problems and 11.8 % experienced poor sleep quality. Among the problems reported, "general morning…

  2. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  3. Self-perceived quality of sleep and mortality in Norwegian dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Fredrik B; Waldum, Bård; Amro, Amin; Østhus, Tone B H; Dammen, Toril; Gudmundsdottir, Helga; Os, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Sleep complaints are prevalent and associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), depression and possibly mortality in dialysis patients. This study aimed to explore possible associations between sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and mortality in dialysis patients. In this study, 301 dialysis patients were followed up to 4.3 years. HRQoL was evaluated at baseline with the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life--Short Form (KDQoL-SF), depression with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), sleep quality with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and daytime sleepiness with Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The single item "on a scale from 0-10, how would you evaluate your sleep?" in the sleep subscale in KDQoL-SF was used to identify poor (0-5) and good sleepers (6-10). A total of 160 patients (53.3%) were characterized as poor sleepers. They were younger (r = 0.241, P < 0.001), had more depression (BDI: 8.72 ± 6.79 vs. 13.60 ± 8.04, P < 0.001), a higher consumption of hypnotics and antidepressants and reduced HRQoL (Mental Component Summary score: 45.4 ± 11.0 vs. 50.0 ± 10.4, P < 0.001. Physical Component Summary score: 35.0 ± 9.9 vs. 38.5 ± 10.5, P = 0.004). In multivariate analyses, poor sleepers had nearly a twofold increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92, confidence interval [CI] 1.10-3.35, P = 0.022). Daytime sleepiness was not related to mortality (HR 1.01, CI 0.95-1.08, P = 0.751). Sleep complaints predicted increased mortality risk in dialysis patients and should therefore be routinely assessed. Further studies are needed to find suitable treatment options for poor sleep in dialysis patients as it may affect both HRQoL and survival. PMID:23841517

  4. Sleep Disturbances and Behavioral Disturbances in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shirshendu; Jhaveri, Ronak; Banga, Alok

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are commonly seen in children and adolescents. They are often undiagnosed and undertreated. A balance of circadian rhythm and homeostatic drive determine sleep quality, quantity, and timing, which changes across the developmental years. Environmental and lifestyle factors can affect sleep quality and quantity and lead to sleep deprivation. A comprehensive assessment of sleep disorders includes parental report, children's self-report, and school functioning. Diagnostic tools are used in diagnosing and treating sleep disorders. PMID:26600104

  5. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between global sleep quality and experience of alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants College students (N = 1,878) who reported past-month drinking. Methods Participants completed online surveys assessing sleep and alcohol-related behaviors. Results Poorer sleep quality and higher drinking motives (coping, conformity, and enhancement) predicted greater alcohol-related consequences, controlling for drinking. Further, coping motives moderated the relationship between sleep quality and consequences such that participants reporting poor sleep and high coping motives experienced heightened levels of consequences. Conclusions These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between sleep problems and alcohol-related risk and provide implications for targeted campus-based health promotion interventions. PMID:24588270

  6. The relationship between self-reported sleep quality and reading comprehension skills

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie K.; Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Buboltz, Walter; Felix, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep undermines many cognitive functions, including memory, concentration, and attention, which are vital in everyday activities. We hypothesized that poor quality or shorter sleep length may impair reading-related skills, resources, and outcomes, specifically verbal working memory span, verbal efficiency, and reading comprehension. Contrary to the hypotheses, neither short sleep length nor self-reported sleep quality were related to reading skills performance. However, longer sleep times were significantly related to lower verbal efficiency, and participants with the poorest sleep quality fared significantly better on the reading comprehension task than participants with moderate sleep quality. Given the paucity of research examining sleep and reading specifically, as well as these surprising data, more research in this area is warranted. PMID:26483928

  7. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    PubMed Central

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A.; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  8. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study.

    PubMed

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  9. Impact of pedometer-based walking on menopausal women's sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, M; Abedi, P; Farshadbakht, F

    2016-08-01

    Objective Sleep disturbances are one of the most common psycho-physiological issues among postmenopausal women. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of walking with a pedometer on the sleep quality of postmenopausal Iranian women. Methods This randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 112 women who were randomly assigned to two groups. The women in the intervention group (n = 56) were asked to walk with a pedometer each day for 12 weeks and to increase their walking distance by 500 steps per week. A sociodemographic instrument and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. Sleep quality was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. The control group (n = 56) did not receive any intervention. Results After 12 weeks, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction improved to a significantly greater extent in the intervention group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The total sleep quality score was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (0.64 vs. 0.98, p = 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that walking with a pedometer is an easy and cost-effective way to improve the quality of sleep among postmenopausal women. Use of this method in public health centers is recommended. PMID:26757356

  10. Brief Report: Influence of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G

    2015-08-01

    Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep quality. Parents of the children also completed the Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and maintained a daily sleep log while their child wore the device. This study demonstrated that though over half of the children were identified as having at least one sleep-related problem, their activity levels were significantly related to their sleep patterns. Specifically, the more physically active children had overall higher sleep quality. PMID:25791123

  11. Stress, sleep quality and unplanned Caesarean section in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-Li; Lin, Pi-Chu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the relationship among prenatal maternal stress, sleep quality and unplanned Caesarean delivery. For this research, we adopted a prospective survey design and a sample of 200 women in the early stages of labour. The findings were as follows: (i) 11.5% of the participants underwent unplanned Caesarean sections; (ii) based on a Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index split point of 5, approximately 90.5% of the participants experienced poor sleep quality; and (iii) the odds ratio for primiparas undergoing an unplanned Caesarean section was 4.183 times that for multiparas (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.177 to 14.864), indicating a statistically significant difference. The results also showed that stress was a significant factor related to unplanned Caesarean sections; a 1-point increase on the Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale was associated with a 1.033-fold higher probability of undergoing an unplanned Caesarean section (95% CI = 1.002 to 1.065). Furthermore, prenatal stress was a significant variable that can be used to predict unplanned Caesarean deliveries. PMID:24754483

  12. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  13. Individual differences in the consideration of future consequences scale correlate with sleep habits, sleep quality, and GPA in university students.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brandon R; Joireman, Jeff; Ridgway, Richard L

    2005-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between individual differences in the consideration of future consequences, sleep habits and sleep quality, and academic achievement in a sample of 231 undergraduates, 156 women and 75 men, whose ages ranged from 18 to 41 years (M = 19.0 yr., SD=2.82). Individuals were recruited from two introductory courses and two upper-division courses, one each in the fields of biology and psychology. An 8-page questionnaire was administered to assess variables relating to personality, sleep habits and quality, and grade point average (GPA). Each volunteer was given extra credit in their respective courses for participation. Higher scores on the Consideration of Future Consequences scale were associated with self-reported measures of more regular sleep schedules, greater satisfaction with sleep, a reduced likelihood of oversleeping, and higher grade point averages. Moreover, oversleeping was significantly correlated with both scale scores and GPA. PMID:16050645

  14. Relationship between Poor Sleep Quality and Psychological Problems among Undergraduate Students in the Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lertmaharit, Somrat; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Sonkprasert, Thanawan; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to fill the noted gap in the available literature by evaluating the prevalence of poor sleep quality in this understudied population and to explore the relationship between sleep quality and psychological problems among undergraduates in Thailand. This study used a cross-sectional survey. Self-administrated questionnaires included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Thai General Health Questionnaire. The study group included 1,055 undergraduates, aged 18-25 years. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 42.4%. Students classified as poor quality sleepers reported significantly more psychological problems, indicating a linear trend of progressively worse global sleep quality associated with greater mood and anxiety symptomatology. Prospective studies that include objective measures of sleep duration and quality are needed to more fully develop focused health promotion strategies for Southeast Asian undergraduates. PMID:27152114

  15. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  16. Intimate Partner Violence Is Associated with Stress-Related Sleep Disturbance and Poor Sleep Quality during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sixto E.; Islam, Suhayla; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV) with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST]) and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during early pregnancy. Methods This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using logistic regression procedures. Results Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08–2.17) and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33–2.81). Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI) for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84–1.83), sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07–11.05), and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27–4.96). The corresponding aORs (95% CI) for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13–2.61), 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99–8.03), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30–4.81), respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17–3.67) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30–3.97) during pregnancy. Conclusion Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:27023005

  17. Sleep Quality and Psychological Wellbeing in Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep and behavioural difficulties are common in children with developmental disabilities. Mothers often wake and tend to their child when their child is having sleep difficulties. Therefore, mothers of children with developmental disabilities can have poor sleep quality due to these disruptions. The present study investigated the impact of sleep…

  18. Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms. PMID:25279939

  19. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Social Intimacy, and Academic Burn-Out in Students of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Mehdi, Hashemi Seyed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh, Kobra Haji; Yarmohammadzadeh, Peyman; Feyzollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Academic burnout leads to creation of a series of negative and scattered thoughts, loss of hope and emotional and physical exhaustion in carrying out activities. Two factors that affect academic burnout are sleep quality and social intimacy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and social intimacy, and academic burn-out in the students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Materials & Methods: This study was descriptive and correlational. The population of this study consisted of the students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and 196 medical students were selected. They completed Berso et al. Academic Burnout Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS). The validity of the questionnaires confirmed by experts’ views. Their reliability were obtained as 77%, 64% and 85% for academic burnout, sleep quality and social intimacy questionnaires respectively by calculating the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). For data analysis, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test, Regression, cluster analysis and t-test were used. Results: The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between sleep quality and academic burnout at the level p<0.05 (r=0.38). There was a negative and significant relationship between social intimacy and academic burnout at the level p<0.05 (r=-0.40). Also, the regression results showed that sleep quality and social intimacy were able to predict 37% and 39% of academic burnout respectively. Moreover, the students were divided into two clusters of individuals with high social intimacy and individuals with low social intimacy. No significant difference was found between the two types in terms of the variable of academic burn-out. Conclusion: Based on the research results, it can be stated that the variables of sleep quality and social intimacy are the predictor factors of academic burn

  20. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with life satisfaction in elderly Chinese: The mediating role of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ting-Fan; Sun, Xun-Ming; Li, Shu-Juan; Wang, Qun-Shan; Cai, Jian; Li, Lin-Zi; Li, Yan-Xun; Xu, Min-Jie; Wang, Yong; Chu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Zheng-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether sleep duration and quality were related to life satisfaction (LS) among older Chinese adults and whether depression mediated those relationships. Cross-sectional data from the aging arm of the Rugao Longevity and Aging Study were used. Sleep duration, sleep quality, depression, LS and covariates were analyzed using logistic regressions. To assess the potential mediation of depression on the association between sleep duration and quality and LS, Aroian tests were used. Of 1756 older Chinese adults aged 70-84 years, 90.7% of the men and 83.3% of the women reported being satisfied with their lives. After adjusting for covariates, older adults who slept ≤6h per night were more likely to suffer from life dissatisfaction compared with those who slept 7-8h (OR=2.67, 95% CI 1.86-3.79), and individuals who slept poorly were almost 2 times (OR=2.91, 95% CI 2.16-3.91) more likely to have life dissatisfaction. The Aroian tests confirmed that these relationships were partially mediated by depression (p<0.001). Between short sleep and LS, the mediating effect of depression accounted for 13.9% of the total effects. Moreover, the mediating effect of depression on the association between sleep quality and LS was 13.3%. Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality were inversely associated with LS, and the relationships were partially mediated by depression. Our study suggests that both sleep and depression status are important factors for LS among the elderly. PMID:27100684

  1. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  2. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making. PMID:26899164

  3. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  4. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  5. The impact of parents' sleep quality and hypoglycemia worry on diabetes self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality, possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships among parents' sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; one third of parents reported their overall sleep quality was "fairly bad" or "very bad." Hypoglycemia worry and parents' sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents' sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children's hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  6. The Impact of Parents’ Sleep Quality and Hypoglycemia Worry on Diabetes Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships amongst parents’ sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; 1/3 of parents reported their overall sleep quality was “fairly bad” or “very bad.” Hypoglycemia worry and parents’ sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents’ sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children’s hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  7. Associations between Blood Zinc Concentrations and Sleep Quality in Childhood: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the relationship between zinc and sleep in school children. The present study aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between blood zinc concentrations and sleep quality throughout childhood. A total of 1295 children from the Jintan Child Cohort in China were included in this study. Venous blood sample of zinc and subjective sleep data were collected when the children were at preschool age (3–5 years old) and early adolescence (11–15 years old). Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the odds of the sleep quality/subdomain being at a greater impairment level associated with 1 unit increase in log zinc concentration. Cross-sectional analyses showed negative correlation of blood zinc concentrations with insufficient sleep duration (OR = 0.432, p = 0.002), sleep disturbances (OR = 0.454, p = 0.009) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.559, p = 0.049) in adolescence, but no association at preschool age (p > 0.05). Longitudinal analyses indicated that blood zinc concentrations at preschool age predict poor sleep efficiency (OR = 0.186, p = 0.000) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.358, p = 0.020) in adolescence. Our findings suggest that sufficient zinc concentration is associated with good sleep quality, dependent on the developmental stage in childhood. Future interventional research is warranted to examine the short and long-term effect of zinc status on sleep heath. PMID:26184300

  8. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gabriela G; Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC--operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)--will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  9. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  10. Effect of Using Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Babaii, Atye; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hajibagheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients in coronary care unit are at risk of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can be associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate, raising the risk of developing cardiovascular problems among patients hospitalized in coronary care unit. Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in cardiac patients. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected using a convenient sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. However, in the experimental group, patients received routine care and eye mask for three subsequent nights. In the both groups, the sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: After the study, the median scores of the subjective sleep quality, the sleep latency, the sleep duration, the habitual sleep efficiency, and the sleep disturbances domains, as well as the median score of overall Pittsburgh sleep quality index in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the use of sleep medications and the daytime dysfunction domains (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Using eye mask can significantly improve the sleep quality in cardiac patients. Therefore, nurses are recommended to use eye mask in combination with current treatments for improving patients’ sleep quality. PMID:26835463

  11. Trajectories of Sleep Quality and Associations with Mood during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Buliga, Elena; Letourneau, Nicole L.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate trajectories of sleep quality and associations with mood in the perinatal period. Although it is commonly accepted that subjective sleep quality declines during pregnancy and the transition to parenthood, some women may follow qualitatively distinct trajectories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were collected from 293 women at four time points: during early pregnancy, at Time 1 (T1; < 22 w gestational age [GA]; late pregnancy, at Time 2 (T2; 32 w GA); during the postnatal period at Time 3 (T3; 3 mo postpartum); and Time 4 (T4; 6 mo postpartum). A group-based semiparametric mixture model was used to estimate patterns of sleep quality throughout the perinatal period. Results: Four trajectory groups were identified, including patterns defined by high sleep quality throughout (21.5%), mild decrease in sleep quality (59.5%), significant decrease in sleep quality (12.3%) and a group with poor sleep quality throughout (6.7%). Women who had the worst sleep quality at Time 1 and those who experienced significant increases in sleep problems throughout pregnancy were also the groups who reported the highest levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and the lowest levels of social support. After controlling for covariates, the groups with worst subjective sleep quality during pregnancy were also the most likely to experience high symptoms of depression in the postpartum period. Conclusions: Most of the women in our sample reported mild sleep disturbances through the perinatal period. A subgroup of women reported a significant decline in sleep quality from early to late pregnancy and another reported poor subjective sleep quality throughout pregnancy; these groups had the greatest risk of experiencing high symptoms of depression in the postpartum period. Citation: Tomfohr LM, Buliga E, Letourneau NL, Campbell TS, Giesbrecht GF

  12. Time of day affects chemoreflex sensitivity and the carbon dioxide reserve during NREM sleep in participants with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2014-11-15

    Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PET(CO2)) and minute ventilation, as well as the PET(CO2) that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PET(CO2): 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea. PMID:25213638

  13. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years

    PubMed Central

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A.; Wali, Siraj O.; Merdad, Roah A.; Merdad, Leena A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep. PMID:26837401

  14. Effect of Pilates on sleep quality and quality of life of sedentary population.

    PubMed

    Leopoldino, Amanda Aparecida Oliveira; Avelar, Núbia Carelli Pereira; Passos, Gabriela Basques; Santana, Natália Ágatta Perácio; Teixeira, Vanessa Pereira; de Lima, Vanessa Pereira; de Melo Vitorino, Débora Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an exercise program based on the Pilates Matwork method on sedentary volunteers who self-reported changes in their sleep quality and quality of life. This was a prospective clinical study, in which the variables (level of sleepiness and quality of life) were compared before and after applying a protocol of 12 weeks of an exercise program (2 sessions per week). The level of sleepiness showed significant improvement between before and after the intervention (p: 0.04). Quality of life improved based on all of the emotional components and the physical components (p < 0.05) with the exception of the physical domain (p: 0.09). The results of this study indicate that the sedentary population who participated in this 12 week Pilates program experienced improvements in sleep quality and quality of life. PMID:23294677

  15. Sleep in fall/winter seasonal affective disorder: effects of light and changing seasons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Rosen, L N; Mendelson, W B; Jacobsen, F M; Skwerer, R G; Joseph-Vanderpool, J R; Duncan, C C; Wehr, T A; Rosenthal, N E

    1994-05-01

    Disturbances of sleep are a hallmark of seasonal affective disorders (SAD), as they are of other mood disorders. Fall/winter SAD patients most often report hypersomnia. Among responses of 293 SAD patients on a symptom questionnaire, complaints of winter hypersomnia (80%) greatly exceeded insomnia (10%), hypersomnia plus insomnia (5%), or no sleep difficulty (5%). Increased sleep length in fall/winter is not unique to SAD. Among 1571 individuals across four latitudes surveyed at random from the general population, winter sleep increases of < or = 2 hr/day relative to summer were reported by nearly half. However, hypersomnia had a low correlation (r = 0.29) with the total number of other SAD symptoms that were reported in this sample. Ten SAD patients kept daily sleep logs across 1 yr that showed increases in fall and winter (sleeping most in October; least in May) whose maximum averaged 2.7 hr per day more weekend sleep than in spring and summer. These winter increases might have been somewhat attenuated since most received light therapy during part of the winter. Nocturnal EEG recordings of depressed SAD patients in winter showed decreased sleep efficiency, decreased delta sleep percentage, and increased REM density (but normal REM latency) in comparison with recordings: (1) from themselves in summer; (2) from themselves after > or = 9 days of light therapy; or (3) from age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Thus, the extent of fall/winter oversleeping recorded by our SAD patients did not differ dramatically from that reported by the general population, but sleep complaints of our SAD patients have been accompanied by features of sleep architecture that are different from healthy controls and are reversed by summer or by bright-light therapy. PMID:8064650

  16. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  17. Prolonged Sleep Restriction Affects Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Hublin, Christer; Sallinen, Mikael; Härmä, Mikko; Hirvonen, Ari; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the effects of sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep on glucose homeostasis, serum leptin levels, and feelings of subjective satiety. Twenty-three healthy young men were allocated to a control group (CON) or an experimental (EXP) group. After two nights of 8 h in bed (baseline, BL), EXP spent 4 h in bed for five days (sleep restriction, SR), followed by two nights of 8 h (recovery, REC). CON spent 8 h in bed throughout the study. Blood samples were taken after the BL, SR, and REC period. In EXP, insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio increased after SR. IGF-1 levels increased after REC. Leptin levels were elevated after both SR and REC; subjective satiety remained unaffected. No changes were observed in CON. The observed increase of serum IGF-1 and insulin-to-glucose ratio indicates that sleep restriction may result in an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes. PMID:20414467

  18. A Study of the Association Between Sleep Bruxism, Low Quality of Sleep, and Degenerative Changes of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Dias, Glaucia Marques; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Guimarães, Josemar Parreira; Silva, Jesca Neftali Nogueira; Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Grossmann, Eduardo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of degenerative bone changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in individuals suffering from sleep bruxism (SB), associating these characteristics with the quality of sleep. For this, we followed the International Classification of Sleep Disorders for the diagnosis of SB, in addition to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) for the classification of TMD and cone beam computed tomography. It was found that 97.7% of the individuals with bruxism had at least 1 RDC/TMD group III diagnosis, 75.6% of the subjects considered their sleep quality as poor, and the largest group (23%) had centric bruxism. There was no significant association between the pattern of sleep quality (P = 0.36), the type of SB (P = 0.277), and the presence of degenerative changes of the TMJ. Regardless of the quality of sleep and the type of bruxism presented, the prevalence of degenerative bone disorders was high (67%) among women with a mean age of 46 years and a clinical diagnosis of SB. PMID:26501968

  19. Changes in Sleep Time and Sleep Quality across the Ovulatory Cycle as a Function of Fertility and Partner Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that near ovulation women tend to consume fewer calories and engage in more physical activity; they are judged to be more attractive, express greater preferences for masculine and symmetrical men, and experience increases in sexual desire for men other than their primary partners. Some of these cycle phase shifts are moderated by partner attractiveness and interpreted as strategic responses to women's current reproductive context. The present study investigated changes in sleep across the ovulatory cycle, based on the hypothesis that changes in sleep may reflect ancestral strategic shifts of time and energy toward reproductive activities. Participants completed a 32-day daily diary in which they recorded their sleep time and quality for each day, yielding over 1,000 observations of sleep time and quality. Results indicated that, when the probability of conception was high, women partnered with less attractive men slept more, while women with more attractive partners slept less. PMID:24710508

  20. Sleep quality is negatively related to video gaming volume in adults.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Most literature on the relationship between video gaming and sleep disturbances has looked at children and adolescents. There is little research on such a relationship in adult samples. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of video game volume with sleep quality in adults via face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Adults (n = 844, 56.2% women), aged 18-94 years old, participated in the study. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and gaming volume was assessed by asking the hours of gaming on a regular weekday (Mon-Thurs), Friday and weekend day (Sat-Sun). Adjusting for gender, age, educational level, exercise and perceived stress, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video gaming volume was a significant predictor of sleep quality (β = 0.145), fatigue (β = 0.109), insomnia (β = 0.120), bedtime (β = 0.100) and rise time (β = 0.168). Each additional hour of video gaming per day delayed bedtime by 6.9 min (95% confidence interval 2.0-11.9 min) and rise time by 13.8 min (95% confidence interval 7.8-19.7 min). Attributable risk for having poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5) due to gaming >1 h day was 30%. When examining the components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using multinomial regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals), gaming volume significantly predicted sleep latency, sleep efficiency and use of sleep medication. In general, findings support the conclusion that gaming volume is negatively related to the overall sleep quality of adults, which might be due to underlying mechanisms of screen exposure and arousal. PMID:25358428

  1. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  2. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-01-27

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  3. The Effect of Sleep Quality on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sleep has important effects on physical and mental health, and sleep disorders are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration or sleep quality and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The FACTS (FAmily CohorT Study in primary care) was established to investigate the relations between familial environment and health which was conducted at 22 family medicine outpatient clinics in general hospitals. Total 563 patients without diabetes who received ≥1 year follow-up examination were included in the analysis. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to determine sleep quality, and a score of ≥5 was considered to define poor sleep quality. Patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents, having a fasting glucose level of >126 mg/dL, or diagnosed with diabetes by physicians were classified as having diabetes. The median follow-up period was 2.5 years. Poor sleep quality was associated with a higher risk of diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, physical activity, and family history of diabetes (relative risk=2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-6.78). As a risk factor for the development of diabetes, poor sleep quality may independently increase the incidence of diabetes. PMID:26839478

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing, psychiatric distress, and quality of life impairment in sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Barry; Melendrez, Dominic; Johnston, Lisa; Warner, Teddy D; Clark, James O; Pacheco, Mary; Pedersen, Beth; Koss, Mary; Hollifield, Michael; Schrader, Ron

    2002-07-01

    Using American Academy of Sleep Medicine research criteria, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was assessed in a pilot study of 187 sexual assault survivors with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Nightmares, sleep quality, distress, and quality of life were also assessed along with historical accounts of prior treatments for sleep complaints. Presumptive SDB diagnoses were established for 168 patients. Twenty-one of 168 underwent sleep testing, and all met objective SDB diagnostic criteria. There were no clinically meaningful differences in age, body-mass index, sleep quality, distress, or quality of life measures between 21 confirmed SDB cases and 147 suspected cases not tested. Compared with 19 women without SDB, 168 women with diagnosed or suspected SDB reported significantly worse nightmares, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and impaired quality of life. Despite suffering from sleep problems for an average of 20 years, which had not responded to repeated use of psychotropic medications or psychotherapy, few of these women had been referred to sleep specialists. SDB appears widespread among sexual assault survivors seeking help for nightmares. Research is needed to clarify the associations among SDB, distress, and physical and mental health impairment in trauma patients. PMID:12142845

  5. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  6. Genetic studies in narcolepsy, a disorder affecting REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Faraco, J; Lin, X; Li, R; Hinton, L; Lin, L; Mignot, E

    1999-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep including cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. It is known to be a complex disorder, with both genetic predisposition and environmental factors playing a role. In humans, susceptibility to narcolepsy is tightly associated with a specific HLA allele, DQB1*0602. In humans and canines, most cases are sporadic. In Doberman pinschers and Labrador retrievers, however, the disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive gene canarc-1 with full penetrance. This gene is not linked with the dog leukocyte antigen complex, but is tightly linked with a marker with high homology to the human mu-switch immunoglobulin gene. We have isolated several genomic clones encompassing the canarc-1 marker and the variable heavy chain immunoglobulin region in canines. These have been partially sequenced and have been mapped onto specific dog chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our results indicate that the mu-switch-like marker is not part of the canine immunoglobulin machinery. We are continuing to extend the genomic contig using a newly developed canine BAC library and attempting to identify the corresponding human region of conserved synteny. PMID:9987919

  7. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  8. Effectiveness of Acupressure in Promoting Sleep Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Hmwe, Nant Thin Thin; Subramaniam, Pathmawathi; Tan, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure in promoting sleep quality among adults. Study findings included in the review showed that acupressure significantly improved sleep quality compared with the control group, but no superior effect of acupressure was found compared with sham acupressure. PMID:27501211

  9. Bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and psychosocial functioning across the university years.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial functioning (intrapersonal adjustment, friendship quality, and academic achievement). We also assessed the role of gender as a possible moderator of the patterns of results. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) emerging adults enrolled at a mid-sized university in southern Ontario, Canada, who ranged in age from 17 to 25 years (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at the first assessment. Students completed surveys in the winter term for 3 consecutive years, beginning in their first year of university. Survey measures included demographics, sleep quality and duration, intrapersonal adjustment (depressive symptoms, stress, and self-esteem), friendship quality, and academic achievement. Results of path analyses indicated a significant bidirectional association between sleep quality and intrapersonal adjustment. We also found evidence for unidirectional associations, such that better friendship quality and higher academic achievement predicted better sleep quality over time. Overall, psychosocial functioning was more strongly associated with sleep quality relative to sleep duration. Our findings highlight the importance of a longitudinal and holistic approach in understanding the link between sleep and psychosocial functioning among emerging adults at university. PMID:23978302

  10. Effect of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life, Diabetes Self-Care Behavior, and Patient-Reported Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chasens, Eileen R; Luyster, Faith S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Poor sleep quality and sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome, are prevalent among people with type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that coexisting diabetes and sleep disturbances are associated with decreases in quality of life, diabetes self-care behaviors, and patient-reported outcomes. Additional research is required to determine the effect of treatment of sleep disorders on patient-centered outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26912961

  11. Night locomotor activity and quality of sleep in quetiapine-treated patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Todder, Doron; Caliskan, Serdal; Baune, Bernhard T

    2006-12-01

    This research assesses the development of the night-activity rhythm and quality of sleep during course of treatment among patients with unipolar or bipolar depression and receiving antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Twenty-seven patients with major depressive episode were included into a 4-week follow-up study and compared with 27 healthy controls. Motor activity was continuously measured with an electronic wrist device (actigraphy), sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and patients were clinically assessed with the Hamilton depression score. All patients received a standard antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Whereas we found a rapid and maintaining improvement of subjective sleep parameters during the 4-week study, we observed a rapid improvement of some objective sleep parameters (actigraph) within the first week, but no further significant change of objective sleep parameters during the rest of the study. Another main finding of this study is that changes of subjectively and objectively assessed sleep parameters do not necessarily reflect clinical improvement of depression during the same timeline. Despite partial clinical remission, objective sleep parameters still showed significantly different patterns compared with controls. This study is the first to examine the effect of quetiapine on locomotor activity alongside with sleep in depression. As the studied patients with depression showed improvement in subjective and objective sleep parameters, quetiapine may be a promising drug for patients with depression and insomnia. Further studies need to investigate in detail the timeline of clinical remission and alterations of objective and subjective sleep parameters. PMID:17110822

  12. An E-mail Delivered CBT for Sleep-Health Program for College Students: Effects on Sleep Quality and Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Trockel, Mickey; Manber, Rachel; Chang, Vickie; Thurston, Alexandra; Tailor, Craig Barr

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program (Refresh) to improve sleep, on sleep quality and symptoms of depression among first-year college students. Methods: Students in one residence hall (n = 48) participated in Refresh and students in another residence hall (n = 53) participated in a program of equal length (Breathe) designed to improve mood and increase resilience to stress. Both programs were delivered by e-mail in 8 weekly PDF files. Of these, 19 Refresh program participants and 15 Breathe program participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline (scores ≥ 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Participants completed the PSQI and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and post-intervention. Results: Among students with poor sleep (PSQI > 5) at baseline, participation in Refresh was associated with greater improvements in sleep quality and greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in Breathe. Among students with high sleep quality at baseline there was no difference in baseline to post-intervention changes in sleep (PSQI) or depressive symptom severity (CES-D). Conclusions: A cognitive behavioral sleep improvement program delivered by e-mail may be a cost effective way for students with poor sleep quality to improve their sleep and reduce depressive symptoms. An important remaining question is whether improving sleep will also reduce risk for future depression. Citation: Trockel M; Manber R; Chang V; Thurston A; Tailor CB. An e-mail delivered CBT for sleep-health program for college students: effects on sleep quality and depression symptoms. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):276-281. PMID:21677898

  13. Loss of Gnas Imprinting Differentially Affects REM/NREM Sleep and Cognition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Glenda; Ball, Simon T.; Maggi, Silvia; Colonna, Giovanni; Nieus, Thierry; Cero, Cheryl; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Peters, Jo; Tucci, Valter

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM–linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM–dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes. PMID:22589743

  14. Sleep Quality Estimation based on Chaos Analysis for Heart Rate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Wakuda, Yuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Arai, Fumihito; Kawaguchi, Mitsuo; Noda, Akiko

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to estimate sleep quality based on a heart rate variability using chaos analysis. Polysomnography(PSG) is a conventional and reliable system to diagnose sleep disorder and to evaluate its severity and therapeatic effect, by estimating sleep quality based on multiple channels. However, a recording process requires a lot of time and a controlled environment for measurement and then an analyzing process of PSG data is hard work because the huge sensed data should be manually evaluated. On the other hand, it is focused that some people make a mistake or cause an accident due to lost of regular sleep and of homeostasis these days. Therefore a simple home system for checking own sleep is required and then the estimation algorithm for the system should be developed. Therefore we propose an algorithm to estimate sleep quality based only on a heart rate variability which can be measured by a simple sensor such as a pressure sensor and an infrared sensor in an uncontrolled environment, by experimentally finding the relationship between chaos indices and sleep quality. The system including the estimation algorithm can inform patterns and quality of own daily sleep to a user, and then the user can previously arranges his life schedule, pays more attention based on sleep results and consult with a doctor.

  15. Resistance Training Improves Sleep Quality in Older Adults a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Lee T.; Williams, James S.; Shen, Chwan Li; O'Keefe, Kendra A.; Hale, Kimberly B.

    2005-01-01

    Older individuals, as a group, tend to experience difficulty sleeping compared to younger adults. Improving sleep in the elderly would have beneficial public health consequences. This study utilized 8 sedentary, older adults, 78.1 ± 3.1 years of age, who participated in a six-month long resistance training (RT) program. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to examine sleep quality, and a 1 repetition max test (1-RM) was used to determine upper (bench press) and lower (leg press) body strength. Total strength, defined as the sum of the bench press and leg press 1-RM results, was also reported. The training resulted in significant improvements (p < 0.05) in total (19%) and upper body (52%) strength and in sleep quality (38%). Future studies should examine the effects of strength gain/loss and time-of-day training on sleep quality. Key PointsCompromised sleep and deterioration of skeletal muscle mass and function are commonly found among the aged.Results show that RT led to improvements in upper and total body strength in older participants who trained three times per week in the morning.The resistance training led to improvements in sleep as measured by a self-report sleep questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.The small sample size used, lack of control group, and the fact that the participants on average were characterized as “good ”sleepers at the study onset, necessitates that further investigation occur.We suggest that further research is required to explore the effects of RT performed at different times of the day as well as to determine the relationship between sleep gains or losses upon changes in sleep quality. PMID:24453540

  16. Poor sleep quality as a risk factor for lapse following a cannabis quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Harris, Alex H; Stickle, Timothy R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-04-01

    Treatments for cannabis dependence are associated with high rates of lapse/relapse, underscoring the importance of identifying malleable risk factors that are associated with quit failure. Whereas research has demonstrated that poor sleep quality following cannabis discontinuation is related to subsequent use, there has yet to be an examination of whether poor sleep quality prior to a quit attempt results in a similar pattern of lapse. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of pre-quit sleep quality on early lapse to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, among 55 cannabis dependent military veterans. Results indicated that participants who experienced poor pre-quit sleep quality had greater risk for lapse within the first 2 days (out of 7) following their quit attempt. Findings are discussed in terms of improving treatments for individuals who report poor sleep quality prior to a cannabis quit attempt. PMID:23098380

  17. Subjective Sleep Quality in Women With Divorce Histories: The Role of Intimate Partner Victimization.

    PubMed

    Newton, Tamara L; Burns, Vicki Ellison; Miller, James J; Fernandez-Botran, G Rafael

    2016-05-01

    A marital status of divorced or separated, as opposed to married, predicts increased risk of health problems, but not for all persons. Focusing on one established health risk that has been linked with divorce-poor subjective sleep quality-the present cross-sectional study examined whether a history of physical intimate partner victimization (IPV) helps identify divorced women at potentially greater risk of health problems. Community midlife women with divorce histories, all of whom were free of current IPV, reported on their past month sleep quality and lifetime IPV. The predicted odds of poor sleep quality were significantly greater for women with, versus without, IPV histories. This held after adjusting for socioemotional, medical, or sociodemographic risks. A dose-response relationship between IPV chronicity and poor quality sleep was observed. IPV history may help identify divorced women at increased risk of poor quality sleep and, more broadly, poor health. PMID:25586916

  18. Lavender Fragrance Essential Oil and the Quality of Sleep in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz Afshar, Mahnaz; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Bekhradi, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Mokhtari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor and delivery is a stressful stage for mothers. During these periods, sleep-related disorders have been reported. The problems of inadequate sleep include decrease in concentration, judgment, difficulty in performing daily activities, and an increase in irritability. Even the effects of moderate sleep loss on life and health quality can be similar to sleep deprivation. some research aggravated by aromatherapy on sleep quality in different periods of life so might be useful for the improve of sleep quality in postpartum women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in postpartum women. The sample was recruited from medical health centers of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with the control group. A total of 158 mothers in postpartum period (with certain inclusion criteria) were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of control and intervention. Lavender fragrance (made by Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Co.) was used by participants in the intervention group nightly before sleeping. The fragrance was dropped on cotton balls, which were placed on a cylindrical container at mothers’ disposal. Keeping the container at a projected distance of 20 cm, the participants inhaled 10 deep breaths and then the container was placed beside their pillow until morning. This procedure was done 4 times a week for 8 weeks. For the control group, the same intervention was done with the placebo. The instrument for collecting data was Pittsburgh sleep quality index, which was completed at the baseline, fourth, and eighth weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t test and repeated measures analysis of variance calculated by SPSS16. Results: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences between mothers in two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks follow up, a significant improvement appeared in

  19. Sleep quality among dental students and its association with academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Elagra, Marwa I.; Rayyan, Mohammad R.; Alnemer, Omaima A.; Alshehri, Maram S.; Alsaffar, Noor S.; Al-Habib, Rabab S.; Almosajen, Zainab A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the sleep patterns of dental students from different academic levels and to determine the effect of sleep patterns on the academic performance of students. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was designed and distributed among 1160 students from clinical and non-clinical levels to measure the sleep-related variables and academic performance. The questionnaire included questions on demographics, sleep habits, sleep quality index (PSQI), and grade point averages (GPAs). Data were analyzed with standard statistical software (SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 22, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The response rate was 62%. Sixty five percent of the students described their sleep as good or very good, whereas 35% described their sleep as bad or very bad. The mean number of hours of sleep per night for all students was 5.85 ± 1.853 hours. The GPA had a significant negative correlation with PSQI scores. The clinical group showed a stronger negative correlation (P = −0.351) than the nonclinical group (P = −0.134). Conclusion: It can be concluded that dental students tend to have poor sleep quality, which is unknown to them. Poor sleep quality was associated with lower academic performance, especially in clinical years. PMID:27583216

  20. Good Quality Sleep is Associated with Better Academic Performance among University Students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the association of sleep quality with academic performance among University students in Ethiopia. Methods this cross sectional study of 2173 college students (471 female and 1672 male) was conducted in two Universities in Ethiopia. Students were selected in to the study using a multistage sampling procedure and data were collected through a self administered questionnaire. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburgh sleep quality index and academic performance was based on self reported cumulative grade point average. The Student ‘t’ test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used to evaluate associations. Results We found that students with better sleep quality score achieved better on their academic performance (P-value =0.001) while sleep duration was not associated with academic performance in the final model. Conclusion Our study underscores the importance of sleep quality on better academic performance. Future studies need to identify the possible factors which influence sleep quality other than the academic environment repeatedly reported by other literature. It is imperative to design and implement appropriate interventions to improve sleep quality in light of the current body of evidence to enhance academic success in the study setting. PMID:23928956

  1. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C) group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD) group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C) or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG), VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum. PMID:21034496

  2. How the circadian rhythm affects sleep, wakefulness, and overall health: background for understanding shift work disorder.

    PubMed

    Krystal, Andrew D

    2012-02-01

    It is estimated that 15 to 25% of the U.S. labor force works night, evening, or rotating shifts. These non-traditional schedules can affect the circadian rhythm, a self-sustained rhythm of biological processes that plays an important role in modulating sleep/wake function, resulting in circadian rhythm sleep disorder, shift work type, usually referred to as shift work disorder. The disorder consists of a constant or recurrent pattern of sleep interruption that results in insomnia when sleep is needed and excessive sleepiness during waking hours. Clinicians need more information about the role of the circadian rhythm in human functioning as well as the pathophysiology, prevalence, and consequences of shift work disorder, so that they can recognize and diagnose this problem in clinical practice. PMID:22401482

  3. Chronotype and sleep quality as a subphenotype in association studies of clock genes in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Pawlak, Joanna; Wiłkość, Monika; Miechowicz, Izabela; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Ciarkowska, Wanda; Zaremba, Dorota; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Genetic background and clinical picture of mood disorders (MD) are complex and may depend on many genes and their potential interactions as well as environmental factors. Therefore, clinical variations, or endophenotypes, were suggested for association studies. The aim of the study was to investigate association between the chronotype (CH) and quality of sleep characteristics with polymorphisms CLOCK, ARNTL, TIMELESS and PER3 genes in MD. We included a total sample of 111 inpatients and 126 healthy controls. To assess CH we applied Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Additionally, we defined the quality and patterns of sleep using The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). We applied Kruskal-Wallis test to determine associations. The main positive findings refer to associations between selected polymorphisms and: 1) chronotype with the ARNTL gene (rs11824092 and rs1481892) and the CLOCK (rs1268271) 2) sleep duration with the CLOCK gene (rs3805148) and the TIM gene (rs2291739) 3) daytime dysfunction with the PER3 gene (rs228727, rs228642, rs10864315) 4) subjective sleep quality with the ARNTL gene (rs11824092, rs1982350) 5) sleep disturbances with the ARNTL gene (rs11600996) We also found the significant epistatic interactions between polymorphism of the PER3 gene (rs2640909) & the CLOCK gene (rs11932595) and following sleep quality variables: sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality. The present study suggests a putative role of the analyzed clock genes polymorphisms in chronotype in the control group and in sleep quality disturbances in the course of MD. The results indicate that PSQI variables can be used to refine phenotype in association studies of clock genes in MD. PMID:27102916

  4. Associations between Sleep Quality and Different Measures of Obesity in Saudi Adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Hala Hazam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence's of overweight and obesity have grown to epidemic proportions in Saudi Arabia the past few years, epidemiological studies have suggested that sleeping for less than seven hours/day is associated with increased morbidity in terms of the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the association between sleep quality and different measures of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage) and some lifestyle habits among female university students. A cross-sectional study targeted a convenience sample of 233 undergraduate female students at King Faisal University (KFU) in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that poor sleep quality was common in students (54%) with mean total sleeping hours of five hours/day. Poor sleep quality was associated with overweight/obese (OR 4.210, P=0.000), at risk waist circumference (OR 2.005, P=0.009), moderate/high body fat percentage (OR 1.058, P=0.025), low physical active (OR 2.045, P=0.037), and skipping breakfast (OR 2.710, P=0.003). In conclusion, the present study highlights the prevalence of poor sleep quality among female university students in Saudi Arabia, and they support previously published studies indicating that poor sleep quality was associ-ated with different measures of obesity and some of lifestyle habits. Sleep quality is an untraditional approach that might be used to prevent or treat overweight and obesity. PMID:27530573

  5. Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, P P; Say, Y H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

  6. Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Inflammation Predict Preterm Birth: Heightened Risk among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Lisa M.; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Christian, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Poor sleep promotes inflammation. In turn, inflammation is a causal mechanism in term as well as preterm parturition. In the United States, a persistent racial disparity in preterm birth exists, with African Americans showing ∼1.5 times greater risk. This study examined associations among sleep quality, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and length of gestation in a racially diverse sample of 138 pregnant women. Design: Observational. Measurements: Women completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other psychosocial and behavioral measures during midpregnancy. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by high-sensitivity assays. Birth outcomes were determined via medical record review. Results: Among African American women (n = 79), shorter gestation was predicted by poorer overall sleep (rs = −0.35, P = 0.002) as well the following PSQI subscales: subjective sleep quality (rs = −0.34, P = 0.002), sleep latency (rs = −0.27, P = 0.02), and sleep efficiency (rs = −0.27, P = 0.02). African American women with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had 10.2 times the odds of preterm birth compared to those with good sleep quality. In contrast, among European American women (n = 53), gestational length was not significantly predicted by sleep quality (Ps > 0.12). Bootstrapping analyses showed that, among African Americans, IL-8 significantly mediated the association between sleep quality and length of gestation (indirect effect estimate −0.029; 95% confidence interval −0.06, −0.002). Conclusions: The data provide novel evidence that African American women exhibit greater inflammation in response to sleep disturbance than European American women and these effects correspond with length of gestation. Racial differences in susceptibility to sleep induced immune dysregulation may contribute to marked racial disparities in preterm birth. Citation: Blair LM, Porter K, Leblebicioglu B

  7. The effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation on the consolidation and affective evaluation of emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Christian D; Pulst, Julika; Krause, Fanny; Elsner, Marike; Baving, Lioba; Pedersen, Anya; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Emotion boosts the consolidation of events in the declarative memory system. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to foster the memory consolidation of emotional events. On the other hand, REM sleep is assumed to reduce the emotional tone of the memory. Here, we investigated the effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation, SWS deprivation, or wake on the affective evaluation and consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures. Prior to an 9-h retention interval, sixty-two healthy participants (23.5 ± 2.5 years, 32 female, 30 male) learned and rated their affect to 80 neutral and 80 emotionally negative pictures. Despite rigorous deprivation of REM sleep or SWS, the residual sleep fostered the consolidation of neutral and negative pictures. Furthermore, emotional arousal helped to memorize the pictures. The better consolidation of negative pictures compared to neutral ones was most pronounced in the SWS-deprived group where a normal amount of REM sleep was present. This emotional memory bias correlated with REM sleep only in the SWS-deprived group. Furthermore, emotional arousal to the pictures decreased over time, but neither sleep nor wake had any differential effect. Neither the comparison of the affective ratings (arousal, valence) during encoding and recognition, nor the affective ratings of the recognized targets and rejected distractors supported the hypothesis that REM sleep dampens the emotional reaction to remembered stimuli. The data suggest that REM sleep fosters the consolidation of emotional memories but has no effect on the affective evaluation of the remembered contents. PMID:25708092

  8. Changes in sleep architecture and quality in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients and relationship to psychological dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyun; Zhou, Jianguang; Yang, Xuedong; Lv, Jiao; Shi, Yunxing; Zeng, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined changes in sleep quality and architecture in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and the impacts of sleep disruption on patient physical and psychological health. Methods: Ninety-eight MHE patients were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and the Pittsburg sleep quality inventory (PSQI). In addition, patients completed the SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 to examine the relationship between sleep quality and psychological health. Results: Mean relative durations of Stage 1 and Stage 2, sleep latency, microarousal frequency, and total sleep time (TST) were all lower in MHE patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.05 for all). Similarly, SWS and REM stage durations, REM latency, sleep maintenance rate, and sleep efficiency were lower than controls (P<0.01 for all). Mean PSQI scores were lower in MHE patients. Total SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 scores, as well as all SCL-90 subscores, were significantly higher in the MHE group (P<0.05), indicating significant psychological dysfunction. Longer SWS, longer REM, and lower microarousal frequency were associated with improved sleep quality (P<0.05), while shorter SWS and REM led to dyssomnia and daytime functional disturbance (P<0.05, P<0.01). Longer REM latency and higher microarousal frequency were associated with higher PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01), while longer SWS, longer REM, and higher sleep maintenance rate were associated with lower PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01). Finally, total PSQI score and sleep efficiency subscore were positively correlated with total SCL-90 and most SCL-90 subscores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MHE patients suffer from multiple subjective dyssomnias and changes in sleep architecture that are strongly correlated with psychological dysfunction. PMID:26885103

  9. Perceived sleep quality is associated with depression in a Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ki Jung; Son, Sang Joon; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Lee, Soo Jin; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Hyun Chung; Koh, Sang Hyun; Roh, Hyun Woong; Park, Mi Ae; Kim, Jin Ju; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived sleep quality and depression using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cole's model to materialize the concept of perceived sleep quality in the non-cognitively impaired elderly. Older adults aged 60+ were recruited from the baseline study of Suwon Project (SP) between 2009 and 2011 (n=2040). Perceived sleep quality was measured using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K), and depression was accessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K). We excluded the cognitively impaired elderly using the Korean version-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) score less than or equal to 17. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression related to PSQI-K components, poor perceived sleep quality, including poor subjective sleep quality (Odds ratio (OR)=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.61), longer sleep latency (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.13-1.55) and the frequent use of sleeping medication (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.10-1.53) were significantly associated with depression after adjusting for age, sex, education, living status, current smoking and current alcohol drinking, the number of comorbidity and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). PSQI-K global score also had greater odds of reporting depression (OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.07-1.16). These results suggested that poor perceived sleep quality was associated with a greater level of depression in the elderly. PMID:24852666

  10. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    PubMed

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. PMID:25933506

  11. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  12. Quality of life, sleep, mood and alcohol consumption: a complex interaction.

    PubMed

    Foster, J H; Peters, T J; Kind, P

    2002-01-01

    Socio-demographic information was collected from 52 (45 men, seven women) currently drinking moderately dependent alcohol misusers attending an outpatient clinic in South London for medical assessment and treatment. Assessments at baseline and 12-week follow-up included: (i) Severity of Alcohol Dependence (SADQ) (baseline only), (ii) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (iii) Nottingham Health Profile sleep subscale (NHP) and (iv) the EuroQoL (EQ-5D). The main outcome measure was drinking at a "sensible level" at 12-week follow-up as recommended by the Royal College of Psychiatrists. There were significant interactions between sleeping badly, lying awake at night and HADS depression scores. The Health-related Quality of Life (HrQoL) of this group was poor compared to general population norms. Lower EQ-5D index scores were associated with poorer educational attainment and lower EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) patient ratings with greater baseline alcohol consumption. Clinician ratings on the EQ-5D VAS were consistently lower than the patient ratings. The correlations between patient self-assessment and clinician ratings (EQ-5D VAS) were not significant. The forty-seven subjects (90%) who were successfully followed-up showed a significant reduction in the total amount of alcohol consumed. Ten (21%) subjects returned to sensible drinking levels at 12 weeks but there was not a corresponding improvement in HrQoL, sleep, or affective status scores or biochemical measures in these subjects. PMID:11900623

  13. [Applying back massage protocol to promote an intensive care unit patient's quality of sleep].

    PubMed

    Fang, Chiu-Shu; Liu, Chin-Fang

    2006-12-01

    This case report concerns the nursing experience of applying back massage to a patient in an intensive care unit (ICU) from 10 May, 2005, in order to improve the patient's quality of sleep. In order to collect information about his quality of sleep of the patient, the author used observation, interview and a Richards-Campbell sleep questionnaire (RCSQ). It was observed that, before massage, the patient's sleep quality was poor, which wa why the protocol with back massage was proposed. The results after back massage was applied that heart beat, respiration. oxygen saturation and blood pressure were not significantly improved. This was probably related to the patient's worry about having his endotracheal tube removed. The patient's perception of sleep, indeed, was obviously improved, a result which may have been related to his/her perception of comfort and care from the nurse. Applying back massage to an ICU patient may therefore be regarded as helpful improving the patient's sleep quality. It is hoped that this case report may serve as a positive reference for health care providers so that it may help patients to recover fully through rest and sleep. Since this report concerned only one patient, however, to understand the real outcome of how back massage could improve the quality of sleep of ICU patients, research is planned on the use of back massage protocol on a large number os such patients. PMID:17160874

  14. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  15. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  16. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  17. Sleep Deprivation Accelerates Delay-Related Loss of Visual Short-Term Memories Without Affecting Precision

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. Design: For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Interventions: Approximately 24 hours of total SD. Measurements and Results: SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Conclusions: Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact. Citation: Wee N; Asplund CL; Chee MWL. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision. SLEEP 2013;36(6):849-856. PMID:23729928

  18. Bullying as a Risk for Poor Sleep Quality among High School Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ci-yong; Deng, Jian-xiong; Huang, Jing-hui; Huang, Guo-liang; Deng, Xue-qing; Gao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality. Results Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66%) reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91%) were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68%) were bullies and 784 (3.28%) were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others) was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32), bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86) or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03) were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents. PMID:25811479

  19. A functional genetic variation of adenosine deaminase affects the duration and intensity of deep sleep in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rétey, J. V.; Adam, M.; Honegger, E.; Khatami, R.; Luhmann, U. F. O.; Jung, H. H.; Berger, W.; Landolt, H.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Slow, rhythmic oscillations (<5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram may be a sign of synaptic plasticity occurring during sleep. The oscillations, referred to as slow-wave activity (SWA), reflect sleep need and sleep intensity. The amount of SWA is homeostatically regulated. It is enhanced after sleep loss and declines during sleep. Animal studies suggested that sleep need is genetically controlled, yet the physiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show in humans that a genetic variant of adenosine deaminase, which is associated with the reduced metabolism of adenosine to inosine, specifically enhances deep sleep and SWA during sleep. In contrast, a distinct polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor gene, which was associated with interindividual differences in anxiety symptoms after caffeine intake in healthy volunteers, affects the electroencephalogram during sleep and wakefulness in a non-state-specific manner. Our findings indicate a direct role of adenosine in human sleep homeostasis. Moreover, our data suggest that genetic variability in the adenosinergic system contributes to the interindividual variability in brain electrical activity during sleep and wakefulness. PMID:16221767

  20. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  1. Brief Report: Influence of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep…

  2. Bidirectional Associations between Sleep (Quality and Duration) and Psychosocial Functioning across the University Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial…

  3. "It's Not All About My Baby's Sleep": A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Low-Income African American Mothers' Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Danielle N; Mindell, Jodi A; Reyes, Naomi R; Hart, Chantelle N; Herring, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Low-income African American mothers are at particular risk for poor postpartum sleep. This study sought to understand facilitators and barriers that exist to getting a good night's sleep among these high-risk mothers. Semistructured interviews with 18 low-income African Americans (3-6 months postpartum) were conducted. Most mothers described their own sleep quality to be poor, despite the fact that their babies' sleep improved substantially from the newborn period. Mothers kept themselves awake due to their own internal worry and anxiety, along with external factors that were largely independent of babies' sleep, including work and school commitments and the home environment. For the few mothers with good sleep quality, time management and family support were strong facilitators. Findings lay the groundwork for sleep improvement interventions. PMID:26488388

  4. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  5. Integrating Safe Sleep Practices into a Pediatric Hospital: Outcomes of a Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Angela D; Sisterhen, Laura L; Mallard, Ellen; Borecky, Betsy; Schmid, Barbara; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Luo, Chunqiao

    2016-01-01

    A quality improvement project for implementing safe sleep practices (SSP) was conducted at a large, U.S children's hospital. The intervention involved education of staff and standardization of infant sleep practices utilizing a multifaceted approach. Staff surveys and environmental audits were conducted pre- and post-intervention. Safe Sleep Environment (SSE) audits showed an improvement from 23% to 34% (p<0.001) post-intervention. Staff confidence to provide education to caregivers on SSP showed a significant increase. Results from this project demonstrate a successful approach to implement SSP in the hospital setting. Infant safe sleep practices have the potential to reduce infant mortality. PMID:26643582

  6. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  7. Daily Sleep Quality and Mood as Predictors of Pain in Children with Juvenile Polyarticular Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Maggie H.; Gil, Karen M.; Schanberg, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children with arthritis experience frequent pain, but the predictors of daily pain variations are largely unidentified. The goal of this study was to examine sleep quality as a predictor of pain in children with arthritis and to determine whether mood moderates this relationship. Methods In this prospective, longitudinal study children with polyarticular arthritis (n = 51, ages 8–16 years) tracked daily symptoms including sleep quality over 2 months. Self-reported daily pain intensity, as indicated on a visual analog scale, was used as the primary outcome measure in multilevel models. Results Poorer sleep quality was associated with higher next-day pain ratings (p < .01). Mood moderated this relationship such that as positive mood increased, the relationship between poor sleep quality and high pain weakened (p < .01). Daily pain did not predict nightly sleep quality (p > .05). Conclusions Sleep quality is an important predictor of pain in children with arthritis. These findings add to the growing body of literature on the utility of daily diaries for analyzing patterns of pain, sleep, and mood in children with chronic painful conditions. PMID:21842997

  8. The Effects of Mind-Body Interventions on Sleep Quality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Rachel; Wahbeh, Helané; Chamine, Irina; Yu, Jun; Hutchison, Kimberly; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives. To evaluate the effect of mind-body interventions (MBI) on sleep. Methods. We reviewed randomized controlled MBI trials on adults (through 2013) with at least one sleep outcome measure. We searched eleven electronic databases and excluded studies on interventions not considering mind-body medicine. Studies were categorized by type of MBI, whether sleep was primary or secondary outcome measure and outcome type. Results. 1323 abstracts were screened, and 112 papers were included. Overall, 67 (60%) of studies reported a beneficial effect on at least one sleep outcome measure. Of the most common interventions, 13/23 studies using meditation, 21/30 using movement MBI, and 14/25 using relaxation reported at least some improvements in sleep. There were clear risks of bias for many studies reviewed, especially when sleep was not the main focus. Conclusions. MBI should be considered as a treatment option for patients with sleep disturbance. The benefit of MBI needs to be better documented with objective outcomes as well as the mechanism of benefit elucidated. There is some evidence that MBI have a positive benefit on sleep quality. Since sleep has a direct impact on many other health outcomes, future MBI trials should consider including sleep outcome measurements. PMID:26161128

  9. Relationships of eating competence, sleep behaviors and quality, and overweight status among college students.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; White, Adrienne; Horacek, Tanya; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between eating competence (intra-individual approach to eating and food-related attitudes and behaviors that entrain positive bio-psychosocial outcomes) and sleep behaviors and quality in college students, a high-risk group for poor eating habits, weight gain, and inadequate sleep. Thus, data from full-time college students (N=1035; 82% White; 61% female) aged 18-24 years from 5 U.S. universities were obtained from online questionnaires (eating competence (ecSI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), physical activity, demographics) and physical assessments (measured height, weight), to explore sleep behavior and quality between eating-competent (EC; ecSI score≥32) and non-EC groups (ecSI<32). Generalized linear models controlling for gender, body mass index, and physical activity were utilized. A higher proportion of those in the EC group reported adequate sleep quality (67% vs. 57% in non-EC, p=0.001), sleep duration of ≥7 h nightly (58% vs. 50% in non-EC, p=0.007), and infrequent daytime dysfunction (72% vs. 65% in non-EC, p=0.02). When ecSI scores were grouped as tertiles, those in the highest tertile reported a higher prevalence of no sleep disturbances (7% vs. 2% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.006) and lower prevalence of sleep medication use (10% vs. 15% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.04). Results suggest that competent eaters are more likely to have better overall sleep quality and fewer sleep-related issuescompared to less competent eaters. These findings may inform future longitudinal studies, and health promotion and weight management interventions for young adults. PMID:26164670

  10. Sleep in Advanced Age: A Comparison of Mexican American and Anglo American Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, George

    1986-01-01

    A sleep questionnaire was administered to 80 Mexican American and 80 Anglo elderly, ages 60 to 96. The Mexican American sample reported poorer quality and longer latency of sleep, greater negative affect concerning dreams, longer sleep duration, less dream recall, more regular sleep, and more positive valence towards sleep. (JHZ)

  11. Effect of Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmandi, Mohammad; Neiseh, Fatemeh; SadeghiShermeh, Mehdi; Ebadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by purposeful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. Results: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 ± 1.88) from before intervention (10.46 ± 4.09) (p < 0.000). In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 ± 1.88) was significant different from the control group (8.43 ± 1.97) (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alternative method of treatment instead of drug therapy. PMID:25276688

  12. Associations between Subjective Sleep Quality and Brain Volume in Gulf War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Linda L.; Mohlenhoff, Brian S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. Participants: One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P < 0.001) and was higher in veterans with Gulf War Illness, trauma exposure, and those using psychotropic medication (P ≤ 0.03). After adjusting for these comorbid variables, age, intracranial volume, and multiple comparisons, global PSQI was inversely associated with total cortical and frontal gray matter volume (adjusted P ≤ 0.03). Within the frontal lobe, total PSQI was inversely associated with the superior and middle frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and frontal pole volumes (adjusted P ≤ 0.02). Examination of the 3-factor structure of the PSQI revealed that the associations were driven by perceived sleep quality. Conclusions: Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes. Citation: Chao LL; Mohlenhoff BS; Weiner MW; Neylan TC. Associations between subjective sleep quality and brain volume in Gulf War Veterans

  13. Temporomandibular disorder and anxiety, quality of sleep, and quality of life in nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Larissa Kattiney; Almeida, Guilherme de Araújo; Lelis, Éverton Ribeiro; Tavares, Marcelo; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and anxiety, quality of sleep, and quality of life in nursing professionals at the Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia--HCU-UFU (Medical University Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia), four questionnaires were given to nursing professionals. The questionnaires were completed by 160 of these professionals. The Fonseca's questionnaire was used to evaluate the presence and severity of TMD, the IDATE was used to evaluate anxiety, the SAQ was used to evaluate quality of sleep, and the SF-36 was used to evaluate quality of life. Forty-one nurses (25.6%) reported having no TMD (Fonseca's questionnaire score ≤ 15), 66 (41.3%) had mild TMD (Fonseca's questionnaire score 20-40), 39 (24.4%) had moderate TMD (Fonseca's questionnaire score 45-65), and 14 (8.8%) had severe TMD (Fonseca's questionnaire score ≥ 70). According to Fonseca's questionnaire, the presence of TMD was associated with trait anxiety, but the TMD severity was associated with state anxiety classification (mild, moderate, severe). The SAQ score differed significantly from Fonseca classification. The Fonseca's questionnaire score correlated negatively with the score of each dimension of the SF-36 (r = -0.419 to -0.183). We conclude that TMD is common among nursing professionals; its presence was associated with trait anxiety, and its severity was associated with state anxiety. Hence, the presence of TMD may reduce quality of sleep and quality of life. PMID:26039910

  14. The association of sleep quality with dry eye disease: the Osaka study

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of dry eye disease with sleep quality. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the employees, mainly young and middle-aged Japanese office workers, who used visual display technology, at a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range =26–64 years). The participants were classified according to the Japanese dry eye diagnosis criteria by dry eye examination results including the Schirmer test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining, tear film break-up time, and symptom questionnaire into three groups as follows: definite dry eye disease, probable dry eye disease, and no dry eye disease. To determine sleep quality, Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (global score) was implemented. The global score (range =0–21) was calculated by summing seven sleep variable scores (scale, 0–3); scores ≥5.5 indicated poor sleep. Results The total mean global score was 5.1±2.3 (completed N=383); 45% of the dry eye disease participants reported having poor sleep quality, while 34% of the no dry eye disease participants did so, with a significant difference found in the global score (P=0.002). Furthermore, a statistically significant association was observed between the global score and dry eye disease (P=0.005). Conclusion Poor sleep quality is associated with dry eye disease, especially with dry eye symptoms. PMID:27330271

  15. Surveying the effects of an exercise program on the sleep quality of elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saba; Soroush, Ali; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Karimi, Maryam; Jamehshorani, Saeid; Akhgar, Afshin; Fakhri, Mahmoud; Abdi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is a stage of life featured with many physiological and mental changes. The Iranian population is aging, and one of the problems that the elderly are faced with is sleep disorders. The present study is an attempt to examine the effectiveness of an exercise program on the sleep quality of the elderly. Methods A semi-experimental study was carried out on the elderly males referred to the Shahid Yari Elderly Center, Kermanshah, Iran. The sample group comprised of 46 participants: 23 in the experimental group and 23 in the control group. The study was carried out for a period of 2 months and follow-up was conducted every week. To improve the quality of sleep of the participants, a four-stage exercise program was implemented and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results The results of a Mann–Whitney test showed that the quality of sleep of the majority in the experimental group improved compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, a Wilcoxon test showed improvement of the Petersburg’s sleep quality index based on subelements and the results of a total score of sleep in the experimental group after the intervention. Conclusion The study showed effectiveness of scheduled exercising on the quality of sleep of the elderly. It is recommended, therefore, to add an exercise program to the daily program of the elderly. PMID:27555754

  16. Sleep Quality and Sleep Patterns in Relation to Consumption of Energy Drinks, Caffeinated Beverages and Other Stimulants among Thai College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality; and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Results Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1%. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0%). Stimulant use (OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-1.98) also had statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health. PMID:23239460

  17. During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Clough, Peter J; Lemola, Sakari; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between mental toughness, subjective sleep, physical activity, and quality of life during early and mid-adolescence. A total of 1475 participants (mean age = 13.4 years; range: 11-16 years) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires related to mental toughness, physical activity, subjective sleep, and quality of life. Greater mental toughness was related to more favorable quality of life and increased subjective sleep. Mental toughness was not related to physical activity. Increased mental toughness, favorable quality of life, and sleep are related during early and mid-adolescence. Against our expectations, mental toughness was not related to physical activity. PMID:25060987

  18. Pain affects depression through anxiety, fatigue and sleep in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L.; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Ehde, Dawn M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Kraft, George H.; Jones, Salene M.; Johnson, Kurt L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over a quarter million individuals in the US have Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Chronic pain and depression are disproportionately high in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic pain and depression in MS and to examine potentially meditational effects of anxiety, fatigue and sleep. Methods Cross-sectional data from self-reported instruments measuring multiple symptoms and quality of life indicators were used in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to model direct and indirect effects of pain on depression in a sample of 1245 community dwelling individuals with MS. Pain interference, depression, fatigue and sleep disturbance were modeled as latent variables with 2 to 3 indicators each. The model controlled for age, sex, disability status (EDSS) and social support. Results A model with indirect effects of pain on depression had adequate fit and accounted for nearly 80% of the variance in depression. The effects of chronic pain on depression were almost completely mediated by fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Higher pain was associated with greater fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, which in turn were associated with higher levels of depression. The largest mediating effect was through fatigue. Additional analyses excluded items with common content and suggested that the meditational effects observed were not attributable to content overlap across scales. Conclusions Individuals living with MS who report high levels of chronic pain and depressive symptoms may benefit from treatment approaches that can address sleep, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:25602361

  19. Association Between Exercise Participation and Quality of Sleep and Life Among University Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Pei; Shih, Kuo-Sen; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Chin-Ming; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional survey study examined exercise, sleep quality, and quality of life (QOL) in 1230 Taiwanese university students. Compared with women, men had higher body mass index (BMI) (22.3 ± 4.1 vs 20.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)), higher exercise frequency (2.6 ± 1.7 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 d/wk), better sleep quality (global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 6.0 ± 2.8 vs 6.5 ± 2.7), better physical QOL (physical component summary 52.7 ± 6.2 vs 51.7 ± 6.6), and higher reporting of good self-perceived health (62.2% vs 43.3%) (P <01). However, gender differences were nonsignificant after multivariable adjustment. Exercise frequency, sleep quality, and QOL were significantly intercorrelated. After multivariable adjustment, self-perceived health and satisfaction with exercise participation predicted quality of sleep and QOL (P <01). Exercise frequency was positively correlated (P =012), and exercise intensity was negatively associated (P <001) with physical QOL. In conclusion, those who regularly exercised (at least 1 d/wk or 2.5 h/wk) had better QOL. Students with better self-perceived health or satisfaction with exercise participation also had better quality of sleep and better QOL. PMID:27130632

  20. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  1. Delirium transitions in the medical ICU: exploring the role of sleep quality and other factors

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; King, Lauren M.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rowden, Annette M.; Collop, Nancy A.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disrupted sleep is a common and potentially modifiable risk factor for delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU). As part of a quality improvement (QI) project to promote sleep in the ICU, we examined the association of perceived sleep quality ratings and other patient and ICU risk factors with daily transition to delirium. Design Secondary analysis of prospective observational study. Setting Medical ICU (MICU) over a 201-day period. Patients 223 patients with ≥1 night in the MICU in between two consecutive days of delirium assessment. Interventions None Measurements Daily perceived sleep quality ratings were measured using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Delirium was measured twice-daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Other covariates evaluated included: age, sex, race, ICU admission diagnosis, nighttime mechanical ventilation status, prior day’s delirium status, and daily sedation using benzodiazepines and opioids, via both bolus and continuous infusion. Main Results Perceived sleep quality was similar in patients who were ever versus never delirious in the ICU (median [IQR] ratings 58 [35-76] vs. 57 [33-78], respectively p=0.71), and perceived sleep quality was unrelated to delirium transition (adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). In mechanically ventilated patients, receipt of a continuous benzodiazepine and/or opioid infusion was associated with delirium transition (adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 2.19-7.38, p<0.001) and patients reporting use of pharmacological sleep aids at home were less likely to transition to delirium (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.80, p=0.01). Conclusions We found no association between daily perceived sleep quality ratings and transition to delirium. Infusion of benzodiazepine and/or opioid medications was strongly associated with transition to delirium in the ICU in mechanically ventilated patients and is an important, modifiable risk factor for delirium in critically ill

  2. Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic heart failure in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mina; Mehrdad, Neda; Nikpour, Soghra; Haghani, Hamid; Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Sharifi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common among patients with chronic heart failure (HF), and it can have a significant effect on patients’ daily activities as well as their health. The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and its predictors in Iranian patients with chronic HF. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 patients with HF in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to November 2009. These patients completed a demographic questionnaire, and their sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and Linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients (n = 158) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5). The range of global PSQI scores was 3–20. Also, a significant relationship was found between PSQI scores and patients’ age (p<0.004), gender (p< 0.042), educational level (p< 0.001), occupational status (p< 0.038), number of hospitalizations (p< 0.005), type of referral (p< 0.001), non-cardiac diseases (p< 0.001), diuretic use (p< 0.021) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p< 0.015). Three predictors were identified using regression analyses with stepwise methods, and included age, type of referral and educational level. Conclusion: The high prevalence of poor sleep quality highlighted the importance of sleep disorders in HF patients. There are many factors associated with sleep quality and sleep disorders that health providers should recognize for improved and effective management. PMID:25695007

  3. Sleep and Quality of Life in Urban Poverty: The Effect of a Slum Housing Upgrading Program

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design: Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting: Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants: A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions: Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions: A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity. Citation: Simonelli G; Leanza Y; Boilard A; Hyland M; Augustinavicius JL; Cardinali DP; Vallières A; Pérez-Chada D; Vigo DE. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty

  4. The Effect of Poor Sleep Quality on Mood Outcome Differs Between Men and Women: A Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Erika F.H.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Kamali, Masoud; Assari, Shervin; McInnis, Melvin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is bi-directionally related to mood de-stabilization in bipolar disorder (BD), and sleep quality differs in men and women. We aimed to determine whether perception of poor sleep quality would have a different effect on mood outcome in men versus women. Methods We assessed association between sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) at study intake and mood outcome over 2 years in subjects from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder (N=216; 29.6% males). The main outcome measure was the severity, variability, and frequency of mood episodes measured by self-report over 2 years of follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models stratified by sex examined the relationship between PSQI with mood outcomes, while age, stressful life events, mood state and neuroticism at baseline were controlled. Results In women, poor sleep quality at baseline predicted increased severity (B=0.28, p<0.001) and frequency of episodes (B=0.32, p<0.001) of depression, and poor sleep quality was a stronger predictor than baseline depression; poor sleep quality predicted increased severity (B=0.19, p<0.05) and variability (B=0.20, p<0.05) of mania, and frequency of mixed episodes (B=0.27, p<0.01). In men, baseline depression and neuroticism were stronger predictors of mood outcome compared to poor sleep quality. Limitations We measured perception of sleep quality, but not objective changes in sleep. Conclusions In a longitudinal study of BD, women reported poorer perceived sleep quality than men, and poor sleep quality predicted worse mood outcome in BD. Clinicians should be sensitive to addressing sleep complaints in women with BD early in treatment to improve outcome in BD. PMID:25885066

  5. Quality of sleep for hospitalized patients in Rasoul-Akram hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Makvandi, Alena; Pazouki, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbances have negative effects on medical conditions, mental health and cognitive performance. It was shown that about 60% of inpatients suffer from sleep problems. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between sleep quality and other factors in the inpatients of Rasoul-e-Akram hospital. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the hospitalized patients in twelve wards of Rasoul-e-Akram hospital during September 2012, were examined. Sleeping habits of 209 inpatients of different wards were assessed through the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire (PSQI). A self-designed 18- question questionnaire was conducted for all patients in order to assess their attitude to interior and atmosphere of wards. Content validity and test retest reliability were evaluated. The pain level was also measured by the visual analog scale (VAS) and scores analyzed by the statistical methods of frequency, percentage, chi-square and logistic regression. Results: The mean of the total scores in PSQI was 8.8±4.8 and 70.8% of the patients were 'poor sleepers' (global PSQI> 5). Age and gender had no effect on the PSQI total score, but the number of roommates, type of the ward, hospitalization period, presence and severity of pain, taking sleep medication and attitude toward the overall atmosphere and interior of wards have caused deviation in scores. Conclusion: Sleep problems are quite frequent in medical inpatients. Pain management and modification of the ward interior and atmosphere can impact inpatients sleep quality. PMID:25405138

  6. Consistently High Sports/Exercise Activity Is Associated with Better Sleep Quality, Continuity and Depth in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Irish, Leah A.; Krafty, Robert T.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Kravitz, Howard M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Dugan, Sheila A.; Hall, Martica H.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine relationships between different physical activity (PA) domains and sleep, and the influence of consistent PA on sleep, in midlife women. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 339 women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (52.1 ± 2.1 y). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sleep was examined using questionnaires, diaries and in-home polysomnography (PSG). PA was assessed in three domains (Active Living, Household/Caregiving, Sports/Exercise) using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) up to 4 times over 6 years preceding the sleep assessments. The association between recent PA and sleep was evaluated using KPAS scores immediately preceding the sleep assessments. The association between the historical PA pattern and sleep was examined by categorizing PA in each KPAS domain according to its pattern over the 6 years preceding sleep assessments (consistently low, inconsistent/consistently moderate, or consistently high). Greater recent Sports/Exercise activity was associated with better sleep quality (diary “restedness” [P < 0.01]), greater sleep continuity (diary sleep efficiency [SE; P = 0.02]) and depth (higher NREM delta electroencephalographic [EEG] power [P = 0.04], lower NREM beta EEG power [P < 0.05]), and lower odds of insomnia diagnosis (P < 0.05). Consistently high Sports/Exercise activity was also associated with better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (P = 0.02) and higher PSG-assessed SE (P < 0.01). Few associations between sleep and Active Living or Household/Caregiving activity (either recent or historical pattern) were noted. Conclusion: Consistently high levels of recreational physical activity, but not lifestyle- or household-related activity, are associated with better sleep in midlife women. Increasing recreational physical activity early in midlife may protect against sleep disturbance in this population. Citation: Kline CE; Irish LA; Krafty

  7. Sleep Quality, Mood, Alertness and Their Variability in CKD and ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Argyropoulos, Christos; Buysse, Daniel J.; Nayar, Harry; Weisbord, Steven D.; Unruh, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with sleep quality, mood, and alertness. In this report, we assessed these symptoms among patients with advanced CKD (stages 4–5) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and compared them to healthy controls without known kidney disease. Methods Patients were recruited from local dialysis units, outpatient nephrology clinics and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute. Healthy control subjects matched for age, gender and race were drawn from an archival database. Daily symptoms of sleep quality, mood, and alertness were assessed by visual analogue scales of the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form-36 instrument. Results Sixty-nine dialysis patients and 23patients with advanced CKD demonstrated worse scores in sleep quality, mood, and alertness (p < 0.001) than controls. In adjusted analyses, European-American race, dialysis dependency, younger age, and physical performance SF-36 components were significantly associated with poor sleep quality, mood and alertness (p < 0.05). The dialysis population demonstrated higher day-to-day variability in scores than either the advanced CKD patients or the controls. Conclusion Advanced CKD and dialysis dependency are associated with impaired and highly variable sleep quality, mood, and alertness. PMID:20090370

  8. Parent-of-origin genetic background affects the transcriptional levels of circadian and neuronal plasticity genes following sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Tinarelli, Federico; Garcia-Garcia, Celina; Nicassio, Francesco; Tucci, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Sleep homoeostasis refers to a process in which the propensity to sleep increases as wakefulness progresses and decreases as sleep progresses. Sleep is tightly organized around the circadian clock and is regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The homoeostatic response of sleep, which is classically triggered by sleep deprivation, is generally measured as a rebound effect of electrophysiological measures, for example delta sleep. However, more recently, gene expression changes following sleep loss have been investigated as biomarkers of sleep homoeostasis. The genetic background of an individual may affect this sleep-dependent gene expression phenotype. In this study, we investigated whether parental genetic background differentially modulates the expression of genes following sleep loss. We tested the progeny of reciprocal crosses of AKR/J and DBA/2J mouse strains and we show a parent-of-origin effect on the expression of circadian, sleep and neuronal plasticity genes following sleep deprivation. Thus, we further explored, by in silico, specific functions or upstream mechanisms of regulation and we observed that several upstream mechanisms involving signalling pathways (i.e. DICER1, PKA), growth factors (CSF3 and BDNF) and transcriptional regulators (EGR2 and ELK4) may be differentially modulated by parental effects. This is the first report showing that a behavioural manipulation (e.g. sleep deprivation) in adult animals triggers specific gene expression responses according to parent-of-origin genomic mechanisms. Our study suggests that the same mechanism may be extended to other behavioural domains and that the investigation of gene expression following experimental manipulations should take seriously into account parent-of-origin effects. PMID:24446504

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Surgery: Quality Improvement Imperatives and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in surgical candidates than in the general population and may increase susceptibility to perioperative complications that range from transient desaturation to catastrophic injuries. Understanding the potential impact of OSA on patients’ surgical risk profile is of particular interest to otolaryngologists, who routinely perform airway procedures—including surgical procedures for treatment of OSA. Whereas the effects of OSA on long-term health outcomes are well documented, the relationship between OSA and surgical risk is not collinear, and clear consensus on the nature of the association is lacking. Better guidelines for optimization of pain control, perioperative monitoring, and surgical decision making are potential areas for quality improvement efforts. Many interventions have been suggested to mitigate the risk of adverse events in surgical patients with OSA, but wide variations in clinical practice remain. We review the current literature, emphasizing recent progress in understanding the complex pathophysiologic interactions noted in OSA patients undergoing surgery and outlining potential strategies to decrease perioperative risks. PMID:25013745

  10. Associations between Rice, Noodle, and Bread Intake and Sleep Quality in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Satoko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakashima, Motoko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a diet with a high-glycemic index is associated with good sleep quality. Therefore, we investigated the association of sleep quality with the intake of 3 common starchy foods with different glycemic indexes–rice, bread, and noodles–as well as the dietary glycemic index in a Japanese population. Methods The participants were 1,848 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age. Rice, bread, and noodle consumption was evaluated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a global score >5.5 was considered to indicate poor sleep. Results Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for poor sleep across the quintiles of rice consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.68 (0.49–0.93), 0.61 (0.43–0.85), 0.59 (0.42–0.85), and 0.54 (0.37–0.81) (p for trend = 0.015); those for the quintiles of noodle consumption were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (0.90–1.74), 1.05 (0.75–1.47), 1.31 (0.94–1.82), and 1.82 (1.31–2.51) (p for trend = 0.002). Bread intake was not associated with sleep quality. A higher dietary glycemic index was significantly associated with a lower risk of poor sleep (p for trend = 0.020). Conclusion A high dietary glycemic index and high rice consumption are significantly associated with good sleep in Japanese men and women, whereas bread intake is not associated with sleep quality and noodle consumption is associated with poor sleep. The different associations of these starchy foods with sleep quality might be attributable to the different glycemic index of each food. PMID:25127476

  11. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  12. Factors Affecting the Quality of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Larry O.

    A review of the literature concerning the effectiveness and quality of staff development programs focuses on factors that affect the success of such programs. These factors include: individual concerns, training activities, applications, qualifications of consultants, scheduling, strategies, facilities, feedback, collaboration, and outcomes. It is…

  13. Affect, Meaning and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Research on quality of life in sociology is largely focused on a narrow range of dimensions including affect, happiness and satisfaction. It largely avoids a concern with the meanings that provide people with the purpose, significance, validity and coherence that are a basis of social relationships and social integration. Evidence is presented…

  14. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  15. Nonmotion factors which can affect ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Data pertaining to nonmotion factors affecting ride quality of transport aircraft were obtained as part of NASA in-house and sponsored research studies carried out onboard commuter-airline and research aircraft. From these data, quantitative effects on passenger discomfort of seat width, seat legroom, change in cabin pressure, and cabin noise are presented. Visual cue effects are also discussed.

  16. Effect of sustained release terbutaline on symptoms and sleep quality in patients with nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, I C; Rhind, G B; Power, J T; Flenley, D C; Douglas, N J

    1987-01-01

    The effect of an oral sustained release beta 2 agonist on symptoms, sleep quality, and peak flow rates has been studied in nine patients with nocturnal asthma. Patients received oral terbutaline 7.5 mg twice daily or placebo for seven days in a double blind crossover study and spent the last two nights of each limb in a sleep laboratory. Oral terbutaline improved morning peak flow (259 v 213 l min-1) and decreased nocturnal inhaler usage (1.3 v 1.9) with no alteration in sleep quality as assessed electroencephalographically. The study shows that oral sustained release terbutaline can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma without impairment of sleep quality. PMID:3321540

  17. Associations between Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Factors and Health Outcomes in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure of subjective sleep disturbance in clinical populations, including individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the severity of sleep disturbance is generally represented by a global symptom score, recent factor analytic studies suggest that the PSQI is better characterized by a two- or three-factor model than a one-factor model. This study examined the replicability of two- and three-factor models of the PSQI, as well as the relationship between PSQI factors and health outcomes, in a female sample with PTSD. Methods The PSQI was administered to 319 women with PTSD related to sexual or physical assault. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the relative fit of one-, two-, and three-factor solutions. Bivariate correlations were performed to examine the shared variance between PSQI sleep factors and measures of PTSD, depression, anger, and physical symptoms. Results Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor model with Sleep Efficiency, Perceived Sleep Quality, and Daily Disturbances as separate indices of sleep quality. The severity of symptoms represented by the PSQI factors was positively associated with the severity of PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms. However, these health outcomes correlated as much or more with the global PSQI score as with PSQI factor scores. Conclusions These results support the multidimensional structure of the PSQI. Yet, the global PSQI score has as much or more explanatory power as individual PSQI factors in predicting health outcomes. PMID:22542787

  18. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497 PMID:20569455

  19. Recognition of the efficacy of relaxation program on sleep quality of mothers with premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Karbandi, Soheila; Hosseini, Seyedeh Maryam; Masoudi, Reza; Hosseini, Seyedeh Asieh; Sadeghi, Farshad; Moghaddam, Maryam Hesari

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: The postpartum period is a critical then effects on the structure of the family. Most women in the postpartum period may place at risk of undesirable experiences such as changes in sleep patterns. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the efficacy of the relaxation program on sleep quality of mothers with premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial that 60 mothers with premature infants. The mothers in the intervention group were trained for muscle progressive relaxation by Jacobson method within 24–72 h after delivery. Research tool was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which was completed by the mother at the beginning of the study, end of the first and the second 4-week. Data were analyzed using parametric statistics tests by SPSS software version 16. Results: No significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of underlying characteristics (P < 0.05). The independent t-test at the beginning of the study showed that the comparison of the mean scores of mothers’ sleep quality has no significant difference between two groups (P = 0.43). But, 1-month after the intervention (P = 0.024) and 2 months after the intervention (P > 0.001), mean sleep quality score in the intervention group was significantly less than the control group. Conclusion: Relaxation training can improve mothers’ sleep quality at postpartum period. PMID:27462639

  20. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed Central

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night’s sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  1. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    PubMed

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (P<0.0005) and Lac (P<0.01) in comparison with the RN. In addition, performance more decreased after PSDEN (P<0.0005) than PSDBN (P<0.05). Also, Lac decreased significantly only after PS-DEN (P<0.05) compared with RN. However, there were no significant changes in HRpeak and RPE after the two types of partial sleep deprivation compared to RN. The present study indicates that short-term sleep restriction affect the intermittent performance, as well as the Lac levels of the Taekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE. PMID:26933660

  2. Relationship between Sleep Disorders, Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Purabdollah, Majid; Lakdizaji, Sima; Rahmani, Azad; Hajalilu, Mehrzad; Ansarin, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis as one of the most common autoimmune diseases is known to be one of the leading causes of disability. Sleep disorders have direct influence on patient’s life. According to studies, sleep problems are known to have negative impact on well-being and functioning, but the exact nature of relationship between sleep disorders and Rheumatoid arthritis is not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders, pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis patients. Methods: In a descriptive -correlative study, 210 patients with rheumatoid arthritis referred to Tabriz medical university clinics selected by convenience sampling and were assessed by Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Data were analyzed using SPSS-13 by descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean (SD) and inferential statistics including Spearman correlation analysis, linear regression, χ2,t-test and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.41(12.92) years in which most of them (74%) were female. The mean (SD) quality of life was 40.51(22.94), sleepiness 13.14 (5.6) and pain 6.09 (2.14). There was significant negative relationship between some sleep disorders such as (naps, apnea, asphyxia,…) and pain with quality of life but pain severity had more effect on QOL compared to sleep problems. Furthermore, participants had low quality of life with more restriction in physical (mean=34.71) and general health (mean=34.42). Conclusion: Sleep problems and pain were associated with poor quality of life in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. PMID:26464840

  3. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  4. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  5. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity with Exercise Capacity and Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Katrina L; Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Miller, Larry E; Zedalis, Donald; Herbert, William G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea (n = 43) or as having mild (n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL. PMID:23923110

  6. Sleep Quality and Sexual Function in Patients Under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Ali; Amini Ranjbar, Zahra; Zeynali, Zahra; Sabahy, Abdol Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methadone maintenance has remained the main modality of treatment for opioid dependent subjects. Side effects of methadone treatment may be potential obstacles to its continuation. Sleep quality and sexual function are two culture-based concerns, directly related to patients’ compliance with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program. Objectives: This research was conducted to examine the frequency of sleep disparity and sexual dysfunction in patients under MMT referring to MMT clinics of Kerman, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 198 adult subjects under MMT for more than 6 months were enrolled. Measurement tool consisted of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Arizona sexual experience scale (ASEX), the 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12), and a demographic questionnaire. The questionnaires were self-completed, except where individuals were illiterate. Results: Mean ± SD age of the subjects was 41.2 ± 7.9 years and 93.4% of them were male. More than half of them used heroin. Prevalence of poor sleeping and sexual dysfunction in patients under MMT were 67.7% and 18.2%, respectively. There was no association between sleep quality or sexual dysfunction and demographics or methadone dose. However, a significant correlation was observed between mental health and sleep quality (r =0.16, P = 0.033), and sexual function (r = 0.18, P = 0.011). Conclusions: Sleep quality showed a poorer profile than sexual function. Therefore, more emphasis should be laid on treatment of sleep disparity during follow up of MMT patients comparing to their sexual function. Patients should be reassured that probable sexual dysfunctions should not be regarded as a consequence of MMT. PMID:26870710

  7. Impact of weak social ties and networks on poor sleep quality: A case study of Iranian employees.

    PubMed

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    The poor sleep quality is one of the major risk factors of somatic, psychiatric and social disorders and conditions as well as the major predictors of quality of employees' performance. The previous studies in Iran had neglected the impacts of social factors including social networks and ties on adults sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the current research was to determine the relationship between social networks and adult employees' sleep quality. This study was conducted with a correlational and descriptive design. Data were collected from 360 participants (183 males and 177 females) who were employed in Yazd public organizations in June and July of 2014. These samples were selected based on random sampling method. In addition, the measuring tools were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Social Relations Inventory (SRI). Based on the results, the prevalence rate of sleep disorder among Iranian adult employees was 63.1% (total PSQI>5). And, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, there was significant difference between individuals with strong and poor social network and ties in terms of overall sleep quality (p<.01), subjective sleep quality (p<.01), habitual sleep efficiency (p<.05), and daytime dysfunction (p<.01). The results also revealed that the employees with strong social network and ties had better overall sleep quality, had the most habitual sleep efficiency, and less daytime dysfunction than employees with poor social network and ties. It can be implied that the weak social network and ties serve as a risk factor for sleep disorders or poor sleep quality for adult employees. Therefore, the social and behavioral interventions seem essential to improve the adult's quality sleep. PMID:26494526

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a Cohort of Peruvian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We sought to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: A cohort of 642 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation. During interview, we ascertained information about lifestyles, demographics, sleep characteristics, and mood symptoms. Stress induced sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) assessment scales, respectively. Consistency indices, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations, and logistic regressions were used. Results: Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a three-factor solution: sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and sleep medication. We observed significantly positive correlations of the PSQI with the FIRST (0.42), the PHQ-9 (0.49), and the GAD-7 (0.46). Poor sleepers (PSQI global score > 5) had significantly increased odds of experiencing stress-induced sleep disturbance (odds ratio, OR = 3.57; 95% CI: 2.40, 5.31), depression (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 3.58, 8.37), and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 4.57; 95% CI: 3.08, 6.76). Conclusions: The Spanish-language version of the PSQI instrument was found to have good construct validity among pregnant Peruvian women. Consistent with some other studies, the PSQI was found to have a three-factor structure. Further assessment and validation studies are needed to determine whether the three, factor-specific scoring of the PSQI is favored over the PSQI global score in diverse populations. Citation: Zhong QY, Gelaye B, Sánchez SE, Williams MA. Psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a cohort of Peruvian pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):869–877. PMID:25845902

  9. The effects of background music on quality of sleep in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Tan, Leepeng Patsy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of background music on quality of sleep in elementary school children. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 86 fifth graders (43 boys and 43 girls) from an elementary school in a city in Taiwan. Subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental groups (n = 45) and the control group (n = 41). Subjects in the experimental group were given a 45-minute CD of music at naptime everyday and bedtime each night for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at pretest and 3 weekly posttests. Repeated measures MANOVA was used to examine group differences across time. Results showed that subjects who received background music at naptime everyday and bedtime each night for 3 consecutive weeks had significant improvement in global sleep quality over time. Improvements were also observed in all 6 components of the PSQI although significant improvements were only observed in sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Some shortcomings of this study include the use of convenience sample, possibility of a Hawthorne effect, lack of objective measurements, and the use of non subject's preferred music. PMID:15307813

  10. Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype and Common Mental Disorders Among Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about socio-demographic characteristics, sleep quality characteristics, CMDs, and other lifestyle behaviors. Results The prevalence of CMDs was 24.3% (95% CI: 21.5-27.1%) among all students. Prevalence estimates of both excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality were higher among females (35.4% and 54.4%) than males (22.0% and 45.8%). Cigarette smoking was statistically significantly and positively associated with having CMDs (p=0.034). Excessive daytime sleepiness (OR= 3.65; 95% CI: 2.56-4.91) and poor sleep quality (OR=4.76; 95% CI: 3.11-7.29) were associated with increased odds of CMDs. Conclusion Given the adverse health consequences associated with both sleep disorders and CMDs, improving sleep hygiene among college students is imperative to public health. PMID:24810953

  11. Report: Demographic profiles and sleep quality among patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Zalina; Siong, Lee Chee; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Choon, Tan Soo; Mohamad, Nasir; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality was frequently reported by opioid dependence patients during methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The study investigated a sample of patients on MMT to investigate the severity and prevalence of sleep problems in MMT patients. We evaluated sleep quality and disturbances of 119 Malay male patients from MMT clinics in Kelantan, Malaysia between March and July 2013 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)-Malay version. Patients' demographic, clinical data, past drug history and methadone treatment variables were recorded. Patients averaged 37.5 years of age (SD 6.79) and their mean age of first time illicit drug use was 19.3 years (SD 4.48). Their mean age of entering MMT was 34.7 years (SD 6.92) and the mean duration in MMT was 2.8 years (SD 2.13). The mean current daily dosage of methadone was 77.8 mg (SD 39.47) and ranged from 20 to 360 mg. The mean global PSQI score was 5.6 (SD 2.79) and 43.7% patients were identified as 'poor sleepers' (global PSQI scores >5). This study confirms the poor overall sleep quality among patients on MMT. The prevalence and severity of sleep problems in MMT patients should not be underestimated. PMID:26826835

  12. Sleep quality among residents of an old folk’s home in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Abdul; Ong, Eng Keat; Yi Wong, Eleanor Shu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an essential part of life. Lack of sleep has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the sleep quality of older adults residing in a private elderly care institution in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among consenting residents of a 200-bed non-governmental charity old folks home in Penang, Malaysia. The sleep quality of the respondents was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), their attitude to ageing (AAQ), Barthel index (Activities of Daily Living) and body mass index were also measured. Data was analysed using PASW. Results: The PSQI score ranged from 0 to 16 with a mean score of 7.1 (SD 3.4) and 76.8% (116) had scores ≥ 5. The differences in the mean score for chronic illness (t = 0.14/P = 0.04), the people that could be counted on for help (t = 4.09/P = 0.02) and the feasibility of getting practical help from fellow residents (t = 4.41/P = 0.01) were statistically significant. There was a negative correlation between the PSQI score and the WHOQOL-BREF score (-0.318/0.00) and AAQ score (-0.332/0.00). Conclusions: Staff working in an elderly care institution should understand the important relationship of illnesses, social support and sleep hygiene in the wellbeing of the residents. PMID:23922598

  13. Relationship Between Mood Disturbance and Sleep Quality in Oncology Outpatients at the Initiation of Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Onselen, Christina; Dunn, Laura B.; Lee, Kathryn; Dodd, Marylin; Koetters, Theresa; West, Claudia; Paul, Steven M.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Wara, William; Swift, Patrick; Miaskowski, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the research The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence of significant mood disturbance and evaluate for differences in sleep quality among four mood groups (i.e., neither anxiety nor depression, only anxiety, only depression, anxiety and depression) prior to the initiation of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and sample Patients (n=179) with breast, prostate, lung, and brain cancer were evaluated prior to the initiation of RT using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Differences in sleep disturbance among the four mood groups were evaluated using analyses of variance. Key results While 38% of the patients reported some type of mood disturbance, 57% of the patients reported sleep disturbance. Patients with clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression reported the highest levels of sleep disturbance. Conclusions Overall, oncology patients with mood disturbances reported more sleep disturbance than those without mood disturbance. Findings suggest that oncology patients need to be assessed for mood and sleep disturbances. PMID:20080444

  14. Stress and sleep patterns of college students.

    PubMed

    Verlander, L A; Benedict, J O; Hanson, D P

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and sleep. A self-report measure was used to assess three domains: environmental events, personality mediators, and emotional responses. It was hypothesized that one or more of the domains would predict seven different aspects of sleep. 227 college students completed the Derogatis Stress Profile and the Sleep Questionnaire. Analysis indicated that scores on emotional response were the best predictor of five different sleep aspects: depth of sleep, difficulties in waking up, quality and latency of sleep, negative affect in dreams, and sleep irregularity. Presence of environmental events was the best predictor for the length of sleep only. It was concluded that research looking at the effects of stress on sleep must consider all three components of stress and that perhaps the emotional response to stress is the best predictor of sleep complaints. PMID:10407896

  15. Associations of Physical Activity, Screen Time with Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Quality among Chinese College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qi; Zhang, Qing-le; Du, Yue; Ye, Yong-ling; He, Qi-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) with depression, anxiety and sleep quality among Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan University, China from November to December 2011. The students reported their PA, ST and socio-economic characteristics using self-administered questionnaires. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the independent and interactive relationships of PA and ST with depression, anxiety and sleep quality. Results A total of 1106 freshmen (471 females and 635 males) aged 18.9±0.9 years were included in the study. After adjustment for potential confounders, high PA and low ST were independently associated with significantly lower risks for poor sleep quality (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30–0.78) and depression (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.44–0.89), respectively. An interactive inverse association was observed for combined effects of PA and low ST on depression (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.40–0.92) and sleep quality (OR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.27–0.91). No statistically significant associations were found between PA, ST and anxiety among the participants. Conclusions These findings suggest an independent and interactive relationship of high PA and low ST with significantly reduced prevalence of depressive problems and favorable sleep quality among Chinese college freshmen. PMID:24964250

  16. Quality Measures for the Care of Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kothare, Sanjeev V.; Rosen, Carol L.; Lloyd, Robin M.; Paruthi, Shalini; Thomas, Sherene M.; Troester, Matthew M.; Carden, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, obstructive sleep apnea in children, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy. This paper describes the rationale, background, general methods development, and considerations in implementation of these quality measures in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. This document describes measurement methods for five desirable process measures: assessment of symptoms and risk factors of OSA, initiation of an evidence-based action plan, objective evaluation of high-risk children with OSA by obtaining a polysomnogram (PSG), reassessment of signs and symptoms of OSA within 12 months, and documentation of objective assessment of positive airway pressure adherence. When these five process measures are met, clinicians should be able to achieve the two defined outcomes: improve detection of childhood OSA and reduce signs and symptoms of OSA after initiation of a management plan. The AASM recommends the use of these measures as part of quality improvement programs that will enhance the ability to improve care for patients with childhood OSA. Citation: Kothare SV, Rosen CL, Lloyd RM, Paruthi S, Thomas SM, Troester MM, Carden KA. Quality measures for the care of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):385–404. PMID:25700879

  17. Fatigued Breast Cancer Survivors: The Role of Sleep Quality, Depressed Mood, Stage, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Banthia, Rajni; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Ko, Celine M.; Varni, James W.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is associated with lower health-related quality of life and the majority of breast cancer survivors experience persistent fatigue after finishing treatment. The present study examined age, cancer stage, sleep quality, and depressed mood as predictors of five dimensions of fatigue in seventy fatigued breast cancer survivors who no longer evidenced any signs of cancer and were finished with treatment. Discriminant function analyses were used to predict fatigue subgroup membership (higher, lower) from age, stage, mood, and sleep for five subtypes: General, Mental, Emotional, and Physical Fatigue, and Vigor. Significant discriminant functions were found for all subtypes. Findings suggest that age, staging, mood, and sleep are all important predictors, but there are differential relationships when subtypes of fatigue are considered. Given current limitations in treating fatigue directly, interventions targeting mood and sleep should be considered as alternate approaches to reduce fatigue. PMID:20205039

  18. Structural Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suran; Sun, Wenmei; Liu, Chang; Wu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item "use of sleep medicine" was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:27551270

  19. Structural Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Suran; Sun, Wenmei; Liu, Chang; Wu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item “use of sleep medicine” was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:27551270

  20. Can Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In quiescent environments (microgravity, capillary tubes, gels) formation of a depletion zone is to be expected, due either to limited sedimentation, density driven convection or a combination of both. The formation of a depletion zone can: Modify solution supersaturation near crystal; Give rise to impurity partitioning. It is conjectured that both supersaturation and impurity partitioning affect protein crystal quality and size. Further detailed investigations on various proteins are needed to assess above hypothesis.

  1. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Leppämäki, Sami; Partonen, Timo; Vakkuri, Olli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partinen, Markku; Laudon, Moshe

    2003-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of melatonin on sleep, waking up and well being in subjects with varying degrees of seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Fifty-eight healthy adults exhibiting subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (s-SAD) and/or the negative or positive type of weather-associated syndrome (WAS) were randomised to either 2 mg of sustained-release melatonin or placebo tablets 1-2 h before a desired bedtime for 3 weeks. Outcome measures were changes from baseline in sleep quality, sleepiness after waking, atypical depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life by week three. Early morning salivary melatonin concentrations were measured at baseline and treatment cessation in all subjects. Melatonin administration significantly improved the quality of sleep (P=0.03) and vitality (P=0.02) in the subjects with s-SAD, but attenuated the improvement of atypical symptoms and physical parameters of quality of life compared to placebo in the subjects with WAS, positive type. PMID:12729938

  2. Day and night shift schedules are associated with lower sleep quality in Evening-types.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-06-01

    difference was found regarding light exposure between chronotypes. In conclusion, sleep parameters revealed poorer sleep quality in E-types for both the night and day shifts. These differences could not be explained by sleep opportunity, light exposure or activity levels. This study challenges the notion that E-types adapt better to night shifts. Further studies must verify whether E-types exhibit lower sleep quality than Morning-types. PMID:26035480

  3. Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index in College Students: The Role of Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Perla A.; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. Methods: A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep…

  4. Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning, and quality of life in Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tzischinsky, Orna; Shochat, Tamar

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationships between eveningness, sleep patterns, measures of daytime functioning, i.e., sleepiness, sleep problem behaviors, and depressed mood, and quality of life (QOL) in young Israeli adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was performed in urban and rural middle schools in Northern Israel. Participants were 470 eighth and ninth grade middle school students (14 ± 0.8 yrs of age) in the normative school system. Students completed the modified School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Short Form, assessing six subscales of physical, emotional, social, school performance, and psychosocial functioning, plus an addition generated total score. During weekdays and weekends, evening types went to bed later, their sleep latency was longer, their wake-up time was later, and their sleep duration was shorter than intermediate and morning types. Evening types exhibited more sleep problem behaviors, sleepiness, depressed mood, and lower QOL compared to intermediate and morning types. Based on the regression model, sleepiness, sleep-problem behaviors, and depressed mood were the variables most strongly associated with QOL, followed by morning-evening preference, weekday sleep duration, and weekend sleep latency. This study is the first to assess QOL in normative, healthy adolescents and to demonstrate strong associations between morning-evening preference and QOL. These findings enhance the need to identify young individuals with an evening preference, and to be aware of the characteristics and manifestations of the evening chronotype on daytime and nighttime behaviors in adolescence. PMID:21539425

  5. Bidirectional associations between bedtime parenting and infant sleep: Parenting quality, parenting practices, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Philbrook, Lauren E; Teti, Douglas M

    2016-06-01

    In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh, Tikotzky, & Scher, 2010), the present study was an examination of longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (through direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first 6 months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg's (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first 6 months occurred among infants of mothers who engaged in low levels of nursing at bedtime. Within-person linkages between mothers' emotional availability (EA) at bedtime, infant distress, and infant sleep were found, such that at time points when mothers were more emotionally available, infants were less distressed and slept more throughout the night. Several moderating effects of maternal EA on linkages between parenting practices and infant sleep were obtained that were consistent with predictions from Darling and Steinberg (1993). Higher maternal EA in combination with less close contact at bedtime was associated with more infant sleep across the night on average, and higher EA in combination with fewer arousing bedtime activities predicted more rapid increases in infant sleep with age. Finally, there was evidence of infant-driven effects, as higher infant nighttime distress predicted lower EA at subsequent time points. Results showcased the complex, reciprocal interplay between parents and infants in the development of infant sleep patterns and parenting behavior during the first 6 months postpartum. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27010601

  6. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  7. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep.

    PubMed

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  8. Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

  9. Evaluation of mobile phone addiction level and sleep quality in university students

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Sevil; Ozdemir, Kevser; Unsal, Alaattin; Temiz, Nazen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mobile phone addiction level in university students, to examine several associated factors and to evaluate the relation between the addiction level and sleep quality. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional research conducted on the students of the Sakarya University between 01 November 2012 and 01 February 2013. The study group included 576 students. The Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale was used for evaluating the mobile phone addiction level and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for assessing the sleep quality. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s Correlation Analysis were used for analyzing the data. Results: The study group consisted of 296 (51.4%) females and 208 (48.6%) males. The mean age was 20.83 ± 1.90 years (min:17, max:28). The addiction level was determined to be higher in the second-year students, those with poor family income, those with type A personality, those whose age for first mobile phone is 13 and below and those whose duration of daily mobile phone use is above 5 hours (p < 0.05 for each). The sleep quality worsens with increasing mobile phone addiction level (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The sleep quality worsens with increasing addiction level. It was concluded that referring the students with suspected addiction to advanced healthcare facilities, performing occasional scans for early diagnosis and informing the students about controlled mobile phone use would be useful. PMID:24353658

  10. Sleep Quality and Depression and Their Association with Other Factors in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, Masomeh Norozi; Shafipour, Vida; Jafari, Hedayat; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders and depression, accompanied by reduced quality of life and increased mortality are the most common psychological problems in dialysis patients. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate depression and sleep quality and their association with some demographic and clinical factors in hemodialysis patients. Method: This descriptive-correlative study was conducted on 310 patients undergoing hemodialysis in 8 centers in educational hospitals in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi-Square test and regression model. Results: Results obtained showed 44.8% depression in patients. Significant relationships were found between depression and increased blood phosphorus (P=0.002) and urea (P=0.001). Poor sleep quality was observed in 73.5% of hemodialysis patients, which was found significantly related to aging (P=0.048), female (P=0.04), and reduced frequency of weekly hemodialysis (P=0.035). Conclusion: Depression and poor sleep quality are two common factors in hemodialysis patients, but patients do not overtly show symptoms of these disorders.

  11. Preliminary report of improved sleep quality in patients with dry eye disease after initiation of topical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Toda, Ikuko; Tachi, Naoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye disease (DED) is potentially associated with sleep and mood disorders. This study evaluated sleep quality in patients with DED using a questionnaire-based survey before and after topical eyedrop treatment. The effectiveness of sleep and ophthalmic services in assisting with sleep problems in patients with eye disease was also assessed. Methods Seventy-one consecutive patients with DED visiting eight general eye clinics in various locations answered a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Photophobia and chronotype (morningness/eveningness) were also evaluated with two representative questions from established questionnaires (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and Morningness/Eveningness questionnaire). Follow-up evaluation was conducted by interview or mail 3–10 months after the initial evaluation. A sleep service was established in two eye clinics to identify possible ocular diseases related to sleep and mood disorders; it comprised a questionnaire, sleep diary, actigram, medical interviews, visual field testing, retinal ganglion cell layer thickness measurement, and DED examination. Results Patients with newly diagnosed DED exhibited a greater improvement in sleep after DED treatment compared with patients with established DED. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was significant (P<0.05) and strongly correlated with improvement in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (P<0.05) for new patients, but not for patients with established DED. Ten eye clinic patients visited the sleep service and nine of them had DED. They were successfully treated with eyedrops and sleep services, which included blue-light-shield eyewear and wearable blue-light therapy lamps according to their problem. Conclusion Sleep quality improved in patients with DED after topical treatment with or without the sleep service. Psychiatric treatment focusing on sleep disorders could be

  12. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura. PMID:27124064

  13. Poor sleep quality is associated with impaired glucose tolerance in women after gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, U; Künzel, H; Tröndle, K; Rottenkolber, M; Kohn, D; Fugmann, M; Banning, F; Weise, M; Sacco, V; Hasbargen, U; Hutter, S; Parhofer, K G; Kloiber, S; Ising, M; Seissler, J; Lechner, A

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the association of sleep quality and glucose metabolism in women after gestational diabetes (pGDM) and in women after normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Data during pregnancy and a visit within the first 15 months after delivery were collected from 61 pGDM and 30 controls in a prospective cohort study. This included a medical history, physical examination, questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), and 5-point oral glucose tolerance test with insulin measurements to determine indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We used Spearman correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models for analysis.9.3 ± 3.2 months after delivery, pGDM had significantly higher fasting and 2 h glucose levels and lower insulin sensitivity than controls. There was no significant difference in age, BMI and sleep quality as assessed with the PSQI between the two groups. The PSQI score correlated with the ogtt-2 h plasma glucose in pGDM (δ = 0.41; p = 0.0012), but not in controls. This association was confirmed with a multivariate linear regression model with adjustment for age, BMI and months post-delivery. Perceived stress was an independent risk factor (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.23) for impaired sleep. Our findings suggest that post-delivery sleep quality significantly influences glucose tolerance in women after GDM and that impaired sleep is associated with increased stress perception. Measures to improve of sleep quality and reduce perceived stress should therefore be tested as additional strategies to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes after GDM. PMID:25930074

  14. Exercise effects on sleep physiology.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sunao; Shioda, Kohei; Morita, Yuko; Kubota, Chie; Ganeko, Masashi; Takeda, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CNS sleep). Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. However, more recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. Sleep should be affected by daytime exercise, as physical activity alters endocrine, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and somatic functions. Since endocrinological, metabolic, and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, evaluated by standard polysomnographic (PSG) techniques. Additional measures of somatic physiology have provided enough evidences to conclude that the auto-regulatory, global regulation of sleep is not the exclusive domain of the CNS, but it is heavily influenced by inputs from the rest of the body. PMID:22485106

  15. Survivorship: Sleep Disorders, Version 1.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders, including insomnia and excessive sleepiness, affect a significant proportion of patients with cancer and survivors, often in combination with fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Improvements in sleep lead to improvements in fatigue, mood, and quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, diagnosis, and management recommendations for sleep disorders in survivors. Management includes combinations of sleep hygiene education, physical activity, psychosocial interventions, and pharmacologic treatments. PMID:24812132

  16. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  17. Relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Demi̇rci̇, Kadi̇r; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Results The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. Conclusion The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction. PMID:26132913

  18. Association between Poor Glycemic Control, Impaired Sleep Quality, and Increased Arterial Thickening in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Koichiro; Inaba, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Kae; Yoda, Maki; Tsuda, Akihiro; Mori, Katsuhito; Imanishi, Yasuo; Emoto, Masanori; Yamada, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Objective Poor sleep quality is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and objective sleep architecture and its influence on arteriosclerosis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study examined the association of objective sleep architecture with both glycemic control and arteriosclerosis in type-2 DM patients. Design Cross-sectional study in vascular laboratory. Methods The subjects were 63 type-2 DM inpatients (M/F, 32/31; age, 57.5±13.1) without taking any sleeping promoting drug and chronic kidney disease. We examined objective sleep architecture by single-channel electroencephalography and arteriosclerosis by carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT). Results HbA1c was associated significantly in a negative manner with REM sleep latency (interval between sleep-onset and the first REM period) (β=-0.280, p=0.033), but not with other measurements of sleep quality. REM sleep latency associated significantly in a positive manner with log delta power (the marker of deep sleep) during that period (β=0.544, p=0.001). In the model including variables univariately correlated with CA-IMT (REM sleep latency, age, DM duration, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c) as independent variables, REM sleep latency (β=-0.232, p=0.038), but not HbA1c were significantly associated with CA-IMT. When log delta power was included in place of REM sleep latency, log delta power (β=-0.257, p=0.023) emerged as a significant factor associated with CA-IMT. Conclusions In type-2 DM patients, poor glycemic control was independently associated with poor quality of sleep as represented by decrease of REM sleep latency which might be responsible for increased CA-IMT, a relevant marker for arterial wall thickening. PMID:25875738

  19. Sleep Quality and Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2016-04-01

    A minimum level of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes among older people has not previously been explored. In a representative UK sample aged 65+ (n = 926), cross-sectional regressions controlling for appropriate confounders showed that walking at or above the internationally recommended threshold of ≥ 150 min per week was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.91, p < .05). At a 4-year follow-up (n = 577), higher walking levels at baseline significantly predicted a lower likelihood of reporting sleep onset (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97, p < .05) or sleep maintenance (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95, p < .05) problems. These results are consistent with the conclusion that current physical activity guidelines can support sleep quality in older adults. PMID:26291553

  20. Effect of Zolpidem on Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters; a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Naseri Esfahani, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Professional firefighting is among the most demanding jobs. Prior studies have showed the notable prevalence of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters that may result in catastrophes. The aim of this study was in field confirmation of zolpidem usage (10 mg/PO/bed time) for short term management of poor sleeps quality among professional firefighters. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial among professional firefighters, 27 poor sleepers were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Two 14 days experimental periods were separated by a 14-day washout phase. Sleep quality was assessed using the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Six of the 27 enrolled voluntaries dropped out. Two rare side effects of zolpidem occurred in the study. A significant improvement of the PSQI score was detected in zolpidem period versus placebo in both groups (7.14 ± 3.02 vs 12.38 ± 2.51, P<0.001) although zolpidem had no significant effect on time of waking up (6.76 ± 1.21 vs.6.64 ± 1.27, P=0.89). Zolpidem significantly improved all components of PSQI (Subjective sleep quality, Sleep latency, Sleep duration, Habitual sleep efficiency, Sleep disturbances and Daytime dysfunction) in the current study except the use of sleep medication. Sleep onset latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality among firefighters in a previous study. Interestingly, sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the most treatment effect of zolpidem in the current study. Zolpidem can be used asa part of treatment regimens in short time management of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters. PMID:26553086

  1. The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion during Evening Exercise on Subsequent Sleep Quality in Females.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; O'Donnell, J M; Starck, C; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J

    2015-06-01

    In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 10 females taking monophasic oral contraceptives completed 90 min intermittent treadmill-running 45 min after ingestion of 6 mg∙kg(-1) body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Water (3 mL∙kg(-1)) was provided every 15 min during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise, as well as after sleep (~15 h post-ingestion), and levels of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Sleep quality was assessed using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Plasma caffeine concentration peaked 100 min after ingestion. Caffeine clearance was 0.95±0.14 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) while the elimination half-life of caffeine was 17.63±8.06 h. Paraxanthine and theophylline levels were significantly elevated at 15 h with no significant change in theobromine. Sleep latency and subsequent quality of sleep was impaired following caffeine supplementation (P<0.05); there were no differences between trials for how participants were feeling upon awakening. This is the first controlled study to examine caffeine supplementation on sleep quality in female athletes taking a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroid following an intermittent-exercise running protocol. The data shows that female athletes using monophasic oral contraceptive steroids will have impaired sleep quality following evening caffeine ingestion. PMID:25700100

  2. Association between Sleep Quality and C-Reactive Protein: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Liu, Xin; Zee, Phyllis C.; Hou, Lifang; Zheng, Zheng; Wei, Yongxiang; Du, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. Methods This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005–2008 who were aged 20–85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor) based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. Results Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001). Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed) among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively). In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15–1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18–2.14 in females, respectively). Conclusion We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population. PMID:24663098

  3. Associations of Neighborhood Characteristics with Sleep Timing and Quality: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Amy S.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Moore, Kari; Baron, Kelly G.; Mujahid, Mahasin S.; Nieto, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the associations of specific neighborhood features (disorder, safety, social cohesion, physical environment, and socioeconomic status) with sleep duration and quality. Design: Cross-sectional. One wave of a population-based study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Setting: Community-dwelling participants in New York, NY and Los Angeles, CA. Participants: There were 1,406 participants (636 males, 770 females). Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Sleep was assessed using reported hours of sleep, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and insomnia symptoms. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed via questionnaires administered to neighbors of study participants and were aggregated to the neighborhood (census tract) level using empirical Bayes estimation. An adverse social environment (characterized by high disorder, and low safety and social cohesion) was associated with shorter sleep duration after adjustment for the physical environment, neighborhood and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), and other short sleep risk factors (mean difference per standard deviation increase in summary social environment scale 0.24 h 95% confidence interval 0.08, 0.43). Adverse neighborhood social and physical environments, and neighborhood SES were associated with greater sleepiness, but associations with physical environments were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. Neighborhood SES was a weaker and less consistent predictor of specific measures of neighborhood social and physical environments. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with insomnia. Conclusions: Shortened sleep related to adverse social environments represents one potential pathway through which neighborhoods may influence health. Citation: DeSantis AS; Diez Roux AV; Moore K; Baron KG; Mujahid MS; Nieto FJ. Associations of neighborhood characteristics with sleep timing and quality: the multi-ethnic study

  4. The effect of a quality improvement intervention on perceived sleep quality and cognition in a medical ICU

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Biren B.; King, Lauren M.; Collop, Nancy A.; Sakamuri, Sruthi; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Neufeld, Karin J.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rowden, Annette M.; Touradji, Pegah; Brower, Roy G.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if a quality improvement (QI) intervention improves sleep and delirium/cognition. Design Observational, pre-post design. Setting A tertiary academic hospital in the US. Patients 300 medical ICU (MICU) patients. Interventions This MICU-wide project involved a “usual care” baseline stage, followed by a QI stage incorporating multi-faceted sleep-promoting interventions implemented with the aid of daily reminder checklists for ICU staff. Measurements and Main Results Primary ICU outcomes were perceived sleep quality and noise ratings (measured on a 0-100 scale using the valid and reliable Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire [RCSQ]) and delirium/coma-free days. Secondary outcomes included ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. Post-ICU measures of cognition and perceived sleep quality were evaluated in an ICU patient subset. During the baseline and sleep QI stages there were 122 and 178 patients, respectively, with >1 night in the ICU, accounting for 634 and 826 patient-days. Within the groups, 78 (63.9%) and 83 (46.6%) patients received mechanical ventilation. Over the 826 patient-day QI period, checklist item completion rates ranged from 86-94%. In multivariable regression analysis of the QI vs. baseline stages, improvements in overall RCSQ sleep quality ratings did not reach statistical significance, but there were significant improvements in daily noise ratings (mean ± standard deviation: 65.9 ± 26.6 vs. 60.5 ± 26.3, P=0.001), incidence of delirium/coma (odds ratio: 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.89; P=0.02), and daily delirium/coma-free status (odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.58; P=0.03). Improvements in secondary ICU outcomes and post-ICU outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions An ICU-wide QI intervention to improve sleep and delirium is feasible and associated with significant improvements in perceived nighttime noise, incidence of delirium/coma, and daily delirium

  5. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

  6. Qigong exercise alleviates fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, and shortens sleep latency in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-Man; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the "subjective sleep quality" and "sleep latency" items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in "subjective sleep quality" was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380. PMID:25610473

  7. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer: The mechanistic role of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Weierich, Mariann R; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-06-01

    A substantial portion of men treated for prostate cancer report clinically significant sleep problems and disturbance in sleep quality constitutes significant risk for the development of depressive symptoms in survivors. Dysregulation in biological stress processes underlies the impact of poor sleep on the onset and/or progression of depressive symptoms, yet few studies have sought to identify potential neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., HPA axis activation) underlying this association in PC survivors. The present study examines the relationships between sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and indices of diurnal cortisol patterns among men treated for prostate cancer. In total, 66 men (84.8% White; mean age = 65.8 years, SD = 9.04) treated in the prior 2 years for localized prostate cancer were recruited. They completed questionnaires to measure sleep quality and depressive symptoms at study entry (T1) and 4 months later (T2). They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, over 3 days, at T1. Three cortisol indices were computed: diurnal slope, area under the curve (AUCg), and cortisol awakening response (CAR). Analyses indicate that, controlling for body mass index and age, worse sleep quality at T1 was significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at T2. Significant indirect effects were observed for cortisol slope (indirect effect = -.17, 95% CI [-.61, -.01]) and AUCg (indirect effect = -.14, 95% CI [-.43, -.01]), but not CAR. Results suggest that dysregulation in HPA activity acts as a neurobiological mechanism of the impact of sleep disruption on depressive symptoms in men with prostate cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820589

  8. The Effects of Shift Work on Sleeping Quality, Hypertension and Diabetes in Retired Workers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Liu, Yuewei; Huang, Xiji; Rong, Yi; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with adverse health effects by disturbing circadian rhythms. However,its potential long-term health effects and the persistent effects after leaving shifts have not been well established. Methods and Results We studied 26,463 workers from Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort in China. All the participants are retired employees of Dongfeng Motor Company. Information on demographics, occupational history and medical history were gathered through questionnaires. After adjusting potential confounders in the logistic regression models, shift work was associated with poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension independently. We observed significant effects of shift work on poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension; the ORs (95%CI) are 1.18 (1.09–1.27), 1.10 (1.03–1.17) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) respectively. In the further analysis, we found elevated ORs (95%CI) for participants with poor sleeping quality, the ORs (95%CI) are 1.34 (1.08–1.60), 1.13 (1.05–1.21), 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) for 1–4, 5–9, 10–19, ≥20 years of shift work respectively. However, with the extension of leaving shift work duration, the effects of shift work on sleep quality gradually reduced. Conclusions Shift work may be an independent risk factor for sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension even in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of sleep loss, diabetes, and hypertension for shift workers. PMID:23976988

  9. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  10. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  11. Preferential occurrence of attacks during night sleep and/or upon awakening negatively affects migraine clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Sara; Lucchesi, Cinzia; Baldacci, Filippo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is well known that migraine attacks can preferentially occur during night sleep and/or upon awakening, however the possible implications of this timing on migraine clinical presentation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the possible consequences of sleep-related migraine (defined as ≥75% of migraine attacks occurring during night sleep and/or upon awakening) on the migraine clinical picture (i.e. migraine-related disability, attack severity, use of symptomatic drugs), subjective sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Two hundred consecutive migraine without aura patients were enrolled; patients with comorbid disorders or chronic medication use were excluded. 39% of the migraineurs included in the study received a diagnosis of sleep-related migraine. The mean frequency of migraine attacks (days per month) did not significantly differ between the patients with and those without sleep-related migraine, whereas migraine-related disability (p<0.0001), mean attack severity (p<0.0001), and monthly intake of symptomatic drugs (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with migraine preferentially occurring at night-time and/or upon awakening. Subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas fatigue was significantly more present in the patients with sleep-related migraine (p=0.0001). These data seem to support the hypothesis that patients with sleep-related migraine represent a subset of individuals with a more severe and disabling clinical presentation of migraine and greater impairment of daily functioning, as suggested by the higher degree of fatigue. Migraineurs with night-time attacks also showed a greater use of symptomatic drugs, possibly related to delayed use of symptomatic treatment. The identification of subtypes of patients with a higher disability risk profile could have crucial implications for individually tailored management of

  12. Sleep, its regulation and possible mechanisms of sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Zitting, K-M; Wigren, H-K

    2013-08-01

    The state of sleep consists of different phases that proceed in successive, tightly regulated order through the night forming a physiological program, which for each individual is different but stabile from one night to another. Failure to accomplish this program results in feeling of unrefreshing sleep and tiredness in the morning. The program core is constructed by genetic factors but regulated by circadian rhythm and duration and intensity of day time brain activity. Many environmental factors modulate sleep, including stress, health status and ingestion of vigilance-affecting nutrients or medicines (e.g. caffeine). Acute sleep loss results in compromised cognitive performance, memory deficits, depressive mood and involuntary sleep episodes during the day. Moreover, prolonged sleep curtailment has many adverse health effects, as evidenced by both epidemiological and experimental studies. These effects include increased risk for depression, type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to voluntary restriction of sleep, shift work, irregular working hours, jet lag and stress are important factors that induce curtailed or bad quality sleep and/or insomnia. This review covers the current theories on the function of normal sleep and describes current knowledge on the physiologic effects of sleep loss. It provides insights into the basic mechanisms of the regulation of wakefulness and sleep creating a theoretical background for understanding different disturbances of sleep. PMID:23746394

  13. The occupational impact of sleep quality and insomnia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, Erica R; Morgan, Kevin; Hall, Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    While the importance of assessing the occupational consequences of insomnia is emphasized in clinical nosologies and research guidelines, there is little consensus on which aspects of occupational performance should be assessed, the most methodologically justifiable measures of insomnia and work performance, and how outcomes should be reported. The present review was designed to summarize and methodologically critique the assessment of those aspects of occupational performance most impacted by (or most frequently associated with) insomnia symptoms. The 30 studies which met the review inclusion criteria broadly addressed six domains of occupational functioning: absenteeism; workplace accidents; productivity; punctuality; job satisfaction and career progression. Collectively, study outcomes support the conclusions that insomnia symptoms: are consistently associated with excess absenteeism; elevate accident risk in the workplace; reduce subjectively experienced workplace productivity (at least in the shorter term); inhibit career progression; and can degrade job satisfaction. Study outcomes do not support the conclusion that people with insomnia are significantly less punctual than other workers. The overall value of the occupational sleep-health literature, however, is limited by a lack of comparability among studies. In particular, there is a clear need to standardize definitions of sleep and occupational outcomes, and to recognize the confounding influence of health variables on occupational performance and sleep. PMID:22401983

  14. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H J; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-03-01

    Fourteen self-reported insomniacs (SRI) and 14 good sleepers (GS) had their cardiac neuronal activity assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) under controlled respiration at a slow frequency rate of 0.1 Hz, and a forced rate of 0.2 Hz during daytime rest. Nighttime sleep was measured by polysomnography. The SRI showed depressed high frequency power of HRV compared to the GS. An increased total power of HRV was observed among the SRI during slow, paced breathing compared with spontaneous breathing and 0.2 Hz. Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality. PMID:25234581

  15. Quality of Life, Sleep, and Health of Air Traffic Controllers With Rapid Counterclockwise Shift Rotation.

    PubMed

    Sonati, Jaqueline Girnos; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Vilarta, Roberto; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Sonati, Renato José Ferreira; Paduan, Paulo Cézar

    2016-08-01

    Rotating shiftwork is common for air traffic controllers and usually causes sleep deprivation, biological adaptations, and life changes for these workers. This study assessed quality of life, the sleep, and the health of 30 air traffic controllers employed at an international airport in Brazil. The objective was to identify health and quality of life concerns of these professionals. The results identified physical inactivity, overweight, excess body fat, low scores for physical and social relationships, and sleep deprivation for workers in all four workshifts. In conclusion, these workers are at risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases and compromised work performance, suggesting the need for more rest time before working nightshifts and work environments that stimulate physical activity and healthy diets. PMID:27147608

  16. Effect of adjuvant sleep hygiene psychoeducation and lorazepam on depression and sleep quality in patients with major depressive disorders: results from a randomized three-arm intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Shamsaei, Farshid; Cheraghi, Fatemeh; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are a common co-occurring disturbance in patients with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and accordingly deserve particular attention. Using a randomized design, we investigated the effects of three different adjuvant interventions on sleep and depression among patients with MDD: a sleep hygiene program (SHP), lorazepam (LOR), and their combination (SHP–LOR). Methods A total of 120 outpatients with diagnosed MDD (mean age: 48.25 years; 56.7% females) and treated with a standard SSRI (citalopram at 20–40 mg at therapeutic level) were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: SHP (n=40), LOR (1 mg/d; n=40), SHP–LOR (1 mg/d; n=40). At the beginning and at the end of the study 8 weeks later, patients completed two questionnaires, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess symptoms of depression. Results Sleep disturbances decreased over time and in all groups. No group differences or interactions were observed. Symptoms of depression decreased over time and in all three groups. Reduction in symptoms of depression was greatest in the SHP–LOR group and lowest in the LOR group. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that all three adjuvant treatments improved symptoms of sleep disturbances and depression, with greater benefits for the SHP–LOR for symptoms of depression, but not for sleep. Nevertheless, risks and benefits of benzodiazepine prescriptions should be taken into account. PMID:27382293

  17. Marriage, Relationship Quality, and Sleep among U.S. Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Waite, Linda J.; Lauderdale, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is a restorative behavior essential for health. Poor sleep has been linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults, however, we know little about the social processes that affect sleep. Using innovative actigraphy data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (N=727), we considered the role of marriage, positive marital relationship support, and negative marital relationship strain on older adults’ (aged 62–90) self-reported and actigraph-measured sleep characteristics. We found that married older adults had better actigraph-estimated but not self-reported sleep characteristics than the unmarried. However, among the married, those who reported more negative aspects of their marital relationship reported more insomnia symptoms, with the association reduced when psychosocial characteristics were added to the model. The married who reported more positive aspects of their marital relationship showed better actigraph-estimated sleep characteristics; taking characteristics of the physical and mental health and home environment into account reduced this association. PMID:26272988

  18. Marriage, Relationship Quality, and Sleep among U.S. Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Waite, Linda J; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2015-09-01

    Sleep is a restorative behavior essential for health. Poor sleep has been linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults; however, we know little about the social processes that affect sleep. Using innovative actigraphy data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 727), we considered the role of marriage, positive marital relationship support, and negative marital relationship strain on older adults' (ages 62-90) self-reported and actigraph-measured sleep characteristics. We found that married older adults had better actigraph-estimated but not self-reported sleep characteristics than the unmarried. However, among the married, those who reported more negative aspects of their marital relationship reported more insomnia symptoms, with the association reduced when psychosocial characteristics were added to the model. The married who reported more positive aspects of their marital relationship showed better actigraph-estimated sleep characteristics; taking characteristics of the physical and mental health and home environment into account reduced this association. PMID:26272988

  19. Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Tony J.; Chambers, Alexis M.; Payne, Jessica D.

    2014-01-01

    Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues

  20. Fifteen-minute consultation on problems in the healthy child: sleep.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Jessica R; Farquhar, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Sleep-related issues are common reasons children present to health professionals. Many factors can adversely affect sleep quality, and there are many associations of inadequate sleep, including behavioural problems, obesity and accidental injury. We review the current evidence, and suggest practical management strategies to promote better sleep, and hopefully, better functioning for child and family alike. PMID:27112910

  1. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention to Promote Sleep in an ICU

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Biren B.; Yang, Jessica; King, Lauren M.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rowden, Annette M.; Brower, Roy G.; Collop, Nancy A.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Critically ill patients commonly experience poor sleep quality in the intensive care unit (ICU) because of various modifiable factors. To address this issue, an ICU-wide, multifaceted quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to promote sleep in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU (MICU). To supplement previously published results of this QI intervention, the present article describes the specific QI framework used to develop and implement this intervention, which consists of 4 steps: (a) summarizing the evidence to create a list of sleep-promoting interventions, (b) identifying and addressing local barriers to implementation, (c) selecting performance measures to assess intervention adherence and patient outcomes, and (d) ensuring that all patients receive the interventions through staff engagement and education and regular project evaluation. Measures of performance included daily completion rates of daytime and nighttime sleep improvement checklists and completion rates of individual interventions. Although long-term adherence and sustainability pose ongoing challenges, this model provides a foundation for future ICU sleep promotion initiatives. PMID:24270169

  2. Validation of the French version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Levy, Pierre P.; Bui, Eric; Insana, Salvatore; de Fouchier, Capucine; Germain, Anne; Jehel, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are one of the main complaints of patients with trauma-related disorders. The original Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A) is self-report instrument developed to evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-specific sleep disturbances in trauma-exposed individuals. However, to date, the PSQI-A has not yet been translated nor validated in French. Objective The present study aims to: a) translate the PSQI-A into French, and b) examine its psychometric properties. Method Seventy-three adult patients (mean age=40.3 [SD=15.0], 75% females) evaluated in a specialized psychotraumatology unit completed the French versions of the PSQI-A, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results The French version of the PSQI-A showed satisfactory internal consistency, inter-item correlations, item correlations with the total score, convergent validity with PTSD and anxiety measures, and divergent validity with a depression measure. Conclusion Our findings support the use of the French version of the PSQI-A for both clinical care and research. The French version of the PSQI-A is an important addition to the currently available instruments that can be used to examine trauma-related sleep disturbances among French-speaking individuals. PMID:24044071

  3. An examination of the association between eating problems, negative mood, weight and sleeping quality in young women and men.

    PubMed

    Evans, L; Kennedy, G A; Wertheim, E H

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if low mood influenced the association between eating problem symptoms and self report sleeping quality in a large group of young women and men. A group of 381 female and male undergraduate students completed a set of self-report inventories in order to test a model developed for this study observing the association between eating problems, low mood, restricted dieting, weight and self-reported sleeping quality using a path analysis model. The model that best fit the data indicated that eating problem symptoms were associated with low mood and low mood was related to sleeping quality. There was also a direct association between eating problems and sleeping quality but this was reduced by the presence of low mood in the equation. There were no other direct relationships with sleeping quality but there was an association between low mood and low weight. There were also differences reported between men and women on sleeping quality suggesting that women in this sample reported more sleeping difficulties than men. In all this research demonstrates with a large non-clinical sample the links between eating problems, mood and sleeping difficulties. PMID:16755168

  4. Impact of psychiatric symptoms and sleep disorders on the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Tijero, Beatriz; Somme, Johanne; Ciordia, Roberto; Berganzo, Koldo; Rouco, Idoia; Bustos, Jose Luis; Valle, Maria Antonia; Lezcano, Elena; Zarranz, Juan J

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess how the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), such as depression, cognitive deterioration, neuropsychiatric and sleep disorders, affect the quality of life, and to compare them with the motor symptoms in order to determine their real impact. A cross-sectional study was designed including 99 patients (mean age 68.5 ± 9.9 years, duration of disease 8.7 ± 6.2 years). Demographic data, onset of PD, years on treatment with levodopa (LD), class of dopaminergic drug prescribed, and dosages were obtained. The following scales were used: quality of life (PDQ-39), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS I-IV), Parkinson Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth), Mini-Mental State Examination, depression (HAM-D), and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI-10). The PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39 SI) was 24.7 ± 13.2. A linear regression model including all variables showed that four independent variables accounted for 67.2% of the variance in the PDQ-39 SI (F = 33,277; p < 0.001): NPI, PDSS, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS I. When sub-items of the NPI, PDSS and UPDRS IV scales are analyzed, significant correlations (p < 0.001) are found between the PDQ-39 SI and depression, agitation, apathy, anxiety, hallucinations, delusions, incontinence of urine, morning painful posturing, restlessness in bed, morning fatigue, duration of off periods, unpredictable and predictable off periods, early morning dystonia, and sudden off periods. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially depression, nighttime sleep disorders such as urinary incontinence, nighttime restlessness, morning fatigue and somnolence, off-period dystonia and motor fluctuations are the variables that most affect the quality of life of patients with PD. PMID:20957384

  5. The Association between Short or Long Sleep Times and Quality of Life (QOL): Results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV–V)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep can affect quality of life (QOL). We examined the association between self-reported sleep time and QOL independent of perceived health status and depressive disorder using the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) and a visual analog scale (VAS). Methods: We used the nationwide cross-sectional survey data of 28,178 subjects from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV–V. Self-reported sleep time was assessed by average hours of sleep per day. QOL was measured using the EQ-5D and VAS. A generalized additive model and multiple linear regression analysis were used to estimate the effect of sleep time on the QOL while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results: We found a significant inverted U-shaped relationship between sleep time and QOL using both the EQ-5D and VAS indices. Compared with subjects who slept 7 h/day, Korean men whose sleep time was very short (≤ 4 h/ day) or very long (≥ 10 h/day) had substantially worse QOL (−3.125 in EQ-5D, p < 0.001 and −4.387 on the VAS, p = 0.000 for ≤ 4 h/day; −1.763 in EQ-5D, p = 0.001 and −1.944 on the VAS for ≥ 10 h/day, all p = 0.038). A similar inverted U-shape was observed between sleep time and QOL in Korean women. Conclusions: Inappropriate sleep time (either short or long) in both men and women was significantly associated with lower QOL. In particular, such an association was more apparent among persons whose perceived health status was poor. Citation: Kim JH, Park EC, Yoo KB, Park S. The association between short or long sleep times and quality of life (QOL): results of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV–V). J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):625–634. PMID:25979101

  6. Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

  7. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing. PMID:27294324

  8. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Sleep Quality in Hospitalized Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Milena; Chiaromanni, Federica; Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; De Rui, Michele; Amodio, Piero; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Mazzotta, Gabriella; Costa, Rodolfo; Montagnese, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep–wake disturbances are common in hospitalized patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight-saving time. Methods: Between March and April 2013, 118 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76 ± 11 years; hospitalization: 8 ± 7 days) enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results: Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2–59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half-way down for most of the 24 h. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e., 222 ± 72 vs. 174 ± 85 lux, p < 0.05 before the switch; 198 ± 72 vs. 141 ± 137 lux, p < 0.01 after the switch) and tended to sleep better (7.3 ± 1.8 vs. 5.8 ± 2.4 on a 1–10 scale, before the switch, p < 0.05; 7.7 ± 2.3 vs. 6.6 ± 1.8, n.s. after the switch). Noise levels were higher than recommended for care units but substantially comparable across times/room types. No significant differences were observed in sleep parameters before/after the switch. Conclusion: Medical wards appear to be noisy environments, in which limited attention is paid to light/dark hygiene. An association

  9. Sleep patterns of Japanese preschool children and their parents: implications for co-sleeping

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the direct relationship of sleep schedule and sleep quality variables between healthy preschool children and their parents, focusing on the influence of the difference in bedtime between each other. Methods Forty-seven Japanese 5-year-old children and their primary parent were studied. The parents completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The children wore an actigraph for one week. Results Although sleep patterns of children were generally independent of their parents, late sleep end time and bedtime of children were associated with parents' late sleep end time on weekends. For 87% of children and parents who shared a bedroom, sleep quality was negatively affected by a shorter difference in bedtimes between child and parent, but not by co-sleeping. Conclusion Sleep behaviours of parents can influence those of their children. For parents and children who share a bedroom, the timing of bedtime rather than co-sleeping may be a key factor in modulating sleep patterns. Trying to get children asleep and subsequently falling asleep at a similar time may disturb parents' sleep quality, which may subsequently affect that of their children. PMID:23419057

  10. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  11. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of a combined sleep hygiene education and behavioral approach program on sleep quality in workers with insomnia.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Akiko; Nishinoue, Nao; Takano, Tomoki; Eto, Risa; Kato, Noritada; Ono, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a combined sleep hygiene education and behavioral approach program on sleep quality in workers with insomnia, we conducted a randomized controlled trial at a design engineering unit in Japan. Employees evaluated for insomnia by the Athens Insomnia Scale (≥6 points) were divided into an intervention and control group. The intervention group received a short-term intervention (30 min) program that included sleep hygiene education and behavioral approaches (relaxation training, stimulus control, and sleep restriction) performed by occupational health professionals. We calculated differences in change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores between the two groups from baseline to three months after the start of intervention after adjusting for gender, age, job title, job category, average number of hours of overtime during the study period, marital status, smoking habit, average number of days of alcohol consumption per week, exercise habits, K6 score, and baseline PSQI score. Results showed that the average PSQI score decreased by 1.0 in the intervention group but increased by 0.9 in the control group. Additionally, the difference in variation between the two groups was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.6 to 3.4), which was significant. Taken together, these results indicate that the intervention program significantly improved the sleep quality of workers with insomnia. PMID:22185894

  12. Impact of corticotherapy, nutrition, and sleep disorder on quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Jeronimo, Giovanna; Nozoe, Karen T; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2016-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the second most common hereditary genetic disease in humans and has elevated mortality. DMD is an X-linked, life-limiting progressive muscle-wasting disease found predominantly in boys and young men. One of the main treatments for patients with DMD is corticosteroids. However, long-term use may cause major side effects such as obesity, a reduction in vitamin D, and osteoporosis. Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition among patients with DMD, especially obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In children, OSA is associated with obesity and a reduction of vitamin D concentration. In this article we aim to explore the interrelationship that exists between corticosteroids, obesity, OSA, and the risk of osteoporosis. Our main hypothesis is that factors such as nutrition and sleep are related to obesity and OSA, respectively. In addition, the chronic use of corticosteroids, obesity, and OSA are factors that can reduce serum levels of vitamin D, triggering osteoporosis. Thus, these factors play a key role in affecting the quality of life for patients with DMD and intervention based on these aspects may improve survival. PMID:26701140

  13. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M

    2009-09-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems. PMID:19493298

  14. Morningness/eveningness chronotype, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness in relation to common mental disorders among Peruvian college students.

    PubMed

    Rose, Deborah; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Yanez, N David; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and common mental disorders (CMDs) among Peruvian college students. A total of 2538 undergraduate students completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information about sleep characteristics, sociodemographic, and lifestyle data. Evening chronotype, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectivelty. Presence of CMDs was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression procedures were used to examine the associations of sleep disturbances with CMDs while accounting for possible confounding factors. Overall, 32.9% of the participants had prevalent CMDs (39.3% among females and 24.4% among males). In multivariable-adjusted logistic models, those with evening chronotype (odds ratios (OR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.00-2.05), poor sleep quality (OR = 4.50; 95% CI 3.69-5.49), and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.41-2.01) were at a relative increased odds of CMDs compared with those without sleep disturbances. In conclusion, we found strong associations between sleep disturbances and CMDs among Peruvian college students. Early education and preventative interventions designed to improve sleep habits may effectively alter the possibility of developing CMDs among young adults. PMID:25162477

  15. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality. PMID:24103562

  16. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly: Part 1: epidemiology and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Frohnhofen, H; Schlitzer, J

    2014-08-01

    Restorative sleep is an important factor for well-being, performance and quality of life. The basic diagnostic procedure of a sleep disorder is to take a comprehensive sleep history. Sleep disorders can and must be distinguished from the physiological changes of sleep in the elderly. Insomnia (difficulty in sleeping), daytime sleepiness (hypersomnia), sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) and movement disorders during sleep are also common in the elderly. They must be detected because they are treatable and can dominate the clinical picture of geriatric syndromes. Nursing home residents and dementia patients are in particular need of attention as their sleep is often adversely affected by the living environment and the daily institutional routine. PMID:25117857

  17. Non-pharmacological interventions for improving sleep quality in patients on dialysis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Jiaruo; Xue, Qiang; Wei, Tingting; Xu, Jing; Ye, Chaoyang; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarise and quantify the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on sleep quality improvement in uraemic patients on dialysis. We defined the primary outcome as the change of sleep quality before and after interventions (evaluated by polysomonography or subjective questionnaires such as Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI). The change of fatigue scales, inflammatory cytokines and adverse events were analysed as secondary outcomes. Twelve eligible randomised controlled trials and one prospective cohort study were identified. All three identified non-pharmacological interventions could result in a greater PSQI score reduction compared to controls: 1) cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) versus sleep hygiene education (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.85, 95% CI 0.37-1.34); 2) physical training versus no training (SMD 3.36, 95% CI 2.16-4.57) and 3) Acupressure (including other acupoints massages) versus control (SMD 1.77, 95% CI 0.80-2.73). In terms of subscores, we found that CBT may shorten sleep latency, alleviate sleep disturbance and reduce the use of sleep medications. The finding of the cohort study suggested that intradialytic aerobic exercise training improved sleep quality in haemodialysis patients with restless leg syndrome. In conclusion, in dialysis-dependent patients, CBT could shorten sleep latency, alleviate sleep disturbance and reduce the use of sleep medications. Acupressure (including other acupoints massages) and exercise training are promising interventions but the results in these subgroups should be interpreted cautiously due to the concern of methodological quality and potential confounding factors. PMID:25645131

  18. An evaluation of sleep quality and the prevalence of restless leg syndrome in vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Tuncay; Doğan, Gülsüm; Subaşı, Volkan; Filiz, Meral Bilgilisoy; Ülker, Nur; Doğan, Şebnem Koldaş; Toraman, Naciye Füsun

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D is known to increase levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the brain and also protects dopaminergic neurons against dopaminergic toxins. The aims of the study were to assess the frequency and symptom severity of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and sleep quality in vitamin D deficiency. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, comprising 57 vitamin D deficient patients as Group 1 and 45 patients with normal levels of vitamin D as Group 2. RLS was diagnosed according to the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria. Symptom severity was assessed using the IRLSSG rating scale and sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). RLS incidence was higher in Group 1 (p = 0.034). The PSQI scores were higher in Group 1 and the difference between the groups was determined as statistically significant (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was determined in respect of the clinical evaluation and the IRLSSG Symptom Severity Scale between the patients in Group 1 diagnosed with RLS and the patients in Group 2 diagnosed with RLS (p > 0.05). The findings of this study support the hypothesis that RLS is more frequent and more severe in vitamin D deficiency and indicate a negative effect of vitamin deficiency on sleep parameters. PMID:25904436

  19. Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Bin-Na; Park, Seung Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Choi, Hong; Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Dongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based. Participants: A sample of 5,480 subjects who were actively working as train drivers were recruited in South Korea. The participants were 4,634 drivers who completed all questionnaires (response rate 84.6%). Interventions: None Measurements: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Results: Of 4,634 train drivers, 349 (7.5%) showed more than one human error per 5 y. Human errors were associated with poor sleep quality, higher PSQI total scores, short sleep duration at night, and longer sleep latency. Among train drivers with poor sleep quality, those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress showed a significantly higher number of human errors than those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that human errors were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and posttraumatic stress, whereas there were no significant associations with depression, trait and state anxiety, and work stress after adjusting for age, sex, education years, marital status, and career duration. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with more human errors in train drivers, especially in those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress. Citation: Jeon HJ, Kim JH, Kim BN, Park SJ, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Choi H, Roh S, Lee D. Sleep quality, posttraumatic stress, depression, and human errors in train drivers: a population-based nationwide study in South Korea. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1969-1975. PMID:25325495

  20. Declining Sleep Quality among Nurses: A Population-Based Four-Year Longitudinal Study on the Transition from Nursing Education to Working Life

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Gustavsson, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have established impaired sleep is a common problem among nurses. Overworked, fatigued and stressed nurses are at a higher risk of making mistakes that threaten patient safety as well as their own health. The aim of the present study was to longitudinally monitor the development of sleep quality in nurses, starting from the last semester at the university, with three subsequent annual follow-ups once the nurses had entered working life. Methodology/Principal Findings Nationwide, longitudinal questionnaire study of nursing students and newly qualified nurses in Sweden. The results imply a continuous decline in sleep quality among nurses during the three years of follow-up, starting from their last semester of nursing education and continuing for three years into their working life. The most pronounced short-term decline in sleep quality seems to occur in the transition between student life and working life. Conclusion/Significance This finding is important since it may affect the quality of care and the health of nurses negatively. PMID:21170381

  1. [Poor quality of sleep associated with low adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peruvian patients with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    Tello-Velásquez, Jorge Renzo; Díaz-Llanes, Bruno Eduardo; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Huamaní, Charles; Hernández, Adrián V; Arévalo-Abanto, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzed the association between poor quality of sleep and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 389 Peruvian patients with HIV/AIDS. Poor quality of sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and adherence with the CEAT-VIH (Peruvian adaptation). A Poisson generalized linear model with robust standard errors was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95%CI. A crude model showed that mild, moderate, and severe poor quality of sleep were associated with inadequate treatment adherence. In the adjusted model for variables associated in the bivariate analysis or variables theoretically associated with adherence, only moderate/severe poor quality of sleep remained associated (PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.17-1.54; and PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.16-1.57, respectively). The study concluded that moderate/severe poor quality of sleep was independently associated with adherence to HAART. Assessing quality of sleep may be helpful in the comprehensive evaluation of HIV patients. PMID:26083174

  2. Family economic hardship and Chinese adolescents' sleep quality: A moderated mediation model involving perceived economic discrimination and coping strategy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping; Lai, Xuefen

    2016-07-01

    The association between family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment outcomes, including sleep quality, is well-established. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relation between family economic hardship and adolescents' sleep quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of family economic hardship on Chinese adolescents' sleep quality, as well as the role of perceived economic discrimination as a mediator and the role of coping strategy as a moderator. Survey data from a cross-sectional sample of 997 Chinese adolescents (45% male, mean age = 15.04 years) were analyzed using path analysis in Mplus 7.0. The results of this study indicated that family economic hardship was significantly associated with adolescents' sleep quality. This association was mediated by adolescents' perceived economic discrimination. In addition, adolescents' coping strategy significantly moderated the path from perceived economic discrimination to sleep quality, with the "shift" coping strategy as a protective factor. The present study contributes to our understanding of key mechanisms underlying the association between family economic hardship and adolescent sleep quality and highlights the importance of improving sleep quality for adolescents exposed to economic hardship. PMID:27232103

  3. Short Sleep Duration and Poor Sleep Quality Increase the Risk of Diabetes in Japanese Workers With No Family History of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Toshiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Satoh, Hiroki; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kawaharada, Mariko; Okada, Eisaku; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a difference in the risk for diabetes exists in Japanese workers with regard to sleep duration/quality and the presence or absence of a family history of diabetes (FHD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The researchers conducted a prospective, occupational-based study of local government employees in Sapporo, Japan. Between April 2003 and March 2004, 3,570 nondiabetic participants, aged 35–55 years, underwent annual health checkups and completed a self-administered questionnaire that included information on sleep duration/quality and FHD at baseline. Having diabetes was defined as taking medication for diabetes or a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL at follow-up (2007–2008). RESULTS A total of 121 (3.4%) new cases of diabetes were reported. In multivariate logistic regression models of workers without an FHD, and after adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (95% CI) for developing diabetes was 5.37 (1.38–20.91) in those with a sleep duration of ≤5 h compared with those with a sleep duration of >7 h. Other risk factors were awakening during the night (5.03 [1.43–17.64]), self-perceived insufficient sleep duration (6.76 [2.09–21.87]), and unsatisfactory overall quality of sleep (3.71 [1.37–10.07]). In subjects with an FHD, these associations were either absent or weaker. CONCLUSIONS The current study shows that poor sleep is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in workers without an FHD. Promoting healthy sleeping habits may be effective for preventing the development of diabetes in people without an FHD. PMID:22210572

  4. Non-pharmacological interventions for sleep quality and insomnia during pregnancy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbach, Dana; Broker, Riley; Herlehy, Stacia; Stuber, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding non-pharmacological inteventions for improving sleep quality and insomnia during pregnancy. Methods: An electronic search strategy was conducted using several online databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Index to Chiropractic Literature) from inception to March 2013. Inclusion criteria consisted of studies evaluating non-pharmacological interventions, published in English in a peer reviewed journal, and assessed sleep quality or insomnia. The full text of suitable articles was reviewed by the authors, and scored using a risk of bias assessment. Results: 160 articles were screened and seven studies met the inclusion criteria in the form of three prospective RCTs, one prospective longitudinal trial, one experimental pilot study, and two prospective quasi-randomized trials. Quality scores ranged from five to eight out of twelve on the risk of bias scoring criteria. Conclusions: Exercise, massage, and acupuncture may be associated with improved sleep quality during pregnancy, however, due to the low quality and heterogeneity of the studies yielded, a definitive recommendation cannot be made. Further higher quality research is indicated. PMID:23997252

  5. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jessie S. M.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Chung, Ka-fai; Wang, Chong-wen; Yao, Tzy-jyun; Ng, Siu-man; Chan, Cecilia L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380. PMID:25610473

  6. Survey of On-Orbit Sleep Quality: Short-Duration Flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, J.; Leveton, L.; Keeton, K.; Whitmire, A.; Patterson, H.; Faulk, J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP), in conjunction with the NASA Space Medicine Division, is currently completing the largest systematic, subjective assessment of shuttle astronauts sleep behaviors and sleep quality on Earth, during training periods, and during space flight missions. Since July 2009, a total of 66 astronauts have completed a secure online survey regarding specific sleep strategies, crew policies, and mitigation effectiveness. In addition to the survey, each astronaut participant met individually with trained BHP and SD representatives for a structured, follow-up interview. Data are currently being assessed and the study s principal investigator will be providing some preliminary findings at the Investigators Workshop. Additional analyses will be conducted in the following months to examine predictors of optimal sleep in space, and to evaluate the differences in countermeasure effectiveness between groups based on their sleep experience on the ground and on orbit. A revised survey for a subsequent investigation on the experiences of long-duration flyers will be developed in the Spring and implemented in the Summer of 2010. Findings from both of these investigations will inform countermeasure strategies for astronauts, medical operations, and habitat designers for future exploration missions, as well as upcoming shuttle and ISS missions.

  7. Kids and Sleep: How a Lack of ZZZ's Can Affect Those A's and B's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Christin L.; Walsh, James K.

    1993-01-01

    Sleepy students may not reach their full potential. Most sleepiness results from sleep disorders, circadian factors, or schedules with too little sleep. Consequences of sleepiness include decreased performance, worsened mood, and potential for danger. Parents and professionals must understand the need for sleep and help students obtain enough…

  8. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  9. The Impact of Sleep Loss on Hippocampal Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cellular and molecular processes critical for memory consolidation are affected by the amount and quality of sleep attained. Questions remain with regard to how sleep enhances memory, what parameters of sleep after learning are optimal for memory consolidation, and what underlying hippocampal molecular players are targeted by sleep…

  10. The Relations of Sleep and Quality of Life to School Performance in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parent and youth self-reports to test the hypothesis that perceived insufficient sleep duration, inconsistent sleep habits, reduced quality of life, less frequent blood glucose monitoring, and higher hemoglobin A1c would predict poorer school functioning among 50 youth with type 1 diabetes. The data suggested that a delay in…

  11. Association between serum bicarbonate and pH with depression, cognition and sleep quality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common feature in chronic renal failure patients, worsening progressively as renal function declines. There are conflicting data in hemodialysis (HD) patients with regard to acidosis, alkalosis and mortality. In HD patients, cognitive impairment, depression, sleep disorders and impaired quality of life are very common. Besides, these conditions are related with increased morbidity and mortality. However, no previous study investigated the relationship between pH, venous bicarbonate and anion gap with depression, sleep problems and cognitive function in HD patients. In this study we investigated these relationships. In total, 65 HD patients were included. The demographic parameters and laboratory parameters including bicarbonate, pH and anion gap was measured for all patients. Depressive symptoms, sleep quality and cognitive function, were measured by Beck depression inventory, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and by Mini Mental State Examination, respectively. We found that, sleep quality but not cognitive function or depression was independently related with venous pH and bicarbonate. Anion gap has no independent relationship with sleep quality, cognitive function and depression. In conclusion, metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels were independently related with sleep quality in HD patients. However, there was no association between metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels with cognitive function and depression. PMID:25894326

  12. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%-70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. Two types of TBI negatively impact sleep: contact injuries causing focal brain damage and acceleration/deceleration injuries causing more generalized brain damage. Diagnosis of sleep disorders after TBI may involve polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing and/or actigraphy. Treatment is disorder specific and may include the use of medications, continuous positive airway pressure (or similar device) and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, treatment of sleep disorders associated with TBI often does not improve sleepiness or neuropsychological function. PMID:23099139

  14. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  15. [How nursing staff perceive the duration and quality of sleep and levels of alertness].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Borges, Flavio Notarnicola da Silva; Goncalves, Marina Brandão Lourenço; Ferreira, Regiane Miranda

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted among health care personnel (registered nurses and nurse aides) in a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Work was organized in 12-hour daytime or nighttime shifts, followed by 36 hours off. The study aimed to evaluate how the nursing staff perceived the duration and quality of sleep both during and off work days, as well as their perception of alertness during working hours. There were significant differences between night and day in the duration of sleep (Student t test = 10.82; p < 0.000). Quality of daytime sleep after working night shifts was perceived as worse than nighttime sleep (Wilcoxon test, Z = 2.67; p < 0.007). Significant differences were detected in self-evaluation of alertness after the 2nd, 6th, and 10th hour of night shifts (Friedman = 63.0; p < 0.00). Alertness was perceived as worse during dawn hours. This is an indication of sleepiness at work and can have serious consequences for both health care workers and patients. PMID:12244358

  16. Qualitative study of the quality of sleep in marginalized individuals living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Parya; Comfort, Megan; Sheon, Nicolas; Johnson, Mallory O

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances have been reported to be higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals compared to the general population. Despite the consequences of poor quality of sleep (QOS), research regarding sleep disturbances in HIV infection is lacking and many questions regarding correlates of poor QOS, especially in marginalized populations, remain unanswered. We conducted one-on-one qualitative interviews with 14 marginalized HIV-infected individuals who reported poor QOS to examine self-reported correlates of sleep quality and explore the relationship between QOS and antiretroviral adherence. Findings suggest a complex and multidimensional impact of mental health issues, structural factors, and physical conditions on QOS of these individuals. Those reporting poor QOS as a barrier to antiretroviral adherence reported lower adherence due to falling asleep or feeling too tired to take medications in comparison to those who did not express this adherence barrier. These interviews underscore the importance of inquiries into a patient’s QOS as an opportunity to discuss topics such as adherence, depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use. PMID:23807839

  17. Quality assurance in China: a sleeping tiger awakens

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The People`s Republic of China has undergone major economic reform in the past decade producing a new free-market system that is distinctly Chinese. The Chinese realize that to be successful in world trade, quality management and export trading must be given the highest priority in China`s strategic economic plans. Many manufacturing companies are now implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) and the ISO 9000 i quality management standards. A first hand survey of the quality movement in China today is the objective of this paper.

  18. Higher sleep variability is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chontong, Sasipas; Saetung, Sunee; Reutrakul, Sirimon

    2016-08-01

    Sleep disturbances have been linked to insulin resistance and poor glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the data are limited in type 1 diabetes. Recently, varying day-to-day sleep schedules, i.e. sleep variability, have been associated with adverse metabolic profile in healthy individuals. This study explored whether sleep variability affects glycaemic control and insulin requirement in type 1 diabetes. Forty-one adult patients with type 1 diabetes wore an actigraphy for 5 nights. Standard deviation of sleep duration, efficiency and mid-sleep time were sleep variability parameters. Sleep apnoea risk and self-reported sleep quality were assessed by the Berlin questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Haemoglobin A1c, diabetes complications and insulin regimen were obtained from medical records. After adjusting for neuropathic symptoms, sleep apnoea risk and poor self-reported sleep quality, higher sleep variability was significantly associated with poorer glycaemic control (standard deviation of sleep duration, B = 0.100, P = 0.004; and standard deviation of mid-sleep time, B = 0.068, P = 0.04). In addition, standard deviations of sleep duration and mid-sleep time were highly correlated, suggesting that participants changed their sleep duration along with sleep timing. After adjusting for covariates, the standard deviation of sleep duration (P = 0.009) and standard deviation of mid-sleep time (P = 0.012) were associated with higher insulin requirement. In summary, higher sleep variability, which likely reflects sleep deprivation alternating with sleep compensation along with shifts in their circadian timing, was associated with poorer glycaemic control and higher insulin requirement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Increased sleep regularity may improve metabolic control in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26912272

  19. Comparing the Effects of Reflexology and Footbath on Sleep Quality in the Elderly: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Seyyedrasooli, Alehe; Zamanazadeh, Vahid; Nasiri, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common mental disorders reported among the elderly in all countries, and with nonpharmacological interventions, they could be helped to improve their sleep quality. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two interventions, foot reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people. Patients and Methods: This three-group randomized clinical trial (two experimental groups and a control group) was conducted on 69 elderly men. The two experimental groups had reflexology (n = 23) and foot bath (n = 23) interventions for 6 weeks. The reflexology intervention was done in the mornings, once a week for ten minutes on each foot. The participants in the foot bath group were asked to soak their feet in 41°C to 42°C water one hour before sleeping. The pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was completed before and after the intervention through an interview process. Results: The results showed that the PSQI scores after intervention compared to before it in the reflexology and foot bath groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01 , P = 0.001); however, in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference (P = 0.14). In addition, the total score changes among the three groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01). Comparing the score changes of quality of sleep between the reflexology and foot bath groups showed that there was no significant difference in none of the components and the total score (P = 0.09). The two interventions had the same impact on the quality of sleep. Conclusions: It is suggested that the training of nonpharmacological methods to improve sleep quality such as reflexology and foot bath be included in the elderly health programs. In addition, it is recommended that the impact of these interventions on subjective sleep quality using polysomnographic recordings be explored in future research. PMID:26734475

  20. The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nozoe, Karen T; Hachul, Helena; Hirotsu, Camila; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease. All of them voluntarily responded to the evaluating questionnaires about their sexuality and their quality of sleep, and gave blood samples to evaluate their hormonal levels. Main Outcome Measures All mothers were evaluated using the questionnaire of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI). The blood samples were tested to determine serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol. Results Caregiving mothers of sons with DMD had significantly lower scores in the FSFI questionnaire, suggesting a higher risk for sexual dysfunction. The PSQI demonstrated that these caregiving mothers present increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and poor sleep quality. Blood tests showed a rise in cortisol levels, which correlated with the compromised sexuality and quality of sleep. Conclusions This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140. PMID:25356310

  1. Sleep Duration, Schedule and Quality among Urban Chinese Children and Adolescents: Associations with Routine After-School Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Baur, Louise A.; Ding, Ding; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing

    2015-01-01

    Background With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. Methods Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4–8) living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students’ sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time), and potential correlates. Results Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls) was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001) and went to bed later (p<0.001), a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005) and bedtime (p=0.002). Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. Conclusion There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children’s use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated. PMID:25611973

  2. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in clinical and non-clinical samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Burton, Kirsteen; Mollayeva, Shirin; Shapiro, Colin M; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-02-01

    This review appraises the process of development and the measurement properties of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), gauging its potential as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in non-clinical and clinical samples; it also compares non-clinical and clinical populations in terms of PSQI scores. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and HAPI databases were searched. Critical appraisal of studies of measurement properties was performed using COSMIN. Of 37 reviewed studies, 22 examined construct validity, 19 - known-group validity, 15 - internal consistency, and three - test-retest reliability. Study quality ranged from poor to excellent, with the majority designated fair. Internal consistency, based on Cronbach's alpha, was good. Discrepancies were observed in factor analytic studies. In non-clinical and clinical samples with known differences in sleep quality, the PSQI global scores and all subscale scores, with the exception of sleep disturbance, differed significantly. The best evidence synthesis for the PSQI showed strong reliability and validity, and moderate structural validity in a variety of samples, suggesting the tool fulfills its intended utility. A taxonometric analysis can contribute to better understanding of sleep dysfunction as either a dichotomous or continuous construct. PMID:26163057

  3. Sleep quality in patients with xerostomia: a prospective and randomized case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Lucero Berdugo, Maira; Fernandez-Pujante, Alba; C, Castillo Felipe; Lavella C, Zamora; A, Pons-Fuster; J, Silvestre Rangil; Silvestre, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate sleep quality, anxiety/depression and quality-of-life in patients with xerostomia. Materials and methods This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of xerostomia patients (n = 30) compared with 30 matched control subjects. The following evaluation scales were used to assess the psychological profile of each patient: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), the Xerostomia Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results The PSQI obtained 5.3 3 ± 1.78 for patients with xerostomia compared with 4.26 ± 1.01 for control subjects (p = 0.006); ESS obtained 5.7 ± 2.1 for test patients vs 4.4 0 ± 1 for control subjects (p = 0.010). Statistical regression analysis showed that xerostomia was significantly associated with depression (p = 0.027). Conclusions Patients with xerostomia exhibited significant decreases in sleep quality compared with control subjects. PMID:26473793

  4. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly

  5. Inverse U-shaped Association between Sleep Duration and Semen Quality: Longitudinal Observational Study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Roenneberg, Till; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep duration and semen parameters as well as reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We designed a cohort of male college students in Chongqing, China. A total of 796 subjects were recruited in 2013 and 656 (82.4%) were followed up in 2014. Each time, semen and peripheral blood samples were collected for semen quality and reproductive hormone measurement. Sleep duration was estimated by revised Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In 2014, sleep quality was also measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a substantial inverse U-shaped association between sleep duration and two semen parameters (semen volume and total sperm number), with 7.0–7.5 h/day of sleep showing highest parameters. Either longer or shorter sleep was associated with decreased semen parameters in a dose-response manner (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Sleeping > 9.0 h was associated with a 21.5% (95% confidence interval 9.2, 32.2) reduction in semen volume and 39.4% (23.3, 52.1) reduction in total sperm number; sleeping ≤ 6.5 h was associated with 4.6% (−10.5, 22.3) and 25.7% (−1.2, 60.1) reduction. Increase of the two parameters was found in those who changed sleep duration toward 7.0–7.5 h/day from 2013 to 2014. The U-shaped association was independent from PSQI and was replicated in another dataset of 1,346 males. No association found between sleep duration and reproductive hormone. Conclusions: Either restricted or excessive sleep may impair semen quality. Further research is needed to validate this finding. Citation: Chen Q, Yang H, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, Chen H, Ling X, Zhang G, Huang L, Li L, Ma M, Yang H, Wang X, Zou P, Peng K, Liu T, Cui Z, Ao L, Roenneberg T, Zhou Z, Cao J. Inverse u-shaped association between sleep duration and semen quality: longitudinal observational study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China. SLEEP 2016;39(1):79–86. PMID:26350472

  6. Pathways of Sleep, Affect, and Stress Constellations during the First Year of College: Transition Difficulties of Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Lilac Lev; Shulman, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and fifty Israeli first-year college students were assessed twice: during the first semester following the commencement of their undergraduate studies and toward the end of the second semester. At each semester, participants completed web-based daily diaries for seven consecutive days assessing daily sleep, affective mood, stress, and…

  7. Sleep Quality Effects Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)--A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Long; Wang, ZhenHu; Fan, Dong

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of sleep quality on early recovery after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 148 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either zolpidem or placebo for 2 weeks. VAS pain scores (rest, ambulation and night), range of motion (ROM), total amount of opioid analgesics and antiemetics taken, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), sleep efficacy and satisfaction were recorded. It was found that patients taking zolpidem achieved greater improvement in quality of life and reported better satisfaction. Patients in the intervention group had lower pain score and took less antiemetics. Moreover, a significant correlation between sleep quality and ROM was detected. These results demonstrated that improved sleep quality is beneficial to patients' post-TKA recovery. PMID:26344094

  8. Patterns of sleep quality during and after postacute rehabilitation in older adults: a latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer L; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Mitchell, Michael; Fung, Constance H; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A

    2013-12-01

    Sleep quality is related to emotional, physical, psychological and cognitive functioning and functional independence in later life. After acute health events, older adults are likely to utilize postacute rehabilitation services to improve functioning and facilitate return to independent living. Patterns of how sleep changes with postacute rehabilitation, and predictors of such patterns, are unknown. The current investigation employed latent class analysis (LCA) methods to classify older adults (n = 233) into groups based on patterns of self-reported sleep quality pre-illness, during postacute rehabilitation and up to 1 year following postacute rehabilitation. Using LCA, older adults were grouped into (1) consistently good sleepers (46%), (2) good sleepers who transitioned into poor sleepers (34%), (3) consistently poor sleepers (14%) and (4) poor sleepers who transitioned into good sleepers (6%). In three planned analyses, pain was an independent predictor of membership in classes 1 or 2 (good pre-illness sleep quality) versus classes 3 or 4 (poor pre-illness sleep quality), and of membership in class 1 (consistently good sleep) versus class 2 (good sleep that transitioned to poor sleep). A lower Mini-Mental State Examination score was a predictor of membership in class 1 versus class 2. There were no statistically significant predictors of membership in class 3 versus class 4. Demographics, comorbidities and depressive symptoms were not significant predictors of class membership. These findings have implications for identification of older adults at risk for developing poor sleep associated with changes in health and postacute rehabilitation. The findings also suggest that pain symptoms should be targeted to improve sleep during postacute rehabilitation. PMID:23834036

  9. Association between Facebook Dependence and Poor Sleep Quality: A Study in a Sample of Undergraduate Students in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José Alonso; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Arroyo, Karen J.; Solís-Visscher, Rodrigo; Paredes-Yauri, Stephania; Mego-Aquije, Karina; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people’s life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0%) were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5) years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%–11.3%), whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%–59.8%). A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04–1.67) after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. Conclusions There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed. PMID:23554978

  10. The Effects of Acupressure Training on Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Liu, Mengjiao; Wang, Ping; Kang, Jiaxun; Lu, Fenghua; Pan, Lu

    2016-10-01

    We explored the effects of acupressure training on older adults' sleep quality and cognitive function. Ninety older adults with impaired sleep quality were selected from screened volunteers and randomly divided into equal control and experimental groups; 82 completed the 1-year follow-up. Participants in the control group were given instructions on sleep health, while those in the experimental group received sleep health instructions plus individual and small group acupressure training sessions and support to practice the intervention on their own each day. All participants were assessed by trained assistants blind to study group allocation using Chinese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and four subscales from the revised Chinese version of the Wechsler Memory Scale, at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that acupressure training improved older adults' sleep quality and cognitive function, but the mediating effect of sleep on the relationship between acupressure training and cognitive function was not supported. Given the ease, simplicity, and safety of acupressure training observed with community-dwelling older adults in China, attempts should be made to replicate these preliminary positive findings with larger samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27327537

  11. Effects of Estradiol and Venlafaxine on Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Quality in Women with Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Ensrud, Kristine E.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Hohensee, Chancellor; Caan, Bette; Carpenter, Janet S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Landis, Carol A.; Manson, JoAnn; Newton, Katherine M.; Otte, Julie; Reed, Susan D.; Shifren, Jan L.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Woods, Nancy F.; Joffe, Hadine

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine effects of low-dose estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine on self-reported sleep measures in menopausal women with hot flashes. Design: 3-arm double-blind randomized trial. Participants assigned in a 2:2:3 ratio to 17β estradiol 0.5 mg/day (n = 97), venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day (n = 96), or placebo (n = 146) for 8 weeks. Setting: Academic research centers. Participants: 339 community-dwelling perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with ≥ 2 bothersome hot flashes per day. Measurements and Results: Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at baseline, week 4 and 8; 325 women (96%) provided ISI data and 312 women (92%) provided PSQI data at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) hot flash frequency was 8.1/day (5.3), mean ISI was 11.1 (6.0), and mean PSQI was 7.5 (3.4). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in ISI at week 8 was −4.1 points (−5.3 to −3.0) with estradiol, −5.0 points (−6.1 to −3.9) with venlafaxine, and −3.0 points (−3.8 to −2.3) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.09 for estradiol and 0.007 for venlafaxine). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in PSQI at week 8 was −2.2 points (−2.8 to −1.6) with estradiol, −2.3 points (−2.9 to −1.6) with venlafaxine, and −1.2 points (−1.7 to −0.8) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.04 for estradiol and 0.06 for venlafaxine). Conclusions: Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, both low dose oral estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine compared with placebo modestly reduced insomnia symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01418209 at www.clinicaltrials.gov Citation: Ensrud KE, Guthrie KA, Hohensee C, Caan B, Carpenter JS, Freeman EW, LaCroix AZ, Landis CA, Manson J, Newton KM, Otte J, Reed SD, Shifren JL, Sternfeld B, Woods NF, Joffe H. Effects of estradiol and venlafaxine on insomnia symptoms

  12. The Link Between Excessive Quantity of Sleep and Deteriorated Quality of Wakefulness – Implications for the DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. Methods A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 non-institutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥18 (participation rate: 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR, ICSD-II, ICD-10). Results Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence intervals: 8.0%-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4% to 1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3-12 times higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2-4 times more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socio-professional activities and relationships. Although between 33% and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3% to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. Interpretation Excessive Quantity of Sleep is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. PMID:23846792

  13. Peripheral and central blockade of interleukin-6 trans-signaling differentially affects sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Oyanedel, Carlos N; Kelemen, Eduard; Scheller, Jürgen; Born, Jan; Rose-John, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The immune system is known to essentially contribute to the regulation of sleep. Whereas research in this regard focused on the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in sleep regulation has been less intensely studied, probably due to the so far seemingly ambiguous results. Yet, this picture might simply reflect that the effects of IL-6 are conveyed via two different pathways (with possibly different actions), i.e., in addition to the 'classical' signaling pathway via the membrane bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), IL-6 stimulates cells through the alternative 'trans-signaling' pathway via the soluble IL-6R. Here, we concentrated on the contributions of the trans-signaling pathway to sleep regulation. To characterize this contribution, we compared the effect of blocking IL-6 trans-signaling (by the soluble gp130Fc fusion protein) in the brain versus body periphery. Thus, we compared sleep in transgenic mice expressing the soluble gp130Fc protein only in the brain (GFAP mice) or in the body periphery (PEPCK mice), and in wild type mice (WT) during a 24-h period of undisturbed conditions and during 18 h following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation. Compared with WT mice, PEPCK mice displayed less sleep, particularly during the late light phase, and this was accompanied by decreases in slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following sleep deprivation PEPCK mice primarily recovered REM sleep rather than SWS. GFAP mice showed a slight decrease in REM sleep in combination with a profound and persistent increase in EEG theta activity. In conclusion, peripheral and central nervous IL-6 trans-signaling differentially influences brain activity. Peripheral IL-6 trans-signaling appears to more profoundly contribute to sleep regulation, mainly by supporting SWS. PMID:26144889

  14. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Results: Correlation between SA and sleep quality was −0.664(P < 0001), Pearson correlation between SA and thermal comfort was −0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P < 0001). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that improvement of thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses. PMID:25077165

  15. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Manabu; Koyama, Hidenori; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Naka, Mariko; Miyoshi, Akio; Kanzaki, Akinori; Kakutani, Miki; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP) changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated. Methods This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio)], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150), a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164) were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179) and awake physical activity (β = 0.190) were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336) and awake physical activity (β = 0.489) were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls. Conclusion Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension. PMID:27166822

  16. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHANGES Sleeping difficulty is an annoying problem. Chronic insomnia is a major cause of auto accidents and ... health condition is affecting your sleep. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems ...

  17. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  18. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  19. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (p<0.01). Following breakfast, sleep-deprived subjects chose larger portions of snacks (16%, p=0.02), whereas the selection of meal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. PMID:23428257

  20. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    influence, as women showed a declining sleep quality, despite that their physical activity remained unchanged, suggesting other causes such as a higher susceptibility to psycho-social stress and changes in environmental circadian rhythm during long-term isolation in Antarctica. PMID:26918440

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THYROID FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN OLDER MEN: THE OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES IN MEN (MROS) STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Akatsu, Haruko; Ewing, Susan K.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Fink, Howard A.; Stone, Katie L.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Mehra, Reena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Hoffman, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between thyroid hormone levels and sleep quality in community-dwelling men. Methods Among 5,994 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, 682 had baseline thyroid function data, normal free thyroxine (FT4) (0.70 ≤ FT4 ≤ 1.85 ng/dL), actigraphy measurements, and were not using thyroid-related medications. Three categories of thyroid function were defined: subclinical hyperthyroid, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) <0.55 mIU/L; euthyroid (TSH, 0.55 to 4.78 mIU/L); and subclinical hypothyroid (TSH >4.78 mIU/L). Objective (total hours of nighttime sleep [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], wake after sleep onset [WASO], sleep latency [SL], number of long wake episodes [LWEP]) and subjective (TST, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) sleep quality were measured. The association between TSH and sleep quality was examined using linear regression (continuous sleep outcomes) and log-binomial regression (categorical sleep outcomes). Results Among the 682 men examined, 15 had subclinical hyperthyroidism and 38 had subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no difference in sleep quality between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid men. Compared to euthyroid men, subclinical hyperthyroid men had lower mean actigraphy TST (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)], −27.4 [−63.7 to 8.9] minutes) and lower mean SE (−4.5% [−10.3% to 1.3%]), higher mean WASO (13.5 [−8.0 to 35.0] minutes]), whereas 41% had increased risk of actigraphy-measured TST <6 hours (relative risk [RR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.39), and 83% had increased risk of SL ≥60 minutes (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 0.65 to 5.14) (all P>0.05). Conclusion Neither subclinical hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism is significantly associated with decreased sleep quality. PMID:24449663

  2. Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Quantity and Weight Loss in Women Participating in a Weight-Loss Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Kelly L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Ravia, Jennifer J.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Karanja, Njeri; Rock, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who report fewer total hours of sleep are more likely to be overweight or obese. Few studies have prospectively evaluated weight-loss success in relation to reported sleep quality and quantity. This analysis sought to determine the association between sleep characteristics and weight loss in overweight or obese women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a weight-loss program. We hypothesized that in overweight/obese women, significant weight loss would be demonstrated more frequently in women who report a better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global Score or sleep >7 h/night as compared to women who report a worse PSQI score or sleep ≤7 h/night. Women of ages 45.5 ± 10.4 (mean ± SD) years and BMI of 33.9 ± 3.3 (n = 245) were randomized and completed PSQI at baseline and 6 months; 198 had weight change assessed through 24 months. At baseline, 52.7% reported PSQI scores above the clinical cutoff of 5. Better subjective sleep quality increased the likelihood of weight-loss success by 33% (relative risk (RR), 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52–0.86), as did sleeping >7 h/night. A worse Global Score at 6 months was associated with a 28% lower likelihood of continued successful weight loss at 18 months, but unassociated by 24 months. These results suggest that sleep quality and quantity may contribute to weight loss in intervention-based studies designed to promote weight control in overweight/obese adult women. PMID:22402738

  3. A cross-sectional study of shift work, sleep quality and cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, K J; Day, A; Tranmer, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the potential pathways linking shift work and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), this study aimed to identify whether sleep disturbances mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of CVD risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A tertiary-level, acute care teaching hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada. Participants Female hospital employees working a shift schedule of two 12 h days, two 12 h nights, followed by 5 days off (n=121) were compared with female day-only workers (n=150). Primary and secondary outcome measures Each of the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was measured. Of these, PSQI global score, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were examined as potential mediators in the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Results Shift work status was associated with poor (>5) PSQI global score (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.65), poor (≥2) sleep latency (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.87) and poor (≥2) sleep efficiency (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.84). Although shift work was associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.70), the measured components of sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Women working in a rapid forward rotating shift pattern have poorer sleep quality according to self-reported indicators of the validated PSQI and they have a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome compared with women who work during the day only. However, sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that there are other psychophysiological pathways linking shift work to increased risk for CVD. PMID:25757950

  4. Gender differences in the association between objective sleep quality and leukocyte count: The HEIJO-KYO cohort.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Kurumatani, Norio

    2016-10-01

    Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation increases cardiovascular risk and mortality. Subjective assessment of sleep quality in previous observational studies has demonstrated associations with biomarkers of systemic inflammation, although the results are conflicting. In this cross-sectional study on 1098 elderly individuals, circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and actigraphic sleep quality were measured as indices of systemic inflammation and objective sleep quality, respectively. Lower sleep efficiency (SE) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) were significantly associated with increased WBC count in females (n=581) but no significant associations were observed in the association between WBC count and all objective sleep parameters in males (n=517). The associations of lower SE and longer WASO with increased WBC count in females remained significant in multivariable models adjusted for potential confounding factors. These results indicated that a 1-standard deviation increase in SE (8.0%) and WASO (27.7min) corresponded to a 0.16×10(9)/L (95% confidence interval: 0.05 to 0.27×10(9)/L) decrease and 0.14×10(9)/L (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.25×10(9)/L) increase in circulating WBC count, respectively. In contrast, total sleep time and sleep onset latency were not significantly associated with WBC count in multivariable models. In conclusion, decrease in objectively measured sleep quality was significantly associated with increased circulating WBC count in females but not males, independently of known factors related to systemic inflammation including age, obesity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity. PMID:27195457

  5. Comparative Meta-Analysis of Prazosin and Imagery Rehearsal Therapy for Nightmare Frequency, Sleep Quality, and Posttraumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Seda, Gilbert; Sanchez-Ortuno, Maria M.; Welsh, Carolyn H.; Halbower, Ann C.; Edinger, Jack D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: In this meta-analysis, we compare the short-term efficacy of prazosin vs. IRT on nightmares, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods: Reference databases were searched for randomized controlled trials using IRT or prazosin for nightmares, sleep disturbance, and/or PTSS. Effect sizes were calculated by subtracting the mean posttest score in the control group from the mean posttest score in the treatment group, and dividing the result by the pooled standard deviation of both groups. Mixed effects models were performed to evaluate effects of treatment characteristics, as well as sample characteristics (veteran vs. civilian) on treatment efficacy. Results: Four studies used prazosin, 10 used IRT alone or in combination with another psychological treatment, and 1 included a group receiving prazosin and another group receiving IRT. Overall effect sizes of both treatments were of moderate magnitude for nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and PTSS (p < 0.01). Effect size was not significantly different with type of treatment (psychological vs. pharmacological) on nightmare frequency (p = 0.79), sleep quality (p = 0.65), or PTSS, (p = 0.52). IRT combined with CBT for insomnia showed more improvement in sleep quality compared to prazosin (p = 0.03), IRT alone (p = 0.03), or IRT combined with another psychological intervention, (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Although IRT interventions and prazosin yield comparable acute effects for the treatment of nightmares, adding CBT for insomnia to IRT seems to enhance treatment outcomes pertaining to sleep quality and PTSS. More randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up are warranted. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 9. Citation: Seda G, Sanchez-Ortuno MM, Welsh CH, Halbower AC, Edinger JD. Comparative meta-analysis of prazosin and imagery rehearsal therapy for nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):11

  6. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  7. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Stundner, O.; Chiu, Y-L.; Sun, X.; Ramachandran, S-K.; Gerner, P.; Vougioukas, V.; Mazumdar, M.; Memtsoudis, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84 655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.50, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians. PMID:24493191

  8. Key sleep neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep disorders are frequent comorbidities in neurologic patients. This review focuses on clinical aspects and prognosis of 3 neurologic sleep disorders: narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Narcolepsy causes pervasive, enduring excessive daytime sleepiness, adversely affecting patients' daily functioning. RLS/WED is characterized by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs before sleep, often evolving toward augmentation and resulting in daylong bothersome symptoms. RBD causes potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors that often signify future evolution of overt synucleinopathy neurodegeneration in as many as 81% of patients. Timely recognition, referral for polysomnography, and longitudinal follow-up of narcolepsy, RLS/WED, and RBD patients are imperatives for neurologists in providing quality comprehensive patient care. PMID:24605270

  9. The impact of sleep loss on hippocampal function

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cellular and molecular processes critical for memory consolidation are affected by the amount and quality of sleep attained. Questions remain with regard to how sleep enhances memory, what parameters of sleep after learning are optimal for memory consolidation, and what underlying hippocampal molecular players are targeted by sleep deprivation to impair memory consolidation and plasticity. In this review, we address these topics with a focus on the detrimental effects of post-learning sleep deprivation on memory consolidation. Obtaining adequate sleep is challenging in a society that values “work around the clock.” Therefore, the development of interventions to combat the negative cognitive effects of sleep deprivation is key. However, there are a limited number of therapeutics that are able to enhance cognition in the face of insufficient sleep. The identification of molecular pathways implicated in the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on memory could potentially yield new targets for the development of more effective drugs. PMID:24045505

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  11. The Effects of Acupuncture Treatment on Sleep Quality and on Emotional Measures among Individuals Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, Alon; Bloch, Boaz; Vadas, Limor; Ravid, Shai; Kremer, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of acupuncture on sleep quality and on emotional measures among patients with schizophrenia. Methods. Twenty patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. The study comprised a seven-day running-in no-treatment period, followed by an eight-week experimental period. During the experimental period, participants were treated with acupuncture twice a week. During the first week (no-treatment period) and the last week of the experimental period, participants filled out a broad spectrum of questionnaires and their sleep was continuously monitored by wrist actigraph. Results. A paired-sample t-test was conducted comparing objective and subjective sleep parameters manifested by participants before and after sequential acupuncture treatment. A significant effect of acupuncture treatment was observed for seven objective sleep variables: sleep onset latency, sleep percentage, mean activity level, wake time after sleep onset, mean number of wake episodes, mean wake episode and longest wake episode. However, no significant effects of acupuncture treatment were found for subjective sleep measures. Likewise, the results indicate that acupuncture treatment improved psychopathology levels and emotional measures, that is, depression level and anxiety level. Conclusions. Overall, the findings of this pilot study suggest that acupuncture has beneficial effects as a treatment for insomnia and psychopathology symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24083027

  12. The Influence of Sleep Disruption and Pain Perception on Indicators of Quality of Life in Individuals Living with Dementia at Home

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N.; Huang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of sleep quality and pain perceptions on different dimensions of quality of life in community-dwelling persons with dementia. Evaluations of pain were collected using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), sleep disruption using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) items, and quality of life indicators using the DemQOL-Proxy in 88 persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Lower overall quality of life was associated with the presence of pain and symptoms of sleep disruption when controlling for mental status, age, and number of health conditions. Pain and sleep symptoms were differentially associated with different aspects of QoL. As symptoms negatively impact quality of life but are modifiable, better clinical procedures are needed to prevent and also identify and treat symptoms of pain and sleep disturbance in community-dwelling persons with dementia. PMID:25193739

  13. Nurses' sleep quality, work environment and quality of care in the Spanish National Health System: observational study among different shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of nurses' work environments in hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) with nurse reported quality of care, and how care was provided by using different shifts schemes. The study also examined the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, sleep quality and daytime drowsiness of nurses and shift work. Methods This was a multicentre, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, centred on a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in seven SNHS hospitals of different sizes. We recruited 635 registered nurses who worked on day, night and rotational shifts on surgical, medical and critical care units. Their average age was 41.1 years, their average work experience was 16.4 years and 90% worked full time. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between work environment, quality and safety care, and sleep quality of nurses working different shift patterns. Results 65.4% (410) of nurses worked on a rotating shift. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index classification ranked 20% (95) as favourable, showing differences in nurse manager ability, leadership and support between shifts (p=0.003). 46.6% (286) were sure that patients could manage their self-care after discharge, but there were differences between shifts (p=0.035). 33.1% (201) agreed with information being lost in the shift change, showing differences between shifts (p=0.002). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index reflected an average of 6.8 (SD 3.39), with differences between shifts (p=0.017). Conclusions Nursing requires shift work, and the results showed that the rotating shift was the most common. Rotating shift nurses reported worse perception in organisational and work environmental factors. Rotating and night shift nurses were less confident about patients' competence of self-care after discharge. The

  14. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Aric A.; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30+, 50+ and 90+ minutes after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p’s<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk. PMID:24060585

  15. Sleep Quality and Fatigue After A Stress Management Intervention For Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer in Southern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Sara; Antoni, Michael H.; Carver, Charles S.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Wohlgemuth, William; Llabre, Maria; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Glück, Stefan; DerHagopian, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption and fatigue are ubiquitous among cancer patients and is a source of stress that may compromise treatment outcomes. Previously we showed that a cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention reduced anxiety and other stress-related processes in women undergoing primary treatment for breast cancer. Purpose This study examined secondary outcomes from a CBSM intervention trial for women with early-stage breast cancer to test if CBSM would improve sleep quality and fatigue among these patients at a single site in Southern Florida. CBSM-related effects have already been demonstrated for indicators of psychosocial adaptation (e.g., general and cancer-related anxiety). Methods Patients were randomized to CBSM (n = 120) or a one-day psychoeducation control group (n = 120). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Fatigue Symptom Inventory were completed prior to randomization and 6 and 12 months after the baseline assignment. Results In latent growth analyses, women in CBSM reported greater improvements in PSQI sleep quality scores than controls, although there were no significant differences between conditions on PSQI total scores. Women in CBSM also reported greater reductions in fatigue-related daytime interference than controls, though there were no significant differences in changes in fatigue intensity. Changes in sleep quality were associated with changes in fatigue. Conclusions Future work may consider integrating sleep and fatigue content into stress management interventions for women with early-stage breast cancer. PMID:24318654

  16. Benefits of massage-myofascial release therapy on pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Granero-Molina, José; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by generalized pain, joint rigidity, intense fatigue, sleep alterations, headache, spastic colon, craniomandibular dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether massage-myofascial release therapy can improve pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Seventy-four fibromyalgia patients were randomly assigned to experimental (massage-myofascial release therapy) and placebo (sham treatment with disconnected magnotherapy device) groups. The intervention period was 20 weeks. Pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life were determined at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at 1 month and 6 months. Immediately after treatment and at 1 month, anxiety levels, quality of sleep, pain, and quality of life were improved in the experimental group over the placebo group. However, at 6 months postintervention, there were only significant differences in the quality of sleep index. Myofascial release techniques improved pain and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:21234327

  17. Benefits of Massage-Myofascial Release Therapy on Pain, Anxiety, Quality of Sleep, Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Granero-Molina, José; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Quesada-Rubio, José Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by generalized pain, joint rigidity, intense fatigue, sleep alterations, headache, spastic colon, craniomandibular dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether massage-myofascial release therapy can improve pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Seventy-four fibromyalgia patients were randomly assigned to experimental (massage-myofascial release therapy) and placebo (sham treatment with disconnected magnotherapy device) groups. The intervention period was 20 weeks. Pain, anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life were determined at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at 1 month and 6 months. Immediately after treatment and at 1 month, anxiety levels, quality of sleep, pain, and quality of life were improved in the experimental group over the placebo group. However, at 6 months postintervention, there were only significant differences in the quality of sleep index. Myofascial release techniques improved pain and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:21234327

  18. Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations

  19. The effect of wind turbine noise on sleep and quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho J; O'Sullivan, Jack; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-09-01

    Noise generated by wind turbines has been reported to affect sleep and quality of life (QOL), but the relationship is unclear. Our objective was to explore the association between wind turbine noise, sleep disturbance and quality of life, using data from published observational studies. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Google Scholar databases. No language restrictions were imposed. Hand searches of bibliography of retrieved full texts were also conducted. The reporting quality of included studies was assessed using the STROBE guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data. We included eight studies with a total of 2433 participants. All studies were cross-sectional, and the overall reporting quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of six studies (n=2364) revealed that the odds of being annoyed is significantly increased by wind turbine noise (OR: 4.08; 95% CI: 2.37 to 7.04; p<0.00001). The odds of sleep disturbance was also significantly increased with greater exposure to wind turbine noise (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.98 to 4.37; p<0.00001). Four studies reported that wind turbine noise significantly interfered with QOL. Further, visual perception of wind turbine generators was associated with greater frequency of reported negative health effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence that exposure to wind turbine noise is associated with increased odds of annoyance and sleep problems. Individual attitudes could influence the type of response to noise from wind turbines. Experimental and observational studies investigating the relationship between wind turbine noise and health are warranted. PMID:25982992

  20. Relationship between chronotype and quality of sleep in medical students at the Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rique, Gabriela Lemos Negri; Fernandes Filho, Gilson Mauro Costa; Ferreira, Amanda Dantas Cavalcante; de Sousa-Muñoz, Rilva Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify chronotypes of medical students at the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB) and its relationship to quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, age, sex and season of birth. Methods The final sample consisted of 221 students, assessed by four questionnaires: demographic questionnaire, Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality lndex (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results There was a statistically significant difference between groups with respect to chronotypes and PSQI score (p<0.0005), but not with excessive daytime sleepiness. A significant negative correlation was found between the scores of MEQ and PSQI (rho=−0.3, p<0.0005), demonstrating that the greater the eveningness, the worse the sleep quality. It was observed that 51.6% of students were classified as indifferent chronotype, 61.5% had poor quality of sleep, while 42.1% had excessive daytime sleepiness. Sex and season at birth did not differ between chronotypes. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the evening chronotype was associated with poor quality of sleep in medical students, but not with increased daytime sleepiness, with potential impairment to their academic performance and quality of life. PMID:26483910

  1. Assessment of Sleep Quality and Effects of Relaxation Exercise on Sleep Quality in Patients Hospitalized in Internal Medicine Services in a University Hospital: The Effect of Relaxation Exercises in Patients Hospitalized.

    PubMed

    Alparslan, Güler Balci; Orsal, Özlem; Unsal, Alaettin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess sleep quality and determine the effects of relaxation exercise on sleep quality in patients hospitalized in internal medicine services. In total, 47 patients comprised the control group and did not engage in the exercise intervention-the progressive muscle relaxation exercise, whereas 235 patients were assigned to the intervention group (N = 282). In this study, Description Questionnaire Form and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Most patients (73.8%) had poor sleep quality. The mean pre- and postexercise PSQI scores of the patients in the interventional group were 8.7 ± 4.0 and 6.1 ± 3.3, respectively. The mean pre- and postexercise PSQI scores of the control patients were 6.6 ± 3.5 and 5.6 ± 2.7, respectively. According to this study, the exercises significantly enhanced the quality of sleep. Patients should be encouraged by nurses to perform relaxation exercises. PMID:27078810

  2. Sleep Apnea Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea Facts Sleep Apnea Links Sleep Apnea Facts Sleep apnea affects up to 18 million Americans The condition was ... member is the first to notice signs of sleep apnea in someone with the ... diagnosed. The condition affects about 4 percent of middle-aged men and ...

  3. Mindfulness and dream quality: the inverse relationship between mindfulness and negative dream affect.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Köteles, Ferenc; Sándor, Piroska; Petke, Zsolt; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of mindfulness to the emotional quality of dreaming. In our questionnaire-based study, comprising the data of 587 undergraduate students we examined the association between trait anxiety, perceived stress, trait mindfulness, negative dream affect and dream anxiety. Our results indicate that mindfulness is inversely related to disturbed dreaming and predicts less severe dream disturbances after controlling for trait anxiety. Moreover, the results of the applied hierarchical regression analysis suggest that mindfulness is associated with reduced dream anxiety by moderating the extent of waking anxiety. Our findings extend previous research relating mindfulness, emotional regulation and sleep quality to the domain of dream research. We suggest that mindfulness is a possible protective factor against dream disturbances. PMID:21504431

  4. Relationships among Depression, Anxiety, Sleep, and Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms, PD medications, and health-related quality of life (QOL) and to identify the predictors of health-related QOL in PD patients. To do this, we administered a battery of questionnaires and rating scales (validated Chinese versions), including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory, to 134 patients with PD whose Minimental State Examination scores were ≥24. We found that patients who reported having poorer QOL had longer disease durations, more severe PD symptoms, higher Hoehn and Yahr stages, and higher levodopa dosages, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression, more sleep disturbances, and poorer overall cognitive statuses. Among these variables, the cognitive status, dependency of activities of daily living, depression, and anxiety were identified as predictors of QOL in PD patients and were all significant and independent factors of poor QOL in PD patients. The clinicians should be aware of the effects of these factors on QOL and attempt to treat comorbid psychiatric conditions to improve the PD patients' QOL. PMID:27293956

  5. Relationships among Depression, Anxiety, Sleep, and Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun-Yu; Chang, Bao-Luen; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms, PD medications, and health-related quality of life (QOL) and to identify the predictors of health-related QOL in PD patients. To do this, we administered a battery of questionnaires and rating scales (validated Chinese versions), including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory, to 134 patients with PD whose Minimental State Examination scores were ≥24. We found that patients who reported having poorer QOL had longer disease durations, more severe PD symptoms, higher Hoehn and Yahr stages, and higher levodopa dosages, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression, more sleep disturbances, and poorer overall cognitive statuses. Among these variables, the cognitive status, dependency of activities of daily living, depression, and anxiety were identified as predictors of QOL in PD patients and were all significant and independent factors of poor QOL in PD patients. The clinicians should be aware of the effects of these factors on QOL and attempt to treat comorbid psychiatric conditions to improve the PD patients' QOL. PMID:27293956

  6. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life b