Science.gov

Sample records for affect small governments

  1. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  2. 77 FR 41403 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Subcommittee (SCAS) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Communities... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... issues and recommendations regarding environmental issues affecting small communities. The...

  3. 76 FR 43571 - Small Business HUBZone Program; Government Contracting Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 126 RIN 3245-AG45 Small Business HUBZone Program; Government Contracting Programs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comments....

  4. Affect and Engagement during Small Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Rogat, Toni Kempler; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies (Study 1: n = 137; Study 2: n = 192) were conducted to investigate how upper-elementary students' affect during small group instruction related to their social-behavioral engagement during group work. A circumplex model of affect consisting of valence (positive, negative) and activation (high, low) was used to examine the relation of…

  5. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  6. Selected Energy Management Options for Small Business and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This document is a checklist of 257 energy management options for small business and local government. The energy management options are categorized under: (1) Energy management strategies; (2) Buildings; (3) Lighting; (4) Water; (5) Waste operations; (6) Equipment; (7) Transportation; and (8) Food preparation. To select options for…

  7. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-01-01

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters’ retrospective assessments of candidates’ performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  8. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew J; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-07-20

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters' retrospective assessments of candidates' performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  9. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory...

  10. 77 FR 2539 - Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Communities...

  11. An Examination of the Utilization of Electronic Government Services by Minority Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Wendy G.

    2010-01-01

    There are a wide variety of e-government information and services that small business owners and managers can utilize. However, in spite of all of the service incentives and initiatives to promote e-government, research studies have shown that this information is not widely accessed. Studies that explore the utilization of e-government information…

  12. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  13. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  14. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  15. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  16. 42 CFR 137.445 - Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affect the Self-Governance Tribe's rights in other self-governance negotiations? 137.445 Section 137.445..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.445 Will an immediate reassumption appeal adversely affect...

  17. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  18. Can small shifts in circadian phase affect performance?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Legasto, Carlo S.; Fogg, Louis F.; Smith, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Small shifts in circadian timing occur frequently as a result of daylight saving time or later weekend sleep. These subtle shifts in circadian phase have been shown to influence subjective sleepiness, but it remains unclear if they can significantly affect performance. In a retrospective analysis we examined performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test before bedtime and after wake time in 11 healthy adults on fixed sleep schedules based on their habitual sleep times. The dim light melatonin onset, a marker of circadian timing, was measured on two occasions. An average 1.1 hour shift away from a proposed optimal circadian phase angle (6 hours between melatonin onset and midpoint of sleep) significantly slowed mean, median and fastest 10% reaction times before bedtime and after wake time (p<0.05). These results add to previous reports that suggest that humans may be sensitive to commonly occurring small shifts in circadian timing. PMID:22695081

  19. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 75 years the AAUP has made progress in specifying its standards of governance and in reconciling traditional governance with collective bargaining. Excerpts from the "Joint Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities" and the "Statement on Academic Government for Institutions Engaged in Collective Bargaining" are presented.…

  20. Scaling up nutrition in fragile and conflict-affected states: the pivotal role of governance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sebastian A J; Perez-Ferrer, Carolina; Griffiths, Andrew; Brunner, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Acute and chronic undernutrition undermine conditions for health, stability and socioeconomic development across the developing world. Although fragile and conflict-affected states have some of the highest rates of undernutrition globally, their response to the multilateral 'Scaling Up Nutrition' (SUN) initiative in its first two-year period was ambivalent. The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting fragile and conflict-affected states' engagement with SUN, and to examine what differentiated those fragile states that joined SUN in its first phase from those that did not. Drawing on global databases (Unicef, World Bank, UNDP), and qualitative country case studies (Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Yemen) we used bivariate logistic regressions and principal component analysis to assess social, economic and political factors across 41 fragile states looking for systematic differences between those that had signed up to SUN before March 2013 (n = 16), and those that had not (n = 25). While prevalence of malnutrition, health system functioning and level of citizen empowerment had little or no impact on a fragile state's likelihood of joining SUN, the quality of governance (QOG) strongly predicted accession. SUN-signatory fragile states scored systematically better on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Worldwide Governance Indicators 'effectiveness of government' indices. We conclude that strengthening governance in fragile states may enhance their engagement with initiatives such as SUN, but also (recognising the potential for endogeneity), that the way aid is structured and delivered in fragile states may be an underlying determinant of whether and how governance in such contexts improves. The research demonstrates that more nuanced analysis of conditions within and among countries classed as 'fragile and conflict-affected' is both possible and necessary if aid

  1. Corridors and olfactory predator cues affect small mammal behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock, John L.

    2005-03-30

    Abstract The behavior of prey individuals is influenced by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, habitat configuration, risk of predation, and availability of resources, and these habitat-dependent factors may have interactive effects. We studied the responses of mice to an increase in perceived predation risk in a patchy environment to understand how habitat corridors might affect interactions among species in a fragmented landscape. We used a replicated experiment to investigate corridor-mediated prey responses to predator cues in a network of open habitat patches surrounded by a matrix of planted pine forest. Some of the patches were connected by corridors. We used mark–recapture techniques and foraging trays to monitor the movement, behavior, and abundance of small mammals. Predation threat was manipulated in one-half of the replicates by applying an olfactory predator cue. Corridors synchronized small mammal foraging activity among connected patches. Foraging also was inhibited in the presence of an olfactory predator cue but apparently increased in adjacent connected patches. Small mammal abundance did not change as a result of the predator manipulation and was not influenced by the presence of corridors. This study is among the 1st to indicate combined effects of landscape configuration and predation risk on prey behavior. These changes in prey behavior may, in turn, have cascading effects on community dynamics where corridors and differential predation risk influence movement and patch use.

  2. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  3. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  4. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  5. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  6. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  7. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  8. Small College Sports-Governing Body Weighs New Academic Rules and "Accrediting" System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the sports-governing body for over 500 small colleges and universities, will weigh a series of major alterations in rules and procedures concerning standards for freshman athletes, separate competition divisions in all sports, an accreditation system for monitoring academic standards,…

  9. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  10. 76 FR 35891 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee and Small Community Advisory Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...The U.S. EPA's Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) and Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee (SCAS) will meet July 14-15, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois. The Committee meeting will be held at U.S. EPA Region 5, Ralph Metcalfe Federal Building, Lake Michigan conference room, 77 West Jackson Blvd., Chicago, Illinois. The focus of the Committee meeting will be on Administrator Lisa P.......

  11. Does small scale structure significantly affect cosmological dynamics?

    PubMed

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today-which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations-a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology. PMID:25699430

  12. Governing the Potentials of Life Itself? Interrogating the Promises in Affective Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunaes, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    This article critically explores how educational leadership is becoming increasingly affective in order to cultivate pupil potential and thereby meet the challenge of creating the best schools in the world. It critically analyses policy and handbook approaches to affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulty in keeping…

  13. Factors Affecting the Distribution Pattern of Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yukai; Yang, Xiaobo; Yang, Qi; Li, Donghai; Long, Wenxing; Luo, Wenqi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which factors affect the distribution pattern of extremely small populations is essential to the protection and propagation of rare and endangered plant species. In this study, we established 108 plots covering the entire Hainan Island, and measured the appearance frequency and species richness of plant species with extremely small populations, as well as the ecological environments and human disturbances during 2012–2013. We explored how the ecological environments and human activities affected the distribution pattern of these extremely small populations. Results showed that the extremely small populations underwent human disturbances and threats, and they were often found in fragmental habitats. The leading factors changing the appearance frequency of extremely small populations differed among plant species, and the direct factors making them susceptible to extinction were human disturbances. The peak richness of extremely small populations always occurred at the medium level across environmental gradients, and their species richness always decreased with increasing human disturbances. However, the appearance frequencies of three orchid species increased with the increasing human disturbances. Our study thus indicate that knowledge on how the external factors, such as the ecological environment, land use type, roads, human activity, etc., affect the distribution of the extremely small populations should be taken for the better protecting them in the future. PMID:24830683

  14. Factors affecting the distribution pattern of wild plants with extremely small populations in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukai; Yang, Xiaobo; Yang, Qi; Li, Donghai; Long, Wenxing; Luo, Wenqi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which factors affect the distribution pattern of extremely small populations is essential to the protection and propagation of rare and endangered plant species. In this study, we established 108 plots covering the entire Hainan Island, and measured the appearance frequency and species richness of plant species with extremely small populations, as well as the ecological environments and human disturbances during 2012-2013. We explored how the ecological environments and human activities affected the distribution pattern of these extremely small populations. Results showed that the extremely small populations underwent human disturbances and threats, and they were often found in fragmental habitats. The leading factors changing the appearance frequency of extremely small populations differed among plant species, and the direct factors making them susceptible to extinction were human disturbances. The peak richness of extremely small populations always occurred at the medium level across environmental gradients, and their species richness always decreased with increasing human disturbances. However, the appearance frequencies of three orchid species increased with the increasing human disturbances. Our study thus indicate that knowledge on how the external factors, such as the ecological environment, land use type, roads, human activity, etc., affect the distribution of the extremely small populations should be taken for the better protecting them in the future. PMID:24830683

  15. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... distributed to the general public and to officials of the Federal government in a print edition. 75 FR 33734.... 1506; sec. 6, E.O. 10530, 19 FR 2709; 3 CFR, 1954-1958 Comp., p. 189. ] Sec. 9.1 Publication required....C. 1506; sec. 6, E.O. 10530, 19 FR 2709, 3 CFR, 1954-1958 Comp., p. 189. 0 3. Revise Sec. 11.4...

  16. Effectiveness of Government's Occupational Skills Development Strategies for Small- and Medium-Scale Enterprises: A Case Study of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kye Woo

    2006-01-01

    In many developing countries, small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) account for a large part of national employment and income. Therefore, governments have used various strategies/policy instruments to develop human resources for SMEs and improve their productivity and national welfare. In the literature, however, there has been little effort…

  17. Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

  18. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  19. Factors Governing the Effective Remediation of Negative Affect and Its Cognitive and Behavioral Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, R. Christopher; And Others

    A study was conducted in which negative affective states were induced in children by one of several different types of cognition or experience. Subjects were 150 second-grade children, evenly divided by sex, from suburban elementary schools. In particular, cognitive induction procedures involved children's thinking about negative events that might…

  20. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  1. 78 FR 66929 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... clean ups, water quality issues, environmental justice and other environmental issues of importance to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcommittee (SCAS) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  2. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  3. Searching for Judy: how small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J

    2010-05-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery-a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story-affects readers' moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., "Judy") or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., "our principal Judy"). In an online recognition probe task, responses to the character's name 3 lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the 4 experiments in this article, we extend our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., "daredevil Judy") is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we found evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers' memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch's (1988) construction-integration model of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  4. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  5. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  6. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  7. 3 CFR - Making It Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters To Access Government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... programs to reduce costs and provide customer-oriented service. Businesses looking for assistance from the... highest level of customer service when they interact with the Federal Government. Accordingly, I direct... Committee, which shall coordinate the strategy, design, development, launch, and operation of BusinessUSA,...

  8. Methyl donor deficiency affects small-intestinal differentiation and barrier function in rats.

    PubMed

    Bressenot, Aude; Pooya, Shabnam; Bossenmeyer-Pourie, Carine; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Germain, Adeline; Chevaux, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Florence; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2013-02-28

    Dietary methyl donors and their genetic determinants are associated with Crohn's disease risk. We investigated whether a methyl-deficient diet (MDD) may affect development and functions of the small intestine in rat pups from dams subjected to the MDD during gestation and lactation. At 1 month before pregnancy, adult females were fed with either a standard food or a diet without vitamin B12, folate and choline. A global wall hypotrophy was observed in the distal small bowel (MDD animals 0·30 mm v. controls 0·58 mm; P< 0·001) with increased crypt apoptosis (3·37 v. 0·4%; P< 0·001), loss of enterocyte differentiation in the villus and a reduction in intestinal alkaline phosphatase production. Cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining (MDD animals 3·37% v. controls 0·4%, P< 0·001) and the Apostain labelling index showed increased crypt apoptosis (3·5 v. 1·4%; P= 0·018). Decreased proliferation was observed in crypts of the proximal small bowel with a reduced number of minichromosome maintenance 6 (MDD animals 52·83% v. controls 83·17%; P= 0·048) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells (46·25 v. 59 %; P= 0·05). This lack of enterocyte differentiation in the distal small bowel was associated with an impaired expression of β-catenin and a decreased β-catenin-E-cadherin interaction. The MDD affected the intestinal barrier in the proximal small bowel by decreasing Paneth cell number after immunostaining for lysosyme (MDD animals 8·66% v. controls 21·66%) and by reducing goblet cell number and mucus production after immunostaining for mucin-2 (crypts 8·66 v. 15·33%; villus 7 v. 17%). The MDD has dual effects on the small intestine by producing dramatic effects on enterocyte differentiation and barrier function in rats. PMID:22794784

  9. A Corporate Responsibility? The Constitution of Fly-in, Fly-out Mining Companies as Governance Partners in Remote, Mine-Affected Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In some remote parts of Australia, mining companies have positioned themselves as central actors in governing nearby affected communities by espousing notions of "voluntary partnerships for sustainability" between business, government and community. It is argued in this paper that the nature and extent of mining company interventions in nearby…

  10. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Federal Register of March 25, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-7135, on page 16703, in the second column, correct the...-0006 must be received on or before June 6, 2011. In the Federal Register of March 25, 2011, in FR Doc... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions...

  11. 76 FR 16703 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    .... See Notice of Grant Opportunities to States: STEP Grant Program, 76 FR 10082 (Feb. 23, 2011). These... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having... Jobs Act of 2010 (SBJA). On Monday, March 7, 2011, SBA announced a series of public meetings on...

  12. 76 FR 68047 - Making It Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... memorandum in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 28, 2011. [FR... November 2, 2011 Part VI The President Memorandum of October 28, 2011--Making It Easier for America's Small... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of October 28, 2011 Making...

  13. High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Elwinger, K; Holm, L; Tauson, R

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate high-fibre sunflower cake (HF-SFC); a feed ingredient distinguished by large amounts of crude fibre and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (i-NSP). 2. Broiler chickens (n = 160) were fed on pelleted maize-based diets free from coccidiostats and antibiotic growth promoters between 15 and 31 d of age. Diets included 0, 10, 20 or 30% HF-SFC. Performance and small intestinal health were assessed. 3. In general, HF-SFC inclusion mediated significant linear increases in ileal digestibility of fat and protein and significant linear decreases in ileal digestibility of dry matter, ash and energy. 4. Weight gain increased linearly with HF-SFC inclusion. Feed conversion was negatively affected by 30% HF-SFC but not by 20% HF-SFC. 5. In the jejunal lumen, inclusion of HF-SFC was associated with significant decreases in colony counts of Clostridium spp. 6. HF-SFC inclusion resulted in significant linear reductions of villus height, thickness of muscularis mucosa, and the circular and longitudinal layers of muscularis in the jejunum. Crypt depth and submucosal thickness were not affected. 7. The data indicate that broiler chickens may thrive on feeds with insoluble fibre contents far exceeding those used in practice, and that HF-SFC exerts some positive effects on digestion and small intestinal health. PMID:21337203

  14. Study on recent execution of overall evaluation bidding method in small and medium-sized regional local governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, Hirohide; Yanase, Norihiko

    About 70% of local governments in Japan, endeavored to introduce overall evaluation bidding method for their public works in 2011 and each authority ordered one or some projects in according to the new bidding process. That is, their enforcement was an only trial level and they say that the reason why is long-term procedure and heavily administrative load of the system. The author think that such burden has relationship of human affairs of local govern ments, practical problems on kinds and price of constructions and the officers' experience on the new bidding method. The aim of this study is to analyze such problems among the officers' profession, posts and experience of administrative matter by statistical data, questionnaire and hearing to the officers. The result could indicate that a group of small local governments uses the method appropriately and that another group of medium-sized rejects to increase more contracts in according to the new bidding system because of unbalance between the stuffs' ability and order quantity of public works.

  15. Conserved small RNAs govern replication and incompatibility of a diverse new plasmid family from marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating extrachromosomal DNA molecules that often impart key phenotypes to their bacterial hosts. Plasmids are abundant in marine bacteria, but there is scant knowledge of the mechanisms that control their replication in these hosts. Here, we identified and characterized the factors governing replication of a new family of plasmids from marine bacteria, typified by the virulence-linked plasmid pB1067 of Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Members of this family are prevalent among, yet restricted to, the Vibrionaceae. Unlike almost all plasmid families characterized to date, the ori regions of these plasmids do not encode a Rep protein to initiate DNA replication; instead, the ori regions encode two partially complementary RNAs. The smaller, termed RNA I, is ∼68-nt long and functions as a negative regulator and the key determinant of plasmid incompatibility. This Marine RNA-based (MRB) plasmid family is the first characterized family of replicons derived from marine bacteria. Only one other plasmid family (the ColE1 family) has previously been reported to rely on RNA-mediated replication initiation. However, since the sequences and structures of MRB RNA I transcripts are not related to those of ColE1 replicons, these two families of RNA-dependent replicons likely arose by convergent evolution. PMID:20923782

  16. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  17. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development?

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R

    2011-06-01

    fed MR. Significant positive Pearson correlations were found between small intestine and reticulorumen weights as well as between activity of brush border lactase, maltase, aminopeptidase A, and aminopeptidase N and reticulorumen weight. Different liquid feeds affect small intestine development, animal growth, solid feed intake and metabolic status of calves and this effect can indirectly influence the development of forestomachs. PMID:21605770

  18. Do governance, equity characteristics, and venture capital nvolvement affect long-term wealth creation in U.S. health care and biotechnology IPOs?

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    Agency theory remains the dominant means of examining governance issues and ownership characteristics related to large organizations. Research in these areas within large organizations has increased our understanding, yet little is known about the influence that these mechanisms and characteristics have had on IPO firm performance. This study tests an agency perspective that venture capital involvement, governance and equity characteristics affect health care and biotechnology IPO firm performance. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between these factors and health care and biotechnology IPO wealth creation. For these entrepreneurs, our findings suggest a contingent approach for the use of these mechanisms. PMID:21110493

  19. Variation at Local Government Level in the Support for Families of Severely Disabled Children and the Factors that Affect It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Method: Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the…

  20. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    PubMed

    Millar, John S

    2013-01-01

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program. PMID:24044474

  1. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    PubMed

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2-4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  2. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2–4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  3. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  4. Factors affecting pupation success of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida Murray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survivorship of larvae of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, was measured after larvae were raised on one of six diets, and pupation success was measured by exposing mature larvae to one of six soil depths and maintaining temperatures at either 28°, 32°, or 35° C. Diet influenced larval survivor...

  5. AFFECT OF NEW BLADES ON NOISE REDUCTION OF SMALL WIND TURBINE WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustical noise data were collected on small wind turbines used for water pumping -- different blade designs were tested on each wind turbine. Three different blade designs were tested on 1 kW wind turbines and each successive blade design was shown to produce less noise with respect to rotor spee...

  6. Water Reform and the Resilience of Small Business People in Drought-Affected Agricultural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Imogen; Williams, Pam McRae

    2009-01-01

    The impact of drought on rural communities in Australia has been the subject of considerable research. Less well understood are the impacts of drought on rural small businesses and the mechanisms they use to adapt or cope through extended dry periods. In this study, strategies these businesses draw upon to manage this adversity are identified and…

  7. Ratio dependence in small number discrimination is affected by the experimental procedure

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Adults, infants and some non-human animals share an approximate number system (ANS) to estimate numerical quantities, and are supposed to share a second, ‘object-tracking,’ system (OTS) that supports the precise representation of a small number of items (up to 3 or 4). In relative numerosity judgments, accuracy depends on the ratio of the two numerosities (Weber’s Law) for numerosities >4 (the typical ANS range), while for numerosities ≤4 (OTS range) there is usually no ratio effect. However, recent studies have found evidence for ratio effects for small numerosities, challenging the idea that the OTS might be involved for small number discrimination. Here we tested the hypothesis that the lack of ratio effect in the numbers 1–4 is largely dependent on the type of stimulus presentation. We investigated relative numerosity judgments in college students using three different procedures: a simultaneous presentation of intermingled and separate groups of dots in separate experiments, and a further experiment with sequential presentation. As predicted, in the large number range, ratio dependence was observed in all tasks. By contrast, in the small number range, ratio insensitivity was found in one task (sequential presentation). In a fourth experiment, we showed that the presence of intermingled distractors elicited a ratio effect, while easily distinguishable distractors did not. As the different ratio sensitivity for small and large numbers has been often interpreted in terms of the activation of the OTS and ANS, our results suggest that numbers 1–4 may be represented by both numerical systems and that the experimental context, such as the presence/absence of task-irrelevant items in the visual field, would determine which system is activated. PMID:26579032

  8. Dietary fibers affect viscosity of solutions and simulated human gastric and small intestinal digesta.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Cheryl L; Murphy, Michael R; Fahey, George C

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the viscosities of both soluble and insoluble dietary fibers. In Expt. 1, corn bran, defatted rice bran, guar gum, gum xanthan, oat bran, psyllium, soy hulls, stabilized rice bran, wheat bran, wood cellulose, and 2 methylcellulose controls (Ticacel 42, Ticacel 43) were hydrated in water overnight at 0.5, 1, 1.5, or 2% concentrations. In Expt. 2, guar gum, oat bran, psyllium, rice bran, wheat bran, and wood cellulose were subjected to a 2-stage in vitro gastric and small intestinal digestion simulation model. Viscosity was measured every 2 and 3 h during gastric and small intestinal simulation, respectively. Viscosities in both experiments were measured at multiple shear rates. Viscosities of all fiber solutions were concentration- and shear rate-dependent. Rice brans, soy hulls, and wood cellulose had the lowest viscosities, whereas guar gum, psyllium, and xanthan gum had the highest viscosities, regardless of concentration. During gastric simulation, viscosity was higher (P < 0.05) at 4 h than at 0 h for guar gum, psyllium, rice bran, and wheat bran. During small intestinal simulation, viscosities were higher (P < 0.05) between 3 and 9 h compared with 18 h for guar gum, oat bran, and rice bran. Guar gum, psyllium, and oat bran exhibited viscous characteristics throughout small intestinal simulation, indicating potential for these fibers to elicit blood glucose and lipid attenuation. Wheat and rice brans and wood cellulose did not exhibit viscous characteristics throughout small intestinal digestion; thus, they may be beneficial for laxation. PMID:16549450

  9. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Andrew B; Franc, Benjamin L; Gullberg, Grant T; Hasegawa, Bruce H

    2009-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  10. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  11. Land Use Affects Carbon Sources to the Pelagic Food Web in a Small Boreal Lake.

    PubMed

    Rinta, Päivi; van Hardenbroek, Maarten; Jones, Roger I; Kankaala, Paula; Rey, Fabian; Szidat, Sönke; Wooller, Matthew J; Heiri, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Small humic forest lakes often have high contributions of methane-derived carbon in their food webs but little is known about the temporal stability of this carbon pathway and how it responds to environmental changes on longer time scales. We reconstructed past variations in the contribution of methanogenic carbon in the pelagic food web of a small boreal lake in Finland by analyzing the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C values) of chitinous fossils of planktivorous invertebrates in sediments from the lake. The δ13C values of zooplankton remains show several marked shifts (approx. 10 ‰), consistent with changes in the proportional contribution of carbon from methane-oxidizing bacteria in zooplankton diets. The results indicate that the lake only recently (1950s) obtained its present state with a high contribution of methanogenic carbon to the pelagic food web. A comparison with historical and palaeobotanical evidence indicates that this most recent shift coincided with agricultural land-use changes and forestation of the lake catchment and implies that earlier shifts may also have been related to changes in forest and land use. Our study demonstrates the sensitivity of the carbon cycle in small forest lakes to external forcing and that the effects of past changes in local land use on lacustrine carbon cycling have to be taken into account when defining environmental and ecological reference conditions in boreal headwater lakes. PMID:27487044

  12. Land Use Affects Carbon Sources to the Pelagic Food Web in a Small Boreal Lake

    PubMed Central

    Rinta, Päivi; van Hardenbroek, Maarten; Jones, Roger I.; Kankaala, Paula; Rey, Fabian; Szidat, Sönke; Wooller, Matthew J.; Heiri, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Small humic forest lakes often have high contributions of methane-derived carbon in their food webs but little is known about the temporal stability of this carbon pathway and how it responds to environmental changes on longer time scales. We reconstructed past variations in the contribution of methanogenic carbon in the pelagic food web of a small boreal lake in Finland by analyzing the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C values) of chitinous fossils of planktivorous invertebrates in sediments from the lake. The δ13C values of zooplankton remains show several marked shifts (approx. 10 ‰), consistent with changes in the proportional contribution of carbon from methane-oxidizing bacteria in zooplankton diets. The results indicate that the lake only recently (1950s) obtained its present state with a high contribution of methanogenic carbon to the pelagic food web. A comparison with historical and palaeobotanical evidence indicates that this most recent shift coincided with agricultural land-use changes and forestation of the lake catchment and implies that earlier shifts may also have been related to changes in forest and land use. Our study demonstrates the sensitivity of the carbon cycle in small forest lakes to external forcing and that the effects of past changes in local land use on lacustrine carbon cycling have to be taken into account when defining environmental and ecological reference conditions in boreal headwater lakes. PMID:27487044

  13. Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study

  14. Small bowel disaccharidase activity in the rat as affected by intestinal resection and pectin feeding.

    PubMed

    Koruda, M J; Rolandelli, R H; Settle, R G; Rombeau, J L

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of small bowel resection (SBR) and a pectin-supplemented elemental diet (ED) on intestinal disaccharidase activity. Rats underwent placement of feeding gastrostomy and swivel apparatus. Control animals were returned to their cages while resected animals underwent an 80% SBR. Postoperatively, animals received either a pectin-free ED or the ED supplemented with 2% pectin. After 2 wk jejunal and ileal mucosal sucrase, maltase, and lactase activities and protein content were determined. Feeding the ED after SBR resulted in significant increases in all three ileal segmental disaccharidase activities but only maltase activity was significantly increased in the jejunum. The pectin-supplemented ED, however, significantly enhanced the adaptation of jejunal and ileal segmental sucrase, maltase, and lactase activity to SBR with the increase in all three jejunal disaccharidase activities being significantly greater than that of the resected animals fed the ED alone. PMID:3126640

  15. Grazing by a small fish affects the early stages of a post-settlement stony coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N. A.; Ward, S.; Harii, S.; Tibbetts, I. R.

    2009-03-01

    Short-term experiments were used to isolate the detrimental effects of grazer disturbance on young corals, and determine the stage of development at which recruits are no longer susceptible to this disturbance. Artificial substrata containing an algal matrix and coral recruits of different life stages were exposed to grazing by epilithic algal matrix (EAM) feeding combtoothed blennies, Salarias fasciatus. Single polyp recruits were vulnerable to grazer disturbance, while multi-polyp recruits ( ca. 6-8 polyps) survived with evidence of minor damage in the form of tissue and polyp loss. The result indicates that blennies, although small and possessing weak dentition, can negatively influence the survival of young coral recruits. The protruding structure of micro-nubbins, representing juvenile corals were not damaged, suggesting that coral achieving that size and form can escape such damage.

  16. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    PubMed

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P < 0·001) different jaw relation-specific recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P < 0·01) different between tasks. Overall MU recruitment was significantly (P < 0·05) greater in the deep masseter than in the superficial muscle. The number of recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P < 0·01) with increasing jaw separation. This investigation revealed differential MU recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. PMID:26707515

  17. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  18. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  19. Factors affecting pupation success of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Meikle, W G; Diaz, R

    2012-01-01

    Survivorship of larvae of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), was measured after they were raised on one of six diets. The effects of container shape (wide and shallow vs. narrow and deep), soil depth (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 cm), and temperature (28°, 32°, or 35° C) on pupation success was measured. Diet influenced larval survivorship, but did not have a strong effect on larval weight. The larvae fed only bee brood survived the shortest period of time. The larvae that were denied pupation substrate, fed only honey and pollen, and no other food or water after 20 days, had a median survivorship of 47.6 days, with a maximum of 61 days, while those fed only brood had a median survivorship of 18.2 days. Pupation substrate was essential for successful pupation, and the depth of the substrate, not its top surface area, was the crucial factor. Pupation success in narrow and deep containers was 95.6% on average, but only 12.5% in wide and shallow containers, using the same soil volume. In narrow and deep containers, most or all larvae kept in 4-8 cm of soil pupated at all temperatures, few larvae kept at 2 cm soil depth pupated, one out of 240 kept at 1.0 cm pupated, and no larvae kept at soil depths of 0 or 0.5 cm pupated. PMID:23451773

  20. Factors Affecting Pupation Success of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida

    PubMed Central

    Meikle, W.G.; Diaz, R.

    2012-01-01

    Survivorship of larvae of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), was measured after they were raised on one of six diets. The effects of container shape (wide and shallow vs. narrow and deep), soil depth (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 cm), and temperature (28°, 32°, or 35° C) on pupation success was measured. Diet influenced larval survivorship, but did not have a strong effect on larval weight. The larvae fed only bee brood survived the shortest period of time. The larvae that were denied pupation substrate, fed only honey and pollen, and no other food or water after 20 days, had a median survivorship of 47.6 days, with a maximum of 61 days, while those fed only brood had a median survivorship of 18.2 days. Pupation substrate was essential for successful pupation, and the depth of the substrate, not its top surface area, was the crucial factor. Pupation success in narrow and deep containers was 95.6% on average, but only 12.5% in wide and shallow containers, using the same soil volume. In narrow and deep containers, most or all larvae kept in 4–8 cm of soil pupated at all temperatures, few larvae kept at 2 cm soil depth pupated, one out of 240 kept at 1.0 cm pupated, and no larvae kept at soil depths of 0 or 0.5 cm pupated. PMID:23451773

  1. Fish functional traits are affected by hydrodynamics at small spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Bracciali, C; Guzzo, G; Giacoma, C; Dean, J M; Sarà, G

    2016-02-01

    The Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis is a species with a broad distribution found both in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic as far south as the coast of Angola. We hypothesized that the species may have significant functional morphological plasticity to adapt along a gradient of environmental conditions. It is a non-migratory zooplanktivorous species and spends the daytime searching for food in the middle of the water column. Therefore, local hydrodynamics could be one of the environmental factors affecting traits of C. chromis with repercussions at the population level. We compared the body condition, individual growth and body shapes of damselfish collected under two different hydrodynamic conditions (low ∼10 cm s(-1) vs. high ∼20 cm s(-1)). Specimens showed higher body condition under high-hydrodynamics, where conditions offered greater amounts of food, which were able to support larger individuals. Individuals smaller than 60-mm were more abundant under low-hydrodynamics. Morphometric analysis revealed that high-hydrodynamics were favored by fish with a more fusiform body shape and body traits developed for propellant swimming. PMID:26707883

  2. 7SK small nuclear RNA directly affects HMGA1 function in transcription regulation

    PubMed Central

    Eilebrecht, Sebastian; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Wegert, Thomas; Urlaub, Henning; Benecke, Bernd-Joachim; Benecke, Arndt

    2011-01-01

    Non-coding (nc) RNAs are increasingly recognized to play important regulatory roles in eukaryotic gene expression. The highly abundant and essential 7SK ncRNA has been shown to negatively regulate RNA Polymerase II transcription by inactivating the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) in cellular and Tat-dependent HIV transcription. Here, we identify a more general, P-TEFb-independent role of 7SK RNA in directly affecting the function of the architectural transcription factor and chromatin regulator HMGA1. An important regulatory role of 7SK RNA in HMGA1-dependent cell differentiation and proliferation regulation is uncovered with the identification of over 1500 7SK-responsive HMGA1 target genes. Elevated HMGA1 expression is observed in nearly every type of cancer making the use of a 7SK substructure in the inhibition of HMGA1 activity, as pioneered here, potentially useful in therapy. The 7SK-HMGA1 interaction not only adds an essential facet to the comprehension of transcriptional plasticity at the coupling of initiation and elongation, but also might provide a molecular link between HIV reprogramming of cellular gene expression-associated oncogenesis. PMID:21087998

  3. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(1) and (2) 1A Table 1A to Subpart Ec of... Table 1A to Subpart Ec of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected... limits HMIWI size Small Medium Large Averaging time 1 Method for demonstrating compliance 2...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(3) and (4) 1B Table 1B to Subpart Ec of... Table 1B to Subpart Ec of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected... limits HMIWI size Small Medium Large Averaging time1 Method for demonstrating compliance 2...

  5. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    PubMed

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. PMID:26052120

  6. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state—and state-contracted—surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. PMID:26052120

  7. A Small Protein Associated with Fungal Energy Metabolism Affects the Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans in Mammals.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Erin E; Ramagopal, Udupi A; Rivera, Johanna; Cox, James; Nakouzi, Antonio; Prabu, Moses M; Almo, Steven C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis, a life-threatening fungal disease. C. neoformans has multiple virulence mechanisms that are non-host specific, induce damage and interfere with immune clearance. Microarray analysis of C. neoformans strains serially passaged in mice associated a small gene (CNAG_02591) with virulence. This gene, hereafter identified as HVA1 (hypervirulence-associated protein 1), encodes a protein that has homologs of unknown function in plant and animal fungi, consistent with a conserved mechanism. Expression of HVA1 was negatively correlated with virulence and was reduced in vitro and in vivo in both mouse- and Galleria-passaged strains of C. neoformans. Phenotypic analysis in hva1Δ and hva1Δ+HVA1 strains revealed no significant differences in established virulence factors. Mice infected intravenously with the hva1Δ strain had higher fungal burden in the spleen and brain, but lower fungal burden in the lungs, and died faster than mice infected with H99W or the hva1Δ+HVA1 strain. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated a general increase in all amino acids measured in the disrupted strain and a block in the TCA cycle at isocitrate dehydrogenase, possibly due to alterations in the nicotinamide cofactor pool. Macrophage fungal burden experiments recapitulated the mouse hypervirulent phenotype of the hva1Δ strain only in the presence of exogenous NADPH. The crystal structure of the Hva1 protein was solved, and a comparison of structurally similar proteins correlated with the metabolomics data and potential interactions with NADPH. We report a new gene that modulates virulence through a mechanism associated with changes in fungal metabolism. PMID:27583447

  8. Storminess and geo-hydrological events affecting small coastal basins in a terraced Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea; Diodato, Nazzareno; Revellino, Paola; Fiorillo, Francesco; Grelle, Gerardo; Guadagno, Francesco M

    2015-11-01

    This study was prompted by the occurrence of an extreme Damaging geo-Hydrological Event (DHE) which occurred on October 25th 2011 and which affected a wide area of the northern Mediterranean region. After analysing the storm by means of the precipitation time series, the study attempts to relate the October 25th 2011 DHE with a series of other DHEs that occurred in the period 1954-2012, assessed via the use of historical data and classified according to severity, with a Storm Erosivity Indicator (Ra). The annual mean of the Ra value (2582 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) y(-1)) confirmed that the study area is one of the European regions with the highest rainfall erosivity level. A shift in storminess during 1991-2012 with respect to 1954-1990 was observed. A return period of 1000 years was calculated for the single storm erosivity of October 25th, which contributed to 84% of the total annual storm erosivity of 2011 A quite good agreement was found comparing DHE distribution and severity with Ra anomalies over time. As a matter of fact, most of the low severity DHEs (62.5%) occurred in years in which the Ra was below the average value. Moreover, almost all DHEs (93%) ranging from medium- to very high-severity occurred in years for which the Ra exceeded the average value. With regard to the occurrence of the most severe DHE classes, a threshold of the Ra and a recurrence time of approximately 3300 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) y(-1) and 12 years, respectively, were identified. Finally, some evidences suggest that an increasing frequency of DHEs is expected in the forthcoming years. It is argued that understanding these issues is a major priority for future research in order to improve land and urban planning strategies for preserving people and the environment, leading ultimately to an effective risk reduction. PMID:26071962

  9. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy. PMID:26317608

  10. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy. PMID:26317608

  11. Presence of pharmaceuticals in benthic fauna living in a small stream affected by effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Grabicova, Katerina; Grabic, Roman; Blaha, Martin; Kumar, Vimal; Cerveny, Daniel; Fedorova, Ganna; Randak, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Aquatic organisms can be affected not only via polluted water but also via their food. In the present study, we examined bioaccumulation of seventy pharmaceuticals in two benthic organisms, Hydropsyche sp. and Erpobdella octoculata in a small stream affected by the effluent from a sewage treatment plant (STP) in Prachatice (South Bohemia region, Czech Republic). Furthermore, water samples from similar locations were analyzed for all seventy pharmaceuticals. In water samples from a control locality situated upstream of the STP, ten of the seventy pharmaceuticals were found with average total concentrations of 200 ng L(-1). In water samples collected at STP-affected sites (downstream the STP's effluent), twenty-nine, twenty-seven and twenty-nine pharmaceuticals were determined at average total concentrations of 2000, 2100 and 1700 ng L(-1), respectively. Six of the seventy pharmaceuticals (azithromycin, citalopram, clarithromycin, clotrimazole, sertraline, and verapamil) were found in Hydropsyche. Four pharmaceuticals (clotrimazole, diclofenac, sertraline, and valsartan) were detected in Erpobdella. Using evaluation criterion bioconcentration factor (BCF) is higher than 2000 we can assign azithromycin and sertraline as bioaccumulative pharmaceuticals. Even pharmaceuticals present at low levels in water were found in benthic organisms at relatively high concentrations (up to 85 ng g(-1) w.w. for azithromycin). Consequently, the uptake of pharmaceuticals via the food web could be an important exposure pathway for the wild fish population. PMID:25283339

  12. School Governance in Rural Communities: The Role of the Board of Trustees Chairperson in Small New Zealand Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jan

    In the 11 years since the devolution to local control of New Zealand schools, the role of the Board of Trustees chairperson has emerged as critical to the success of the school-community partnership, especially in small rural communities. A qualitative study examined the issues facing the Board chair, as a lay, elected school leader working in…

  13. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources... 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in §...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources... 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in §...

  15. The challenges of supplying water to small, scattered communities in the Lower Okavango Basin (LOB), Ngamiland, Botswana: An evaluation of government policy and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Kgomotso, Phemo K.

    Supplying adequate water and sanitation facilities to small, scattered rural communities and/or large, fast growing settlements in remote areas is a challenge not easily met anywhere in the world. This article focuses on just such a challenge in the remote, rural area of Ngamiland District in north-western Botswana. Drawing on a combination of critical analysis of government and secondary data, participant observation, and key stakeholder interviews conducted over the period 2004-2006, the article shows that despite a good aggregate record of supplying water and sanitation throughout the country, there are abiding, often serious, problems with supply in remote areas. The research reveals that due to a combination of limited human and financial resource capacity, government policy that deliberately under-serves remote areas in order to encourage resettlement, and complacence among key decision-takers, supply problems go unresolved. The article suggests four key interventions as possible ways forward: using the Okavango Delta Management Plan (ODMP) process as a guiding framework for institutional reform; linking research directly to human resource capacity development; treating water as both a social and an economic good; and soliciting an IWRM ‘champion’ to drive the political process.

  16. Single-cell mass spectrometry reveals small molecules that affect cell fates in the 16-cell embryo

    PubMed Central

    Onjiko, Rosemary M.; Moody, Sally A.; Nemes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in molecular expression are essential to embryonic development, and their characterization is critical to understand mechanisms by which cells acquire different phenotypes. Although technological advances have made it possible to quantify expression of large molecules during embryogenesis, little information is available on metabolites, the ultimate indicator of physiological activity of the cell. Here, we demonstrate that single-cell capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is able to test whether differential expression of the genome translates to the domain of metabolites between single embryonic cells. Dissection of three different cell types with distinct tissue fates from 16-cell embryos of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and microextraction of their metabolomes enabled the identification of 40 metabolites that anchored interconnected central metabolic networks. Relative quantitation revealed that several metabolites were differentially active between the cell types in the wild-type, unperturbed embryos. Altering postfertilization cytoplasmic movements that perturb dorsal development confirmed that these three cells have characteristic small-molecular activity already at cleavage stages as a result of cell type and not differences in pigmentation, yolk content, cell size, or position in the embryo. Changing the metabolite concentration caused changes in cell movements at gastrulation that also altered the tissue fates of these cells, demonstrating that the metabolome affects cell phenotypes in the embryo. PMID:25941375

  17. Mutations which affect the inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A by simian virus 40 small-t antigen in vitro decrease viral transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Mungre, S; Enderle, K; Turk, B; Porrás, A; Wu, Y Q; Mumby, M C; Rundell, K

    1994-01-01

    Three independent point mutations within residues 97 to 103 of the simian virus 40-small-t antigen (small-t) greatly reduced the ability of purified small-t to inhibit protein phosphatase 2A in vitro. These mutations affected the interaction of small-t antigen with the protein phosphatase 2A A subunit translated in vitro, and a peptide from the region identified by these mutations released the A subunit from immune complexes. When introduced into virus, the mutations eliminated the ability of small-t to enhance viral transformation of growth-arrested rat F111 cells. In contrast, the mutant small-t antigens were unimpaired in the transactivation of the adenovirus E2 promoter, an activity which was reduced by a double mutation in small-t residues 43 and 45. Images PMID:8107228

  18. LACC Shared Governance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This document discusses Los Angeles City College's (LACC) (California) Shared Governance Model. In response to California Assembly Bill 1725, LACC set forth a plan to implement the statutory requirements of shared governance. Shared governance is a concept grounded in the idea that decision-making is a process that affects the entire campus…

  19. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  20. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term. PMID:18496614

  1. A bill to amend the Small Business Act to ensure small businesses affected by the onset of transmissible diseases are eligible for disaster relief.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rubio, Marco [R-FL

    2016-09-08

    09/08/2016 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (Sponsor introductory remarks on measure: CR S5471-5473) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... European Union; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing With Simplified Filing Procedures AGENCY: United... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union... and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations with the European Union (EU), is seeking to...

  3. Subject Access to Government Documents in an Era of Globalization: Intellectual Bundling of Entities Affected by the Decisions of Supranational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for a new model for subject access to government information in academic libraries as a result of the growing influence of supranational organizations. Highlights include the World Trade Organization (WT); ruling under transnational economic agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); private sector…

  4. State Governance Action Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of the State Governance Action Report that has been produced since 2000 by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' (AGB's) Ingram Center for Public Trusteeship and Governance. Focusing primarily on state and higher education policies directly affecting governance, trusteeship, and institutionally…

  5. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  6. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(1) and (2) 1A Table 1A to Subpart Ec of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c(a)(3) and (4) 1B Table 1B to Subpart Ec of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  8. Introduced species and abiotic factors affect longitudinal variation in small fish assemblages in the Wind River watershed, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, P.S.; Hubert, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed longitudinal variation in small fish assemblages in the Wind River watershed upstream from Boysen Reservoir, Wyoming and into the reservoir. Twenty-six species were found in the study area, and 12 of the species were believed to have been introduced since settlement by Europeans. Additions and losses of fish species occurred with downstream progression, especially the addition of introduced species. Introduced species increased from 25% of the total number of species in the upper-most river segment (31.5-35.3 km upstream from the reservoir), to 46% in the river segment immediately upstream from the reservoir, to 48% in the reservoir. The most abundant species in the riverine portion of the watershed was the introduced sand shiner (Notropis stramineus). The results suggest that cyprinid species introduced to the upstream watershed and Boysen Reservoir are influencing small fish assemblages upstream from the reservoir and may be impacting native fishes, particularly native cyprinids.

  9. Pelvic limb alignment in small breed dogs: a comparison between affected and free subjects from medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Olimpo, Matteo; Piras, Lisa Adele; Peirone, Bruno

    2016-03-31

    Small breed dogs are 12 times more likely to develop medial patellar luxation (MPL) than large breed dogs and breed predisposition has been reported. Many surgical techniques are available for correction of patellar luxation in dogs. However, recent studies reported an 8% incidence of reluxation when traditional techniques are used. The relatively high frequency of major complications and patellar reluxation may be partially caused by inadequate appreciation of the underlying skeletal deformity and subsequent incorrect selection and application of traditional techniques. The aims of this study were to report the normal values of the anatomic and mechanical joint angles of the femur and tibia in small breed dogs and to compare these data to a population of small breed dogs a ected by di erent degrees of MPL. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the femur are similar to the ones reported in literature in Pomeranian dogs. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the tibia have been described for the rst time. Signi cant di erences were found between normal population and dogs a ected by grade 4 MPL in relation to anatomical Lateral Distal Femoral Angle (aLDFA), mechanical Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (mMPTA), and mechanical Caudal Proximal Tibial Angle (mCaPTA). PMID:26681507

  10. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  11. A Study on Estimation on Flood Warning Trigger Rainfall in medium and small Stream Affected by Urban Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngseok, Song; Moojong, Park; JungHo, Lee; HeeSup, Lee

    2013-04-01

    As extreme floods occur frequently in recent years due to global climate changes, an in sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration is becoming the significant danger and loss of life and property in the Korean Peninsula as well as most parts of the world. The desire for living without hazardous damages grows these days, the city strategy to make the safer community has become an issue. Previously most of flood prevention efforts have been made for relatively large watersheds near to channel flow. However, as economical development and the expansion of city near medium and small stream, human casualty and property by flood occurs frequently. Therefore, to reduce the damage of human lives and property by flood, we develop an assessment method for flood warning trigger rainfall considering urban effect. Considering complex land use, HEC-HMS is used for rural area and SWMM is adopted for sewer networks runoff. And relationship between runoff and stream water level, HEC-RAS is accompanied with runoff results. Proposed flood warning trigger rainfall assessment method shows good agreement with gauged data and could be used for another case to mitigate damage. Acknowledgement: "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keyword: HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, critical precipitation, medium and small stream

  12. The Small Heat Shock Protein Hsp27 Affects Assembly Dynamics and Structure of Keratin Intermediate Filament Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Jona; Haslbeck, Martin; Dempfle, Lisa; Krause, Maike; Grashoff, Carsten; Buchner, Johannes; Herrmann, Harald; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of living cells are essential for many processes. They are defined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of protein fibers. Thus, the precise control of its architecture is of paramount importance. Our knowledge about the molecular and physical mechanisms defining the network structure remains scarce, especially for the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. Here, we investigate the effect of small heat shock proteins on the keratin 8/18 intermediate filament cytoskeleton using a well-controlled model system of reconstituted keratin networks. We demonstrate that Hsp27 severely alters the structure of such networks by changing their assembly dynamics. Furthermore, the C-terminal tail domain of keratin 8 is shown to be essential for this effect. Combining results from fluorescence and electron microscopy with data from analytical ultracentrifugation reveals the crucial role of kinetic trapping in keratin network formation. PMID:24138853

  13. Computational design of small phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells by functionalizations affecting the thiophene unit.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei Han; Tan, Yi Yin; Rege, Omkar; Manzhos, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    We present a computational density functional theory study of the potential to improve the solar absorbance of small organic dyes featuring a phenothiazine donor and an acceptor moiety that combines a thiophene unit and a cyanoacrylic group. We consider different conjugation orders and functional groups on and around the thiophene unit, including electron-donating and electron-withdrawing moieties (H, F, CH3, CF3, and CN). We predict that by combining change of conjugation order and functionalization with electron withdrawing CN groups, it must be possible to decrease the excitation energy by up to 60 % vs. the parent dye (which would correspond to a redshift of the absorption peak maximum from 450 nm to 726 nm), effectively enabling red light absorption with small dyes. The contraction of the band gap is mostly due to the stabilization of the LUMO (by up to 1.8 eV), so that-in spite of the kinetic redundancy of the parent dye with respect to the conduction-band minimum of TiO2-care must be taken to ensure efficient injection when using the dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells. By studying 50 dyes, of which 44 are new dyes that are studied for the first time in this work, we identify parameters (such as charges, dihedral angles between donor and acceptor groups, bond length alternation) which can serve as predictors of the band gap. We find that bond length alternation or dihedral angles are not good predictors, while the charge on the thiophene unit is. PMID:25750021

  14. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Jonathan; Bissett, John; Pahlavani, Mohammadhadi; Mooney, Brent; Buchwaldt, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2), ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS) region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt). A PCR-probe (39F/R) amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1-5 minisatellites with 1-12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported. PMID:26340001

  15. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Jonathan; Bissett, John; Pahlavani, Mohammadhadi; Mooney, Brent; Buchwaldt, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2), ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS) region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt). A PCR-probe (39F/R) amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1–5 minisatellites with 1–12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported. PMID:26340001

  16. Weight loss is coupled with improvements to affective state in obese participants engaged in behavior change therapy based on incremental, self-selected "small changes".

    PubMed

    Paxman, Jenny R; Hall, Anna C; Harden, Charlotte J; O'Keeffe, Jean; Simper, Trevor N

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a group behavior change intervention involving self-selected, contextualized, and mediated goal setting on anthropometric, affective, and dietary markers of health. It was hypothesized that the intervention would elicit changes consistent with accepted health recommendations for obese individuals. A rolling program of 12-week "Small Changes" interventions during 24 months recruited 71 participants; each program accommodated 10 to 13 adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²). Fifty-eight participants completed Small Changes. Repeated measures were made at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures included height and weight (to calculate BMI), body composition, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Affective state was monitored using relevant validated questionnaires. Dietary assessment used 3-day household measures food diaries with Schofield equations to monitor underreporting. Relevant blood measures were recorded throughout. Across the measurement period, Small Changes elicited a significant reduction in body weight (baseline, 102.95 ± 15.47 vs 12 weeks 100.09 ± 16.01 kg, P < .0005), coupled with associated significant improvements in BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference measures. There were additional significant positive changes in measures of affective state including general well-being (baseline, 58.92 ± 21.22 vs 12 weeks 78.04 ± 14.60, P < .0005) and total mood disturbance (baseline, 31.19 ± 34.03 vs 12 weeks 2.67 ± 24.96, P < .0005). Dietary changes that occurred were largely consistent with evidenced-based recommendations for weight management and included significant reductions in total energy intake and in fat and saturated fat as a proportion of energy. The Small Changes approach can elicit a range of health-orientated benefits for obese participants, and although further work is needed to ascertain the longevity of such effects, the outcomes from Small Changes are

  17. Student Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Joyce

    Materials for running a student government program at the junior high school level are provided in three general sections. Section 1 is a description of student government operations. Topics covered include student government responsibilities and activities, student council meeting procedures, parliamentary rules, responsibilities of the…

  18. How the Performance of a Superconducting Magnet is affected by theConnection between a small cooler and the Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-09-08

    As low temperature cryocoolers become more frequently used to cool superconducting magnets, it becomes increasingly apparent that the connection between the cooler and the magnet has an effect on the design and performance of the magnet. In general, the use of small coolers can be considered in two different temperature ranges; (1) from 3.8 to 4.8 K for magnet fabricated with LTS conductor and (2) from 18 to 35 K for magnets fabricated using HTS conductor. In general, both temperature ranges call for the use of a two-stage cooler. The best method for connecting a cooler to the magnet depends on a number of factors. The factors include: (1) whether the cooler must be used to cool down the magnet from room temperature, (2) whether the magnet must have one or more reservoirs of liquid cryogen to keep the magnet cold during a loss of cooling, and (3) constraints on the distance from the cooler cold heads and the magnet and its shield. Two methods for connecting low temperature coolers to superconducting magnets have been studied. The first method uses a cold strap to connect the cold heads directly to the loads. This method is commonly used for cryogen-free magnets. The second method uses a thermal siphon and liquid cryogens to make the connection between the load being cooled and the cold head. The two methods of transferring heat from the magnet to the cooler low temperature cold head are compared for the two temperature ranges given above.

  19. Small Hydrophobic Protein of Human Metapneumovirus Does Not Affect Virus Replication and Host Gene Expression In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Miranda; Herfst, Sander; Aarbiou, Jamil; Burgers, Peter C.; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Bijl, Maarten; van IJcken, Wilfred; Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Luider, Theo M.; Scholte, Bob J.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Andeweg, Arno C.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein of unknown function. HMPV from which the SH open reading frame was deleted (HMPVΔSH) was viable and displayed similar replication kinetics, cytopathic effect and plaque size compared with wild type HMPV in several cell-lines. In addition, no differences were observed in infection efficiency or cell-to-cell spreading in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HPBEC) cultured at an air-liquid interphase. Host gene expression was analyzed in A549 cells infected with HMPV or HMPVΔSH using microarrays and mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques at multiple time points post infection. Only minor differences were observed in mRNA or protein expression levels. A possible function of HMPV SH as apoptosis blocker, as proposed for several members of the family Paramyxoviridae, was rejected based on this analysis. So far, a clear phenotype of HMPV SH deletion mutants in vitro at the virus and host levels is absent. PMID:23484037

  20. Human metapneumovirus small hydrophobic (SH) protein downregulates type I IFN pathway signaling by affecting STAT1 expression and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Andrew K; Amato, Katherine R; Wen, Sherry C; Peterson, Laura S; Williams, John V

    2016-07-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is a key mediator of antiviral immunity. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) inhibits IFN signaling, but does not encode homologues of known IFN antagonists. We tested the hypothesis that a specific viral protein prevents type I IFN signaling by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1). We found that human airway epithelial cells (capable of expressing IFNs) became impaired for STAT1 phosphorylation even without direct infection due to intrinsic negative feedback. HMPV-infected Vero cells (incapable of expressing IFN) displayed lower STAT1 expression and impaired STAT1 phosphorylation in response to type I IFN treatment compared to mock-infected cells. Transient overexpression of HMPV small hydrophobic (SH) protein significantly inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation and signaling, and recombinant virus lacking SH protein was unable to inhibit STAT1 phosphorylation. Our results indicate a role for the SH protein of HMPV in the downregulation of type I IFN signaling through the targeting of STAT1. PMID:27131212

  1. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  2. Breeding scheme and maternal small RNAs affect the efficiency of transgenerational inheritance of a paramutation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuiqiao; Oliver, Daniel; Schuster, Andrew; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Paramutations result from interactions between two alleles at a single locus, whereby one induces a heritable change in the other. Although common in plants, paramutations are rarely studied in animals. Here, we report a new paramutation mouse model, in which the paramutant allele was induced by an insertional mutation and displayed the "white-tail-tip" (WTT) phenotype. The paramutation phenotype could be transmitted across multiple generations, and the breeding scheme (intercrossing vs. outcrossing) drastically affected the transmission efficiency. Paternal (i.e., sperm-borne) RNAs isolated from paramutant mice could induce the paramutation phenotype, which, however, failed to be transmitted to subsequent generations. Maternal miRNAs and piRNAs appeared to have an inhibitory effect on the efficiency of germline transmission of the paramutation. This paramutation mouse model represents an important tool for dissecting the underlying mechanism, which should be applicable to the phenomenon of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance (ETI) in general. Mechanistic insights of ETI will help us understand how organisms establish new heritable epigenetic states during development, or in times of environmental or nutritional stress. PMID:25783852

  3. Breeding scheme and maternal small RNAs affect the efficiency of transgenerational inheritance of a paramutation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuiqiao; Oliver, Daniel; Schuster, Andrew; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Paramutations result from interactions between two alleles at a single locus, whereby one induces a heritable change in the other. Although common in plants, paramutations are rarely studied in animals. Here, we report a new paramutation mouse model, in which the paramutant allele was induced by an insertional mutation and displayed the “white-tail-tip” (WTT) phenotype. The paramutation phenotype could be transmitted across multiple generations, and the breeding scheme (intercrossing vs. outcrossing) drastically affected the transmission efficiency. Paternal (i.e., sperm-borne) RNAs isolated from paramutant mice could induce the paramutation phenotype, which, however, failed to be transmitted to subsequent generations. Maternal miRNAs and piRNAs appeared to have an inhibitory effect on the efficiency of germline transmission of the paramutation. This paramutation mouse model represents an important tool for dissecting the underlying mechanism, which should be applicable to the phenomenon of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance (ETI) in general. Mechanistic insights of ETI will help us understand how organisms establish new heritable epigenetic states during development, or in times of environmental or nutritional stress. PMID:25783852

  4. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  5. Small scale hydrology in a pristine and an affected peatland: effects of flood water on soil biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorenhout, Michel; Cusell, Casper

    2014-05-01

    Many peatlands have a water regime of fluctuating water levels. Flooding of peatsoils occurs in several Dutch peatlands. The quality of this floodwater is important for the ecological value of the peatlands. Well known are the eutrophying effects of polluted flood water on the N- and P- limited vegetation. Nutrients can, however, also be released from the soil; anoxic conditions are known to release Fe-bound phosphorus. It is therefore important to focus on small scale hydrology in projects where water levels are manipulated and floodings are induced. Three types of peatlands have been the subject of two separate studies on hydrology, ecological value and soil biogeochemistry. Two pristine sites and one recently restored flood water storage basin were monitored during 2009-2013. These three sites cover the natural range of peatsoils: from floating fens to degraded and fixed peat soils. All sites have peat as the main soil type, but the age and typology differs. The two pristine sites, the Wieden and Weerribben, are characterized by limited natural and/or induced flooding events. These sites have peaty soils. The soils in the Wieden are fixed to the sandy substrate below, the peaty soils in the Weerribben are completely floating on a water layer. The ecological value of the Wieden and the Weerribben is high, but their value may decline due to low variation in water levels. The third site, the Onlanden area, is a large created storm water storage basin. The Onlanden area is a former agricultural area, inhabited since the Medieval period. It has a fixed and rather degraded peaty soil. Large scale restoration of water inlets and dams has created an area that will get flooded at regular intervals. The Onlanden was the subject of an archaeological monitoring project. All sites were equipped with monitoring stations for local and regional water levels, soil moisture and soil redox potential as the indicator for the local biogeochemistry. Cusell et al (2013) studied the

  6. Use of portable antennas to estimate abundance of PIT-tagged fish in small streams: Factors affecting detection probability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Horton, Gregg E.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    Portable passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna systems can be valuable in providing reliable estimates of the abundance of tagged Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in small streams under a wide range of conditions. We developed and employed PIT tag antenna wand techniques in two controlled experiments and an additional case study to examine the factors that influenced our ability to estimate population size. We used Pollock's robust-design capture–mark–recapture model to obtain estimates of the probability of first detection (p), the probability of redetection (c), and abundance (N) in the two controlled experiments. First, we conducted an experiment in which tags were hidden in fixed locations. Although p and c varied among the three observers and among the three passes that each observer conducted, the estimates of N were identical to the true values and did not vary among observers. In the second experiment using free-swimming tagged fish, p and c varied among passes and time of day. Additionally, estimates of N varied between day and night and among age-classes but were within 10% of the true population size. In the case study, we used the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model to examine the variation in p, and we compared counts of tagged fish found with the antenna wand with counts collected via electrofishing. In that study, we found that although p varied for age-classes, sample dates, and time of day, antenna and electrofishing estimates of N were similar, indicating that population size can be reliably estimated via PIT tag antenna wands. However, factors such as the observer, time of day, age of fish, and stream discharge can influence the initial and subsequent detection probabilities.

  7. Definitive chemoradiotherapy of limited-disease small cell lung cancer: Retrospective analysis of new predictive factors affecting treatment results

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Tetsuya; Oizumi, Yukio; Kunieda, Etsuo; Tamai, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Takeshi; Kogawa, Asuka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential predictive factors in the treatment of limited-disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). A total of 33 patients with LD-SCLC who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy at our institute between April 1996 and May 2007 were enrolled in our retrospective study. The relationship between a range of potential predictive factors and the initial response, time to progression and pattern of failure was analyzed. The factors evaluated included the tumor markers Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP) and neuron-specific enolase; net tumor size (sum of each lesion mass on computed tomography at 1-cm intervals); total radiation dose; biological effective dose (BED); overall treatment time (OTT); time between the start of any type of treatment and the end of radiation therapy (SER). In addition, the novel factors of radiation dose-intensity (RDI = BED/OTT) and RDI/NTS (= RDI/net tumor size) were defined. Of the 33 patients evaluated in our study, 22 (67%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 27 (82%) experienced treatment failure or recurrence. High RDI/NTS values showed a significant correlation with CR (P=0.043). Prolonged OTT and lower values of RDI and RDI/NTS showed a significant correlation with recurrence within 12 months (P=0.022, 0.033 and 0.015, respectively). The lower values of RDI and RDI/NTS showed a significant correlation with distant metastasis as a first failure site (P=0.038 and 0.044, respectively). Patients with RDI/NTS ≥0.08 had a more favorable prognosis (P=0.045). Thus, RDI and RDI/NTS may become beneficial predictive factors in the treatment of LD-SCLC. However, further studies are required to confirm our preliminary results. PMID:22866140

  8. Parenteral and enteral feeding in preterm piglets differently affects extracellular matrix proteins, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Oste, Marijke; De Vos, Maartje; Van Haver, Els; Van Brantegem, Leen; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per; Weyns, Andre; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The preterm intestine is immature and responds differently to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition, compared with the term intestine. We hypothesised that in preterms, diet composition and feeding route affect mucosal morphology, enterocyte mitosis and apoptosis, and the distribution of laminin-1, fibronectin and collagen IV (extracellular matrix proteins (ECMP)). Preterm piglets (93.5 % of gestation) were delivered via caesarean section and birth weight-matched allocated to one of the four experimental groups: the piglets were either euthanised immediately after delivery, after 3 d of TPN or after 2 d enteral feeding with colostrum or milk formula, following 3 d of TPN. We combined immunohistochemistry, image analysis and stereological measurements to describe the intestinal mucosal layer. No significant changes occurred after 3 d of TPN. Feeding colostrum or milk replacer for 2 d after TPN was associated with an increased crypt depth. Only enteral feeding with colostrum resulted in an increased villus height and mitotic index. Neither TPN nor enteral feeding changed the distribution pattern of ECMP or the occurrence of bifid crypts. The immature distribution pattern of ECMP in TPN-fed piglets, coupled with unchanged enterocyte mitosis and apoptosis indices, illustrates that feeding preterm pigs 3 d TPN does not lead to mucosal atrophy. Despite the invariable distribution of ECMP, colostrum was associated with crypt hyperplasia resulting in an increased villus height. These data illustrate that some mechanisms regulating cell turnover are immature in preterms and may in part explain the abnormal gut responses to TPN and enteral feeding in prematurely born pigs. PMID:20887647

  9. Hydrological modelling in small, semi-arid catchments of south-eastern Australia: reforestation affects groundwater but not streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Joshua; Camporese, Matteo; Grover, Samantha; Webb, John; Dresel, Evan; Daly, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Land use has a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET) and thus a large effect on catchment hydrology. The dearth of data from arid and semi-arid catchments limits the understanding of the possible effects of land-use and land-use change on water resources in these environments. Here we use three years of rainfall, streamflow, and groundwater level measurements to estimate the water balance components in two small, adjacent ephemeral Australian catchments, one predominantly covered with a young eucalypt plantation and the other primarily dedicated to grazing pasture. The average annual rainfall for the study area is ~670 mm, with ET greatly exceeding rainfall for most of the year, excepting the winter months of May through September. The paired catchments are similar in size and are situated on the same Devonian granitic geology. Land-use is the most striking difference between the catchments; this allows for a strong hydrological comparison of the eucalypt catchment (planted in 2008) with the pasture catchment. The majority of data is available from 2009 until present, although historical bi-monthly groundwater level data exists back to 1986. We focus on 2010-2012, and we have maximum data for 2012, including eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The integrated hydrological model CATHY was calibrated and validated against the data in the two catchments for 2011 and 2012. The water balances estimated from both data and model show a significant increase in ET in the eucalypt plantation catchment at the expense of groundwater storage: ET accounted for 95-97% of rainfall in the pasture catchment and 104-110% in the eucalypt catchment across the three years studied. Direct measurements of ET in 2012 confirm the water balance values. However, streamflow was more or less constant at 3-4% of rainfall in both catchments for the study period. The model results suggest that this is because streamflow is generated primarily from surface runoff, showing that land use

  10. Minor genomic differences between related B6 and B10 mice affect severity of schistosome infection by governing the mode of dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Patrick M; Sproule, Thomas J; Philip, Vivek M; Roopenian, Derry C; Stadecker, Miguel J

    2015-08-01

    Infection with the helminth Schistosoma mansoni results in hepatointestinal granulomatous inflammation mediated by CD4 T cells directed against parasite eggs. The severity of disease varies greatly in humans and mice; however, the genetic basis of such a heterogenous immune response remains poorly understood. Here we show that, despite their close genetic relationship, C57BL/10SnJ (B10) mice developed significantly more pronounced immunopathology and higher T helper 17 cell responses than C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Similarly, live egg-stimulated B10-derived dendritic cells (DCs) produced significantly more IL-1β and IL-23, resulting in higher IL-17 production by CD4 T cells. Gene expression analysis disclosed a heightened proinflammatory cytokine profile together with a strikingly lower expression of Ym1 in B10 versus B6 mice, consistent with failure of B10 DCs to attain alternative activation. To genetically dissect the differential response, we developed and analyzed congenic mouse strains that capture major regions of allelic variation, and found that the level of inflammation was controlled by a relatively small number of genes in a locus mapping to chromosome 4 117-143 MB. Our study has thus identified novel genomic regions that regulate the severity of the schistosome infection by way of controlling the mode of DC activation and consequent CD4 T-cell subset development. PMID:25959828

  11. Remaking Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  12. Reinventing Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David T.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout all levels of American government, a shift is taking place from the rigid, wasteful, centralized bureaucracies of the industrial era to the more flexible, entrepreneurial, decentralized government needed to succeed in today's world. This shift has been brought about by an unprecedented, ongoing fiscal crisis that has created a sudden…

  13. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  14. Renewing governance.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  15. The inhibition of aromatase alters the mechanical and rheological properties of non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines affecting cell migration.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, E; Siatis, K E; Metsiou, D; Kritikou, I; Papachristou, D J; Kalofonou, M; Koutras, A; Athanassiou, G; Kalofonos, H P

    2015-02-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are key aspects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). During migration, cells undergo mechanical alterations. The mechanical phenotype of breast cancer cells is correlated with aromatase gene expression. We have previously shown that targeting aromatase is a promising strategy for NSCLC. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and mechanical changes of NSCLC cells, upon treatment with aromatase inhibitor and correlate their ability to migrate and invade. In vitro experiments were performed using H23 and A549 NSCLC cell lines and exemestane was used for aromatase inhibition. We demonstrated that exemestane reduced H23 cell migration and invasion and caused changes in cell morphology including increased vacuolar structures and greater pleomorphism. In addition, exemestane changed the distribution of α-tubulin in H23 and A549 cells in a way that might destabilize microtubules polymerization. These effects were associated with increased cell viscosity and decreased elastic shear modulus. Although exemestane caused similar effects in A549 cells regarding viscosity and elastic shear modulus, it did not affect A549 cell migration and caused an increase in invasion. The increased invasion was in line with vimentin perinuclear localization. Our data show that the treatment of NSCLC cells with an aromatase inhibitor not only affects cell migration and invasion but also alters the mechanical properties of the cells. It suggests that the different origin of cancer cells is associated with different morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior. PMID:25450981

  16. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Results Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). Conclusions In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats. PMID:25266643

  17. Report on the suitability of Class 6, U.S. government security repositories for the storage of small quantities of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Harry, H.H.; Murk, D.

    1998-03-01

    The Explosives Review Committee initiated a study into the safety aspects of the common practice of storing small amounts (< 10 grams per drawer) of high explosives in safes. Although storage of HE in older asbestos lined safes was permitted, the newer style Class 6 Security safes are an unacceptable repository for even very small amounts of HE without the use of a blast mitigating insert. The authors have developed a drawer liner in the form of a laminated Lexan, foam, plywood box that will withstand the blast and contain the fragments from up to 10 grams of high explosives. This liner will fit into the drawer of any existing safe. The liner will provide blast and fragment protection, and the safe will provide security protection. This report describes the testing of modern safes and the performance of the liner insert.

  18. Government Regulatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction in neonatal piglets affects small intestinal mucosal permeability and mRNA expression of redox-sensitive genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Degroote, Jeroen; Van Ginneken, Chris; Van Poucke, Mario; Vergauwen, Hans; Dam, Thi Minh Tho; Vanrompay, Daisy; Peelman, Luc J; De Smet, Stefaan; Michiels, Joris

    2016-02-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) show lower efficiency of nutrient utilization compared to normal birth weight (NBW) newborns. This study was conducted using neonatal piglets as a model to test the hypothesis that IUGR affects the intestinal barrier function, intestinal structure, and antioxidant system development during the suckling period. The small intestinal mucosae were obtained from IUGR and NBW littermates in the suckling period (d 0, 3, 8, and 19 postnatal). The epithelial barrier function was assessed by FITC-dextran 4 (FD4) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) fluxes across the epithelium, histomorphologic measurements, and expression of tight-junction proteins. Redox status represented by the glutathione disulfide/glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde concentrations was determined, whereas mRNA expressions of some redox-sensitive proteins were quantified. Results showed that IUGR piglets exhibited a 2-fold higher intestinal permeability in the proximal small intestine on d 0 (P < 0.05), and this difference between IUGR and NBW piglets was widened to 3 and 4 times for FD4 and HRP, respectively (P < 0.05), on d 3. In accordance, expression of occludin was down-regulated at the transcriptional level in IUGR piglets at d 0 and 19 (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the transcription of heme oxygenase 1, catalase, and thioredoxin reductase genes was down-regulated in IUGR piglets, mainly on postnatal d 0 and 19 (P < 0.01). It appears that IUGR subjects have a lower capacity to mount an antioxidant response in the early postnatal period. Collectively, these results add to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for intestinal dysfunction in IUGR neonates. PMID:26514167

  20. Small-Scale Variation in Fuel Loads Differentially Affects Two Co-Dominant Bunchgrasses in a Species-Rich Pine Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Paul R.; Harms, Kyle E.; Platt, William J.; Passmore, Heather A.; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological disturbances frequently control the occurrence and patterning of dominant plants in high-diversity communities like C4 grasslands and savannas. In such ecosystems disturbance-related processes can have important implications for species, and for whole communities when those species are dominant, yet mechanistic understanding of such processes remains fragmentary. Multiple bunchgrass species commonly co-dominate disturbance-dependent and species-rich pine savannas, where small-scale fuel heterogeneity may influence bunchgrass survival and growth following fires. We quantified how fire in locally varying fuel loads influenced dynamics of dominant C4 bunchgrasses in a species-rich pine savanna in southeastern Louisiana, USA. We focused on two congeneric, co-dominant species (Schizachyrium scoparium and S. tenerum) with similar growth forms, functional traits and reproductive strategies to highlight effects of fuel heterogeneity during fires. In experimental plots with either reduced or increased fuels versus controls with unmanipulated fuels, we compared: 1) bunchgrass damage and 2) mortality from fires; 3) subsequent growth and 4) flowering. Compared to controls, fire with increased fuels caused greater damage, mortality and subsequent flowering, but did not affect post-fire growth. Fire with reduced fuels had no effect on any of the four measures. The two species responded differently to fire with increased fuels – S. scoparium incurred measurably more damage and mortality than S. tenerum. Logistic regression indicated that the larger average size of S. tenerum tussocks made them resistant to more severe burning where fuels were increased. We speculate that locally increased fuel loading may be important in pine savannas for creating colonization sites because where fuels are light or moderate, dominant bunchgrasses persist through fires. Small-scale heterogeneity in fires, and differences in how species tolerate fire may together promote shared local

  1. Small-scale variation in fuel loads differentially affects two co-dominant bunchgrasses in a species-rich pine savanna.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Paul R; Harms, Kyle E; Platt, William J; Passmore, Heather A; Myers, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Ecological disturbances frequently control the occurrence and patterning of dominant plants in high-diversity communities like C(4) grasslands and savannas. In such ecosystems disturbance-related processes can have important implications for species, and for whole communities when those species are dominant, yet mechanistic understanding of such processes remains fragmentary. Multiple bunchgrass species commonly co-dominate disturbance-dependent and species-rich pine savannas, where small-scale fuel heterogeneity may influence bunchgrass survival and growth following fires. We quantified how fire in locally varying fuel loads influenced dynamics of dominant C(4) bunchgrasses in a species-rich pine savanna in southeastern Louisiana, USA. We focused on two congeneric, co-dominant species (Schizachyrium scoparium and S. tenerum) with similar growth forms, functional traits and reproductive strategies to highlight effects of fuel heterogeneity during fires. In experimental plots with either reduced or increased fuels versus controls with unmanipulated fuels, we compared: 1) bunchgrass damage and 2) mortality from fires; 3) subsequent growth and 4) flowering. Compared to controls, fire with increased fuels caused greater damage, mortality and subsequent flowering, but did not affect post-fire growth. Fire with reduced fuels had no effect on any of the four measures. The two species responded differently to fire with increased fuels--S. scoparium incurred measurably more damage and mortality than S. tenerum. Logistic regression indicated that the larger average size of S. tenerum tussocks made them resistant to more severe burning where fuels were increased. We speculate that locally increased fuel loading may be important in pine savannas for creating colonization sites because where fuels are light or moderate, dominant bunchgrasses persist through fires. Small-scale heterogeneity in fires, and differences in how species tolerate fire may together promote shared local

  2. Changing Dermatopathology Protocols for Processing Small Skin Biopsies: Decreases in Slide Quantity Does Not Affect Patient Care and Allows for Optimal Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Kumaran; Speiser, Jodi; Hutchens, Kelli A

    2016-06-01

    In dermatopathology, no standard protocol exists for processing small biopsy specimens. In our original protocol, 2 routine initial slides per biopsy were prepared. For 1003 biopsies, we noted how often the second slide helped in diagnosis or eliminated the need for additional deeper sections. After obtaining these data, we switched to processing only 1 initial slide (new protocol) and again evaluated 1003 biopsies. During the original protocol, the second slide never helped to make a diagnosis that was not apparent on the first slide. When deeper sections were ordered (10.4% of cases), they helped in the diagnosis 34.6% of the time. In the new protocol, deeper sections were ordered in 15.9% of cases and helped in the diagnosis 32.7% of the time when ordered. Comparing rates of deeper sections ordered showed no significant difference for benign, inflammatory/reactive, and premalignant/malignant groups (P > 0.1). However, there was a significant increase in deeper sections ordered for melanocytic lesions from 16.9% to 32.3% (P < 0.05). Also, a significantly greater percentage of punch biopsies (31.5% and 42.0% in the respective protocols) required deeper sections than shave biopsies (7.4% and 12.6% in the respective protocols). Switching protocols, the estimated annual cost savings is $2890. The majority of cases at our institution are properly diagnosed using only 1 slide. From our study findings, we conclude that 1 slide preparation for small biopsies is the best practice for our institution and one that does not affect diagnostic accuracy, reduces costs, and helps in effective time management. PMID:27101126

  3. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian; Wang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  4. Cloning a balanced t(9;11)(p24;q23.1) chromosomal translocation breakpoint segregating with bipolar affective disorder in a small pedigree

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, D.J.; Baysal, B.E.; Gollin, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    A small multigenerational pedigree was previously identified in which a balanced 9;11 chromosomal translocation was cosegregating with bipolar affective disorder. We hypothesize that genes or gene regulatory sequences disrupted by the translocation are contributing to bipolar affective disorder in a dominant fashion. The general strategy involves (1) using somatic cell hybrids containing the derivative 9 or 11 chromosomes to identify the closest chromosome 9 and 11 flanking markers, (2) using the nearest markers as PCR and hybridization probes to isolate both normal DNA (YAC) and patient DNA (cosmid) adjacent to and incorporating the translocation breakpoint, and (3) identifying expressed sequences in the genomic DNA that may be disrupted by the translocation. From a fusion of the translocation patient cell line and a recipient hamster cell line, somatic cell hybrids were isolated which contain either the human derivative 9 or derivative 11 chromosome. Using PCR-based STS assays with these hybrids, the location of the translocation breakpoint was localized to an estimated 500 kb region at chromosome 11 band q23.1 and a 1 cM region in 9 band p24 (more telomeric than originally reported). From a large set of CEPH and Roswell Park yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), six chromosome 11 YACs spanning the 11q23.1 breakpoint have now been identified. A combination of pulsed field gel eletrophoresis and YAC mapping has narrowed the chromosome 11 region to less than 430 kb. Current efforts are focused on generating new chromosome 11 probes within the flanking markers, mapping these probes back to the der(9) and der(11) containing hybrids and the chromosome 11 YAC mapping panel. As the region is physically narrowed, we will identify candidate genes whose expression may be altered by this t(9:11) translocation.

  5. E-Government: Initiatives, Developments, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Duncan; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a background of government efforts to incorporate telecommunication and computer technologies to improve government performance and enhance citizen access to government information and services. Describes this symposium issue which discusses key issues that affect the success and implementation of electronic government initiatives. (LRW)

  6. Understanding 'anticipatory governance'.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-04-01

    Anticipatory governance is 'a broad-based capacity extended through society that can act on a variety of inputs to manage emerging knowledge-based technologies while such management is still possible'. It motivates activities designed to build capacities in foresight, engagement, and integration--as well as through their production ensemble. These capacities encourage and support the reflection of scientists, engineers, policy makers, and other publics on their roles in new technologies. This article reviews the early history of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States, and it further explicates anticipatory governance through exploring the genealogy of the term and addressing a set of critiques found in the literature. These critiques involve skepticism of three proximities of anticipatory governance: to its object, nanotechnology, which is a relatively indistinct one; to the public, which remains almost utterly naive toward nanotechnology; and to technoscience itself, which allegedly renders anticipatory governance complicit in its hubris. The article concludes that the changing venues and the amplification within them of the still, small voices of folks previously excluded from offering constructive visions of futures afforded by anticipatory governance may not be complete solutions to our woes in governing technology, but they certainly can contribute to bending the long arc of technoscience more toward humane ends. PMID:24941612

  7. Development and implementation of a finite element solution of the coupled neutron transport and thermoelastic equations governing the behavior of small nuclear assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Stephen Christian

    Small, highly enriched reactors designed for weapons effects simulations undergo extreme thermal transients during pulsed operations. The primary shutdown mechanism of these reactors---thermal expansion of fuel material---experiences an inertial delay resulting in a different value for the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity during pulse operation as compared to the value appropriate for steady-state operation. The value appropriate for pulsed operation may further vary as a function of initial reactivity addition. Here we design and implement a finite element numerical method to predict the pulse operation behavior of Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) II, SPR III, and a hypothetical spherical assembly with identical fuel properties without using operationally observed data in our model. These numerical results are compared to available SPR II and SPR III operational data. The numerical methods employed herein may be modified and expanded in functionality to provide both accurate characterization of the behavior of fast burst reactors of any common geometry or isotropic fuel material in the design phase, as well as a computational tool for general coupled thermomechanical-neutronics behavior in the solid state for any reactor type.

  8. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change. Study Design This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400) were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds), and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652) were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water. Findings Our findings show that a) differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b) this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c) effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human

  9. Reinventing government

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Lepkowski, W.; Long, J.R.; Zurer, P.S.

    1993-10-11

    Both Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are committed to reinventing the federal government. To do so they will need more than a little help from Congress. But, if they succeed in turning the report's recommendations into reality, substantial change will occur in the way the federal government interacts with the chemical community in areas such as environmental and safety and health regulation, science and technology policy, education, and research priority setting. The report is the result of a six-month effort by the National Performance Review (NPR), a group led by Gore. It contains some 400 specific recommendations for changing the ways the federal government operates. These recommendations, if enacted the report claims, would produced savings of $108 billion over five years and reduce the size of the civilian, nonpostal work force by 12%, 252 positions, over the same period. The Department of Energy is the target of eight NPR recommendations. But the one with the most direct relevance to R and D calls for directing its national laboratories to pursue post-Cold War research priorities. Efforts to shift the labs away from their defense orientation began during the Carter presidency, when all of the labs began establishing stronger research programs in environmental science and technology and biology.

  10. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, K.; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  11. Citrus tristeza virus infection induces the accumulation of viral small RNAs (21-24-nt) mapping preferentially at the 3'-terminal region of the genomic RNA and affects the host small RNA profile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Navarro, Beatriz; Gisel, Andreas; Peña, Leandro; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Di Serio, Francesco; Flores, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    To get an insight into the host RNA silencing defense induced by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and into the counter defensive reaction mediated by its three silencing suppressors (p25, p20 and p23), we have examined by deep sequencing (Solexa-Illumina) the small RNAs (sRNAs) in three virus-host combinations. Our data show that CTV sRNAs: (i) represent more than 50% of the total sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange (where CTV reaches relatively high titers), but only 3.5% in sour orange (where the CTV titer is significantly lower), (ii) are predominantly of 21-22-nt, with a biased distribution of their 5' nucleotide and with those of (+) polarity accumulating in a moderate excess, and (iii) derive from essentially all the CTV genome (ca. 20 kb), as revealed by its complete reconstruction from viral sRNA contigs, but adopt an asymmetric distribution with a prominent hotspot covering approximately the 3'-terminal 2,500 nt. These results suggest that the citrus homologues of Dicer-like (DCL) 4 and 2 most likely mediate the genesis of the 21 and 22 nt CTV sRNAs, respectively, and show that both ribonucleases act not only on the genomic RNA but also on the 3' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs and, particularly, on their double-stranded forms. The plant sRNA profile, very similar and dominated by the 24-nt sRNAs in the three mock-inoculated controls, was minimally affected by CTV infection in sour orange, but exhibited a significant reduction of the 24-nt sRNAs in Mexican lime and sweet orange. We have also identified novel citrus miRNAs and determined how CTV influences their accumulation. PMID:21327514

  12. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... on October 8, 2013 was published in the Federal Register of July 30, 2013 (78 FR 45969); the notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Rescheduling of Washington public...

  13. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... European Union; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Hearing AGENCY: United States International.... International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-541, Trade Barriers that U.S....

  14. The in vivo infusion of hydrogen peroxide induces oxidative stress and differentially affects the activities of small intestinal carbohydrate digestive enzymes in the neonatal pig.

    PubMed

    Lackeyram, D; Mine, Y; Widowski, T; Archbold, T; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by persistent and relapsing fatigue that involves oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that a decrease in key carbohydrate-digesting enzyme activity in the gut is one of the major biological mechanisms of developing CFS in liquid formula-fed neonatal pigs with in vivo infusion of H(2)O(2). Piglets at 7 to 10 d of age were fitted with an intraperitoneal catheter, allowed a 3-d post surgical recovery, and infused with either H(2)O(2) at 5 mmol/kg BW (PER; n = 8) or the same volume of saline (CON; n = 8) in six 20-ml doses daily for a period of 10 d. During this period, animal behavior was monitored, blood samples collected, and jejunal enzyme activity kinetic experiments for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and maltase-glucoamylase were conducted. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione remained similar (P > 0.05) to the pre-infusion level over the study duration in the CON group whereas this was 65% lower (P < 0.05) than the pre-infusion level in the PER group. Piglets experiencing oxidative stress had an overall lower (P < 0.05) physical mobility and the maximal jejunal specific activities [μmol/(mg protein · min)] for lactase (PER, 6.54 ± 0.68 vs. CON, 12.65 ± 0.69) and maltase (PER, 57.39 ± 1.02 vs. CON, 75.60 ± 1.04), respectively. However, differences were not observed (P > 0.05) in the maximal specific activities [μmol/(mg protein · min)] of sucrase (PER, 10.50 ± 1.37 vs. CON, 12.40 ± 1.55) and maltase-glucoamylase (PER, 0.71 ± 0.08 vs. CON, 0.70 ± 0.07) between the 2 groups. In conclusion, infusion of a suitable dose of H(2)O(2) induced CFS in the neonatal pigs. Oxidative stress in vivo differentially affected the maximal activities of important small intestinal carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in neonatal pigs fed a dairy milk-based liquid formula. PMID:23365398

  15. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Ec of... - Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at Affected Facilities as Defined in § 60.50c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hospital/Medical/Infectious... Table 1B to Subpart Ec of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small, Medium, and Large HMIWI at...

  16. Prospective Governance. AGB Occasional Paper No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Darryl G.

    1997-01-01

    Higher education governance structures are ineffective and new structures of "prospective governance" are needed for future success. Trends affecting higher education include financial scarcity, lack of government funding juxtaposed with the growing public demand for better services, and the competitive pressures of commercialization and…

  17. Antibiotics conspicuously affect community profiles and richness, but not the density of bacterial cells associated with mucosa in the large and small intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-02-01

    The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine. PMID:22185696

  18. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry. PMID:18506395

  19. Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect gene flow and the distribution of genetic diversity in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea.

    PubMed

    Cortés, A J; Waeber, S; Lexer, C; Sedlacek, J; Wheeler, J A; van Kleunen, M; Bossdorf, O; Hoch, G; Rixen, C; Wipf, S; Karrenberg, S

    2014-09-01

    Current threats to biodiversity, such as climate change, are thought to alter the within-species genetic diversity among microhabitats in highly heterogeneous alpine environments. Assessing the spatial organization and dynamics of genetic diversity within species can help to predict the responses of organisms to environmental change. In this study, we evaluated whether small-scale heterogeneity in snowmelt timing restricts gene flow between microhabitats in the common long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L. We surveyed 273 genets across 12 early- and late-snowmelt sites (that is, ridges and snowbeds) in the Swiss Alps for phenological variation over 2 years and for genetic variation using seven SSR markers. Phenological differentiation triggered by differences in snowmelt timing did not correlate with genetic differentiation between microhabitats. On the contrary, extensive gene flow appeared to occur between microhabitats and slightly less extensively among adjacent mountains. However, ridges exhibited significantly lower levels of genetic diversity than snowbeds, and patterns of effective population size (Ne) and migration (Nem) between microhabitats were strongly asymmetric, with ridges acting as sources and snowbeds as sinks. As no recent genetic bottlenecks were detected in the studied sites, this asymmetry is likely to reflect current meta-population dynamics of the species dominated by gene flow via seeds rather than ancient re-colonization after the last glacial period. Overall, our results suggest that seed dispersal prevents snowmelt-driven genetic isolation, and snowbeds act as sinks of genetic diversity. We discuss the consequences of such small-scale variation in gene flow and diversity levels for population responses to climate change. PMID:24619183

  20. Outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothorax with small-caliber chest tubes: factors affecting the need for prolonged drainage and additional interventions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay; Hicks, Marshall E; Wallace, Michael J; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions. We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001). We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path. PMID:18074173

  1. Outpatient Management of Postbiopsy Pneumothorax with Small-Caliber Chest Tubes: Factors Affecting the Need for Prolonged Drainage and Additional Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Hicks, Marshall E.; Wallace, Michael J.; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions.We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001).We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path.

  2. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    PubMed

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  3. When can preheating affect the CMB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss the principles governing the selection of inflationary models for which preheating can affect the CMB. This is a (fairly small) subset of those models which have nonnegligible entropy/isocurvature perturbations on large scales during inflation. We study new models which belong to this class-two-field inflation with negative nonminimal coupling and hybrid/double/supernatural inflation models where the tachyonic growth of entropy perturbations can lead to the variation of the curvature perturbation, /R, on super-Hubble scales. Finally, we present evidence against recent claims for the variation of /R in the absence of substantial super-Hubble entropy perturbations.

  4. The EGFR mutation status affects the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Amornwichet, Napapat; Oike, Takahiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Nirodi, Chaitanya S.; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Makino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Yuka; Hirota, Yuka; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kohno, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise to treat inoperable locally-advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a disease poorly controlled by standard chemoradiotherapy using X-rays. Since CIRT is an extremely limited medical resource, selection of NSCLC patients likely to benefit from it is important; however, biological predictors of response to CIRT are ill-defined. The present study investigated the association between the mutational status of EGFR and KRAS, driver genes frequently mutated in NSCLC, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams over X-rays. The assessment of 15 NSCLC lines of different EGFR/KRAS mutational status and that of isogenic NSCLC lines expressing wild-type or mutant EGFR revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, but not KRAS-mutant cells, show low RBE. This was attributable to (i) the high X-ray sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, since EGFR mutation is associated with a defect in non-homologous end joining, a major pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and (ii) the strong cell-killing effect of carbon-ion beams due to poor repair of carbon-ion beam-induced DSBs regardless of EGFR mutation status. These data highlight the potential of EGFR mutation status as a predictor of response to CIRT, i.e., CIRT may show a high therapeutic index in EGFR mutation-negative NSCLC. PMID:26065573

  5. The EGFR mutation status affects the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Amornwichet, Napapat; Oike, Takahiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Nirodi, Chaitanya S; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Makino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Yuka; Hirota, Yuka; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kohno, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise to treat inoperable locally-advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a disease poorly controlled by standard chemoradiotherapy using X-rays. Since CIRT is an extremely limited medical resource, selection of NSCLC patients likely to benefit from it is important; however, biological predictors of response to CIRT are ill-defined. The present study investigated the association between the mutational status of EGFR and KRAS, driver genes frequently mutated in NSCLC, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams over X-rays. The assessment of 15 NSCLC lines of different EGFR/KRAS mutational status and that of isogenic NSCLC lines expressing wild-type or mutant EGFR revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, but not KRAS-mutant cells, show low RBE. This was attributable to (i) the high X-ray sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, since EGFR mutation is associated with a defect in non-homologous end joining, a major pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and (ii) the strong cell-killing effect of carbon-ion beams due to poor repair of carbon-ion beam-induced DSBs regardless of EGFR mutation status. These data highlight the potential of EGFR mutation status as a predictor of response to CIRT, i.e., CIRT may show a high therapeutic index in EGFR mutation-negative NSCLC. PMID:26065573

  6. Hydrologic and geochemical factors affecting the chemistry of small headwater streams in response to acidic deposition on Catoctin Mountain, north-central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.C.; Bricker, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at a precipitation-collection station and from two small watersheds on Catoctin Mountain, north- central Maryland, as part of an investigation of episodic acidification and its effects on streamwater quality. Data were collected from June 1990 through December 1993. Descriptions of the water shed instrumentation, data-collection techniques, and laboratory methods used to conduct the studies are included. Data that were collected on precipitation, throughfall, soil water, ground water, and streamwater during base flow and stormflow indicate that the streams undergo episodic acidification during storms. Both streams showed decreases in pH to less than 5.0 standard units during stormflow. The acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of both streams decreased during stormflow, and the ANC of one of the streams, Bear Branch, became negative. The chemistries of the different types of waters that were sampled indicate that shallow subsurface water with minimal residence time in the watersheds is routed to the streams to become stormflow and is the cause of the episodic acidification observed. Three-component hydrograph separations were performed on the data collected during several storms in each watershed. The hydrograph separations of all of the storms indicate that throughfall contributed 0 to 50 percent of the stormflow, soil water contributed 0 to 80 percent, and ground water contributed 20 to 90 percent. The results of the hydrograph separations indicate that, in general, the watershed with higher hydraulic gradients tends to have shallower and shorter flow paths than the watershed with lower hydraulic gradients.

  7. P53-regulated long non-coding RNA TUG1 affects cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung cancer, partly through epigenetically regulating HOXB7 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, E-b; Yin, D-d; Sun, M; Kong, R; Liu, X-h; You, L-h; Han, L; Xia, R; Wang, K-m; Yang, J-s; De, W; Shu, Y-q; Wang, Z-x

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel class of transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), is being identified at a rapid pace. These RNAs have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we report that taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), a 7.1-kb lncRNA, recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is generally downregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues. In a cohort of 192 NSCLC patients, the lower expression of TUG1 was associated with a higher TNM stage and tumor size, as well as poorer overall survival (P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that TUG1 expression serves as an independent predictor for overall survival (P<0.001). Further experiments revealed that TUG1 expression was induced by p53, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that TUG1 was a direct transcriptional target of p53. TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the lncRNA-mediated regulation of the expression of HOX genes in tumorigenesis and development has been recently receiving increased attention. Interestingly, inhibition of TUG1 could upregulate homeobox B7 (HOXB7) expression; ChIP assays demonstrated that the promoter of HOXB7 locus was bound by EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a key component of PRC2, and was H3K27 trimethylated. This TUG1-mediated growth regulation is in part due to specific modulation of HOXB7, thus participating in AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these results suggest that p53-regulated TUG1 is a growth regulator, which acts in part through control of HOXB7. The p53/TUG1/PRC2/HOXB7 interaction might serve as targets for NSCLC diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24853421

  8. Small glutamine-rich protein/viral protein U–binding protein is a novel cochaperone that affects heat shock protein 70 activity

    PubMed Central

    Angeletti, Peter C.; Walker, Doriann; Panganiban, Antonito T.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular chaperone complexes containing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 are regulated by cochaperones, including a subclass of regulators, such as Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), C-terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein (CHIP), and Hsp70-Hsp90 organizing factor (Hop), that contain tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), where Hsp70 refers to Hsp70 and its nearly identical constitutive counterpart, Hsc70, together. These proteins interact with the Hsp70 to regulate adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and folding activities or to generate the chaperone complex. Here we provide evidence that small glutamine-rich protein/viral protein U–binding protein (SGT/UBP) is a cochaperone that negatively regulates Hsp70. By “Far-Western” and pull-down assays, SGT/UBP was shown to interact directly with Hsp70 and weakly with Hsp90. The interaction of SGT/UBP with both these protein chaperones was mapped to 3 TPRs in SGT/UBP (amino acids 95–195) that are flanked by charged residues. Moreover, SGT/UBP caused an approximately 30% reduction in both the intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsc70 and the ability of Hsc70 to refold denatured luciferase in vitro. This negative effect of SGT/UBP on Hsc70 is similar in magnitude to that observed for the cochaperone CHIP. A role for SGT/UBP in protein folding is also supported by evidence that a yeast strain containing a deletion in the yeast homolog to SGT/UBP (ΔSGT/UBP) displays a 50-fold reduction in recovery from heat shock compared with the wild type parent. Together, these results are consistent with a regulatory role for SGT/UBP in the chaperone complex. PMID:12482202

  9. Downregulation of HOXA1 gene affects small cell lung cancer cell survival and chemoresistance under the regulation of miR-100.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Faman; Bai, Yifeng; Chen, Zhenzhu; Li, Yufa; Luo, Luqiao; Huang, Jie; Yang, Jie; Liao, Hongzhan; Guo, Linlang

    2014-05-01

    Chemoresistance is often developed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients and leads to poor prognosis. Hox genes, a highly conserved family, play a crucial role in apoptosis, receptor signalling and differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have also been shown to play a crucial role in these biological processes by regulating the target genes. Several studies reported that both Hox genes and miRNAs are involved in chemoresistance. The aim of our study is to characterise the clinical significance and functional roles of HOXA1 in SCLC. Expression of HOXA1 was examined in 63 cases of SCLC tissues and 29 cases of blood by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methods. Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostic significance of HOXA1 in SCLC patients. Restoration of HOXA1 expression was carried out in SCLC multidrug resistant cell line H69AR and its parental cell line H69 to assess its influence on chemoresistance. Luciferase reporter assay was used to assess HOXA1 as a target of miR-100. The results showed that HOXA1 was expressed in 46% (29/63) of SCLC. Low HOXA1 expression was associated with the poor prognosis of SCLC (P<0.05 by the Fisher's Exact Test) and the shorter survival rate (P<0.001 by the Kaplan-Meier method). HOXA1 expression on both mRNA and protein levels significantly correlated with chemotherapy response. Enforced expression of HOXA1 in resistant H69AR cells led to increased chemosensitivity through increasing cell apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Inhibition of HOXA1 expression using HOXA1 siRNA in H69 cells resulted in cell resistance to therapeutic drugs through reducing drug-induced cell apoptosis accompanied with cell cycle arrest. Expression of endogenous miR-100 was significantly elevated in resistant H69AR cells and negatively related with HOXA1 expression. The expression of HOXA1 in SCLC tissues correlated inversely with the expression levels of miR-100. Reporter assays confirmed that

  10. "Inextricably Linked": Shared Governance and Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that academic freedom requires a governance system in which faculty expertise--often residing in an individual, but also expressed at times in a collective fashion--is the determining factor in institutional decisions affecting academic matters. Discusses why faculty governance is especially important in protecting liberal education…

  11. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

  12. Governmental Policies Affecting Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    This document traces the influence of governmental policies on American community colleges, focusing on how different levels of government have affected the colleges at various stages of their development with respect to college organization and governance, finance, enrollment, and curriculum. The community college's main contribution has been to…

  13. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  14. Clinical governance and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Crook, M

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at clinical governance and pathology. Clinical governance should be an important tool in seeking quality improvement within the Natinal Health Service. But how as pathologists should we go about it? PMID:11896066

  15. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  16. Taking Student Government Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the student government at La Mesa Middle School (California) that was modeled after the three-branch U.S. government as a means for increasing students' civic understanding. Describes the structure of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches, the different activities of the student government, and the reasons for the hiatus.…

  17. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  18. Governance in Strategic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a retrospective look at governance in community colleges based on a working understanding of governance as a correlate of decision making. In its simplest form, governance is "a process for distributing authority, power, and influence in decision making among constituencies" (Alfred and Smydra, 1985, pp. 201-202). What…

  19. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  20. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  1. Government Approaches to Foster Competitive Intelligence Practice in SMEs: A Comparative Study of Eight Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a study examining approaches developed by seven governments to foster competitive intelligence practice in SMEs (small and medium enterprises) and compares them with the approach taken by the government of Quebec. Suggests a need for a better understanding of information needs and uses in SMEs. (Contains 22 references.)…

  2. Economic Choices. Political Decisions that Affect You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsche, Joellen M.; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to help students understand why the U.S. Government is involved in the economy, the underlying social values that government tries to promote, and how U.S. economic decisions affect the global economy. It was designed to give them the background they need to form their own opinions about the role of government in the…

  3. The American Economy: Government's Role, Citizen's Choice. [Student Text and] Teacher's Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R., Ed.

    This student text and teacher's guide examine the government's role in the U.S. economy and how the choices made by the government affect each citizen. The following topics are addressed: (1) why government gets involved in the economy and the social and economic goals the government tries to achieve; (2) how government monetary, fiscal, and trade…

  4. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the American taxpayer. Reports by agency Inspectors General, the Government Accountability Office (GAO... significant overcharges, and curb wasteful spending. A GAO study last year of 95 major defense...

  5. How nurse leaders can foster a climate of good governance.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of four examining the components of good corporate governance. Poor governance can result in patients receiving poor quality care; all healthcare professionals, therefore, have a role in ensuring effective governance. This article discusses how an organisation's culture and leadership can contribute to good corporate governance. Nurse leaders can influence the culture of effective governance by building trust and respect and challenging the behaviours that led to poor quality care. The next article in this series will look at how an organisation's systems and processes can affect the effectiveness of its governance. PMID:23008901

  6. A Case for Government-Industry Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Purgert

    1999-04-26

    Government-industry partnerships are necessary for small businesses to successfully launch new and innovative ideas into the market place. Small businesses, the cornerstone for economic job creation, expansion and retention, is hampered with the need to fund new and innovative technologies from profits which generally occur in a cyclic manner. This cyclic funding leads to ramp ups and development during profitable years, and delays and abeyance during years of downturn. Government-industry partnerships directly addresses this problem by offering funding assistance in the form of resources eliminating the ''peaks and valleys'' of development. This paper will detail a case study of this type of assistance.

  7. Community College Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This report presents the findings of the state legislature's Management Audit Committee's review of the structure and governance of community colleges in Wyoming, as requested by the Legislature's Management Council in September 1998. In trying to answer questions about the structure of community college governance, the tensions present in the…

  8. Government Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  9. Government in the Sunshine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, James T.

    The Government in the Sunshine Act, passed by Congress in September 1976 to become effective in March 1977, will require many of the federal government's decision-making agencies to permit attendance by the press and public at agency meetings. This report details the provisions of the new law and comments on the effects it may have on the…

  10. Restructuring for Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Stephen; Carey, Russell C.

    2006-01-01

    American higher education has never been more in need of good governance than it is right now. Yet much of the structure many boards have inherited or created tends to stall or impede timely, well-informed, and broadly supported decision making. At many institutions (ours included), layers of governance have been added with each passing year,…

  11. Government Quality Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Government Quality Conference was an attempt to bring together executive organizations and senior individuals in the Federal Government that have a desire to improve productivity. It was designed to provide an exchange of ideas based on experience, and to encourage individual management initiatives to tap the capabilities of Federal employees.

  12. Truth in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Norman

    In this position paper the author examines truth in government. Examination of recent political events, especially in areas of foreign policy, reveals that the government has assumed the right to decide what truths are to be told and when they are to be told. To return to the principles developed by the members of the Constitutional Convention of…

  13. Policy Governance Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble political…

  14. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  15. Using IT Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  16. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  17. Physics and Government

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete'' was proclaimed.

  18. Small Remote Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Damien

    1997-01-01

    Examines the provision of two small government schools in Australia's Northern Territory in response to the aboriginal movement from central Australia to their homeland in the outer territories. A profile of the community is provided and the learning center development are discussed. (GR)

  19. Small Scale Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Development Detwork Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Innovative programs for the promotion of small-scale enterprise are being conducted by a variety of organizations, including universities, government agencies, international research institutes, and voluntary assistance agencies. Their activities encompass basic extension services, management of cooperatives, community action programs, and…

  20. Government - contractor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Administrative Contracting Officer represents an advance in the Government system of contract management because it provides an individual with knowledge, time, and a specialized function to insure performance of Government contracts. However, the development has created a dichotomy between the award and the post-award function which increases the adversary relationship with Government contractors. This paper advocates that this adversary relationship can be decreased if PCOs and ACOs are provided with opportunities to serve in the assignments of the other.

  1. LESS Government Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Institutionalizing Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumback, Gary B.

    1992-01-01

    Ways to institutionalize ethics in government agencies include demonstrating moral leadership, making it a job qualification, training, establishing and enforcing a code, and including ethics in personnel management and performance appraisal. (SK)

  3. Governance of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Tremaine, William J

    2012-03-01

    We review the principal methods and issues in the governance of clinical research: oversight of human research by federal offices, certification of clinical trial centers, management of conflict of interest in clinical research, and trial registration and reporting. PMID:22388015

  4. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  5. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  6. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) was originated in 1959 by the Army, Navy, and Air Force Ballistic Missile Agencies. Known at that time as IDEP--Interservice Data Exchange Program--its intent was to eliminate duplicate testing of parts and components by disseminating pertinent test data among Department of Defense contractors and various government agencies. In 1966 both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Military Electronics Standards Agency (CAMESA) recognized the value of the data provided by the program and became participants. Today, GIDEP provides the interchange of specialized technical data to all the military services, participating government contractors and numerous government agencies such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal Aviation Administration, Defense Supply Agency, and the Small Business Administration.

  7. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. PMID:20575152

  8. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  9. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  10. Drugs affecting glycosaminoglycan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo; Maccarana, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are charged polysaccharides ubiquitously present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. GAGs are crucial for cellular homeostasis, and their metabolism is altered during pathological processes. However, little consideration has been given to the regulation of the GAG milieu through pharmacological interventions. In this review, we provide a classification of small molecules affecting GAG metabolism based on their mechanism of action. Furthermore, we present evidence to show that clinically approved drugs affect GAG metabolism and that this could contribute to their therapeutic benefit. PMID:27217160

  11. IBS: transforming our governance.

    PubMed

    Basford, Kaye E

    2011-12-01

    After more than 60 years, the Legislative Council overwhelming approved a revised governance structure for the International Biometric Society (IBS) to take effect from 1 January 2012. Responsibility for the governance and leadership of the society will be combined and placed in the hands of an Executive Board, supported by a much larger Representative Council. The Representative Council will be composed of members selected by the different regions (or geographical components) of the society. It will be responsible for overseeing the nomination and election (by the whole society) of the Executive Board and provide the conduit between the regions and this leadership team. Members of the Representative Council will also chair the Standing Committees. The transition process to the new governance structure is outlined, as are focus issues for the next decade. PMID:22050135

  12. Governance Vote Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, Anjuli; Robinson, Robert; Shirey, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Voting by the membership for proposed changes to AGU bylaws and articles of incorporation was completed on 13 November 2009. The proposed changes would expand AGU's Council to focus it on science; shift the business and fiduciary responsibility for AGU to a newly created, smaller Board of Directors, freeing the Council to focus on science policy and other science-related matters; and modernize AGU's governing documents to reflect current practice in not-for-profit governance. All background information was provided in the 15 September 2009 issue of Eos and in subsequent issues.

  13. The American Economy: Government's Role, Citizen's Choice. Second Edition. [Student Text] and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The Student Text and Teacher's Guide examine the government's role in the U.S. economy and how the choices made by the government in Washington affect each individual. The student text is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1, "Government's Role in the Economy," discusses why government gets involved in the economy and examines the social and…

  14. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Town Government Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Virginia K.; Murphy, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    The coming of the eighteen-year-old vote places a new demand on the high schools for relevance in citizenship training. The town government seminar developed at Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School offers an innovative alternative to the traditional approaches to civics education. (Editor)

  16. Governance and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechtling, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Examines changes that occurred in the governance and management of the Baltimore City Public School System following implementation of Maryland State Senate Bill 795, focusing on: the new Board of School Commissioners and key leadership staff; the master plan guiding reform; use of additional funds; supports provided by the Office of Research,…

  17. Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  18. Student and University Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoben, Edward Joseph, Jr.

    It is necessary to provide organizational and political bases from which genuine student influence can be exercised if we assume that (1) extensive and meaningful participation by students in university governance is likely to be a permanent feature of academic life; (2) participation legitimately represents serious student concerns and provides a…

  19. Governance Final Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the State Board of Education's (SBE) strategic plan goals is to advocate for an effective, accountable governance structure for public education in Washington. The development of this goal comes from Board members' experiences over the last five years to understand and address the complexity of Washington's education system and their role…

  20. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  1. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  2. Government in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with information on new economic education curriculum materials and includes a conceptual introduction to the relationship between local government and the economy. Following this, four instructional units are provided. The first unit, called "Communities Need Rules," is intended for preschool and kindergarten children. Students…

  3. Governance and Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ekundayo J. D., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on the socioeconomic development, legal, gender, philosophical, and human rights dimensions of state governance within the context of social, economic, and political processes in Sierra Leone and Kenya. The Political Literacy and Civic Education (PLACE) Project, which was sponsored by the British Overseas Development…

  4. Government Information Policy Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the utility of policy principles advanced by professional associations for public access to government information. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS), the Information Industry Association (IIA), and the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) urge the adoption of principles for the dissemination of public…

  5. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  6. 13 CFR 120.711 - What rules govern Intermediaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What rules govern Intermediaries? 120.711 Section 120.711 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Microloan Program § 120.711 What rules govern Intermediaries? Intermediaries must operate in accordance...

  7. All Holdings Are Local: Archivists and Local Government Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Archivists working in repositories that contain local government records play an integral role within the local community. Unlike their colleagues in state, regional, or national repositories, the local government archivist concentrates on a small geographic region and demonstrates knowledge of the politics, history, and socio-economics of the…

  8. 77 FR 10742 - Local Government Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) invites nominations from a diverse range of qualified candidates to be considered for appointment to its Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC). The LGAC was chartered to provide advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental issues affecting local governments. This notice solicits nominations to fill twenty three (23)......

  9. 12 CFR 745.10 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 745.10 Section 745.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE INSURANCE AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.10 Accounts held by government depositors....

  10. 12 CFR 745.10 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 745.10 Section 745.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE INSURANCE AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.10 Accounts held by government depositors....

  11. 12 CFR 745.10 - Accounts held by government depositors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounts held by government depositors. 745.10 Section 745.10 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE INSURANCE AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.10 Accounts held by government depositors....

  12. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  13. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  14. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  15. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  16. COTSAT Small Spacecraft Cost Optimization for Government and Commercial Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bui, David; Dallara, Christopher; Ghassemieh, Shakib; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ling, Kuok; Mattei, Nicholas; Mayer, David; Quigley, Emmett; Spremo, Stevan; Young, Zion

    2009-01-01

    Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) is an ongoing spacecraft research and development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The prototype spacecraft, also known as CheapSat, is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost spacecraft. The COTSAT-1 team is committed to realizing the challenging goal of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500K parts and $2.0M labor. The project's efforts have resulted in significant accomplishments within the scope of a limited budget and schedule. Completion and delivery of the flight hardware to the Engineering Directorate at NASA Ames occurred in February 2009 and a cost effective qualification program is currently under study. The COTSAT-1 spacecraft is now located at NASA Ames Research Center and is awaiting a cost effective launch opportunity. This paper highlights the advancements of the COTSAT-1 spacecraft cost reduction techniques.

  17. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  18. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  19. 37 CFR 401.10 - Government assignment to contractor of rights in invention of government employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE... contractor as authorized by 35 U.S.C. 202(e), the assignment will be made subject to the same conditions...

  20. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm. PMID:15675046

  1. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  2. Structure, (governance) and health: an unsolicited response

    PubMed Central

    Reidpath, Daniel D; Allotey, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Background In a recently published article, it was suggested that governance was the significant structural factor affecting the epidemiology of HIV. This suggestion was made notwithstanding the observed weak correlation between governance and HIV prevalence (r = .2). Unfortunately, the paper raised but left unexamined the potentially more important questions about the relationship between the broader health of populations and structural factors such as the national economy and physical infrastructure. Methods Utilizing substantially the same data sources as the original article, the relationship between population health (healthy life expectancy) and three structural factors (access to improved water, GDP per capita, and governance) were examined in each of 176 countries. Results Governance was found to be significantly correlated with population health, as were GDP per capita, and access to improved water. They were also found to be significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion The findings are discussed with reference to the growing interest in structural factors as an explanation for population health outcomes, and the relatively weak relationship between governance and HIV prevalence. PMID:16978401

  3. Financing commercial RLVs: Considering government incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    There appears to be a national goal to achieve a commercial space transportation industry that provides launch services utilizing a fleet of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). Because of the combination of large required investment, inadequate rate of return, and perceived high risk, industry has indicated that this goal may not be achievable without government support. What form of government support will likely be necessary? Government programs and policies can effect private sector investment decisions by reducing risk perceptions, reducing capital requirements, and increasing expected rates of return. Different programs and policies will have different impacts. For example, tax policies will affect expected return on investment but are likely to have little or no effect on risk perceptions and magnitude of required investment, whereas anchor tenancy is likely to alter risk perceptions and may increase expected rates of return. This paper is concerned with the development of an approach that may be used to identify packages of government incentives that may be required to influence private sector investment decisions so as to achieve the desired goal of a commercial space transportation industry that provides launch services utilizing a fleet of RLVs. The paper discusses the relationship of government incentive programs and policies to the RLV investment decision.

  4. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  5. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  6. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  7. Rx for School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Bill

    1977-01-01

    Answers the question "why have parents and other citizens been excluded from school decisions that directly affect them and their children?" noting that "school administrators, teacher organizations, and school boards are not willing to share the controls with parents and other citizens despite complaints about the quality of the educational…

  8. [Government and training demands].

    PubMed

    van der Klaauw, J M

    1998-06-01

    The availability of adequately trained professionals in sufficient numbers is an essential condition for guaranteeing good quality of health care. The Individual Health Care Professions Act fosters the quality by defining the educational requirements and the area of professional competence. The proposal of the working group 'Competition, Deregulation and Quality of Legislation in the health care' to make the dental hygienist free accessible for the patient is in accordance with the policy of the government to foster the efficiency by task delegation. The replacement of sectorial EU-directives by general directives for the free movement of professionals within the European Economic Area has more drawbacks than advantages. Most EU-memberstates are not a proponent for a vocational year after the basic dental training. Deficiencies in the basic dental training should have been met by lengthening the basic training. PMID:12132401

  9. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  10. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models. PMID:23571058

  11. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  12. Small Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhatigan, James J.; Schuh, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how it easy for people to overlook small successes when they are overwhelmed by and preoccupied with large projects and goals. Explores the concept of "small wins" in organizational theory, which have the potential to become a prominent part of institutional culture and impact organizational behavior and change. (GCP)

  13. Governance Challenges in Telecoupled Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, H.; Mahanti, A.; Rueda, X.

    2015-12-01

    Distal connections increasingly influence food systems' governance: social actors in one geographic context produce intended and unintended consequences in distant locations, coupling the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. While these linkages are not new, economic globalization, urbanization and the dynamics of consumer preferences have accentuated these 'telecoupled' relationships in food systems. Telecoupling refers to the unexpected causal interactions among human-environment systems that were otherwise not linked. This paper presents a framework for evaluating telecoupling processes and outcomes in food systems, focusing on how the disparate scales of drivers and outcomes, diverse values of actors involved, and spatial and social distance combine to challenge socio-ecological system governance. We draw from two examples of food systems (coffee and maize) to argue that telecoupling, as a challenge for food systems, emerges when the institutions and mechanisms of governance acting over one system do not account for the consequences and interactions involving a different system. Telecoupling can stimulate new forms of governance, such as the development of codes of conduct and certification schemes, with positive impacts on food and livelihood security. Our cases suggest that the emergence of new governance arrangements is at least partially contingent on the prior existence of alternative social networks, which cultivate shared values, meanings and goals in food systems, as well as the capacity of affected actors to mobilize political influence and demonstrate plausible causal links. In the absence of such networks and associated capacities, the prior governance arrangements, although poorly adjusted to the new circumstances, are likely to persist, reinforcing existing power relations and the probability of undesirable social and ecological outcomes.

  14. 13 CFR 121.509 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leasing of Government land for coal mining? 121.509 Section 121.509 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... leasing of Government land for coal mining? A concern is small for this purpose if it: (a) Together with... actual mining operations of the tract; and (c) Agrees that if it subleases the Government land, it...

  15. 13 CFR 121.509 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leasing of Government land for coal mining? 121.509 Section 121.509 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... leasing of Government land for coal mining? A concern is small for this purpose if it: (a) Together with... actual mining operations of the tract; and (c) Agrees that if it subleases the Government land, it...

  16. 13 CFR 121.509 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leasing of Government land for coal mining? 121.509 Section 121.509 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... leasing of Government land for coal mining? A concern is small for this purpose if it: (a) Together with... actual mining operations of the tract; and (c) Agrees that if it subleases the Government land, it...

  17. 13 CFR 121.509 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leasing of Government land for coal mining? 121.509 Section 121.509 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... leasing of Government land for coal mining? A concern is small for this purpose if it: (a) Together with... actual mining operations of the tract; and (c) Agrees that if it subleases the Government land, it...

  18. Nematode endogenous small RNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Volkers, Rita JM; Sterken, Mark G; Kammenga, Jan E; Snoek, L Basten

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of small RNA silencing pathways has greatly extended our knowledge of gene regulation. Small RNAs have been presumed to play a role in every field of biology because they affect many biological processes via regulation of gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Most well-known examples of affected processes are development, fertility, and maintenance of genome stability. Here we review the role of the three main endogenous small RNA silencing pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs. After providing an entry-level overview on how these pathways function, we discuss research on other nematode species providing insight into the evolution of these small RNA pathways. In understanding the differences between the endogenous small RNA pathways and their evolution, a more comprehensive picture is formed of the functions and effects of small RNAs. PMID:25340013

  19. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  20. High-content screening identifies small molecules that remove nuclear foci, affect MBNL distribution and CELF1 protein levels via a PKC-independent pathway in myotonic dystrophy cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ketley, Ami; Chen, Catherine Z; Li, Xin; Arya, Sukrat; Robinson, Thelma E; Granados-Riveron, Javier; Udosen, Inyang; Morris, Glenn E; Holt, Ian; Furling, Denis; Chaouch, Soraya; Haworth, Ben; Southall, Noel; Shinn, Paul; Zheng, Wei; Austin, Christopher P; Hayes, Christopher J; Brook, J David

    2014-03-15

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a multi-system neuromuscular disorder for which there is no treatment. We have developed a medium throughput phenotypic assay, based on the identification of nuclear foci in DM patient cell lines using in situ hybridization and high-content imaging to screen for potentially useful therapeutic compounds. A series of further assays based on molecular features of DM have also been employed. Two compounds that reduce and/or remove nuclear foci have been identified, Ro 31-8220 and chromomycin A3. Ro 31-8220 is a PKC inhibitor, previously shown to affect the hyperphosphorylation of CELF1 and ameliorate the cardiac phenotype in a DM1 mouse model. We show that the same compound eliminates nuclear foci, reduces MBNL1 protein in the nucleus, affects ATP2A1 alternative splicing and reduces steady-state levels of CELF1 protein. We demonstrate that this effect is independent of PKC activity and conclude that this compound may be acting on alternative kinase targets within DM pathophysiology. Understanding the activity profile for this compound is key for the development of targeted therapeutics in the treatment of DM. PMID:24179176

  1. Beyond Section 508: The Spectrum of Legal Requirements for Accessible e-Government Web Sites in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, a number of federal laws establish requirements that electronic government (e-government) information and services be accessible to individuals with disabilities. These laws affect e-government Web sites at the federal, state, and local levels. To this point, research about the accessibility of e-government Web sites has…

  2. The Usage of E-Governance Applications by Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öktem, M. Kemal; Demirhan, Kamil; Demirhan, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the factors affecting the Internet usage of university students using e-governance applications. It is important to examine these factors to understand why the online citizen participation is not increasing as expected, while Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage is improving in governance. Governance is…

  3. Enhancing the strain sensitivity of CoFe2O4 at low magnetic fields without affecting the magnetostriction coefficient by substitution of small amounts of Mg for Fe.

    PubMed

    Anantharamaiah, P N; Joy, P A

    2016-04-21

    Attaining high magnetostrictive strain sensitivity (dλ/dH) with high magnetostriction strain (λ) is desirable for sintered polycrystalline cobalt ferrite for various applications. It is shown that substitution of a small amount of Fe(3+) by Mg(2+) in CoMgxFe2-xO4 (x < 0.1) gives a comparable maximum magnetostriction coefficient to that of the unsubstituted counterpart, with large improvement in the strain sensitivity at relatively low magnetic fields. A large increase in the magnetostriction coefficient is obtained at low magnetic fields for the substituted compositions. The magnetostriction parameters are further enhanced by magnetic field annealing of the sintered products. The results are analyzed based on powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and magnetic measurements and based on the results from these studies, the changes in the magnetostriction parameters are correlated with the changes in the cation distribution, magnetic anisotropy and microstructure. PMID:27031671

  4. Government`s response to the competitiveness problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how the US government responded to the concern in the 1980`s that US companies were experiencing problems of competitiveness in international markets. By the mid 1980`s there was great and growing concern throughout the US that US companies were experiencing difficulties in international competition. Pressure on Congress to take action came from constituents seeking jobs and companies that would directly benefit (this usually means receive public money) from programs that Congress might initiate. The fact that most constituent calls to Congress were about job creation was lost in the on-rush of R&D performers seeking funds for their favorite R&D project. In response, Congress created the Advanced Technology Program, the Technology Transfer Initiative, and the Technology Reinvestment Project, expanded the responsibilities of ARPA/DARPA, increased funding for the Small Business Initiative, expanded the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, funded SEMATECH, and increased NSF funding for basic research at universities. Many of these programs were later criticized for being industrial welfare and several were cut-back or stopped. Retrospective analysis shows that few of these programs addressed the root cause of competitiveness difficulties. In fact, by the time most of these programs were in place, US companies were well on their way to correcting their competitiveness problems. In addition, few were relevant to companies` often expressed concerns about workforce training, regulatory costs, and access to foreign markets. Twenty percent reductions in health care costs, regulatory costs, and education costs could annually pump $500 billion into the US economy and make companies operating in the US much more competitive in international markets.

  5. 13 CFR 121.511 - What is the size standard for buying Government-owned petroleum?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... buying Government-owned petroleum? 121.511 Section 121.511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Government-owned petroleum? A concern is small for this purpose if it is primarily engaged in petroleum refining and meets the size standard for a petroleum refining business....

  6. 13 CFR 121.511 - What is the size standard for buying Government-owned petroleum?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... buying Government-owned petroleum? 121.511 Section 121.511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Government-owned petroleum? A concern is small for this purpose if it is primarily engaged in petroleum refining and meets the size standard for a petroleum refining business....

  7. 13 CFR 121.511 - What is the size standard for buying Government-owned petroleum?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... buying Government-owned petroleum? 121.511 Section 121.511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Government-owned petroleum? A concern is small for this purpose if it is primarily engaged in petroleum refining and meets the size standard for a petroleum refining business....

  8. 13 CFR 121.511 - What is the size standard for buying Government-owned petroleum?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... buying Government-owned petroleum? 121.511 Section 121.511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Government-owned petroleum? A concern is small for this purpose if it is primarily engaged in petroleum refining and meets the size standard for a petroleum refining business....

  9. 13 CFR 121.511 - What is the size standard for buying Government-owned petroleum?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... buying Government-owned petroleum? 121.511 Section 121.511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Government-owned petroleum? A concern is small for this purpose if it is primarily engaged in petroleum refining and meets the size standard for a petroleum refining business....

  10. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    PubMed

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years. PMID:26845819

  11. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development. PMID:23113870

  12. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The presentation is made in vugraph form. The assigned subtopic for this panel are as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA US government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other US government space mission programs. A specific area of inquiry was Technology Maturation Milestones. Three areas were investigated: technology development; advanced development; and flight hardware development.

  13. 48 CFR 2919.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... small businesses of each category with legislatively established government-wide procurement goals (e.g... businesses) to the extent practicable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locating small...

  14. 48 CFR 2919.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... small businesses of each category with legislatively established government-wide procurement goals (e.g... businesses) to the extent practicable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locating small...

  15. Teaching Small Business Management in the UK Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birley, Sue; Gibb, Allan

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the key factors influencing small business management education in the United Kingdom, particularly government policies encouraging small business development. Postulates a model based on the career cycle and considers training opportunities for various stages. (SK)

  16. The Governance of Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; May, M

    2003-09-22

    Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace speech in 1953 is remembered for engaging the world, and the Soviet Union in particular, in a dialogue about arms control and the formulation of a nuclear regime in which national and international security concerns growing from this unprecedented emerging and frightening new weapons capability would be addressed while tapping the civilian promise of nuclear applications for the good of mankind. Out of it came a series of initiatives, leading fifteen years later to the NPT, intended to allow the growth and spread of the beneficial uses of nuclear know-how while constraining the incentives and capabilities for nuclear weapons. The last 50 years has seen a gradual spread in nations with nuclear weapons, other nations with nuclear knowledge and capabilities, and still others with nuclear weapon intentions. Still most nations of the world have forgone weapon development, most have signed and abided by the NPT, and some that have had programs or even weapons, have turned these capabilities off. Yet despite this experience, and despite a relatively successful record up to a few years ago, there is today a clear and generally recognized crisis in nuclear governance, a crisis that affects the future of all the cross-cutting civilian/security issues we have cited. The crux of this crisis is a lack of consensus among the major powers whose support of international efforts is necessary for effective governance of nuclear activities. The lack of consensus focuses on three challenges: what to do about non-compliance, what to do about non-adherence, and what to do about the possible leakage of nuclear materials and technologies to terrorist groups. Short of regaining consensus on the priority to be given to nuclear material and technology controls, it is unlikely that any international regime to control nuclear materials and technologies, let alone oversee a growth in the nuclear power sector, will be successful in the tough cases where it needs to

  17. Governing the Governance of Education: The State Strikes Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, there have been changes in the way in which education is governed, with greater fragmentation of responsibility between the state, local government, schools, individuals and the market often accompanied by a move from detailed regulation to framework legislation. Previously, these developments have been seen as part of the move…

  18. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  19. 17 CFR 249.218 - Form 18, for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form 18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... governments and political subdivisions thereof. 249.218 Section 249.218 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof. This form shall be used for...

  20. 17 CFR 249.218 - Form 18, for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form 18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... governments and political subdivisions thereof. 249.218 Section 249.218 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof. This form shall be used for...

  1. 17 CFR 249.218 - Form 18, for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form 18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... governments and political subdivisions thereof. 249.218 Section 249.218 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof. This form shall be used for...

  2. 17 CFR 249.218 - Form 18, for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form 18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... governments and political subdivisions thereof. 249.218 Section 249.218 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof. This form shall be used for...

  3. 17 CFR 249.218 - Form 18, for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form 18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... governments and political subdivisions thereof. 249.218 Section 249.218 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., for foreign governments and political subdivisions thereof. This form shall be used for...

  4. Access to Electronic Government Information through the GPO's Depository Library Program: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    This brief overview of recent policy initiatives--in addition to existing statutes and regulations--that may affect the Government Printing Office (GPO) Depository Library Program's (DLP) role in the dissemination of electronic government information identifies selected trends that may affect the public's access to electronic information through…

  5. Assistance, protection, and governance networks in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lautze, Sue; Leaning, Jennifer; Raven-Roberts, Angela; Kent, Randolph; Mazurana, Dyan

    This article presents an introduction to the causes and characteristics of armed conflicts. It reviews some of the key humanitarian crises that broke new ground in terms of the technologies and practices that developed at the field level in response to each new complex emergency, with particular focus on the health sector. It introduces the concept of humanitarian governance as a framework for addressing the consequences and implications of the failure of worldwide governance for the protection of civilians in armed conflict. Here, we term humanitarian governance to include the use of international humanitarian law and human rights instruments to govern the behaviour of state and non-state organisations in conflict zones in a way that protects the lives and livelihoods of affected populations. We note, however, that terrorist concerns appear to be replacing humanitarian logic in the network of worldwide governance. PMID:15589312

  6. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  7. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, O.; Skjøth, C. A.; Reis, S.; Bleeker, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Cape, J. N.; Fowler, D.; Skiba, U.; Simpson, D.; Jickells, T.; Kulmala, M.; Gyldenkærne, S.; Sørensen, L. L.; Erisman, J. W.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds have different fates in the atmosphere due to differences in the governing processes of physical transport, deposition and chemical transformation. Nr compounds addressed here include reduced nitrogen (NHx: ammonia (NH3) and its reaction product ammonium (NH4+)), oxidized nitrogen (NOy: nitrogen monoxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and their reaction products) as well as organic nitrogen compounds (organic N). Pollution abatement strategies need to take into account the differences in the governing processes of these compounds when assessing their impact on ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health and climate. NOx (NO + NO2) emitted from traffic affects human health in urban areas where the presence of buildings increases the residence time in streets. In urban areas this leads to enhanced exposure of the population to NOx concentrations. NOx emissions generally have little impact on nearby ecosystems because of the small dry deposition rates of NOx. These compounds need to be converted into nitric acid (HNO3) before removal through deposition is efficient. HNO3 sticks quickly to any surface and is thereby either dry deposited or incorporated into aerosols as nitrate (NO3-). In contrast to NOx compounds, NH3 has potentially high impacts on ecosystems near the main agricultural sources of NH3 because of its large ground-level concentrations along with large dry deposition rates. Aerosol phase NH4+ and NO3- contribute significantly to background PM2.5 and PM10 (mass of aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively) with an impact on radiation balance as well as potentially on human health. Little is known quantitatively and qualitatively about organic N in the atmosphere, other than that it contributes a significant fraction of wet-deposited N, and is present in both gaseous and particulate forms. Further studies are needed to characterise the sources, air chemistry and

  8. 47 CFR 101.1523 - Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government services. 101.1523 Section 101.1523 Telecommunication...-government licensees and between non-government and government services. (a) Registration of each link in...

  9. 47 CFR 101.1523 - Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government services. 101.1523 Section 101.1523 Telecommunication...-government licensees and between non-government and government services. (a) Registration of each link in...

  10. 47 CFR 101.1523 - Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government services. 101.1523 Section 101.1523 Telecommunication...-government licensees and between non-government and government services. (a) Registration of each link in...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1523 - Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government services. 101.1523 Section 101.1523 Telecommunication...-government licensees and between non-government and government services. (a) Registration of each link in...

  12. Small ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, ethics in the professions has focused on big problems that could be found on other peoples' back porches. Small, habitual, frequent, and personal lapses get little attention. In this essay, the literature on opportunism is applied to dentistry with a view toward bringing matters of "near ethics" within reach. Examples of small lapses are discussed under the headings of shirking, free riding, shrinkage, pressing, adverse selection, moral hazard, and risk shifting. The conditions that support opportunism include relationships with small numbers of transactions and uneven access to information. Practical limits on understanding all the consequences of agreements and the costs of supervising others and enforcing corrections of breaches are inescapable aspects of opportunism. Opportunism may not be accepted by all as the subject matter of ethical, but curbing it is a worthy goal and understanding the causes and management of opportunism casts some light on the ethical enterprise. Four suggestions are offered for addressing issue of opportunism. PMID:17691498

  13. Government Documents at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Karrie; Cowell, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems and as-yet unresolved questions about public access to government documents raised by electronic publishing. One solution is libraries should adapt to include electronic files of government publications and include them in the growing digital collections. The way that librarians approach the struggle to maintain free and open…

  14. Governance Failure in Social Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Chris; Chinnock, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the participative, democratic model of governance commonly found within social enterprises. This model has its origins in the broader not-for-profit sector where it is widely adopted. A core assumption of this governance form is that it ensures that the organisation will take a range of views into…

  15. Governing Board Meeting Management Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Don E.

    This checklist is intended to give school governing board members a means of assessing their meeting practices. The checklist contains five categories, with a total of 80 questions, pertaining to meeting-management variables common to all governing boards. The categories include: (1) preparation for the meetings; (2) operation of the meetings; (3)…

  16. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy, and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  17. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  18. The Future of Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has relied on the power of collaborative decision making on college and university campuses through the model of shared governance since the early 1900s. However, the principles of shared governance are now more thoroughly tested than ever before. In response to these simultaneous pressures and challenges, the leadership of…

  19. From Partnership to Community Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    If learning is a journey between worlds, school governing bodies have a crucial role to play in mediating them. By establishing a public space for the voice of different communities to be expressed and deliberated governing bodies enable schools to understand and engage the cultural sources that motivate young people to learn. This article draws…

  20. Understanding Horizontal Governance. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal governance is an umbrella term that covers a range of approaches to policy development, service delivery issues, and management practices. A horizontal initiative may take place across levels of government, across boundaries between units of a single department or agency or among multiple departments or agencies, or across public,…

  1. Introducing Children to Democratic Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have been studying children's knowledge, thinking, and attitudes about government for several decades. However, the studies focusing on elementary students, and especially primary students, have little or nothing to say about children's ideas about democracy or democratic government. That is because children at these ages have not yet…

  2. School Boards: Emerging Governance Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Patricia; Osborne, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The governance role of school boards is not new. Local school boards have governed education in Canada since the 19th century. However, significant forces are impacting on school boards and how they enact their roles and responsibilities. In this article, the authors want to look at the growing pressures on school boards, to actively acknowledge…

  3. Two Essays on Shared Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    These two essays present philosophical ideas on the development of shared governance in academic institutions. What philosophy has to contribute to governance is the very level of generality on which it "thinks." Philosophy places value on general principles and long-term goals, rather than particular cases and practical solutions. Philosophy also…

  4. Government Regulation of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Walter C., Ed.

    Only lately has government regulation developed with great force among colleges and universities. A collection of essays examines that development from the perspectives of the legal scholar, the university president, the university lawyer, the government lawyer, the university's affirmative action officer, the professional association's government…

  5. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  6. 3 CFR - Managing Government Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Managing Government Records Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of November 28, 2011 Managing Government Records Memorandum for... their organizations. In these ways, proper records management is the backbone of open...

  7. Shared Governance at Sierra College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jo; And Others

    The development of shared governance at Sierra College (SC) in California is chronicled in this report. The first sections of the report provide a chronology of team, board, and committee meetings and colloquia involved in the process of implementing shared governance at the college; present summaries of breakout group reports, evaluative…

  8. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  9. State Governance Action Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutsi, Cristin

    2009-01-01

    This sixth edition of the State Governance Report summarizes the most relevant issues, legislative proposals, and proposed policies facing public higher education and its governance and oversight. The majority of coverage is devoted to the current or just recently completed 2009 legislative sessions. Other issues covered in this report include…

  10. Faculty Communication with Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiede, Hans-Joerg

    2013-01-01

    College and university governance works best when every constituency within the institution has a clear understanding of its role with respect to the other constituencies. It works best when communication among the governing board, the administration, and the faculty (not to mention the staff and students) is regular, open, and honest. Too often…

  11. Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

  12. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Results Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. Conclusions In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. PMID:24711600

  13. Downregulation of BRAF activated non-coding RNA is associated with poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer and promotes metastasis by affecting epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in the regulation of cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation and metastasis. These lncRNAs are found to be dysregulated in a variety of cancers. BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) is a 693-bp transcript on chromosome 9 with a potential functional role in melanoma cell migration. The clinical significance of BANCR, and its’ molecular mechanisms controlling cancer cell migration and metastasis are unclear. Methods Expression of BANCR was analyzed in 113 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and seven NSCLC cell lines using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Gain and loss of function approaches were used to investigate the biological role of BANCR in NSCLC cells. The effects of BANCR on cell viability were evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. Nude mice were used to examine the effects of BANCR on tumor cell metastasis in vivo. Protein levels of BANCR targets were determined by western blotting and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Results BANCR expression was significantly decreased in 113 NSCLC tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. Additionally, reduced BANCR expression was associated with larger tumor size, advanced pathological stage, metastasis distance, and shorter overall survival of NSCLC patients. Reduced BANCR expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC. Histone deacetylation was involved in the downregulation of BANCR in NSCLC cells. Ectopic expression of BANCR impaired cell viability and invasion, leading to the inhibition of metastasis in vitro and in vivo. However, knockdown of BANCR expression promoted cell migration and invasion in vitro. Overexpression of BANCR was found to play a key role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the regulation of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression

  14. Small Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnke, Falko; Musmann, Gunter; Glassmeier, K. H.; Tsurutani, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Small, lightweight, low-power magnetometer measures three-dimensional magnetic field. Includes three toroidal cores - one for each dimension. Exhibits high sensitivity, low zero-point drift, and low noise. Magnetometer circuit includes driver circuit and three analog signal-processing circuits. Output of analog signal-processing circuit proportional to one of components of external magnetic field.

  15. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth. PMID:16303196

  16. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... 29, 2010; ``Department of Energy, Improved Oversight Could Better Ensure Opportunities for Small... FR 53129 (Aug. 30, 2010). SBA proposes to reference eSRS instead of SF-294 and SF-295 (where... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  17. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  18. 30 CFR 252.4 - Summary Report to affected States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Summary Report to affected States. 252.4... OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.4 Summary Report to affected... affected local government, a Summary Report of data and information designed to assist them in planning...

  19. 30 CFR 252.4 - Summary Report to affected States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary Report to affected States. 252.4... OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.4 Summary Report to affected... affected local government, a Summary Report of data and information designed to assist them in planning...

  20. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  1. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small business... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to small businesses, DOE shall place with small business concerns a fair proportion of the total purchases...

  2. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to small businesses, DOE shall place with small business concerns a fair proportion of the total purchases and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small...

  3. 77 FR 22057 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 3rd...

  4. 77 FR 1547 - National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION National Small Business Development Center Advisory Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... National Small Business Development Center (SBDC) Advisory Board. DATES: The meetings for the 2nd...

  5. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    PubMed

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance. PMID:20561262

  6. New government raises science hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Canada's scientific community has welcomed the country's new Liberal government - led by prime minister Justin Trudeau - after it promised to put science on a stronger footing than in the previous decade of Conservative rule.

  7. Government Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-01-05

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Current Governing Board Legal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Timothy K.

    2004-01-01

    In our increasingly legalistic environment, the work of the governing board has become much more complex and challenging. Board members today need better training and support to meet these challenges.

  9. SOA governance in healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos; Vassilakopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is increasingly adopted by many sectors, including healthcare. Due to the nature of healthcare systems there is a need to increase SOA adoption success rates as the non integrated nature of healthcare systems is responsible for medical errors that cause the loss of tens of thousands patients per year. Following our previous research [1] we propose that SOA governance is a critical success factor for SOA success in healthcare. Literature reports multiple SOA governance models that have limitations and they are confusing. In addition to this, there is a lack of healthcare specific SOA governance models. This highlights a literature void and thus the purpose of this paper is to proposed a healthcare specific SOA governance framework. PMID:23823423

  10. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  11. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  12. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  13. 77 FR 71471 - Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interagency Task Force on Veterans Small Business Development; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of open Federal Interagency Task Force meeting....

  14. 77 FR 24553 - Announcement of National Small Business Week Video Contest Under the America Competes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Announcement of National Small Business Week Video Contest Under the America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2011 AGENCY: Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In...

  15. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  18. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  20. Adaptive governance to promote ecosystem services in urban green spaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing urban green space as part of an ongoing social-ecological transformationposes novel governance issues, particularly in post-industrial settings. Urban green spaces operate as small-scale nodes in larger networks of ecological reserves that provide and maintain key ecosys...

  1. Blaming the Government for Environmental Problems: A Multilevel and Cross-National Analysis of the Relationship between Trust in Government and Local and Global Environmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cin, Cigdem Kentmen

    2013-01-01

    Although the determinants of trust in governments have received significant attention in the literature on political trust, there has been no attention paid to whether environmental concerns affect governmental trust. Yet, if individuals are worried about local and global environmental degradation, they may think that the government has failed in…

  2. Policies Affecting New York City's Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Hugh; Garcia, Kathryn; Amerlynck, Virginie; Blum, Barbara

    This report describes policy and program changes affecting New York's low-income families, issues related to these changes, and ways that city, state, and federal governments might further enhance the well-being of low-income families. Part 1 reviews major new policies enacted by the federal and state governments since the mid-1990s, noting how…

  3. Issues of Governance and Their Implications for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molz, R. Kathleen

    1979-01-01

    This article examines some dimensions affecting governance of the nation and the conduct of its institutions. These include equalization of educational opportunity, development of research methodologies aimed at analyses of public policy-making, and accountability for public funding. (Author/MBR)

  4. The Governance, Organization, and Financing of Education for Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dafoe, Don M.

    The history and current status of the governance, organization, and financing of education for Alaska natives are discussed in this report. The first chapter briefly summarizes key factors of geography, environment, economics, and population affecting educational development throughout Alaska's history. Chapter 2 covers the Russian period and the…

  5. 46 CFR 280.4 - Standards governing payment of ODS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards governing payment of ODS. 280.4 Section 280.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS LIMITATIONS ON THE AWARD AND PAYMENT OF OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER OPERATORS §...

  6. 46 CFR 280.4 - Standards governing payment of ODS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards governing payment of ODS. 280.4 Section 280.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS LIMITATIONS ON THE AWARD AND PAYMENT OF OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER OPERATORS §...

  7. Changing School Board Governance in Primary Education through School Inspections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehren, Melanie C. M.; Honingh, M. E.; Hooge, E. H.; O'Hara, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses if, and to what extent, the current working methods of the Dutch Inspectorate of Education affect the governance of school boards in schools for primary education. A key facet of the working method is the inspection meeting with the school board. Drawing upon a large quantitative study (n = 244) we are able to identify some…

  8. Practicing What We Preach: Cultivating Democratic Practice in Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Hartley, Matthew; Maxey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain why examining the way institutions model democracy on campus is an important, but often overlooked, step in advancing students' democratic learning. First, they note how a decline in shared governance produces an educational environment that adversely affects students' civic inclinations and agency. Next, they…

  9. The Marketplace and Electronic Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the economic impact of government-produced electronic information. Examples of government prices for electronic information products are given; the debate over the privatization of government information dissemination is addressed, including examples from various government agencies; government bulletin board services are described; and…

  10. Yanks, Canucks, and Aussies: Governance as Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The role of government in community college governance cannot be underestimated: state, provincial, and territorial governments are the formal creators of public colleges and the bodies that can alter governance arrangements. Nonetheless, local contexts are not to be overlooked. Interpretations of legislation and government policy give rise to…

  11. Shared Governance in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetz, Pam

    This digest discusses shared governance in community colleges and identifies issues highlighted by recent shared governance experiences. Governance structure in public community colleges tends to have many variations at both the state and local level. Shared governance is a pattern of self-government in which decision-making is shared among…

  12. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  13. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  14. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  15. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  16. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  17. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  18. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  19. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  20. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  1. 42 CFR 425.106 - Shared governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shared governance. 425.106 Section 425.106 Public... Requirements § 425.106 Shared governance. (a) General rule. An ACO must maintain an identifiable governing body... innovative ways in ACO governance or provide meaningful representation in ACO governance by...

  2. 42 CFR 425.106 - Shared governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shared governance. 425.106 Section 425.106 Public... Requirements § 425.106 Shared governance. (a) General rule. An ACO must maintain an identifiable governing body... innovative ways in ACO governance or provide meaningful representation in ACO governance by...

  3. 42 CFR 425.106 - Shared governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shared governance. 425.106 Section 425.106 Public... Requirements § 425.106 Shared governance. (a) General rule. An ACO must maintain an identifiable governing body... innovative ways in ACO governance or provide meaningful representation in ACO governance by...

  4. Human capital management in government: replacing government retirees.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Yvonne J

    2011-01-01

    Faced with high levels of senior civil servant retirement in the coming years and limited by civil service requirements, government organizations often struggle to maintain the knowledge base of previous processes and results while promoting people who are truly interested in being leaders in an agency. Upcoming generations of public sector workers do not share the same motivation and workplace characteristics of current exiting civil servants, further complicating smooth transitions of leadership. Government personnel systems for the most part are inflexible and slow to hire, and retention methods for workers do not encourage succession planning. Against this backdrop, a five-phased human capital management system, using some of the best practices found in both public and private sector organizations, is proposed as a solution for replacing government retirees with workers who are prepared for their leadership and management roles. PMID:21847877

  5. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    SciTech Connect

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  6. Federal research assessment of small business innovation research programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Since 1983, federal agencies with large research and development budgets have operated Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programs to strengthen the role of small innovative firms in federally supported research and development. SBIR awards to small business have totaled over $1.35 billion through fiscal year 1988. In reauthorizing SBIR programs in 1986, the Congress directed GAO to study their effectiveness in meeting SBIR goals, which are to (1) stimulate technological innovation, (2) use small businesses to meet federal research and development needs, (3) increase private sector commercialization of innovations from federal research and development, and (4) encourage participation by minority and disadvantaged firms in technological innovation. The Congress also directed GAO to compare the quality of SBIR research with more traditional agency research and to obtain the views of agency and department heads on how SBIR programs have affected other research activities at their agencies. To obtain information on how well SBIR programs are meeting their goals and on the quality of research, GAO sent questionnaires to firms with SBIR projects and to government project officers responsible for SBIR and other research.

  7. Space Station Facility government estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 18 ways the low bidders get low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  8. Global standards and local knowledge building: Upgrading small producers in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Aleman, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global practices, indigenous private and public actors create local institutions to develop capabilities for product and process innovations that contribute to economic development and enhance food security. Local innovation depends on collective strategic efforts through increasing networks among small producers and other organizations, including firms, nongovernmental organizations, and government, that foster knowledge circulation and bring diverse resources and support to build local capabilities. PMID:21670309

  9. Global standards and local knowledge building: upgrading small producers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Perez-Aleman, Paola

    2012-07-31

    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global practices, indigenous private and public actors create local institutions to develop capabilities for product and process innovations that contribute to economic development and enhance food security. Local innovation depends on collective strategic efforts through increasing networks among small producers and other organizations, including firms, nongovernmental organizations, and government, that foster knowledge circulation and bring diverse resources and support to build local capabilities. PMID:21670309

  10. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  11. New directions in hospital governance.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes. PMID:10303235

  12. Student Perceptions of Small-Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, Ida Rose; McCaslin, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Elementary school teachers regularly arrange students in small groups for learning activities. A rich literature discusses various types of small-group learning formats and how those formats affect achievement. Few studies, however, have examined students' perceptions of small-group learning experiences. Our work extends the…

  13. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization. PMID:25559654

  14. Benign small bowel tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Melvin, D B; Gray, G; Thorbjarnarson, B

    1975-01-01

    The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications. PMID:1078626

  15. Implementing a new governance model.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learnt from the process of implementing a new model of governance within Living Well, a New Zealand statutory mental health agency. Design/methodology/approach - It presents the findings from an organisational case study that involved qualitative interviews, meeting observations and document analysis. Archetype theory provided the analytical framework for the research enabling an analysis of both the formal structures and informal value systems that influenced the implementation of the governance model. Findings - The research found that the move to a new governance model did not proceed as planned. It highlighted the importance of staff commitment, the complexity of adopting a new philosophical approach and the undue influence of key personalities as key determining factors in the implementation process. The findings suggest that planners and managers within statutory mental health agencies need to consider the implications of any proposed governance change on existing roles and relationships, thinking strategically about how to secure professional commitment to change. Practical implications - There are ongoing pressures within statutory mental health agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organisational structures and systems. This paper has implications for how planners and managers think about the process of implementing new governance models within the statutory mental health environment in order to increase the likelihood of sustaining and embedding new approaches to service delivery. Originality/value - The paper presents insights into the process of implementing new governance models within a statutory mental health agency in New Zealand that has relevance for other jurisdictions. PMID:27119399

  16. Surveys explore critical governance relationship.

    PubMed

    Grant, M K

    1987-01-01

    The transition in religious-sponsored health care from a ministry of direct service to one of governance has generated serious and penetrating questions, analyses, and retrenchment. Emphasis on and demand for value-laden leadership development programs are growing at the same time that sponsoring groups are becoming more actively involved in the governance and oversight of their corporate ministries. Two recent Catholic Health Association (CHA) studies focused on the critical governance relationship between the sponsoring group and its incorporated ministries. The first study asked religious institutes and dioceses that were sponsors of CHA member health care freestanding facilities and systems to describe their current governance structure. The second study represented an initial attempt to identify qualitative components of effective governance or sponsorship and asked 19 major superiors and system chief executive officers (CEOs) to characterize an ideal relationship between sponsor and ministry. The studies' findings included the following: In freestanding facilities, lay-religious governing boards have all but replaced the all-sponsor and all-lay advisory boards of the past. Trustee orientation, development, and evaluation were not equally stressed in the three groups surveyed, with trustee evaluation programs lagging behind in all three. Major superiors and CEOs had remarkably similar expectations relating to accountability for mission, relationships between sponsor and corporation, communication, and leadership development. Both major superiors and CEOs looked for greater collaboration in defining roles, translating mission into "business plan", and developing formation programs for leadership. Major superiors' emphasized simplicity of life-style, whereas the CEOs stressed stable commitment to corporate ministry. PMID:10280357

  17. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  18. Assessment of government tribology programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.B.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    An assessment has been made to determine current tribology research and development work sponsored or conducted by the government. Data base surveys and discussions were conducted to isolate current projects sponsored primarily by 21 different government organizations. These projects were classified by subject, objective, energy relevance, type of research, phenomenon being investigated, variables being studied, type of motion, materials and application. An abstract of each project was prepared which included the classification, sponsor, performing organization and a project description. It was found that current work is primarily materials oriented to meet military requirements. Other than the high temperature programs very few of the tribology projects accomplish energy related objectives.

  19. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Civil Engineers views professional registration as an appropriate requirement for engineers, including those in government. The National Society of Professional Engineers makes registration a requirement for the grade of member and full privileges in the society. Some Federal agencies require engineering registration for certain positions in their agencies. Engineers in government service should consider the value of engineering registration to themselves and to their agencies and take pride in their professions and in their own capabilities by becoming registered engineers. They should also take steps to encourage their agencies to give more attention to engineering registration.

  20. Governing decisions of your association.

    PubMed

    Dziwlik, Jay T

    2013-01-01

    Every association has some sort of internal structure to make decisions and to do the business of the association. Though the IDA is a member organization, we use a representative form of governing to allow selected members to represent the entire membership. For the Indiana Dental Association, there are two major parts to this governance structure: the administrative body in the Board of Trustees and a legislative body called the House of Delegates. Both are made up of representative members from each of the local component societies or districts. PMID:25286498

  1. Influence of Environmental Governance on Deforestation in Municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Lilian Fernandes Oliveira; Dias, David Valentim; Magnusson, William Ernest

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that measuring governance at scales smaller than global could be an important management tool. However, current studies are conducted on a global scale and use expensive methods. In the present study, we assess whether the reported governance of Amazonian municipalities is related to reductions in deforestation. Economic activity (EA) affected general governance (G) positively (G = 0.81 +1.19 * EA, F1, 98 = 77.36, p < 0.001). Environmental governance (EG) was not affected significantly (p = 0.43) by deforestation before 2000 (PD), but increased significantly (p < 0.001) with general governance (G) (EG = -0.29 + 0.04 PD+0.98*OG, F2,97 = 42.6, p <0.001). Deforestation was not significantly related to environmental governance (p = 0.82). The only indirect effect of significant magnitude was the effect of the density of forest reserves on recent deforestation through deforestation before 2000, which was strongly negative (-0.49). It is possible to assess reported actions to promote municipal governance through official data. However, it is not enough to assume that general governance or environmental governance at the municipal level, as reflected in the official statistics, benefits environmental conservation. In fact, even at the level of nation states, at which most quantification of governance has been undertaken, it seems that the relationship between governance and environmental preservation is only an assumption, because we are aware of no study that supports that hypothesis quantitatively. PMID:26208282

  2. Influence of Environmental Governance on Deforestation in Municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dias, Lilian Fernandes Oliveira; Dias, David Valentim; Magnusson, William Ernest

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that measuring governance at scales smaller than global could be an important management tool. However, current studies are conducted on a global scale and use expensive methods. In the present study, we assess whether the reported governance of Amazonian municipalities is related to reductions in deforestation. Economic activity (EA) affected general governance (G) positively (G = 0.81 +1.19 * EA, F1, 98 = 77.36, p < 0.001). Environmental governance (EG) was not affected significantly (p = 0.43) by deforestation before 2000 (PD), but increased significantly (p < 0.001) with general governance (G) (EG = -0.29 + 0.04 PD+0.98*OG, F2,97 = 42.6, p <0.001). Deforestation was not significantly related to environmental governance (p = 0.82). The only indirect effect of significant magnitude was the effect of the density of forest reserves on recent deforestation through deforestation before 2000, which was strongly negative (-0.49). It is possible to assess reported actions to promote municipal governance through official data. However, it is not enough to assume that general governance or environmental governance at the municipal level, as reflected in the official statistics, benefits environmental conservation. In fact, even at the level of nation states, at which most quantification of governance has been undertaken, it seems that the relationship between governance and environmental preservation is only an assumption, because we are aware of no study that supports that hypothesis quantitatively. PMID:26208282

  3. Dawn Usage, Scheduling, and Governance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, S

    2009-11-02

    This document describes Dawn use, scheduling, and governance concerns. Users started running full-machine science runs in early April 2009 during the initial open shakedown period. Scheduling Dawn while in the Open Computing Facility (OCF) was controlled and coordinated via phone calls, emails, and a small number of controlled banks. With Dawn moving to the Secure Computing Facility (SCF) in fall of 2009, a more detailed scheduling and governance model is required. The three major objectives are: (1) Ensure Dawn resources are allocated on a program priority-driven basis; (2) Utilize Dawn resources on the job mixes for which they were intended; and (3) Minimize idle cycles through use of partitions, banks and proper job mix. The SCF workload for Dawn will be inherently different than Purple or BG/L, and therefore needs a different approach. Dawn's primary function is to permit adequate access for tri-lab code development in preparation for Sequoia, and in particular for weapons multi-physics codes in support of UQ. A second purpose is to provide time allocations for large-scale science runs and for UQ suite calculations to advance SSP program priorities. This proposed governance model will be the basis for initial time allocation of Dawn computing resources for the science and UQ workloads that merit priority on this class of resource, either because they cannot be reasonably attempted on any other resources due to size of problem, or because of the unavailability of sizable allocations on other ASC capability or capacity platforms. This proposed model intends to make the most effective use of Dawn as possible, but without being overly constrained by more formal proposal processes such as those now used for Purple CCCs.

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.215 - May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contractors use Government motor vehicles? 102-34.215 Section 102-34.215 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.215 May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles? Yes, Government contractors may use Government motor vehicles...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.215 - May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contractors use Government motor vehicles? 102-34.215 Section 102-34.215 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.215 May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles? Yes, Government contractors may use Government motor vehicles...

  6. 13 CFR 121.509 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for coal mining? 121.509 Section 121.509 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... leasing of Government land for coal mining? A concern is small for this purpose if it: (a) Together...

  7. Native Americans and state and local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Rusco, E.R.

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  8. (Duplicate Work Item) Finances of County Governments: 2002. Census of Governments. Vol. 4, No. 3, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Government Finances, Volume 4", contains six parts that encompass the entire range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1)Finances of Public School Systems; (2) Finances of Special Districts; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of…

  9. Business, households, and governments: Health care costs, 1990

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1991-01-01

    This annual article presents information on health care costs by business, households, and government. Households funded 35 percent of expenditures in 1990, government 33 percent, and business, 29 percent. During the last decade, health care costs continued to grow at annual rates of 8 to 16 percent. Burden measures show that rapidly rising costs faced by each sponsor sector are exceeding increases in each sector's ability to fund them. Increased burden is particularly acute for business. The authors discuss the problems these rising costs pose for business, particularly small business, and some of the strategies businesses employ to constrain this cost growth. PMID:10122364

  10. Democratic Governance and Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruan, Joseph, A., Jr.; Cook, Malcolm

    Two hundred fifty-five students in grades 2 through 6 and 51 teachers participated in structured interviews to assess how democratic governance was practiced in their classrooms. Teachers also completed the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), which measures orientation toward control of pupils. Findings showed that students do not want to rule…

  11. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  12. Gender Play and Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Like good government, thoughtful care of children requires those in power, whether teachers or parents, to recognize when it is appropriate for them to step back from day-to-day decision-making while still working behind the scenes to ensure an organizational structure that supports the independence and equitable development of those they serve.…

  13. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  14. Archeology and the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George S., Comp.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Government's concern for preservation of important archeological properties began during the 19th century in response to the destruction and looting of Indian ruins in the U.S. Southwest. Since that time, the breadth of this concern has grown to include the consideration of impact to archeological properties, as well as to other kinds of…

  15. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  16. Academic Governance: The Trustee's Warrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2008-01-01

    Today's trustees have the central role of choosing university presidents, and often provide valued advice on management of the institutional fisc. But according to the now accepted gospel of "shared governance," when it comes to the heart of academic practice, curriculum, and scholarship, theirs, despite theoretic power, is mainly a task of…

  17. Tribal Government Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno/Sparks Indian Colony, Reno, NV.

    Following the passage of the 1972 Indian Self-Determination Act, the volume of tribal government records has exploded. This manual is a guide to establishing a system for the effective organization, maintenance, and disposition of such records. Section A discusses the major goals of a records management program, defines relevant terms, suggests…

  18. Incentives and models of governance.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Gwyn

    2015-07-01

    This short commentary on Oliver's review of incentives relates that review to four models of governance: Trust and Altruism (T&A), Choice and Competition (C&C), Naming and Shaming (N&S) and Targets and Terror (T&T). PMID:26017196

  19. Community Education and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamm, Larry; Wager, Sandra

    1975-01-01

    Describes development and preliminary implementation of the Community Education Program on Home Rule, a statewide program to aid local communities in educating citizens about the possibility of modifying their municipal government under the provisions of Pennsylvania's Home Rule Charter and Optional Plans Law. (JG)

  20. Government. Maryland High School Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document is a mostly multiple choice test for content given to Maryland high school students enrolled in a government course. The test is divided into 2 sessions, with 25 questions in session 1 and 56 questions in session 2. The multiple choice questions are designated as selected response questions. Other constructed response questions…

  1. Campus Life and Government Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekleton, James F.

    This paper discusses the proper way to conduct official government investigations on college campuses within the framework of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution which protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. The article emphasizes that this amendment lays the groundwork for the limitations on the exercise of…

  2. Interest Representation in School Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, M. Kent; Zeigler, Harmon

    Focusing on the origins and consequences of group activity, this paper discusses the effects of interest groups on school governance and policy in light of various theories. Data for the study were derived from interviews conducted in 1968 with board members and superintendents in 83 U.S. school districts. Major findings are that the intensity of…

  3. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and…

  4. Governance Resilience: The Presbyterian Journey.

    PubMed

    Hinton, James H

    2015-01-01

    Presbyterian Healthcare Services, based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the state's only private, not-for-profit integrated healthcare system. It was founded in 1908 as a sanitorium for tuberculosis patients who came to the arid Southwest in search of a cure. Today, Presbyterian is thriving as a twenty-first-century integrated healthcare system, serving one in three New Mexicans in its statewide hospital system; it also includes a 440,000-member health plan and a 700-plus provider medical group. Presbyterian remains dedicated to its singular purpose of improving the health of the patients, members, and communities it serves. Just as Presbyterian has progressed and grown during its 106-year history, its governance system has evolved over time. Presbyterian has always believed that the New Mexico communities it serves deserve not just good governance but great governance and relies on strong structure and processes to lead it to superior outcomes. The ebb and flow of change, our ability to learn from trial and error, and our commitment to success in spite of obstacles make up the story of Presbyterian's strong governance system. PMID:26495544

  5. In Search of Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Since his retirement in 2005, UC-Berkeley's Associate Vice Chancellor and CIO Emeritus and current ECAR fellow John (Jack) McCredie has devoted much of his professional energy to studying and writing/speaking about IT governance and leadership in higher education. In his role at UC-Berkeley, he was responsible for leading central IT support for…

  6. The Changing Governance of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The 1988 Education Reform Act sought to deconstruct the framework of post-Second World War social democratic governance and replace the tacit rule of professional providers with mechanisms of choice and market competition, thus empowering parents and school leaders. Functions, powers and responsibilities were fundamentally reconstituted and have…

  7. Campus Life and Government Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leed, Arthur

    As more government agencies request information and records from colleges and universities, it is important that all institutions establish standard procedures for handling such requests. Administrators should: learn the personality of the particular agency or office making the request; establish a professional, cooperative, non-adversarial…

  8. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  9. Training Governments to Buy Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority to teach government buyers how to buy recycled materials. The program consists of a hands-on training seminar and a manual that offers step-by-step instructions for setting up a buy-recycled purchasing program. (LZ)

  10. Accessing Federal Government Documents Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Deborah S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes and presents in a table the contents, coverage, updating frequency, system availability, and thesauri available for 24 databases which provide business, medical, legal, criminal justice, and statistical information, as well as information from/on the U.S. Congress, the Federal Register, U.S. Government procurement, technical reports, and…

  11. Financial Responsibilities of Governing Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, William S.

    2001-01-01

    This completely redone edition is meant to be a primer on the financial responsibilities of trustees of colleges and universities and on complex trends and issues bearing on the responsibilities of governing boards. Trustees must deal with a complex blend of competing values, evolving information, and challenging analyses while taking into account…

  12. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  13. Science in the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Sharon Gibbs

    1985-01-01

    Examines the realm of science and the federal government made evident in the 1950s by A. Hunter Dupree's classic work on the subject. Federal science before 1940, federal science since 1940, and sources of historical materials are among the major areas considered. (JN)

  14. Governance of Children's Everyday Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Charlotte; Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of sociological and economic change there is increasing attention given to governance of children's spaces in recent years. This paper discusses these changes and how they have impacted on, and contributed to, this increased interest. The paper draws on the sociology of childhood framework in order to examine how children…

  15. Nurturing and Sustaining Entrepreneurship. University, Science Park, Business and Government Partnership in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examines entrepreneurial activities in university science and technology parks that promote innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Highlights projects at the University of Adelaide and Australian government programs that support entrepreneurship. (SK)

  16. Legislation: Legislation and Regulations Affecting Libraries in 2002; Legislation and Regulations Affecting Publishing in 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheketoff, Emily; Costabile, Mary R.; Adler, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Reviews legislation and regulations affecting libraries and the publishing industry, including the Museum and Library Services Act; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI); copyright; access to electronic government information; telecommunications and technology; electronic surveillance and privacy, including the USA Patriot Act;…

  17. Governing boards and profound organizational change in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fennell, M L; Alexander, J A

    1989-01-01

    Over the past decade the importance of governing boards as policy-making setting and oversight units within organizations has increased dramatically. Although this is true for both corporate- and private-sector organizations (Bacon and Brown 1977; Gelman 1988), it is particularly relevant to the health sector. Hospital governing boards, long considered inconsequential in hospital management, have recently become subject to closer scrutiny. The role of governing boards in decisions affecting hospital strategy and hospital performance is once again a topic of some interest in boardrooms and hospital trade journals. Impressive evidence of the renewed interest in governance is provided by the funding of an instructional consortium by the S.K. Kellogg Foundation to help strengthen trusteeship and governing board decision making, and to improve education for health services managers in the area of governance. Members of the consortium include the Hospital Research and Educational Trust, the American Hospital Association, the American College of Healthcare Executives, and the Association for University Programs in Health Administration. Among the activities being undertaken by this consortium is the development of a self-assessment tool/methodology for boards, a bibliography and reference guide on effective governance for practicing trustees, research workshops for faculty in health administration programs, and a teaching guide on governance and trustee leadership. Despite this interest, the question with which we began this article persists. Do governing boards make a difference? In the course of our review of previous work on governance we found that, more often than not, that question has been transformed into: how do boards influence hospital performance? And very often that question has been further narrowed into: which board structure leads to better hospital performance? We have argued for a respecification of the initial question. Rather than pursuing a definition

  18. 37 CFR 401.7 - Small business preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small business preference..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.7 Small business preference. (a) Paragraph...

  19. 37 CFR 401.7 - Small business preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small business preference..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.7 Small business preference. (a) Paragraph...

  20. 37 CFR 401.7 - Small business preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business preference..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.7 Small business preference. (a) Paragraph...

  1. 37 CFR 401.7 - Small business preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small business preference..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.7 Small business preference. (a) Paragraph...

  2. State Governance Action Report 2010: An Early Reading of the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Richard; Toutsi, Cristin

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) regularly tracks state developments, proposals, and legislation as they affect public higher education governance and trusteeship. This paper provides an early read on what state, university system, and institutional leaders see as important for the immediate future of public…

  3. Social Justice, Policy and Parents' Understanding of Their Voice in School Governing Bodies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the powers that parents are endowed with regarding governance of schools in South Africa, they are not yet given sufficient room and space to deliberate on issues of school governance; instead they are still excluded by some teaching staff who deny them (explicitly or implicitly) from taking part in crucial decisions affecting education of…

  4. The Effects of Leadership and Governance Processes on Member Participation in Community Health Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Maureen E.; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of coalition leadership and governance on member participation in voluntary community health coalitions. Path modeling was used to explore how leadership and governance processes in coalitions affect existing member costs, benefits, and levels of participation. It was hypothesized that the effects of coalition…

  5. Keeping on Top of Government Contracting: The Challenge to Social Work Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurl, Lorna F.

    1986-01-01

    Government contracting out of responsibilities for the delivery of social services is an increasingly common phenomenon in these times of economic restraint. This paper argues that this practice negatively affects social service systems and social work practitioners. (Author/MH)

  6. Governing Tomorrow's Campus. Perspectives and Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jack H.; And Others

    A collection of original essays about who will and should share in governing colleges and universities is presented. Five parts contain 15 chapters as follows: (1) The Context of Contemporary Campus Governance: "Academic Governance: An Evolutionary Perspective," (W. Metzger); (2) New Perspectives on Campus Governance: "Leadership and Followership:…

  7. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  8. Government Control of Information: Some British Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuck, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Despite the 1993 White Paper on Open Government and the resulting Code of Practice on Access to Government Information, Britain has a reputation for secrecy and no Freedom of Information Act. Examines the use by government ministers of Public Interest Immunity Certificates to deny litigants access to government documents in the course of…

  9. Strong Student Governments...and Their Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Sara

    1988-01-01

    The ideal student government and the ideal student government adviser were discussed by advisers who met at the NACA National Student Government Workshop. Key issues in a strong student government are described including information, access, mutual respect, and institutional impact. (MLW)

  10. Computerized and Networked Government Information Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratford, Juri

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the U.S. federal government to develop E-Government services have been the subject of many recent news stories. In February 2002, Arthur Andersen's Office of Government Services released a usability analysis of federal government Web sites. In addition, in February, Vice-President Cheney announced the release of a report detailing…

  11. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  12. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  13. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  14. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  15. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  16. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  17. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  18. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46.406 Section 46.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for...

  19. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canon, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance of Delaware. Funding for public education generally comes from three sources: the federal government (7.6%), the state government (64.3%), and local governments (28.1%). Educational expenditures for K-12 public schools in Delaware total $1.66 billion. Per-pupil expenditure in the…

  20. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Governments. 598.505 Section 598.505... Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  1. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  2. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  3. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  4. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Governments. 598.505 Section 598.505... Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  5. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  6. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means a: (a... district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of governments, whether or...

  7. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  8. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Governments. 597.501 Section 597.501... Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  9. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  10. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  11. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  12. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  13. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  14. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  15. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  16. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  17. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  18. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  19. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  20. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Governments. 597.501 Section 597.501... Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  1. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  2. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  3. 76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) will host a Small/...

  4. 76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will host a Small/Low-...

  5. 78 FR 12033 - Programs and Research Projects Affecting the Arctic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION Programs and Research Projects Affecting the Arctic Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research... programs and research projects affecting the Arctic. If you plan to attend this meeting, please notify...

  6. 30 CFR 552.4 - Summary Report to affected States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary Report to affected States. 552.4... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 552.4 Summary Report to affected States... government, a Summary Report of data and information designed to assist them in planning for the...

  7. 30 CFR 552.4 - Summary Report to affected States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Summary Report to affected States. 552.4... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 552.4 Summary Report to affected States... government, a Summary Report of data and information designed to assist them in planning for the...

  8. Modeling Interactions in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.

    2013-01-01

    A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…

  9. AIDS, risk and social governance.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2000-05-01

    This paper considers the discursive properties of public health literature produced around AIDS in the 1980s and early 1990s. Attention is focused upon the role of health promotion in the UK government's response to the epidemic and on the language used in the educational campaigns conducted by the Health Education Council and its replacement the Health Education Authority. Using an analytical approach influenced by the work of Michel Foucault, the paper argues that the knowledges of AIDS produced by these various public health institutions constructed discursive boundaries between the idea of 'normal' and 'abnormal' behavioural practices. The notion of risk, produced as it is from epidemiological knowledge, is a central mechanism in this process. It is through the production, articulation and normalisation of 'at risk' groups that society is fragmented and hence subject to the governance strategies of late-modern liberal economies. PMID:10728847

  10. Government and industry interactions in the development of clock technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellwig, H.

    1981-01-01

    It appears likely that everyone in the time and frequency community can agree on goals to be realized through the expenditure of resources. These goals are the same as found in most fields of technology: lower cost, better performance, increased reliability, small size and lower power. Related aspects are examined in the process of clock and frequency standard development. Government and industry are reviewed in a highly interactive role. These interactions include judgements on clock performance, what kind of clock, expenditure of resources, transfer of ideas or hardware concepts from government to industry, and control of production. Successful clock development and production requires a government/industry relationship which is characterized by long-term continuity, multidisciplinary team work, focused funding and a separation of reliability and production oriented tasks from performance improvement/research type efforts.

  11. 76 FR 2001 - Government Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...NASA is issuing a final rule to revise the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to update Agency-level, property-related provisions, clauses, prescriptions and procedures to be consistent with changes made to Part 45 and Part 52.245 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-17. FAC 2005-17 significantly rewrote FAR Part 45, Government Property, and changed property......

  12. Navigating the system governance maze.

    PubMed

    Savage, T J

    1987-01-01

    Health care system governance today is a complex maze of concerns that assume a unique character in Catholic-sponsored multi-institutional systems. Most Catholic health care systems began with a common sponsor or mission and several shared services and gradually moved from separately incorporated entities to a system with few centralized operating functions but a governing body between the local facilities and the sponsoring religious institute. The next step was development of a managed system with consolidated services and centralized decision making. Now, many systems are attempting the most important and difficult effort--systemwide strategic planning. The phases described have required a rethinking of governance structures, and conflicts often arise during restructuring. Such turmoil requires many Catholic health care systems to develop a clearer sense of direction and purpose. To achieve their objectives, system leaders can use a governance compass that has five key points: Information. Boards must determine what they need to know, where to secure this information, and what form the information should take. Agenda. Boards must make reflective and intentional use of their agenda by reviewing and categorizing agenda items discussed in the past 12 months and establishing an agenda plan for the next 12 months. Structural mechanisms. Boards must decide structural issues such as relationships between system board and local boards, sizes of boards, and kinds of committees needed. Culture. Boards should reflect on their culture--values and traditions that have characterized them in the past--to assess whether changes are needed to strengthen or improve the culture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10280354

  13. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  14. Comment on ``Communicating Government Science''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Harry F.

    2006-05-01

    Soroosh Sorooshian's editorial in the 18 April issue of Eos (87(16) 2005) is a timely reminder of the need for unambiguous guidelines governing the interactions between government scientists and the media. His comments implicitly recognize the central role that science plays in a modern democratic society, which includes informing policy at the highest levels of government and educating the general public about the world we inhabit. Federal research scientists, who constitute approximately 15 percent of the AGU's U.S. membership, have a unique public responsibility. They would welcome a consistent policy for the review and approval of publications, oral presentations, and media communications. An example of the value and success that such a policy can have to both science and the nation is evident in the operations of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For more than a century, the USGS has had clear policies and procedures for ensuring the communication of accurate, high-quality, and impartial scientific information. These policies and procedures are set forth in the USGS Manual under sections entitled ``Approval by the director for outside publication and oral presentation,'' ``Review of USGS publications and abstracts of oral presentations for policy-sensitive issues,'' and ``News release and media relations policy.'' These policies are available online at http:// www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/500/500-9.html (.../500-8.html and .../500 5.html).

  15. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  16. Adaptation in collaborative governance regimes.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program. PMID:25073764

  17. Toward Sustainable Anticipatory Governance: Analyzing and Assessing Nanotechnology Innovation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Rider Williams

    Cities around the globe struggle with socio-economic disparities, resource inefficiency, environmental contamination, and quality-of-life challenges. Technological innovation, as one prominent approach to problem solving, promises to address these challenges; yet, introducing new technologies, such as nanotechnology, into society and cities has often resulted in negative consequences. Recent research has conceptually linked anticipatory governance and sustainability science: to understand the role of technology in complex problems our societies face; to anticipate negative consequences of technological innovation; and to promote long-term oriented and responsible governance of technologies. This dissertation advances this link conceptually and empirically, focusing on nanotechnology and urban sustainability challenges. The guiding question for this dissertation research is: How can nanotechnology be innovated and governed in responsible ways and with sustainable outcomes? The dissertation: analyzes the nanotechnology innovation process from an actor- and activities-oriented perspective (Chapter 2); assesses this innovation process from a comprehensive perspective on sustainable governance (Chapter 3); constructs a small set of future scenarios to consider future implications of different nanotechnology governance models (Chapter 4); and appraises the amenability of sustainability problems to nanotechnological interventions (Chapter 5). The four studies are based on data collected through literature review, document analysis, participant observation, interviews, workshops, and walking audits, as part of process analysis, scenario construction, and technology assessment. Research was conducted in collaboration with representatives from industry, government agencies, and civic organizations. The empirical parts of the four studies focus on Metropolitan Phoenix. Findings suggest that: predefined mandates and economic goals dominate the nanotechnology innovation process

  18. Do Bacterial Symbionts Govern Aphid's Dropping Behavior?

    PubMed

    Lavy, Omer; Sher, Noa; Malik, Assaf; Chiel, Elad

    2015-06-01

    Defensive symbiosis is amongst nature's most important interactions shaping the ecology and evolution of all partners involved. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), harbors one obligatory bacterial symbiont and up to seven different facultative symbionts, some of which are known to protect the aphid from pathogens, natural enemies, and other mortality factors. Pea aphids typically drop off the plant when a mammalian herbivore approaches it to avoid incidental predation. Here, we examined whether bacterial symbionts govern the pea aphid dropping behavior by comparing the bacterial fauna in dropping and nondropping aphids of two A. pisum populations, using two molecular techniques: high-throughput profiling of community structure using 16 S reads sequenced on the Illumina platform, and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that in addition to the obligatory symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, the tested colonies of A. pisum harbored the facultative symbionts Serratia symbiotica, Regiella insecticola and Rickettsia, with no significant differences in infection proportions between dropping and nondropping aphids. While S. symbiotica was detected by both techniques, R. insecticola and Rickettsia could be detected only by diagnostic PCR. We therefore conclude that A. pisum's dropping behavior is not affected by its bacterial symbionts and is possibly affected by other factors. PMID:26313964

  19. Preventing Groupthink Revisited: Evaluating and Reforming Groups in Government.

    PubMed

    Hart

    1998-02-01

    This article critically examines Janis's recommendations for preventing groupthink in high-level policymaking. It puts forward three models of small group functioning in government, each of which highlights different dimensions of collegial policymaking and distinct criteria for evaluating group performance. Each model also inspires different proposals for groupthink prevention and improvement of group performance in general. Proposals for designing and managing high-level groups in government need to take into account these multiple perspectives. Furthermore, their proponents should be aware of the institutionalized and competitive context in which political decision groups operate. Evaluations of their performance and proposals for reforming them are inevitably tied up in this process. This has important implications for the feasibility of recommendations set forth by small group analysts. The article concludes with an agenda for increasing the policy relevance and practical feasibility of research on political decision groups. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9705806

  20. Federal government program provides funds for R D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Small businesses looking for funding to support research and development projects may be interested in the US government's Small Business Innovative Research Program. The program, overseen by the Small Business Administration, is a competitive award system for businesses with 500 or fewer employees interested in proposing innovative ideas that meet the government's needs. Projects are funded through the SBIR Program, not agency budgets. The SBIR Program, created by the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, is designed to assist participating federal agencies in meeting their respective research needs. While stimulating technological innovation, the program also provides qualified small businesses with opportunities to compete for a greater share of federal R D awards. Federal agencies have awarded more than $3.2 billion for more than 25,000 research projects since the program started. The Department of Energy (DOE), National Science Foundation, and the Environmental Protection Agency are among 11 agencies participating in the program. Agencies designate topics upon which SBIR proposals will be sought; release at least one SBIR solicitation annually; receive and evaluate SBIR proposals; and award SBIR funding agreements, based upon technical and scientific merit and how well the proposals meet the agencies needs. Before leaving office, President Bush signed legislation extending the program to the year 2000 and tripling the federal government's commitment to the program to $1.6 billion annually by 1997. The measure also requires federal agencies with external R D budgets greater than $100 million to allocate an amount - equal to 2.5 percent of the funds they award - to small businesses. That is double that required before the new legislation became law.

  1. 77 FR 38125 - Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... and the Comment Process. --National Small Business Association (NSBA) Update. --Introduction of Chief... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the...

  2. 31 CFR 575.304 - Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity of the Government of Iraq... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.304 Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity. The term entity of the Government of Iraq or Iraqi Government entity includes: (a)...

  3. Information at the Nexus: Young People's Perceptions of Government and Government Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie Greene

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the perceptions that young people have of federal government websites and of the U.S. government, as well as exploring possible connections between the perceptions of government and government websites. Not only is this a virtually unstudied area of e-government and youth information behavior, but it is also of…

  4. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  5. Tailoring Programs to Needs: Helping the Small Businessowner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Susan B.; McDowell, Julie E.

    1987-01-01

    A needs assessment of New York State small apparel and textile manufacturers suggested possible roles for extension education, such as newsletters providing information on market trends, government assistance, and new technology; a telephone hotline system; specialized media programs; and liaison between industry and state and local governments.…

  6. Report of the Small Schools Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    In March of 1973 the superintendent of the Montgomery County schools appointed a task force of community representatives, principals, teachers, area and central office staff members, and county government representatives to develop recommendations on small elementary schools. The task force concluded that school size is not the determining factor…

  7. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... final regulations [FR Doc. 2013-169671, which were published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, July 16, 2013 (78 FR 42391). The document amended SBA's regulations governing small business subcontracting to...: Background On July 16, 2013, at 78 FR 42392 (available at...

  8. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making. PMID:27076653

  9. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  10. Restricted Transport in Small Pores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John L.; Quinn, John A.

    1974-01-01

    The basic hydrodynamic equations governing transport in submicron pores are reexamined. Conditions necessary for a simplified, one-dimensional treatment of the diffusion/convection process are established. Steric restrictions and Brownian motion are incorporated directly into the resulting model. Currently available fluid mechanical results are used to evaluate an upper limit on hindered diffusion; this limit is valid for small particle-to-pore ratios. Extensions of the analysis are shown to depend on numerical solutions of the related hydrodynamic problem, that of asymmetrical particle motion in a bounded fluid. PMID:4813157

  11. Overcoming the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook; Gong, Sung Jin

    2004-02-01

    The Confucian tradition still dictates the behavior of many people in East Asian countries such as South Korea. Even in e-mail communication, people try their best to show signs of respect which is required by the Confucian tradition. This psychological barrier can be detrimental to the development of democracy as people are educated not to challenge opinions of elders or bosses. After a long military dictatorship, South Korea has emerged as a newly democratized nation where the Confucian tradition is less emphasized. However, this tradition dies hard, and citizens are still afraid of offending government officials who have the power to affect lives of citizens. In light of creating a more democratic society, the e-government project has been implemented, and one of the features of cyber-government is to give citizens a place in cyberspace to express their concerns. Even though citizens have to use their real names, it is found that those who wrote messages in the bulletin board of the city of Seoul government's web pages tend not to use terms that are often used in e-mails for the purpose of expressing respect. A survey was conducted, and results show that people were able to overcome the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace. Self-efficacy is proposed to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15006165

  12. Measuring the Displacement and Replacement of Government Health Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Hanlon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research assessing the relationship between government health expenditure and development assistance for health channeled to governments (DAHG) has not considered that this relationship may depend on whether DAHG is increasing or decreasing. We explore this issue using general method of moments estimation and a panel of financial flows data spanning 119 countries and 16 years. Our primary concern is how DAHG affects government health expenditure as source (GHES). We disaggregate the average effect of DAHG and separately identify the effects of increases versus decreases in DAHG. We find that a $1 year-over-year increase in DAHG leads to a $0.62 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 1.09) decrease in GHES, whereas a $1 year-over-year decrease in DAHG does not have an effect on GHES that is statistically different from zero (CI: −0.67, 1.17). Simulation shows that the displacement of GHES between 1995 and 2010 reduced total government health expenditure by $152.8 billion (CI: 46.9, 277.6). Moreover, the irregular disbursement of DAHG reduced total government expenditure by $96.9 billion (CI: 0.5, 212.4). Thus, this research shows that health aid is fungible and highlights the cost of displacement and erratic aid disbursement. PMID:24327240

  13. Measuring the displacement and replacement of government health expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Hanlon, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Research assessing the relationship between government health expenditure and development assistance for health channeled to governments (DAHG) has not considered that this relationship may depend on whether DAHG is increasing or decreasing. We explore this issue using general method of moments estimation and a panel of financial flows data spanning 119 countries and 16 years. Our primary concern is how DAHG affects government health expenditure as source (GHES). We disaggregate the average effect of DAHG and separately identify the effects of increases versus decreases in DAHG. We find that a $1 year-over-year increase in DAHG leads to a $0.62 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 1.09) decrease in GHES, whereas a $1 year-over-year decrease in DAHG does not have an effect on GHES that is statistically different from zero (CI: -0.67, 1.17). Simulation shows that the displacement of GHES between 1995 and 2010 reduced total government health expenditure by $152.8 billion (CI: 46.9, 277.6). Moreover, the irregular disbursement of DAHG reduced total government expenditure by $96.9 billion (CI: 0.5, 212.4). Thus, this research shows that health aid is fungible and highlights the cost of displacement and erratic aid disbursement. PMID:24327240

  14. Enhancing Adult Learning through Cooperative Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a structured form of small group work based on interdependence, accountability, group processing, and social skills. In continuing education, cooperative learning can positively affect achievement, multiethnic relationships, self-esteem, retention, and attitudes. (SK)

  15. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required. PMID:15473207

  16. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes. PMID:23598491

  17. A Study on Technology Architecture and Serving Approaches of Electronic Government System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunnian; Huang, Yiyun; Pan, Qin

    As E-government becomes a very active research area, a lot of solutions to solve citizens' needs are being deployed. This paper provides technology architecture of E-government system and approaches of service in Public Administrations. The proposed electronic system addresses the basic E-government requirements of user friendliness, security, interoperability, transparency and effectiveness in the communication between small and medium sized public organizations and their citizens, businesses and other public organizations. The paper has provided several serving approaches of E-government, which includes SOA, web service, mobile E-government, public library and every has its own characteristics and application scenes. Still, there are a number of E-government issues for further research on organization structure change, including research methodology, data collection analysis, etc.

  18. Managing government funded scientific consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, it is becoming apparent that good science not only requires the talents of individual scientists, but also state-of-the-art laboratory facilities. These faculties, often costing millions to billions of dollars, allow scientists unprecedented opportunities to advance their knowledge and improve the quality of human life. To make optimum use of these experimental facilities, a significant amount of computational simulations is required. These mega-projects require large-scale computational facilities and complementary infrastructures of network and software. For physical sciences in US, most of these research and development efforts are funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Universities, US National Laboratories, and occasionally industrial partners work together on projects awarded with different flavors of government funds managed under different rules. At Fermilab, we manage multiple such collaborative computing projects for university and laboratory consortia. In this paper, I explore important lessons learned from my experience with these projects. Using examples of projects delivering computing infrastructure for the Lattice QCD Collaboration, I explain how the use of federal enterprise architecture may be deployed to run projects effectively. I also describe the lessons learned in the process. Lessons learned from the execution of the above projects are also applicable to other consortia receiving federal government funds.

  19. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. (i) NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4107, Mutual Acceptance of Government Quality Assurance and... conditions under which one NATO member nation will perform quality assurance for another NATO member...

  20. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your...