Science.gov

Sample records for affect smoking behavior

  1. Affective behavior and temperament predict the onset of smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Ali; Allen, Nicholas B; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Byrne, Michelle L; Sheeber, Lisa; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-06-01

    Earlier use of tobacco in adolescence is associated with numerous adverse outcomes later in life. Although a number of studies have linked individual differences in affective functioning to adolescent smoking, these have relied primarily on self-report measures, and the contribution of different dimensions of affect to the onset of tobacco use during this period remains unclear. The current study examined these issues in a sample of 180 adolescents recruited from an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study examining emotional development. At approximately age 12, participants completed a questionnaire measure of affective temperament and took part in a family interaction task that was coded observationally to provide measures of dysphoric, aggressive, and positive behaviors. At 2 subsequent assessments, which took place approximately 2.5 years and 4 years after the initial assessment, participants completed a questionnaire measure of substance use. In total, 70 participants initiated smoking between the ages of 12 and 17. An earlier onset of smoking was predicted by more aggressive and less positive observed behavior during the interaction task, as well as lower levels of self-reported temperamental Effortful Control. There were no associations between dysphoric behaviors, or temperamental measures of negative affectivity or surgency and the onset of smoking. The findings add to a small body of literature demonstrating that behavioral components of affect can prospectively predict substance use in adolescence and suggest that different dimensions of affect show unique relationships with early substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Factors affecting smoking in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Beratis, S; Katrivanou, A; Gourzis, P

    2001-01-01

    There is an increased frequency of smoking among patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether the smoking behavior of the patients is similar in all schizophrenia subtypes, as well as which is the relationship between smoking initiation and disease onset. Four hundred six patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were interviewed to determine the smoking status in relationship to gender and schizophrenic subtype, and to other factors that could affect or be affected by smoking. The frequency of smoking among patients (58%) was significantly greater than in subjects from the general population (42%) (P =.000005). Male patients smoked significantly more frequently (70%) than the corresponding control subjects (50%) (P =.000006), whereas the difference failed to reach significance between female patients (41%) and control subjects (32%). Among male patients, the number of smokers was significantly greater than in the controls in the paranoid (77%), undifferentiated (72%), and residual (78%) subtypes, whereas there was no significant difference in the disorganized (44%) and catatonic (22%) subtypes. The findings show that the frequency of smoking in schizophrenia patients increases with increasing positive symptoms and decreases with increasing negative symptoms. Male and female smoking patients consumed approximately 10 cigarettes per day more than the corresponding control subjects (P <.000001). In 86% of the patients, smoking initiation occurred before the disease onset. Among patients who smoked, smoking initiation and disease onset occurred at age 18.7 +/- 4.4 and 24.1 +/- 6.1 years, respectively (P <.000001). It appears that smoking in schizophrenia is influenced by gender and subtype. However, the nature of this association remains uncertain because in the vast majority of the patients smoking initiation occurs earlier than the disease onset.

  3. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  4. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  5. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  6. Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Surakka, Ida; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Amin, Najaf; Geller, Frank; Sulem, Patrick; Rafnar, Thorunn; Esko, Tõnu; Walter, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Mägi, Reedik; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Gudjonsdottir, Iris H.; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Stefansson, Hreinn; Thompson, John R.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Nelis, Mari; Aben, Katja K.; den Heijer, Martin; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem; Soranzo, Nicole; Valdes, Ana M; Steves, Claire; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Döring, Angela; Dahmen, Norbert; Nitz, Barbara; Pergadia, Michele L.; Saez, Berta; De Diego, Veronica; Lezcano, Victoria; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Kettunen, Johannes; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Isohanni, Matti; Huei-Yi, Shen; Allen, Maxine; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hall, Alistair S; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Mueller, Thomas; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Jonsson, Steinn; Matthiasson, Stefan E.; Oskarsson, Hogni; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mayordomo, Jose I.; Lindholt, Jes S; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Wolf, Holly; Montgomery, Grant W.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Stumvoll, Michael; Spector, Tim D; Wichmann, H-Erich; Metspalu, Andres; Samani, Nilesh J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Oostra, Ben A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Tiemeier, Henning; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Peltonen, Leena; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for most of the diseases leading in mortality1. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analyses of smoking data within the ENGAGE consortium to search for common alleles associating with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers (N=31,266) and smoking initiation (N=46,481). We tested selected SNPs in a second stage (N=45,691 smokers), and assessed some in a third sample (N=9,040). Variants in three genomic regions associated with CPD (P< 5·10−8), including previously identified SNPs at 15q25 represented by rs1051730-A (0.80 CPD,P=2.4·10−69), and SNPs at 19q13 and 8p11, represented by rs4105144-C (0.39 CPD, P=2.2·10−12) and rs6474412-T (0.29 CPD,P= 1.4·10−8), respectively. Among the genes at the two novel loci, are genes encoding nicotine-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2A6 and CYP2B6), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNB3 and CHRNA6) highlighted in previous studies of nicotine dependence2-3. Nominal associations with lung cancer were observed at both 8p11 (rs6474412-T,OR=1.09,P=0.04) and 19q13 (rs4105144-C,OR=1.12,P=0.0006). PMID:20418888

  7. Smoking Affects You | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 18 Ways Smoking Affects Your Health Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Some of these harmful effects are immediate. Find out the health effects of smoking and what happens to your body when you quit.

  8. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  9. The Behavioral Aspects of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasnegor, Norman A., Ed.

    These five papers present a compact summary of current biological, behavioral and psychosocial research on cigarette smoking behavior. They focus especially on the addictive and dependence processes related to smoking and its effects on health. While much is known, recommendations for further research are suggested on topics including: nicotine,…

  10. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  11. Decreasing Smoking Behavior through Subliminal Stimulation Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1979-01-01

    Determines whether subliminal perception can be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior. Smoking behavior was not altered through subliminal perception as carried out in this study. There was evidence that smoking behavior was altered, but it was an unpredicted change. Some subjects decreased smoking patterns. (Author)

  12. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  13. Trauma exposure and cigarette smoking: the impact of negative affect and affect-regulatory smoking motives.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Beckham, Jean C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts. Negative affect and affect-modulation motives for smoking may contribute to the trauma-smoking association.

  14. Naloxone does not affect cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Nemeth-Coslett, R; Griffiths, R R

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide information about the hypothesis that endogenous opioids mediate the reinforcing properties of cigarette smoking, the present study examined the effects of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, on cigarette smoking in seven normal volunteers. The study used experimental procedures that had previously been shown sensitive for detecting the effects of other drugs, (including a nicotine antagonist) on smoking. Isolated subjects smoked their regular brand of cigarettes freely in a naturalistic laboratory environment while watching television or reading. Sixty minutes before each 2 h smoking session subjects received an IM injection of naloxone HCl (0.0625, 0.25, 1.0, or 4.0 mg/kg) or placebo. Each subject received each treatment three times in a mixed order across days. Naloxone did not significantly affect any measure of cigarette smoking including number of cigarettes, number of puffs, or expired air carbon monoxide level. Naloxone did, however, produce significant dose-related increases in subject ratings of yawning, stretching, and relaxation. The results of the present study provide no support for the endogenous opioid theory of smoking reinforcement. PMID:3088648

  15. Naloxone does not affect cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Nemeth-Coslett, R; Griffiths, R R

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide information about the hypothesis that endogenous opioids mediate the reinforcing properties of cigarette smoking, the present study examined the effects of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, on cigarette smoking in seven normal volunteers. The study used experimental procedures that had previously been shown sensitive for detecting the effects of other drugs, (including a nicotine antagonist) on smoking. Isolated subjects smoked their regular brand of cigarettes freely in a naturalistic laboratory environment while watching television or reading. Sixty minutes before each 2 h smoking session subjects received an IM injection of naloxone HCl (0.0625, 0.25, 1.0, or 4.0 mg/kg) or placebo. Each subject received each treatment three times in a mixed order across days. Naloxone did not significantly affect any measure of cigarette smoking including number of cigarettes, number of puffs, or expired air carbon monoxide level. Naloxone did, however, produce significant dose-related increases in subject ratings of yawning, stretching, and relaxation. The results of the present study provide no support for the endogenous opioid theory of smoking reinforcement.

  16. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  17. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  18. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    PubMed

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  19. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  20. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  1. Partner Behaviors That Support Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sheldon; Lichtenstein, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Individuals (N=221) who had stopped smoking completed shortened Partner Interaction Questionnaire, reporting frequency of 10 positive and 10 negative behaviors of spouse/romantic partner in response to smoking cessation. Ratio of received positive/negative behaviors was consistently better predictor of abstinence than were frequencies of either…

  2. Motives for Smoking in Movies Affect Future Smoking Risk in Middle School Students: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven; Setodji, Claude; Haviland, Amelia; Primack, Brian; Scharf, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked to adolescent smoking uptake. However, beyond linking amount of exposure to smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, whether the way that smoking is portrayed in movies matters for influencing adolescent smoking has not been investigated. This study experimentally examined how motivation for smoking depicted in movies affects self-reported future smoking risk (a composite measure with items that assess smoking refusal self-efficacy and smoking intentions) among early adolescents. Methods A randomized laboratory experiment was used. Adolescents were exposed to movie scenes depicting one of three movie smoking motives: social smoking motive (characters smoked to facilitate social interaction); relaxation smoking motive (characters smoked to relax); or no smoking motive (characters smoked with no apparent motive, i.e., in neutral contexts and/or with neutral affect). Responses to these movie scenes were contrasted (within subjects) to participants’ responses to control movie scenes in which no smoking was present; these control scenes matched to the smoking scenes with the same characters in similar situations but where no smoking was present. A total of 358 adolescents, aged 11–14 years, participated. Results Compared with participants exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking with no clear motive, adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for social motives and adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for relaxation motives had significantly greater chances of having increases in their future smoking risk. Conclusions Exposure to movies that portray smoking motives places adolescents at particular risk for future smoking. PMID:22074766

  3. Gender and Stimulus Control of Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Mai; Dunbar, Michael S.; Shiffman, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gender differences in smoking behavior have been proposed to account for poorer outcomes among women attempting to quit. Specifically, it has been suggested that women’s smoking behavior is less motivated by nicotine-seeking and more driven by environmental cues. To date, however, few real-world studies have examined the hypothesis that women’s smoking is under greater stimulus control. Methods: One hundred and ninety four daily smokers (men = 107; women = 87) completed 3 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) monitoring that provided data on real-world smoking behavior by reporting on situational contexts shown by previous research to influence smoking behavior (including social setting, cigarette availability, alcohol consumption, and mood). Results: Analyses of particular cues found few gender differences; however, men’s smoking increased to a greater extent compared with women’s when they were with others who were smoking. Idiographic analyses that allow individual subjects to have different directions of linkage to situational cues also were conducted to assess how predictable subjects’ smoking was from a range of contextual characteristics. Compared with women, men’s smoking was significantly more closely tied to food/alcohol consumption and tended to be more closely tied to social context. No other gender differences were found. Conclusions: EMA analyses suggest that men and women are similarly influenced by cues, including mood. Where there were gender differences, it was men rather than women whose smoking behavior was more influenced by cues. The data contradict the hypothesis that women’s smoking is more influenced by cues. PMID:25762752

  4. Time discounting and smoking behavior: evidence from a panel survey(*).

    PubMed

    Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    By using a panel survey of Japanese adults, we show that smoking behavior is associated with personal time discounting and its biases, such as hyperbolic discounting and the sign effect, in the way that theory predicts: smoking depends positively on the discount rate and the degree of hyperbolic discounting and negatively on the presence of the sign effect. Positive effects of hyperbolic discounting on smoking are salient for naïve people, who are not aware of their self-control problem. By estimating smoking participation and smokers' cigarette consumption in Cragg's two-part model, we find that the two smoking decisions depend on different sets of time-discounting variables. Particularly, smoking participation is affected by being a naïve hyperbolic discounter, whereas the discount rate, the presence of the sign effect, and a hyperbolic discounting proxy constructed from procrastination behavior vis-à-vis doing homework assignments affect both types of decision making. The panel data enable us to analyze the over-time instability of elicited discount rates. The instability is shown to come from measurement errors, rather than preference shocks on time preference. Several evidences indicate that the detected associations between time preferences and smoking behavior are interpersonal one, rather than within-personal one.

  5. Time discounting and smoking behavior: evidence from a panel survey(*).

    PubMed

    Kang, Myong-Il; Ikeda, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    By using a panel survey of Japanese adults, we show that smoking behavior is associated with personal time discounting and its biases, such as hyperbolic discounting and the sign effect, in the way that theory predicts: smoking depends positively on the discount rate and the degree of hyperbolic discounting and negatively on the presence of the sign effect. Positive effects of hyperbolic discounting on smoking are salient for naïve people, who are not aware of their self-control problem. By estimating smoking participation and smokers' cigarette consumption in Cragg's two-part model, we find that the two smoking decisions depend on different sets of time-discounting variables. Particularly, smoking participation is affected by being a naïve hyperbolic discounter, whereas the discount rate, the presence of the sign effect, and a hyperbolic discounting proxy constructed from procrastination behavior vis-à-vis doing homework assignments affect both types of decision making. The panel data enable us to analyze the over-time instability of elicited discount rates. The instability is shown to come from measurement errors, rather than preference shocks on time preference. Several evidences indicate that the detected associations between time preferences and smoking behavior are interpersonal one, rather than within-personal one. PMID:24136867

  6. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621416

  7. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. The Effect of the Teachers' Smoking Behavior on Their Involvement in Smoking Education in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, T. L.; Rakip, William R.

    The smoking behavior and attitudes of public school teachers were studied to determine if the teachers' smoking behavior is related to their attitudes and behavior regarding students' smoking practice and smoking education in schools. The school system studied was in Northampton, Massachusetts, where 162 of the 194 teachers randomly selected from…

  9. Smoking Behavior in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B; Hart, Jaime E; Smith, Thomas J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Background In retrospective occupational studies, the degree of confounding by smoking depends on variation in smoking among job-related exposure groups. We assessed the relationship between job title and smoking behavior as part of a study on occupational exposures and lung cancer. Methods A questionnaire on smoking was mailed to a sample of 11,986 trucking industry. Company records were used to gather other relevant information. Results The response rate was 40.5%. Among white males, the age-adjusted prevalence of ever smoking was highest among longhaul truck drivers (67%) and lowest among clerks (44%). Smoking rates among workers with other job titles were similar. Conclusions Our results will be used to adjust for the differences in smoking among job-related exposure groups when assessing the association between particulate matter exposure and lung cancer mortality. Our study also suggests that an assessment of methods to control for smoking should be considered in the design of retrospective occupational health studies. PMID:17096359

  10. Perceived smoking availability differentially affects mood and reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kathryn C.; Juliano, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This between subjects study explored the relationship between smoking availability and smoking motivation and is the first study to include three smoking availability time points. This allowed for an examination of an extended period of smoking unavailability, and a test of the linearity of the relationships between smoking availability and smoking motivation measures. Methods Ninety 3-hour abstinent smokers (mean ∼15 cigarettes per day) were randomly assigned to one of three availability manipulations while being exposed to smoking stimuli (i.e., pack of cigarettes): smoke in 20 min, smoke in 3 h, or smoke in 24 h. Participants completed pre- and post-manipulation measures of urge, positive affect and negative affect, and simple reaction time. Results The belief that smoking would next be available in 24 h resulted in a significant decrease in positive affect and increase in negative affect relative to the 3 h and 20 min conditions. A Lack of Fit test suggested a linear relationship between smoking availability and affect. A quadratic model appeared to be a better fit for the relationship between smoking availability and simple reaction time with participants in the 24 h and 20 min conditions showing a greater slowing of reaction time relative to the 3 h condition. There were no effects of the manipulations on self-reported urge, but baseline ceiling effects were noted. Conclusions Future investigations that manipulate three or more periods of time before smoking is available will help to better elucidate the nature of the relationship between smoking availability and smoking motivation. PMID:25727393

  11. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke.

  12. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  13. Does smoking affect schooling? Evidence from teenagers in rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Konishi, Yoshifumi; Glewwe, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Youth smoking can biologically reduce learning productivity. It can also reduce youths' expected returns to education and lower their motivation to go to school, where smoking is forbidden. Using rich household survey data from rural China, this study investigates the effect of youth smoking on educational outcomes. Youth smoking is clearly an endogenous variable; to obtain consistent estimates of its impact, we use counts of registered alcohol vendors and a food price index as instrumental variables. Since the variable that measures smoking behavior is censored for non-smoking adolescents, we implement a two-step estimation strategy to account for the censored nature of this endogenous regressor. The estimates indicate that smoking one cigarette per day during adolescence can lower students' scores on mathematics tests by about 0.08 standard deviations. However, we find no significant effect of youth smoking on either Chinese test scores or total years of schooling.

  14. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  15. The Behavioral Dynamics of Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleskie, Donna B.; Strumpf, Koleman S.

    2005-01-01

    The role played by past cigarette consumption and individual heterogeneity in recurrent and persistent youth smoking behavior is studied. The study is based on data collected from teenagers of all the 50 United States, over a period extending from 1988 to 1992.

  16. Initiation of Cigarette Smoking: Is It Related to Parental Smoking Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlford, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The smoking behavior and family stability of 251 undergraduate men and women and their parents were studied. The results support the identification interpretation of the father/son smoking pattern. The variable of family intactness was a relevant moderator of the parent/son smoking pattern. The mother and daughter smoking patterns remained…

  17. Are Anti-Smoking Parenting Practices Related to Adolescent Smoking Cognitions and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior by showing the mediating effects of cognitions. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control condition of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA). Anti-smoking parenting…

  18. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p's<0.05) over the course of the cigarette, such that those with greater negative affect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers. PMID:27240211

  19. Relationship between negative affect and smoking topography in heavy drinking smokers.

    PubMed

    Green, ReJoyce; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Ray, Lara A

    2016-10-01

    Heavy drinking smokers represent a sizeable subgroup of smokers for whom nicotine deprivation and alcohol use increases the urge to smoke in the laboratory and predicts lapses during smoking cessation. The manner in which individuals smoke a cigarette (i.e. smoking topography) provides a reliable index of smoking intensity and reinforcement, yet the effects of affect on smoking topography have not been thoroughly examined in heavy drinking smokers. The current study examined how affect and nicotine deprivation predict smoking behavior as participants (N=27) smoked one cigarette using a smoking topography device after 12-h of nicotine abstinence and after a priming dose of alcohol (target BrAC=0.06g/dl). Primary smoking topography measures were puff volume, velocity, duration, and inter-puff interval (IPI). The effect of nicotine deprivation was measured by the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Measures were obtained at baseline (i.e. 12-h of nicotine abstinence and pre-alcohol) and 30-minutes after alcohol administration (i.e. peak BrAC). Results revealed post-priming negative affect significantly moderated the trajectories of puff volume, puff duration and IPI (p's<0.05) over the course of the cigarette, such that those with greater negative affect had flatter slopes for volume and duration and increasingly infrequent puffs. Our results suggest that baseline and post-priming negative affect following nicotine deprivation alters smoking patterns and increases nicotine exposure throughout a single cigarette. Future studies need to examine differential amounts of nicotine deprivation on response to alcohol and smoking in heavy drinking smokers.

  20. A comparison of daily and occasional smokers' implicit affective responses to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Haight, John; Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has not compared implicit affective responses to smoking-related stimuli in occasional (i.e., those who smoke less than one cigarette per day) and daily smokers (i.e., those who smoke at least once per day). In addition to assessing their motivations for smoking, implicit affective responses were measured using the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) in occasional (n=19) and daily smokers (n=34) to smoking-related and neutral cues. Half of the cues depicted a human interacting with an object (i.e., active), whereas the remaining cues depicted objects alone (i.e., inactive). Results indicated that for the active cues, daily smokers responded more positively to smoking-related than to neutral cues, whereas occasional smokers showed no difference in their implicit responses. In addition to smoking frequency, relative differences in implicit responses to active cues were related to cognitive enhancement motivation. For inactive cues, implicit responses were related to cognitive enhancement as well as reinforcement. Because daily smokers have more positive implicit responses to active smoking-related cues than occasional smokers, these cues may play an important role in maintaining smoking behavior in daily smokers. PMID:22078800

  1. The Effect of the Teachers' Smoking Behavior on Their Involvement in Smoking Education in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, T. L.; Rakip, William R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study showed that the general climate in school is one conducive to the establishment of a comprehensive smoking education program. The results also indicated that teachers' attitudes and behavior towards smoking education were closely related to their smoking behavior. (RC)

  2. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain.

  3. Reactivity to negative affect in smokers: the role of implicit associations and distress tolerance in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Amy; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Ninnemann, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Avoidance of negative affect is one motivational factor that explains smoking cessation relapse during cessation attempts. This negative reinforcement model of smoking cessation and relapse has demonstrated the importance of one's ability to tolerate nicotine withdrawal symptoms, particularly negative affect states, in remaining abstinent from smoking. Distress tolerance and implicit associations are two individual constructs that may influence the strength of this relationship. In this pilot study the authors examined implicit associations related to avoidance and negative affect using a modified Implicit Association Test (IAT), a measure designed to examine implicit associations related to negative affect and avoidance, and the relationship of these associations to distress tolerance and smoking relapse. In total, 40 participants were recruited through community flyers as part of a larger smoking cessation study. Participants completed a brief smoking history, behavioral distress tolerance assessments, and the modified IAT. Smoking status was assessed via phone 3days and 6days post-quit date. Results from a Cox proportional hazard model revealed that implicit associations between avoidance and negative affect were significantly negatively correlated with time to relapse after a smoking cessation attempt, whereas the behavioral distress tolerance assessments did not predict time to relapse. This study provides novel information about the cognitive associations that may underlie avoidant behavior in smokers, and may be important for understanding smoking relapse when negative affect states are particularly difficult to tolerate. Authors discuss the importance of implicit associations in understanding smoking relapse and how they can be targeted in treatment.

  4. The Association between Teacher Attitudes, Behavioral Intentions, and Smoking and the Prevalence of Smoking among Seventh-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed seventh grade students and teachers from 23 schools to determine association between teacher attitudes, behavioral intentions, and smoking behavior and prevalence of student smoking. Teacher attitudes toward smoking policies were strongly related to current smoking behavior of teacher but not consistently related to student smoking.…

  5. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  6. Smoking Behavior, Attitudes of Second-Hand Smoke, and No-Smoking Policies on a University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacek, Georgia N. L. Johnston; Atkins, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking, when condoned as socially acceptable, overtly establishes such behavior as normal and risk-free. Scientific evidence verifies that cigarette smoking pervasively damages the body, causes early death, costs billions of dollars annually in medical care for smokers, and poses serious health risks to nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Yet…

  7. Cigarette smoke affects bonding to dentin.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Junio S; de Araujo, Edson Medeiro; Araujo, Elito

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) of composite resin bonded to dentin that had been contaminated by cigarette smoke. Ten extracted unerupted human third molars were used: Six molars were prepared for muTBS testing, while the other four molars were assigned to pre- and post-etching scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. The 20 specimens obtained from the 10 coronal portions were distributed into two experimental groups so that each tooth served as its own control. Group 1 underwent a daily toothbrushing simulation and exposure to a smoking simulation chamber, while Group 2 received only a daily simulated toothbrushing. Student's t-test demonstrated that Group 1 samples demonstrated significantly lower bond strength (49.58 MPa) than Group 2 samples (58.48 MPa). Pre and postetching SEM analysis revealed the presence of contaminants on the dentinal surfaces of the Group 1 specimens. It was concluded that contamination by cigarette smoke decreases the bond strength between dentin and composite resin.

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  9. Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking.

    PubMed

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-04-01

    Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking-related counseling, smoking-related counseling practices, and self-rated qualifications for counseling were main outcome measures. Health professionals who were current smokers systematically underestimated the health consequences of smoking and differed significantly from nonsmokers in their assessments of smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers might overestimate smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers gave patients advice on smoking cessation significantly more often than did current smokers (ex-smokers, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.8-3.4; never-smokers, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0). Ex-smokers and smokers felt significantly more qualified to counsel patients about smoking than did never-smokers (ex-smokers, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3-2.5; smokers, OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.9). Individual smoking behavior among hospital staff was strongly associated with smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and counseling practices. Lack of self-rated qualifications was a major barrier to professional counseling on smoking in a hospital framework.

  10. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  11. Smoking Behavior of US Youths: A Comparison Between Child Welfare System and Community Populations

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared rates of smoking for 2 groups of youths aged 12 to 14 years: those involved in the child welfare system (CW) and their counterparts in the community population. We then investigated factors associated with smoking for each group. Methods. We drew data from 2 national-level US sources: the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We estimated logistic regression models for 3 binary outcome measures of smoking behavior: lifetime, current, and regular smoking. Results. CW-involved youths had significantly higher rates of lifetime smoking (43% vs 32%) and current smoking (23% vs 18%) than did youths in the community population. For CW-involved youths, delinquency and smoking were strongly linked. Among youths in the community population, multiple factors, including youth demographics and emotional and behavioral health, affected smoking behavior. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence was notably higher among CW-involved youths than among the community population. In light of the persistent public health impact of smoking, more attention should be focused on identification of risk factors for prevention and early intervention efforts among the CW-involved population. PMID:22021304

  12. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  13. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics.

  14. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Philip J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants’ self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals’ intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). PMID:27405615

  15. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  16. A quasi-hyperbolic discounting approach to smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Addiction has attracted considerable attention in health and behavioral economics, and economists have attempted to understand addiction from the viewpoint of decision making over time. This paper investigates whether two time preference parameters can successfully predict smoking status, including cigarette dependence. Both the present bias and the constant time preference parameters account for smoking behavior status and cigarette dependence. PMID:25006542

  17. Does allowing adolescents to smoke at home affect their consumption and dependence?

    PubMed

    Luther, Emily J; Parzynski, Craig S; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Bagot, Kara S; Royo, Marc B; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T

    2008-06-01

    Negative parental attitudes towards smoking decrease adolescent smoking initiation but limited research explores the relationship between parental attitudes and degree of adolescent smoking among established smokers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental allowance of smoking in the home and adolescent smoking behavior and level of dependence. Interviews from 408 youths seeking assistance to quit smoking showed that adolescents who were allowed to smoke at home smoked more cigarettes per day and had higher scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence than those not allowed to smoke at home. Studies that additionally evaluate parental smoking status and the temporal relationship of parental allowance of smoking with changes in adolescent smoking behavior are warranted to clarify public health implications of parental smoking interdictions. PMID:18272294

  18. Factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked meat foods and liquid smoke flavorings.

    PubMed

    Simko, Peter

    2005-07-01

    This review deals with effects of environmental and physicochemical factors affecting polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination from smoked meat products and liquid smoke flavoring (LSF). In the introductory part, some essential information are aimed at principles of food smoking and PAH formation during smoke generation as a result of incomplete wood combustion. Also, an application of alternative technology for food aromatization using LSF is briefly mentioned. Similarly, latest European legislation, biological effects, and analytical aspects of PAHs are mentioned concisely. The main part is devoted to physicochemical factors affecting the PAH content in smoked meat products, such as light, additional cooking, and packaging, which are able to decrease considerably PAH content in some meat products. The most important effect on PAH concentration decrease in LSF has low-density polyethylene (LDPE) package due to sorption processes on a surface of the plastic with subsequent diffusion into the plastic bulk. A less effective material is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), when only a surface adsorption process comes into account. Moreover, this process is affected also by other compounds presented in liquid media able to compete for the adsorption center on the PET surface. PMID:15945119

  19. Factors Associated With Smoking Behavior Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Pohl, Joanne M.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Although disparities in smoking prevalence between white collar workers and blue collar workers have been documented, reasons for these disparities have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to determine variables associated with smoking among Operating Engineers, using the Health Promotion Model as a guide. With cross-sectional data from a convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers, logistic regression was used to determine personal and health behaviors associated with smoking. Approximately 29% of Operating Engineers currently smoked cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that younger age, unmarried, problem drinking, physical inactivity, and a lower body mass index were associated with smoking. Operating Engineers were at high risk of smoking, and smokers were more likely to engage in other risky health behaviors, which supports bundled health behavior interventions. PMID:23957830

  20. Acceptance of cravings: how smoking cessation experiences affect craving beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2014-08-01

    Metacognitive models theorize that more negative appraisals of craving-related thoughts and feelings, and greater efforts to avoid or control these experiences, exacerbate suffering and increase chances the person will use substances to obtain relief. Thus far, little research has examined how attempts to quit smoking influence the way people perceive and respond to cravings. As part of a larger study, 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions, four days apart. Half the sample began a quit attempt the day after the first session; craving-related beliefs, metacognitive strategies, and negative affect were assessed at the second session. Participants who failed to abstain from smoking more strongly endorsed appraisals of craving-related thoughts as negative and personally relevant. Negative appraisals correlated strongly with distress and withdrawal symptoms. Attempting to quit smoking increased use of distraction, thought suppression and re-appraisal techniques, with no difference between successful and unsuccessful quitters. Negative beliefs about cravings and rumination predicted less change in smoking one month later. Results suggest that smoking cessation outcomes and metacognitive beliefs likely have a bidirectional relationship that is strongly related to negative affect. Greater consideration of the impact of cessation experiences on mood and craving beliefs is warranted. PMID:25014920

  1. Relations among affect, abstinence motivation and confidence, and daily smoking lapse risk.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M; Bold, Krysten W; Chapman, Gretchen B; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12-24 hr using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. One hundred and three adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries postquit. Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hr later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours although momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hr. Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments.

  2. Relations among Affect, Abstinence Motivation and Confidence, and Daily Smoking Lapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; McCarthy, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12–24 hours using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. Method 103 adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries post-quit. Results Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hours later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours while momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hours. Conclusion Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  3. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2011-02-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed.

  4. Negative Affect and Smoking Lapses: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul; Waters, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse is a central problem in smoking treatment. Data collected at the time of relapse episodes indicate that stress and negative affect (NA) promote relapse, but retrospective data are potentially biased. The authors performed a prospective analysis of stress and NA prior to initial lapses in smokers (N = 215). Day-to-day changes in stress…

  5. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  6. Executive-affective connectivity in smokers viewing anti-smoking images: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Dinh-Williams, Laurence; Mendrek, Adrianna; Dumais, Alexandre; Bourque, Josiane; Potvin, Stéphane

    2014-12-30

    Despite knowledge of the harmful consequences of smoking on health, tobacco users continue to smoke. Neuroimaging studies have begun to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying this response. Regions involved in executive control and affective processing/persuasion are activated when viewing the negative value of smoking, but these systems can interact in ways that promote or hinder its impact on behavior. The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine the dynamics between these systems during the processing of images designed to elicit a negative emotional response regarding tobacco smoking in a group of current smokers. Thirty chronic smokers passively viewed aversive smoking-related, aversive nonsmoking-related and neutral images presented in a block design while being scanned. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is negatively associated to activity in medial frontal, cingulate, limbic, subcortical and parietal regions in chronic smokers during the processing of aversive smoking-related material, a pattern that was significantly greater when stimuli were drug-related compared with when they were nondrug-related. Our results suggest that individuals with tobacco dependence present different patterns of functional connectivity depending on whether the aversive stimuli are smoking- or nonsmoking-related. Activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus may act to down-regulate corresponding activity in regions key to an affective and persuasive response during the processing of anti-smoking material. This mechanism may reduce the extent to which "feeling bad" brings about a change in behavior.

  7. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as “healthy” cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior. PMID:26339211

  8. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior.

  9. Community structure affects behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, C

    1991-06-01

    AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected.

  10. [Motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy for smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Atsuko; Kano, Masato; Sato, Tadahiro

    2013-03-01

    The combination therapy of counseling and medication is very important in smoking cessation treatment. Motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are interventions recommended in two well-recognized guidelines for smoking cessation in the United States. MI is effective for those who do not want to quit smoking; CBT for those who cannot but want to quit smoking, those who repeatedly quit and re-smoke, those who are depressed, and women who are concerned about their weight. However, neither MI nor CBT for smoking cessation is widely practiced in Japan. We describe the nature of, evidence for, and practice of MI and CBT in smoking cessation treatment, hopeful that clinicians and other healthcare staff learn and apply these techniques.

  11. Tobacco smoking affects bacterial acquisition and colonization in oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S; Matthews, Chad R; Joshi, Vinayak; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

    2011-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that smoking affects the composition of the disease-associated subgingival biofilm, yet little is known about its effects during the formation of this biofilm. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the contributions of smoking to the composition and proinflammatory characteristics of the biofilm during de novo plaque formation. Marginal and subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 15 current smokers and from 15 individuals who had never smoked (nonsmokers) following 1, 2, 4, and 7 days of undisturbed plaque formation. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used for bacterial identification, and multiplex bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, relatively unstable initial colonization of both marginal and subgingival biofilms, with lower niche saturation than that seen in nonsmokers. Periodontal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusobacterium, Cardiobacterium, Synergistes, and Selenomonas, as well as respiratory pathogens belonging to the genera Haemophilus and Pseudomonas, colonized the early biofilms of smokers and continued to persist over the observation period, suggesting that smoking favors early acquisition and colonization of pathogens in oral biofilms. Smokers also demonstrated an early proinflammatory response to this colonization, which persisted over 7 days. Further, a positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and commensal bacteria was observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Taken together, the data suggest that smoking influences both the composition of the nascent biofilm and the host response to this colonization.

  12. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  13. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05), counseling (P<0.05), and referring caregivers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the rate by which pediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  14. Smoking behavior and exposure to "dissonant" information.

    PubMed

    Tagliacozzo, R

    1981-10-01

    In a study concerned with smokers' receptivity to information on the health risk of smoking, we submitted a questionnaire to 514 young adults attending classes at a community college. The questionnaire included, in addition to questions on the smoking history of the respondents and their beliefs and attitudes toward smoking, a list of information items, several of which dealt with the health risk of cigarette smoking. In order to test whether smokers avoid exposing themselves to "dissonant" information, we instructed the respondents to go through the list a second time and to circle items important for smokers. The prediction that a larger percentage of smokers than of nonsmokers would fail to circle any of the items was verified. No difference was found between smokers who exposed a wish to stop smoking and smokers who did not.

  15. The Association Between Ovarian Hormones and Smoking Behavior in Women

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the association between menstrual cycle phases and smoking behavior in women have yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the associations between ovarian hormones and smoking by directly measuring ovarian hormone levels and obtaining a laboratory assessment of smoking behaviors. Four hypotheses were tested: increased smoking will be associated with 1) low absolute levels of estradiol and progesterone; 2) decreasing (i.e., dynamic changes in) estradiol and progesterone; 3) lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol, and 4) higher ratios of estradiol to progesterone. Female smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with regular menstrual cycles were recruited as part of a larger, ongoing study examining the influence of ovarian hormones on smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed two study visits, including a one-hour adlib smoking topography session, which provided a detailed assessment of smoking behavior. Both the change in hormone levels over time and the relative ratios of ovarian hormones were associated with smoking behavior, but each to a limited extent. Decreases in estradiol (r=−.21, p=.048), and decreases in progesterone (r=−.23, p=.03) were associated with increased puff intensity. Lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol were associated with a greater number of puffs (r=−.26, p=.01) and weight of cigarettes smoked (r=−.29, p=.005). The best predictors of smoking behavior were the ratio of progesterone to estradiol (z=−2.7, p=.004) and the change in estradiol and progesterone over time (z=−2.1, p=.02). This pattern of results may help to explain inconsistent findings in previous studies and suggest potential mechanisms by which hormones influence nicotine addiction. PMID:22545725

  16. Association between ovarian hormones and smoking behavior in women.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Hartwell, Karen J; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the association between menstrual cycle phases and smoking behavior in women have yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the associations between ovarian hormones and smoking by directly measuring ovarian hormone levels and obtaining a laboratory assessment of smoking behaviors. Four hypotheses were tested: Increased smoking will be associated with (1) low absolute levels of estradiol and progesterone; (2) decreasing (i.e., dynamic changes in) estradiol and progesterone; (3) lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol; and (4) higher ratios of estradiol to progesterone. Female smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with regular menstrual cycles were recruited as part of a larger, ongoing study examining the influence of ovarian hormones on smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed 2 study visits, including a 1-hr ad lib smoking topography session, which provided a detailed assessment of smoking behavior. Both the change in hormone levels over time and the relative ratios of ovarian hormones were associated with smoking behavior, but each to a limited extent. Decreases in estradiol (r = -.21, p = .048) and decreases in progesterone (r = -.23, p = .03) were associated with increased puff intensity. Lower ratios of progesterone to estradiol were associated with a greater number of puffs (r = -.26, p = .01) and weight of cigarettes smoked (r = -.29, p = .005). The best predictors of smoking behavior were the ratio of progesterone to estradiol (z = -2.7, p = .004) and the change in estradiol and progesterone over time (z = -2.1, p = .02). This pattern of results may help to explain inconsistent findings in previous studies and suggest potential mechanisms by which hormones influence nicotine addiction.

  17. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  18. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses' Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Clinton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking. PMID:23844286

  19. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  20. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  1. Attitudes toward Nutrition, Locus of Control and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, V. Kilian; And Others

    Research has shown that many behaviors previously thought to be purely psychological in origin do, in fact, have a physiological basis. To examine the relationship of smoking behavior to locus of control, and to attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behavior with respect to nutrition, 116 Canadian undergraduate students completed the Nutrition…

  2. An Association between Emotional Responsiveness and Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Robert D.; Driscoll, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Emotional responsiveness (ER) has been theorized to play a protective role in pathways to tobacco initiation, regular use, and dependence, yet a possible association between ER and smoking behavior has not been studied. Our aim was to test whether measuring ER to a neutral stimulus was associated with decreased odds of current smoking. Methods. We measured ER and smoking status (current, former, and never) in two datasets: a cross-sectional dataset of persons with diabetes (n = 127) and a prospective dataset of depressed patients (n = 107) from an urban primary care system. Because there were few former smokers in the datasets, smoking status was dichotomized (current versus former/never) and measured at baseline (cross-sectional dataset) or at 36 weeks after-baseline (prospective dataset). ER was ascertained with response to a neutral facial expression (any ER versus none). Results. Compared to their nonresponsive counterparts, adjusted odds of current smoking were lower among participants endorsing emotional responsiveness in both the cross-sectional and prospective datasets (ORs = .29 and .32, P's <.02, resp.). Discussion. ER may be protective against current smoking behavior. Further research investigating the association between ER and decreased smoking may hold potential to inform treatment approaches to improve smoking prevalence. PMID:24804140

  3. Smoking status and the practice of other unhealthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Revicki, D; Sobal, J; DeForge, B

    1991-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between smoking behavior and other unhealthy practices in the US. Data from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences were used to compare alcohol use, sleep behavior, overweight status, physical activity, and skipping breakfast with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were more likely to sleep fewer than six hours per night, skip breakfast, not actively exercise, and drink heavily. Smokers were less likely to be significantly overweight than former smokers or those who never smoked. These associations were present for both men and women for sleep behavior, skipping breakfast, overweight status, and alcohol use, but not for physical activity. These findings may assist physicians in understanding the association between smoking and other practices that influence morbidity and mortality.

  4. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  5. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

  6. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short. PMID:24826361

  7. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V; Gold, Mark S; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  8. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W.; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V.; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V.; Gold, Mark S.; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  9. Psychological symptoms, smoking lapse behavior, and the mediating effects of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Katherine J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-03-01

    The influence of psychological symptoms on smoking-lapse behavior is critical to understand. However, this relationship is obscured by comorbidity across multiple forms of psychological symptoms and their overlap with nicotine withdrawal. To address these challenges, we constructed a structural model of latent factors underlying 9 manifest scales of affective and behavioral symptoms and tested relations between latent factors and manifest scale residuals with nicotine withdrawal and smoking lapse in a laboratory analog task. Adult daily smokers (N = 286) completed a baseline session at which several forms of affective and behavioral symptoms were assessed and 2 experimental sessions (i.e., following 16 hr of smoking abstinence and following regular smoking), during which withdrawal symptoms and delay of smoking in exchange for monetary reinforcement, as an analogue for lapse propensity, were measured. A single second-order factor of general psychological maladjustment associated with more severe withdrawal-like symptoms, which in turn associated with shorter delay of smoking. The first-order factors, which tapped qualitatively unique domains of psychological symptoms (low positive affect, negative affect, disinhibition), and the manifest scale residuals provided little predictive power beyond the second-order factor with regard to lapse behavior. Relations among general psychological maladjustment, withdrawal-like symptoms, and lapse were significant in both abstinent and nonabstinent conditions, suggesting that psychological maladjustment, and not nicotine withdrawal per se, accounted for the relation with lapse. These results highlight the potential for smoking-cessation strategies that target general psychological maladjustment processes and have implications for addressing withdrawal-like symptoms among individuals with psychological symptoms.

  10. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  11. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  12. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  13. Smoking cessation: integration of behavioral and drug therapies.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Robert

    2002-03-15

    Family physicians should take advantage of each contact with smokers to encourage and support smoking cessation. Once a patient is identified as a smoker, tools are available to assess readiness for change. Using motivational interviewing techniques, the physician can help the patient move from the precontemplation stage through the contemplation stage to the preparation stage, where plans are made for the initiation of nicotine replacement and/or bupropion therapy when indicated. Continued motivational techniques and support are needed in the action stage, when the patient stops smoking. Group or individual behavioral counseling can facilitate smoking cessation and improve quit rates. Combined use of behavioral and drug therapies can dramatically improve the patient's chance of quitting smoking. A plan should be in place for recycling the patient through the appropriate stages if relapse should occur.

  14. A glycoside of Nicotina tabacum affects mouse dopaminergic behavior.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Ohnuma, S; Kawagoe, M; Sugiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Climbing in the forced swimming test is considered a dopaminergic-specific behavior. A substance of Nicotina tabacum affecting dopamine neuronal activity was investigated using the mouse behavioral system. The substance was found to be a glycoside with the peripheral sugar chain structures Fuc alpha 1-2Gal, Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc and GalNAc alpha 1-3GalNAc and with basic polymannoses. The glycoside dose-dependently increased behavior via D2 neuronal activity, but not D1 activity. This suggests that smoking can affect human brain function not only via the nicotinic cholinergic neuron, but also via the D2 neuron.

  15. Beyond fear appeals: contradicting positive smoking outcome expectancies to influence smokers' implicit attitudes, perception, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Unz, Dagmar; Kovacs, Carrie

    2012-04-01

    Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we designed cigarette package warning labels that contradicted common positive outcome expectancies. We investigated the effectiveness of our new warning labels in two experiments. We first measured smokers' implicit attitudes toward smoking using an affective priming method and found that our new warning labels changed positive attitudes into ambivalent attitudes. We then tested whether our warning labels changed smokers' self-reported positive outcome expectancies and smoking behavior. Smokers presented with the new warning labels immediately associated positive outcome expectancies less strongly with smoking and reported smoking fewer cigarettes in the 24 hours following the experiment. Explicitly taking the reasons for unhealthy behavior into account when trying to change people's habits could offer a valuable contribution to effective health campaigns.

  16. Stimulus Modality and Smoking Behavior: Moderating Role of Implicit Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Valentine C; Mefoh, Philip

    2015-07-20

    This study investigated whether stimulus modality influences smoking behavior among smokers in South Eastern Nigeria and also whether implicit attitudes moderate the relationship between stimulus modality and smoking behavior. 60 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka were used. Participants were individually administered the IAT task as a measure of implicit attitude toward smoking and randomly assigned into either image condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive images of potential health consequences or text condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive texts of potential health consequences. A one- predictor and one-moderator binary logistic analysis indicates that stimulus modality significantly predicts smoking behavior (p = < .05) with those in the image condition choosing not to smoke with greater probability than the text condition. The interaction between stimulus modality and IAT scores was also significant (p = < .05). Specifically, the modality effect was larger for participants in the image group who held more negative implicit attitudes towards smoking. The finding shows the urgent need to introduce the use of aversive images of potential health consequences on cigarette packs in Nigeria.

  17. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and tobacco abstinence effects in a non-clinical sample: evaluating the mediating role of negative affect reduction smoking expectancies.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage =43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions.

  18. Smoking behavior among nurses in rural Greece.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulou, Eleni; Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Voulioti, Stefania; Christopoulos, George; Pantza, Eleni; Stamatopoulou, Athanasia; Giannopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that rural health care providers may be at increased risk for tobacco addiction. Few researchers have studied the habitual use of tobacco in rural Greece and no published studies have examined sustained tobacco use by nurses working in these areas or their knowledge and attitudes toward smoking cessation. To explore the above, the authors conducted a questionnaire-based study in 40 health centers in rural mainland and island Greece. Two hundred twenty nurses were surveyed (65% response rate). Thirty-two percent of the nurse respondents were smokers, 54% were non-smokers, and 14% were former smokers. Only 8% of respondents had been trained to assist clients with smoking cessation.

  19. Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations. PMID:26557099

  20. Smoking behavior and opinions of French general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Josseran, L.; King, G.; Velter, A.; Dressen, C.; Grizeau, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report examines smoking prevalence, sociodemographic factors, and the opinions of French general practitioners (GPs) about tobacco control policies. Data from the CFES (Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé) national survey on general practitioners included 1013 respondents. The questionnaire was administered by telephone and a response rate of 65% was attained. Instrumentation included variables related to medical practice, sociodemographic characteristics, and opinions about health behavior. Thirty-four percent of physicians were current smokers. A higher proportion of males smoked compared to women (36.1% vs. 24.9%, p < 0.01), and they consumed on average more cigarettes per day (11.2 vs. 8 cigarettes/day, p < 0.05). Slightly more than 52% of physicians regarded their role in reducing nicotine addiction to be important. Doctors who believed that the physician's role was limited were less likely to advise pregnant women to stop smoking (odds ratio = 0.39, p < 0.001), and nonsmokers were more supportive of bans on smoking in public places. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among French physicians, they can still play an important role in reducing smoking among their patients. Medical school curriculum and continuing medical education programs focusing on prevention and cessation in France should be strengthened to help reduce smoking rates among physicians and the general population. PMID:10992683

  1. Smoking behavior and opinions of French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Josseran, L; King, G; Velter, A; Dressen, C; Grizeau, D

    2000-08-01

    This report examines smoking prevalence, sociodemographic factors, and the opinions of French general practitioners (GPs) about tobacco control policies. Data from the CFES (Comité Français d'Education pour la Santé) national survey on general practitioners included 1013 respondents. The questionnaire was administered by telephone and a response rate of 65% was attained. Instrumentation included variables related to medical practice, sociodemographic characteristics, and opinions about health behavior. Thirty-four percent of physicians were current smokers. A higher proportion of males smoked compared to women (36.1% vs. 24.9%, p < 0.01), and they consumed on average more cigarettes per day (11.2 vs. 8 cigarettes/day, p < 0.05). Slightly more than 52% of physicians regarded their role in reducing nicotine addiction to be important. Doctors who believed that the physician's role was limited were less likely to advise pregnant women to stop smoking (odds ratio = 0.39, p < 0.001), and nonsmokers were more supportive of bans on smoking in public places. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among French physicians, they can still play an important role in reducing smoking among their patients. Medical school curriculum and continuing medical education programs focusing on prevention and cessation in France should be strengthened to help reduce smoking rates among physicians and the general population.

  2. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment in Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 120 smoking cessation subjects to either intensive behavioral treatment, nicotine gum in low-contact treatment, or to combined treatment. Combined treatment produced higher abstinence rates than other conditions at all assessments. Differences were significant at 3, 12, and 26 weeks, but not at 52 weeks. (NRB)

  3. Acculturation and Smoking Behavior in Asian-American Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Su, Xuefen; Shive, Steven E.; Lan, Yajia

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and smoking behavior was examined in four Asian-American groups that included recent immigrants and US-born Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cambodians residing in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The study was part of a community-based, comprehensive cross-sectional study designed to…

  4. Mediating Influences of Negative Affect and Risk Perception on the Relationship Between Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Patricia E.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Worley, Matthew J.; Monreal, Teresa K.; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Methods: The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. Results: As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p < .001) and lifetime (z = 6.14, p < .001) smoking was mediated by both negative affect and risk perception. Conclusions: These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect. PMID:21436297

  5. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  6. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  7. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  8. Smoking Behavior and Lung Cancer in a Biracial Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prizment, Anna E.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Woodward, Mark; Folsom, Aaron R.; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the U.S., the incidence of lung cancer varies by race, with rates being highest among black men. There are marked differences in smoking behavior between blacks and whites, but little is known regarding how these differences contribute to the racial disparities in lung cancer. Purpose To compare the lung cancer risk associated with smoking in 14,610 blacks and whites in the prospective cohort Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Methods Smoking characteristics were ascertained at baseline and three follow-up visits in 1990–1992, 1993–1995, and 1996–1998 (response rates were 93%, 86%, and 80%, respectively), as well as from annual telephone interviews. Data were analyzed in the fall of 2012. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for lung cancer. Results Over 20 years of follow-up (1987–2006), 470 incident cases of lung cancer occurred. Lung cancer incident rates were highest in black men and lowest in black women. However, there was no evidence to support racial differences in the associations of smoking status, intensity, or age at initiation with lung cancer risk (all pinteraction≥0.25). The hazard ratio for those who started smoking at age ≤12 versus >22 years was 3.03 (95% CI=1.62, 5.67). Prolonged smoking cessation (≥10 years) was associated with a decrease in lung cancer risk, with equivalent benefits in whites and blacks, 84% and 74%, respectively (pinteraction=0.25). Conclusions Smoking confers similar lung cancer risk in blacks and whites. PMID:24842739

  9. Smoking behavior and the efficacy of nurses as role models.

    PubMed

    Aucoin, R A

    1986-01-01

    The smoking cessation and prevention issue has not been addressed by nurses, the largest group of health care professionals in the nation (1.4 million currently licensed to practice). The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control acknowledge smoking as the "single most preventable cause of poor health in the world," but not a solitary continuing medical education course of the 9,000 available in the United States in 1983 dealt with ways to resolve this issue. The women's movement has not addressed this cause, and nurses, a predominantly female population, continue to smoke in alarmingly large numbers, causing doubt as to nurses' effectiveness n teaching prevention or cessation. Nurses as role models could be crucial in effecting change in the smoking behavior of the general population, thereby eliminating or greatly reducing the health risk. There appears to be a significant need for more effective educational programs concerning the health hazards of smoking for all nurses and nursing students if the potential power of nursing leadership is to be realized in reducing mortality and morbidity from the number one killer in America.

  10. Organizational factors affecting participation in a smoking cessation program and abstinence among 68 auto dealerships.

    PubMed

    Emont, S L; Cummings, K M

    1990-01-01

    Abstract The effects of organizational factors on participation rates in a smoking cessation clinic and on one-year quit rates were examined among 68 private sector businesses. Free smoking cessation programs were offered to all smoking employees. Smokers (n = 844) were contacted to determine changes in smoking behavior; managers (n = 68) were also contacted to assess changes in smoking policy implementation over the past year. The participation rate in the clinic was 6.6 percent. Overall, 14.3 percent of smokers reported abstaining from cigarettes for at least one month prior to the one-year follow-up survey. Organization factors predicting clinic participation included having health promotion programs, increased motivation to stop smoking, and greater length of employment. Factors predicting cessation at one year included greater clinic participation rates, larger worksite size, a greater awareness of smoking restrictions, and agreement that passive smoking was dangerous to ones health. The only factor to significantly increase both participation and cessation rates was the presence of smoking policies. Employee, manager, and organizational characteristics can exert independent effects on behavior. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at each of these levels to maximize smoking-related behavior change.

  11. Does it matter what friends think, say, or do? The role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Chip

    2014-05-01

    Using stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis, this study examines the role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior in four secondary schools (N = 875). The data were collected in two waves in two small suburban towns under second graders in 2008 to 2009 by means of a standardized questionnaire. Stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis can control for friendship selection while examining the effect of friends' attitudes and smoking behavior on the smoking behavior of a student. The findings suggest that friends tend to select each other on similar smoking behavior. Influence of friends' smoking behavior seems to play no role. In one school, an effect of friends' attitudes towards smoking on the smoking behavior is found. The implications for future research are to consider attitudes when examining the influence of friendship network on smoking behavior. The main limitation of this study lies in the limited sample, which makes generalizations to the general population difficult.

  12. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure. PMID:26867368

  13. Single Dose Propranolol Does Not Affect Physiologic or Emotional Reactivity to Smoking Cues

    PubMed Central

    Pachas, Gladys N.; Gilman, Jodi; Orr, Scott P.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Carlini, Sara V.; Loebl, Tsafrir; Nino, Johanna; Pitman, Roger K.; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking cue exposure reactivates salient smoking-related memories, triggering craving to smoke, a phenomenon associated with maintenance of smoking behavior and relapse after periods of abstinence. Acute β-adrenergic blockade with propranolol reduces physiologic reactivity during subsequent recollection of traumatic events by inhibiting reconsolidation of reactivated memories in a process called memory reconsolidation blockade. Objective To determine whether a single dose of propranolol prior to retrieval of smoking-related memories reduces subsequent physiologic reactivity to personally salient smoking imagery scripts in current smokers. Methods Fifty-four overnight-abstinent, adult smokers received single dose propranolol or placebo prior to reactivation of smoking-related memories in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and resumed smoking afterward. One week later, skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR) left corrugator electromyogram (EMG), self-reported emotional state and craving were assessed following script driven imagery with neutral and personalized smoking-related scripts. Results Smoking scripts were associated with increased physiologic activation (SC, HR, EMG), craving and negative emotional state compared with neutral scripts. Propranolol did not moderate the effect of script type on any outcome. Conclusion Personalized smoking script-driven imagery robustly increased physiologic activation, negative emotional state and craving, and a single dose of propranolol prior to memory reactivation did not moderate this effect. PMID:25413896

  14. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms. PMID:27318174

  15. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  17. Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Other Unhealthy Behaviors among Our Nation's Youth: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Jean C.; Schoenborn, Charlotte A.

    1995-01-01

    Cigarette smoking almost always begins in the adolescent years and smoking at early ages increases the risk of becoming ill or dying from causes attributable to smoking. This report uses data from the 1992 National Health Interview Survey of Youth Risk Behavior and presents prevalence estimates for selected unhealthy behaviors among adolescents in…

  18. Maternal Smoking before and after Pregnancy: Effects on Behavioral Outcomes in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the extent to which maternal smoking before and after pregnancy was associated with disruptive behaviors in childhood. When confounding factors were removed, found that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a small but statistically detectable increase in problem behaviors. Smoking after pregnancy was not associated with…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  20. Emotional and Affective Temperaments in Smoking Candidates for Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mombach, Karin Daniele; de Souza Brito, Cesar Luis; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Casagrande, Daniela Schaan; Mottin, Claudio Cora

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of smoking habits in severe obesity is higher than in the general population. There is some evidence that smokers have different temperaments compared to non-smokers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations between smoking status (smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers) and temperament characteristics in bariatric surgery candidates. Methods We analyzed data on temperament of 420 bariatric surgery candidates, as assessed by the AFECTS scale, in an exploratory cross-sectional survey of bariatric surgery candidates who have been grouped into smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. Results We detected significant statistical differences in temperament related to the smoking status in this population after controlling the current use of psychiatric medication. Smokers had higher anxiety and lower control than non-smokers. Ex-smokers with BMI >50 kg/m2 presented higher coping and control characteristics than smokers. Conclusions Smoking in bariatric surgery candidates was associated with lower control and higher anxious temperament, when controlled by current use of psychiatric medication. Smokers with BMI >50 kg/m2 presented lower coping and control than ex-smokers. Assessment of temperament in bariatric surgery candidates may help in decisions about smoking cessation treatment and prevention of smoking relapse after surgery. PMID:26987115

  1. Thirdhand cigarette smoke: factors affecting exposure and remediation.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F; Talbot, Prue

    2014-01-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS.

  2. Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Talbot, Prue

    2014-01-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS. PMID:25286392

  3. CIGARETTE SMOKING BEHAVIOR AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN INDIAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Mahomed; Pillay, Basil J.; Cassimjee, Mohammed H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) in a sample of Indian matriculation students. Methodology: All (N=325) Indian matriculation students, at high schools, in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, were included in the study. A questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSB. Results and conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of 16.9%. Most smokers (98.2%) had commenced the practice after the age of 10 years. The most common reason given for CSB was experimentation (83.6%). Main influence was family members followed by teachers and advertisements. The association between smoking and lung cancer was well-known by smokers (90.7%). There was very little awareness of anti-smoking programmes or organizations. Alarmingly, there was little formal health education on the dangers of smoking in schools. The implications of these results are discussed and recommendations on decreasing CSB are made. PMID:23008583

  4. Association of neurexin 3 polymorphisms with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Docampo, E; Ribasés, M; Gratacòs, M; Bruguera, E; Cabezas, C; Sánchez-Mora, C; Nieva, G; Puente, D; Argimon-Pallàs, J M; Casas, M; Rabionet, R; Estivill, X

    2012-08-01

    The Neurexin 3 gene (NRXN3) has been associated with dependence on various addictive substances, as well as with the degree of smoking in schizophrenic patients and impulsivity among tobacco abusers. To further evaluate the role of NRXN3 in nicotine addiction, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a copy number variant (CNV) within the NRXN3 genomic region. An initial study was carried out on 157 smokers and 595 controls, all of Spanish Caucasian origin. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerström index and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The 45 NRXN3 SNPs genotyped included all the SNPs previously associated with disease, and a previously described deletion within NRXN3. This analysis was replicated in 276 additional independent smokers and 568 controls. Case-control association analyses were performed at the allele, genotype and haplotype levels. Allelic and genotypic association tests showed that three NRXN3 SNPs were associated with a lower risk of being a smoker. The haplotype analysis showed that one block of 16 Kb, consisting of two of the significant SNPs (rs221473 and rs221497), was also associated with lower risk of being a smoker in both the discovery and the replication cohorts, reaching a higher level of significance when the whole sample was considered [odds ratio = 0.57 (0.42-0.77), permuted P = 0.0075]. By contrast, the NRXN3 CNV was not associated with smoking behavior. Taken together, our results confirm a role for NRXN3 in susceptibility to smoking behavior, and strongly implicate this gene in genetic vulnerability to addictive behaviors.

  5. Positive and negative affect as predictors of urge to smoke: temporal factors and mediational pathways.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Greenberg, Jodie B; Trujillo, Michael A; Ameringer, Katherine J; Lisha, Nadra E; Pang, Raina D; Monterosso, John

    2013-03-01

    Elucidating interrelations between prior affective experience, current affective state, and acute urge to smoke could inform affective models of addiction motivation and smoking cessation treatment development. This study tested the hypothesis that prior levels of positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect predict current smoking urge via a mediational pathway involving current state affect. We also explored if tobacco deprivation moderated affect-urge relations and compared the effects of PA and NA on smoking urge to one another. At a baseline session, smokers reported affect experienced over the preceding few weeks. At a subsequent experimental session, participants were randomly assigned to 12-hr tobacco deprived (n = 51) or nondeprived (n = 69) conditions and reported state affect and current urge. Results revealed a mediational pathway whereby prior NA reported at baseline predicted state NA at the experimental session, which in turn predicted current urge. This mediational pathway was found primarily for an urge subtype indicative of urgent need to smoke and desire to smoke for NA relief, was stronger in the deprived (vs. nondeprived) condition, and remained significant after controlling for PA. Prior PA and current state PA were inversely associated with current urge; however, these associations were eliminated after controlling for NA. These results cohere with negative reinforcement models of addiction and with prior research and suggest that: (a) NA plays a stronger role in smoking motivation than PA; (b) state affect is an important mechanism linking prior affective experience to current urge; and (c) affect management interventions may attenuate smoking urge in individuals with a history of affective disturbance.

  6. Positive and negative affect as predictors of urge to smoke: temporal factors and mediational pathways.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Greenberg, Jodie B; Trujillo, Michael A; Ameringer, Katherine J; Lisha, Nadra E; Pang, Raina D; Monterosso, John

    2013-03-01

    Elucidating interrelations between prior affective experience, current affective state, and acute urge to smoke could inform affective models of addiction motivation and smoking cessation treatment development. This study tested the hypothesis that prior levels of positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect predict current smoking urge via a mediational pathway involving current state affect. We also explored if tobacco deprivation moderated affect-urge relations and compared the effects of PA and NA on smoking urge to one another. At a baseline session, smokers reported affect experienced over the preceding few weeks. At a subsequent experimental session, participants were randomly assigned to 12-hr tobacco deprived (n = 51) or nondeprived (n = 69) conditions and reported state affect and current urge. Results revealed a mediational pathway whereby prior NA reported at baseline predicted state NA at the experimental session, which in turn predicted current urge. This mediational pathway was found primarily for an urge subtype indicative of urgent need to smoke and desire to smoke for NA relief, was stronger in the deprived (vs. nondeprived) condition, and remained significant after controlling for PA. Prior PA and current state PA were inversely associated with current urge; however, these associations were eliminated after controlling for NA. These results cohere with negative reinforcement models of addiction and with prior research and suggest that: (a) NA plays a stronger role in smoking motivation than PA; (b) state affect is an important mechanism linking prior affective experience to current urge; and (c) affect management interventions may attenuate smoking urge in individuals with a history of affective disturbance. PMID:23506367

  7. Impact of nicotine replacement therapy on smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence pertaining to the role of nicotine medications in smoking cessation and focuses particularly on evaluating evidence of the impact that nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have had on altering population trends in smoking behavior. Accumulated evidence from controlled clinical trials has demonstrated that available forms of NRT (e.g., gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge) increase quit rates compared with placebos by 50%-100%. However, despite the positive results from these studies, fewer than one in five smokers making a quit attempt do so with the benefit of NRT. Because not enough smokers are using NRT, the availability of NRT has not had a measurable impact on influencing population trends in smoking behavior. Among the factors contributing to the low utilization of nicotine medications are the inadequacies of the current dosage strengths and formulations of existing medications, smokers' perceptions of the high cost of the drugs, and concerns that many smokers have about safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. PMID:15760302

  8. A Possible Genetic Link between MTHFR Genotype and Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Linnebank, Michael; Moskau, Susanna; Semmler, Alexander; Hoefgen, Barbara; Bopp, Gisela; Kallweit, Ulf; Maier, Wolfgang; Schütz, Christian G.; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular events. The variant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T is associated with elevated homocysteine levels, cardiovascular disease and stroke, which supports a causal relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease. However, MTHFR variants have also been reported to be associated with smoking behavior, which could be an important confounder. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the MTHFR variants C677T and A1298C in two independent samples of 525 and 535 individuals, respectively. 21% of the non-smokers, but only 12% of the smokers were homozygous carriers of both MTHFR wildtype alleles, i.e. 677CC and 1298AA (Chi2 = 15.8; p<0.001; binary regression). Plasma homocysteine levels were higher in smokers (13.9±4.1 µmol/L) than in non-smokers (12.6±4.0 µmol/L; F = 11.4; p = 0.001; ANOVA). Smoking MTHFR 677TT individuals had the highest plasma homocysteine levels (16.2±5.2 µmol/L), non-smoking 677CC individuals had the lowest (12.2±13.6 µmol/L). Conclusions/Significance In our study samples, MTHFR variants and smoking behaviour were associated with homocysteine plasma levels. In addition, the MTHFR variants were associated with smoking behaviour. Such an association may be a relevant confounder between MTHFR variants, homocysteine plasma levels and vascular diseases. PMID:23285280

  9. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  10. Elucidating Early Mechanisms of Developmental Psychopathology: The Case of Prenatal Smoking and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pickett, Kate E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2006-01-01

    There is a robust association between prenatal smoking and disruptive behavior disorders, but little is known about the emergence of such behaviors in early development. The association of prenatal smoking and hypothesized behavioral precursors to disruptive behavior in toddlers (N=93) was tested. Exposed toddlers demonstrated atypical behavioral…

  11. Gender Differences in Craving and Cue Reactivity to Smoking and Negative Affect/Stress Cues

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking-and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n=37) and men (n=53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: 1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and 2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking vs. neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress vs. neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. PMID:22494223

  12. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.

  13. Self-efficacy: a mediator of smoking behavior and depression among college students.

    PubMed

    Mee, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs.

  14. Affective Behavior in Children's Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Halliwell, Wayne

    There may be many social psychological variables that influence or are influenced by children's behavior in organized sports. The major variable discussed in this paper is the child's motivation to participate. One cognitive theory--the attribution theory-- offers insights into the child's view of his motivation, and the effects upon this…

  15. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention.

    PubMed

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  16. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily. PMID:27237783

  17. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily.

  18. Using behavioral science to improve fire escape behaviors in response to a smoke alarm.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N J; Waterman, M B; Sleet, D A

    2004-01-01

    Although the likelihood of fire-related death in homes with smoke alarms is about one-half that in homes without alarms, alarm effectiveness is limited by behavior. Only 16% of residents of homes with alarms have developed and practiced plans for escape when the alarm sounds. We reviewed literature to identify behavioral constructs that influence smoke alarm use. We then convened experts in the behavioral aspects of smoke alarms who reviewed the constructs and determined that the appropriate areas for behavioral focus were formulating, practicing, and implementing escape plans should an alarm sound. They subsequently identified important behaviors to be addressed by burn-prevention programs and incorporated the constructs into a behavioral model for use in such programs. Finally, we organized the available literature to support this model and make programmatic recommendations. Many gaps remain in behavioral research to improve fire escape planning and practice. Future research must select the target behavior, apply behavioral theories, and distinguish between initiation and maintenance of behaviors associated with planning, practicing, and implementing home fire escape plans. PMID:15091145

  19. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Methods Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Results Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Conclusion Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke–associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:27763830

  20. Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company–Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths’ smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103 172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. Results. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company–sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Conclusions. Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12. PMID:17077405

  1. The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Khoury, Elena N.; Litvin, Erika B.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous descriptive, correlational, and quasi-experimental research has established that weight concerns and negative body image are associated with tobacco smoking, cessation, and relapse among young women. A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke (Lopez, Drobes, Thompson, & Brandon, 2008). The current study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and smoking urges. Female college smokers (N = 133) were randomly assigned to a body image challenge (trying on a bathing suit) or a control condition (evaluating a purse). State levels of urge to smoke, mood, and body dissatisfaction were assessed both pre- and post-manipulation. Trying on a bathing suit increased body dissatisfaction and reported urges to smoke, particularly those urges related to reducing negative affect. Additionally, state negative affect mediated the relationship between the body image manipulation and smoking urge. This study provides additional support, through an experimental design, that situational challenges to body image influence smoking motivation, and that this effect occurs, at least in part, via increases in negative affect. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. PMID:19586144

  2. Smoking Beliefs and Behavior Among Youth in Malaysia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Carla M.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Methods Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. Results A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusions As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth. PMID:19182982

  3. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962975

  5. Does the Presence of a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial Affect Staff Practices Related to Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Chun, JongSerl; Guydish, Joseph R.; Delucchi, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether organizational changes occurred when nicotine treatments were tested in specialty care clinics. Two intervention clinics (one drug treatment and one HIV-care) participated in clinical trials for nicotine treatment. Three clinics (two drug and one HIV-care) were control clinics. Staff in the intervention clinics (n=57) and in the control clinics (n=62) were surveyed at baseline and 18 months later. Staff surveys concerned nicotine-related knowledge, beliefs about treating smoking, self-efficacy in delivering such treatment, nicotine related practices, and barriers to providing nicotine treatment. Mean scale scores at 18 months were no different in clinics participating in the clinical trials from the control group for any of the five scales (knowledge, practices, barriers, efficacy, and beliefs). The presence of a smoking cessation clinical trial did not influence staff knowledge, attitudes, or practices related to smoking in these clinics. More specific organizational intervention may influence staff practices related to addressing smoking among clients in drug treatment and HIV-care clinics. PMID:20057920

  6. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Domain Specific Self-Efficacy and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robynne A.; Rickwood, Debra

    1997-01-01

    Used the theory of planned behavior in a sample of 15- and 16-year-old students (N=285), to create a comprehensive model for predictors of adolescent smoking. Students with lower conduct/morality self-efficacy had more positive attitudes toward smoking. Discusses results in terms of potential interventions to discourage adolescent smoking. (RJM)

  7. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  8. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  9. The relationship between young adult smokers' beliefs about nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erika A.; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R.; Peterson, Laurel M.; Muscanell, Nicole L.; Guadagno, Rosanna E.; Stock, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (N=333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  10. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure.

  11. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  12. Classroom Norms and Individual Smoking Behavior in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Lisa M.; Brown, H. Shelton, III; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether smoking prevalence in grade-level networks influences individual smoking, suggesting that peers are important social multipliers in teen smoking. Methods: We measured gender-specific, grade-level recent and life-time smoking among urban middle-school students who participated in Project Northland Chicago in a…

  13. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    PubMed

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Conclusions Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools. PMID:24896251

  15. Peering through the smoke: the effect of parental smoking behavior and addiction on daily smokers' attentional bias to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that individuals with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers and are less successful in smoking cessation efforts compared with those without a smoking parent, the reasons for this link have not been established. In the current study, implicit attentional bias to smoking-related cues was investigated in college-age smokers, based on models of addiction that suggest that attention to drug-related cues plays an important role in drug addiction. Sixty-one participants completed a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to smoking-related and matched non-smoking-related control pictures. Results indicated that while those who reported smoking occasionally did not demonstrate an attentional bias, daily smokers who had a smoking parent showed more of an attentional bias to the smoking cues than those without a smoking parent, but only to cues that did not contain human content. In addition to parental influence, nicotine dependence explained a significant portion of the variance in the attentional bias for daily smokers. Implications for models of nicotine addiction and the development of smoking cessation programs are discussed.

  16. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-05-26

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  17. Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Bryan W.; Carpenter, Mathew J.; Correa, John B.; Wray, Jennifer M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Froeliger, Brett; Drobes, David J.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To quantify the effect of negative affect (NA), when manipulated experimentally, upon smoking as measured within laboratory paradigms. Quantitative meta-analyses tested the effects of NA vs. neutral conditions on 1) latency to smoke and 2) number of puffs taken. Methods Twelve experimental studies tested the influence of NA induction, relative to a neutral control condition (N = 1,190; range = 24–235). Those providing relevant data contributed to separate random effects meta-analyses to examine the effects of NA on two primary smoking measures: 1) latency to smoke (nine studies) and 2) number of puffs taken during ad lib smoking (eleven studies). Hedge’s g was calculated for all studies through the use of post-NA cue responses relative to post-neutral cue responses. This effect size estimate is similar to Cohen’s d, but corrects for small sample size bias. Results NA reliably decreased latency to smoke (g = −.14; CI = −.23 to −.04; p = .007) and increased number of puffs taken (g = .14; CI = .02 to .25; p = .02). There was considerable variability across studies for both outcomes (I2 = 51% and 65% for latency and consumption, respectively). Potential publication bias was indicated for both outcomes, and adjusted effect sizes were smaller and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions In experimental laboratory studies of smokers, negative affect appears to reduce latency to smoking and increase number of puffs taken but this could be due to publication bias. PMID:25641624

  18. An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Used to Predict Smoking Behavior Among a Sample of Iranian Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Zareban, Iraj; Araban, Marzieh; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking among the youth is an important public health concern. Although several studies have investigated the correlates of smoking behavior, no theory-based study has particularly assessed this problem among medical students. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior among a sample of Iranian medical students. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Ahvaz, Iran, 2014. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, which included items on demographics, smoking behavior, and components of the TPB model (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and intention), and an added construct on smoking refusal skill. Data were analyzed using descriptive correlation, and linear regression statistics by SPSS, version 16. Results: One hundred and seventy medical students with a mean age of 21.25 (SD = 2.9) years were enrolled in the study. Of them, 24 (13.5%) students were smokers. All components of the TPB model and smoking refusal skill were statistically significant as to intention to smoke (P < 0.001). The TPB constructs with and without smoking refusal skill accounted for 77% (adjusted R2) and 78% of the variance observed for intention to smoke, respectively. The results also revealed the highest weight for perceived behavior control (β= -0.40). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that all TPB variables are useful tools for prediction of the smoking behaviors among students. Particularly, students’ perceived behavioral control and attitudes towards smoking were found to be important determinants of smoking intentions. Thus, the findings could be used for planning effective tobacco control programs targeting University students. PMID:26495261

  19. Comparison of Rapid Smoking, Warm, Smoky Air, and Attention Placebo in the Modification of Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Edward; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Forty habitual smokers were assigned to one of four treatment groups: warm, smoky air plus rapid smoking; warm, smoky air only; rapid smoking only; an attention-placebo control group. The three aversion groups were quite similar and, taken together, were smoking less at the six-month follow-up than the controls. (Author)

  20. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  1. Adolescent Pathways to Adult Smoking: Ethnic Identity, Peer Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    African-Americans and Puerto Ricans were interviewed during adolescence, in their early twenties, and then again in their mid-twenties. Results indicated that earlier adolescent smoking, family conflict, and weak ethnic identity were significantly related to antisocial behavior, which in turn was related to associating with friends who smoked and/or used illegal drugs, and ultimately, to their own smoking. Results further indicate that early interventions in the development of tobacco use should focus on decreasing parental and adolescent smoking and parent-child conflict. If intervention occurs at a later time point, the emphasis should be on increasing ethnic identity and decreasing antisocial behavior. PMID:20163390

  2. Analysis of Influential Factors Associated with the Smoking Behavior of Aboriginal Schoolchildren in Remote Taiwanese Mountainous Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Peng, Wu-Der; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Hu, Chih-Yang; Shi, Hon-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Fu-Li; Lin, Pi-Li

    2012-01-01

    Background: A disparity in smoking behavior exists between the general and minority populations residing in Taiwan's mountainous areas. This study analyzed individual and environmental factors associated with children's smoking behavior in these areas of Taiwan. Methods: In this school-based study, data on smoking behavior and related…

  3. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  4. Chapter 2: Birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M; Dodd, Kevin W; Feuer, Eric J

    2012-07-01

    We present methods for estimating five-year birth-cohort-specific trends in smoking behavior for individuals born between 1910 and 1984. We combine cross-sectional survey data on smoking behavior from the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted between 1965 and 2001 into a single data set. The cumulative incidence of smoking by year of age and calendar year is constructed for each birth cohort from this data set and the effect of differential mortality on ever smoking prevalence is adjusted by modeling the ever smoking prevalence of each cohort for each survey year and back extrapolating that effect to age 30. Cumulative incidence is then scaled to match the ever smoking prevalence at age 30. Survival analyses generate the cumulative cessation among ever smokers across year of age and calendar year and are used to estimate current smoking prevalence. Data from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health is used to divide those initiating smoking into quintiles of number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the mean CPD for each quintile in each calendar year is estimated from the NHIS data. For five-year birth cohorts of white, african-american, Hispanic and all race/ethnicity groupings of males and females born between 1910 and 1984, estimates are provided for prevalence of current and ever smoking, incidence of cessation, incidence of initiation, and the distribution of smoking duration and CPD for each calendar year and each single year of age through the year 1999. We believe that we are the first to provide birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population that include distributions of duration of smoking and number of cigarettes per day. These additional elements substantively enhance the utility of these estimates for estimating lung cancer risks. PMID:22882884

  5. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking…

  6. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  7. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  8. Smoking behavior among patients and staff: a snapshot from a major metropolitan hospital in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Wilson, Andrew M; Sanders, Rhonda; Castle, David; Daws, Karen; Thompson, David R; Ski, Chantal F; Matthews, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide a snapshot of smoking behavior among staff and patients at a major metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. Methods Patients and staff were surveyed using a questionnaire exploring demographics, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom test), readiness to quit, and preference for smoking cessation options. Results A total of 1496 people were screened within 2 hours; 1,301 participated (1,100 staff, 199 patients). Mean age was 42 years, 68% were female. There were 113 (9%) current smokers and 326 (25%) ex-smokers. Seven percent of the staff were current smokers compared with 19% of the patients. The Fagerstrom test showed that 47% of patients who smoked were moderately nicotine dependent compared with 21% of staff. A third of the staff who smoked did not anticipate health problems related to smoking. Most patients (79%) who smoked disagreed that their current health problems were related to smoking. Although more than half of the current smokers preferred pharmacotherapy, one in two of them did not prefer behavior counseling; with consistent results among staff and patients. Multivariate analyses showed that patients were three times more likely (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9–4.7) to smoke than staff. Conclusion This study reports lower prevalence of smoking among hospital staff compared with national data. It also indicates an under-appreciation of health effects of smoking, and a preference not to use conventional methods of quitting. PMID:24470770

  9. [Smoking in the African setting (Abidjan, Ivory coast): patient knowledge, attitude and behavior].

    PubMed

    Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements.

  10. Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance Cognition: Explanatory Relevance to Pre- and Post-Cessation Nicotine Withdrawal, Craving, and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative-reinforcement based cognitive processes have been implicated in the maintenance of cigarette smoking. Given the expectation that smoking will attenuate aversive internal experiences, smokers may be particularly unwilling to experience or remain in contact with smoking-related distress (i.e., experiential avoidance). Yet, there is little known about a cognitive-based processes termed smoking-specific experiential avoidance in regard to withdrawal, craving, or negative affect during a quit attempt. Method Data were collected from adult daily smokers (n = 259) participating in a larger smoking cessation trial. Pre- and post-quit experiences of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect were examined in terms of cognitive-based smoking-specific experimental avoidance, measured by the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS). Results Results indicated that baseline smoking-specific experiential avoidance was associated with greater overall levels of withdrawal, craving, and negative affect at treatment initiation (pre-cessation). Reductions in smoking-specific experiential avoidance from baseline to quit day were associated with increased likelihood of quit day abstinence. Such reductions were also predictive of lower levels of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect on quit day. Also, less reduction in experiential avoidance was associated with experiencing greater withdrawal in the early phase of quitting. Discussion The impact of cognitive-based experiential avoidance pertaining to smoking impacts both pre- and post-cessation experiences in terms of negative affect, withdrawal, and smoking cravings and may represent an important treatment target. PMID:25146128

  11. LGBT community, social network characteristics, and smoking behaviors in young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S; Youatt, Emily J; Soler, Jorge H; McClelland, Sara I; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates among young sexual minority women (YSMW) are disproportionately high as compared to heterosexual populations. While this disparity has commonly been attributed to the sexual minority stress process, little empirical work has explored what may protect YSMW from high rates of smoking. Using data (N = 471) from a cross-sectional study designed to investigate YSMW's (age 18-24) smoking behaviors and correlates; we explore the relationship of LGBT community connections, YSMW's social network characteristics, and stress to smoking behaviors (i.e., status, frequency, amount). Through this analysis, we find support for LGBT community connection as well as friendships with other sexual minorities as protective in relation to YSMW's smoking behaviors. We discuss the implications of our results, highlighting the need for future longitudinal research and interventions designed to bolster YSMW's connections to the LGBT community and their social networks.

  12. Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SEM model.

    PubMed

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicts smoking behavior, 35 data sets (N = 267,977) have been synthesized, containing 219 effect sizes between the model variables, using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach (MASEM). Consistent with the TPB's predictions, 1) smoking behavior was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = 0.30), 2) intentions were based on attitudes (weighted mean r = 0.16), and subjective norms (weighted mean r = 0.20). Consistent with TPB's hypotheses, perceived behavioral control was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = -0.24) and behaviors (weighted mean r = -0.20) and it contributes significantly to cigarette consumption. The strength of the associations, however, was influenced by the characteristics of the studies and participants.

  13. Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SEM model.

    PubMed

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicts smoking behavior, 35 data sets (N = 267,977) have been synthesized, containing 219 effect sizes between the model variables, using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach (MASEM). Consistent with the TPB's predictions, 1) smoking behavior was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = 0.30), 2) intentions were based on attitudes (weighted mean r = 0.16), and subjective norms (weighted mean r = 0.20). Consistent with TPB's hypotheses, perceived behavioral control was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = -0.24) and behaviors (weighted mean r = -0.20) and it contributes significantly to cigarette consumption. The strength of the associations, however, was influenced by the characteristics of the studies and participants. PMID:24474850

  14. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the frontal-parietal-temporal area attenuates smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chang; Yu, Chengyang; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-07-01

    Many brain regions are involved in smoking addiction (e.g. insula, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus), and the manipulation of the activity of these brain regions can show a modification of smoking behavior. Low current transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive way to manipulate cortical excitability, and thus brain function and associated behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of inhibiting the frontal-parietal-temporal association area (FPT) on attention bias to smoking-related cues and smoking behavior in tobacco users. This inhibition is induced by cathodal tDCS stimulation. We tested three stimulation conditions: 1) bilateral cathodal over both sides of FPT; 2) cathodal over right FPT; and 3) sham-tDCS. Visual attention bias to smoking-related cues was evaluated using an eye tracking system. The measurement for smoking behavior was the number of daily cigarettes consumed before and after tDCS treatment. We found that, after bilateral cathodal stimulation of the FPT area, while the attention to smoking-related cues showed a decreased trend, the effects were not significantly different from sham stimulation. The daily cigarette consumption was reduced to a significant level. These effects were not seen under single cathodal tDCS or sham-tDCS. Our results show that low current tDCS of FPT area attenuates smoking cue-related attention and smoking behavior. This non-invasive brain stimulation technique, targeted at FPT areas, might be a promising method for treating smoking behavior.

  16. The Effects of Noxious Subliminal Suggestion upon Smoking Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutto, Franklin N.; Galli, Nicholas

    The efforts of smoking cessation programs have met with various degrees of success and fresh approaches to the problem are needed. An innovative technique that interrupts the psychogenic drives of smokers was employed to determine the effect of noxious subliminal suggestion on smoking attitudes and behavior. Adult smokers (N=60) were shown…

  17. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  18. Relationship of Acculturation and Family Functioning to Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…

  19. The Association between Smoking and Sexual Behavior among Teens in US Contraceptive Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabin, Laurie Schwab

    1984-01-01

    A study of teenage women at 32 contraceptive clinics shows a negative relationship between age of first intercourse and level of cigarette smoking. Preventive, timely contraceptive behavior is also negatively associated with smoking. Interventions that take these findings into account could and should be designed. (Author/GC)

  20. Self-Monitoring Approach for the Modification of Smoking Behavior: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faherty, John K.

    This paper presents a review of relevant literature on treatment approaches for the modification of smoking behavior, followed by an outline of an approach developed by the author to decrease his own rate of cigarette smoking. Studies are reviewed which have used various treatment methods: use of electric shock, satiation and/or use of cigarette…

  1. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a…

  2. A Multivariate Analysis of Selected Psychosocial Variables on the Development of Subsequent Youth Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegrante, John P.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze interaction effects of selected psychosocial variables on the development of subsequent smoking behavior among youth who had originally identified themselves on a survey as never having smoked. The subjects were seventh grade students who had participated in a total of three surveys over a two…

  3. Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brief, Arthur P; Weiss, Howard M

    2002-01-01

    The study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the 1930s, with the decades that followed up to the 1990s not being particularly fertile. Whereas job satisfaction generally continues to be loosely but not carefully thought of and measured as an affective state, critical work in the 1990s has raised serious questions about the affective status of job satisfaction in terms of its causes as well as its definition and measurement. Recent research has focused on the production of moods and emotions at work, with an emphasis, at least conceptually, on stressful events, leaders, work groups, physical settings, and rewards/punishment. Other recent research has addressed the consequences of workers' feelings, in particular, a variety of performance outcomes (e.g., helping behaviors and creativity). Even though recent interest in affect in the workplace has been intense, many theoretical and methodological opportunities and challenges remain. PMID:11752487

  4. Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brief, Arthur P; Weiss, Howard M

    2002-01-01

    The study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the 1930s, with the decades that followed up to the 1990s not being particularly fertile. Whereas job satisfaction generally continues to be loosely but not carefully thought of and measured as an affective state, critical work in the 1990s has raised serious questions about the affective status of job satisfaction in terms of its causes as well as its definition and measurement. Recent research has focused on the production of moods and emotions at work, with an emphasis, at least conceptually, on stressful events, leaders, work groups, physical settings, and rewards/punishment. Other recent research has addressed the consequences of workers' feelings, in particular, a variety of performance outcomes (e.g., helping behaviors and creativity). Even though recent interest in affect in the workplace has been intense, many theoretical and methodological opportunities and challenges remain.

  5. An approach to children's smoking behavior using social cognitive learning theory.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.

  6. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  7. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope JE; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7–9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. PMID:18822157

  8. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope Je; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7-9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure.

  9. Asthma and its relation to smoking behavior and cessation motives among adult daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Avallone, Kimberly M; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; Jeffries, Emily R

    2013-06-01

    Despite the negative effects of smoking on lung functioning and overall health, smoking is more prevalent among individuals with asthma compared to those without asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive ability of asthma diagnosis in terms of smoking behavior and reasons for quitting. Participants were 251 regular daily smokers: 125 smokers with self-reported, physician-diagnosed asthma and 126 smokers without asthma. Asthma diagnosis significantly predicted age of regular smoking onset, number of quit attempts, and reasons for quitting related to self-control suggesting that smokers with asthma may have more difficulty quitting and unique reasons for quitting.

  10. Motivated behavioral outcomes affect ratings of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Hardy, David J

    2014-12-01

    A relatively new theory of motivation posits that purposeful human behavior may be partly explained by multidimensional individual differences "traits of action" (motives). Its 15 motives can be characterized according to their purpose: individual integrity, competitiveness, and cooperativeness. Existing evidence supports the model on which the motives are based and the reliability and validity of strategies to assess them. This experiment tested whether the hypothetical results of consistent, motivated cooperative and competitive behavior could affect ratings of attractiveness. Male and female participants (N = 98; M age = 18.8, SD = 1.4) were shown 24 opposite-sex facial photos ranging in attractiveness. The photos were paired with one of three conditions representing theoretical outcomes that would result from low, control, and high levels of cooperative and competitive motives. As predicted, outcome descriptions representing high motive strength of six motives statistically significantly affected ratings of attractiveness. This result was independent of sex of participant and consistent with the theory. PMID:25457092

  11. Do changes in neighborhood and household levels of smoking and deprivation result in changes in individual smoking behavior? A large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Thomson, George; Carter, Kristie

    2015-09-01

    Health behavior takes place within social contexts. In this study, we investigated whether changes in exposure to neighborhood deprivation and smoking prevalence and to household smoking were associated with change in personal smoking behavior. Three waves of biannual data collection (2004-2009) in a New Zealand longitudinal study, the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health, were used, with 13,815 adults (persons aged ≥15 years) contributing to the analyses. Smoking status was dichotomized as current smoking versus never/ex-smoking. Fixed-effects regression analyses removed time-invariant confounding and adjusted for time-varying covariates (neighborhood smoking prevalence and deprivation, household smoking, labor force status, income, household tenure, and family status). A between-wave decile increase in neighborhood deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.14), but a between-wave increase in neighborhood smoking prevalence was not (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10). Changing household exposures between waves to live with another smoker (compared with a nonsmoker (referent)) increased the odds of smoking (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.84, 3.34), as did changing to living in a sole-adult household (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.14). Tobacco control policies and programs should address the broader household and neighborhood circumstances within which individual smoking takes place.

  12. Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior.

    PubMed

    Addicott, Merideth A; Pearson, John M; Froeliger, Brett; Platt, Michael L; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n=22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making.

  13. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minsun; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  16. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  17. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  18. Is Smoking Behavior Culturally Determined? Evidence from British Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Lillard, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit migration patterns from the UK to Australia and the US to investigate whether a person's decision to smoke is determined by culture. For each country, we use retrospective data to describe individual smoking trajectories over the life-course. For the UK, we use these trajectories to measure culture by cohort and cohort-age, and more accurately relative to the extant literature. Our proxy predicts smoking participation of second-generation British immigrants but not that of non-British immigrants and natives. Researchers can apply our strategy to estimate culture effects on other outcomes when retrospective or longitudinal data are available. PMID:25620826

  19. Outdoor smoking ban at a cancer center: attitudes and smoking behavior among employees and patients.

    PubMed

    Unrod, Marina; Oliver, Jason A; Heckman, Bryan W; Simmons, Vani Nath; Brandon, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Policies restricting indoor worksite tobacco use began being implemented more than a decade ago. More recently, the scope of these policies has been expanding to outdoors, with hospitals leading the trend in restricting smoking throughout their grounds. However, research on the effects such bans have on employees is scarce. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of a campus-wide smoking ban on employees and patients at a cancer center. Employees completed anonymous questionnaires during the months before (n = 607; 12% smokers) and 3 months after the ban implementation (n = 511; 10% smokers). Patients (n = 278; 23% smokers) completed an anonymous questionnaire preban. Results showed that 86% of nonsmokers, 20% of employees who smoke, and 57% of patients who smoke supported the ban. More than 70% of smokers were planning or thinking about quitting at both time points and nearly one-third were interested in cessation services following the ban. Before the ban, 32% expected the ban to have a negative effect on job performance and 41% thought their smoking before and after work would increase. Postban, 22% reported a negative impact on job performance, 35% increased smoking before and after work, and 7% quit. Overall, these data revealed an overwhelming support for an outdoor smoking ban by nonsmoker employees and patients. Although a majority of employee smokers opposed the ban, a significant proportion was interested in cessation. Compared with preban expectations, a lower proportion experienced negative effects postban. Findings suggest a need for worksite cessation programs to capitalize on the window of opportunity created by tobacco bans, while also addressing concerns about effects on work performance.

  20. Efficacy of a brief worksite intervention to reduce smoking: the roles of behavioral and implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of worksite interventions to reduce smoking needs to be enhanced because randomized controlled trials to date have produced mixed findings. The present study tested the ability of social-cognitive variables to mediate the past behavior-future behavior relationship and the effectiveness of implementation intentions to break the past behavior-future behavior relationship in a brief theory-based worksite intervention designed to reduce smoking. Smoking behavior and psychosocial orientation to quit (operationalized by theory of planned behavior variables and temptations) were measured at baseline; participants (N = 90) randomized to the experimental condition were also asked to form an implementation intention in their place of work. Identical measures taken 2 months postbaseline revealed that intention was a potent mediator of the past behavior-future behavior relationship. More important, significantly more people quit smoking in the experimental condition than in the control condition. Decomposition of these effects showed that implementation intentions worked best for individuals who were more motivated to quit at baseline and suggest that harnessing both motivational and volitional processes might enhance the effectiveness of worksite smoking cessation programs. PMID:17953496

  1. Smoking Behavior among Coronary Heart Disease Patients in Jordan: A Model from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Baker, Nesrin N; Haddad, Linda; Mayyas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking before and after diagnosis of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), detect the reasons that discourage quitting smoking and resources of advice about quitting, and investigate the relationship between smoking behaviors and demographic variables. A convenient sample of 300 CHD patients from cardiac outpatient clinics participated. Before disease occurrence, nonsmokers composed 40% of all participants, former smokers 11.7%, and current smokers 48.3%. Surprisingly, after disease occurrence only 29.7% of the patients quit smoking, while 60.7% continued smoking, and 9.6% relapsed. The most frequent reasons given by smokers for not quitting smoking were “do not incline to stop smoking” (25.6%) and “craving for a cigarette” (25%). Doctors were cited most frequently as the reason individuals quit smoking (19.0%). The Jordanian health care system needs to implement systematic intensive smoking cessation programs to maintain and promote CHD patients’ motivation to quit smoking. PMID:20617001

  2. Smoking behavior and patient education practices of oncology nurses in six countries.

    PubMed

    Lally, Robin M; Chalmers, Karen I; Johnson, Judith; Kojima, Misako; Endo, Emiko; Suzuki, Shizue; Lai, Yeur-Hur; Yang, Young-Hee; Degner, Lesley; Anderson, Elsie; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    Worldwide, tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death, resulting in approximately 5 million deaths annually. Nurses are keenly positioned to work toward reducing tobacco-related illness and deaths. Therefore, guided by the health belief model, the purpose of this study was to explore the smoking behavior, beliefs, smoking cessation education practices, and existing smoking policies at the institutions of a sample of practicing oncology nurses in Canada, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and the United States. A 27-item structured survey, designed for this study in English and translated and reverse translated by the Asian countries, was distributed to a convenience sample of nurses attending oncology meetings in each country. Totally 759 surveys were completed and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Principle findings indicate that 4.5% of these nurses currently smoke, although 23.3% reported smoking previously. While many nurses (74%) reported frequently assessing the smoking status of patients, only 50% reported discussing cessation with their patients that smoke. Although the majority (80%) reported feeling comfortable with asking their patients about smoking, only 23% felt it was the nurse's role. The findings indicate that while internationally oncology nurses recognize the importance of smoking cessation, significant room for improvement exists in translating this into practice.

  3. Cigarette Filter-based Assays as Proxies for Toxicant Exposure and Smoking Behavior A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, John L.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Shields, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cigarettes are being marketed with filters that differ in composition and design. The filters have different toxicant trapping efficiency and smoking stains reflect variations in smoking behavior. Presented herein are the results of a structured literature review that was performed to identify cigarette filter-based assays that may serve as proxies for mouth-level exposure and assessing smoking methods. Methods A search of the published scientific literature and internal tobacco company documents from 1954 to 2009 was performed. Results The literature search identified diverse schemes for assessing cigarette filters, including visual inspection and digital imaging of smoked-stained spent filters, and quantitative determinations for total particulate matter (TPM), nicotine, and solanesol. The results also showed that: (a) there is sufficient data to link filter-based chemical measures to standardized smoking machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine; (b) TPM eluted from filters or in chemical digest of filters can be used to estimate the efficiency of the filter for trapping smoke solids; (c) visual and digital inspection of spent filters are useful as indicators of variations in smoking behaviors; and (d) there is a correlation between solanesol and nicotine measured in filters and exposure biomarkers in smokers. Conclusions The cigarette filter may prove useful in estimating smoking behaviors such as filter vent blocking and puffing intensity, and may have utility as proxy measures of mouth-level smoke exposure in clinical trials. Additional investigations are needed to compare the different proposed assay schemes and the assay results with measurements of human biomarker assays of smoke exposure. PMID:19959679

  4. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects.

  5. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. PMID:27601407

  6. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies. PMID:18423088

  7. Parental Smoking-Specific Communication, Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Friendship Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether parental smoking-specific communication is related to adolescents' friendship-selection processes. Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents and their best friends influence each other over time, and what role parents play in this process. In the present study we used data from the Family and Health…

  8. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196

  9. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  10. [Smoking in affective psychosis: review about nicotine use in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders].

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Cristina; Roncero, Carlos; Miquel, Laia; Casas, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Affective psychoses include those disorders with psychotic and affective symptoms described in the DSM-IV-TR. In these pathologies, the prevalence of nicotine dependence is very high. The objective here is to carry out a review of the relation between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders considered as affective psychoses at the epidemiological, clinical, prognostic and treatment levels. We review studies published in the PubMed database that include the keywords smoking, tobacco, nicotine and schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. Comorbidity of bipolar and schizoaffective disorder with nicotine consumption is 66-82.5 % and 67%, respectively. On the basis of this review it can be concluded that smoking results in poorer prognosis and greater clinical seriousness of bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. Use of other substances, psychiatric diagnosis, clinical seriousness and caffeine consumption are risk factors for nicotine use. The most effective treatment approach is pharmacological treatment in combination with psychological interventions. The first-line medication for tobacco detoxification and dishabituation are substitution therapy (transdermal patches, sprays, sublingual tablets, sucking pills or nicotine chewing gums), varenicline and bupropion. The medically indicated treatment for psychotic symptoms is atypical antipsychotics, due to their better tolerability profile and better results in smoking cessation. PMID:21503565

  11. Smoking Behavior and Healthcare Expenditure in the United States, 1992–2009: Panel Data Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reductions in smoking in Arizona and California have been shown to be associated with reduced per capita healthcare expenditures in these states compared to control populations in the rest of the US. This paper extends that analysis to all states and estimates changes in healthcare expenditure attributable to changes in aggregate measures of smoking behavior in all states. Methods and Findings State per capita healthcare expenditure is modeled as a function of current smoking prevalence, mean cigarette consumption per smoker, other demographic and economic factors, and cross-sectional time trends using a fixed effects panel data regression on annual time series data for each the 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1992 through 2009. We found that 1% relative reductions in current smoking prevalence and mean packs smoked per current smoker are associated with 0.118% (standard error [SE] 0.0259%, p < 0.001) and 0.108% (SE 0.0253%, p < 0.001) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure (elasticities). The results of this study are subject to the limitations of analysis of aggregate observational data, particularly that a study of this nature that uses aggregate data and a relatively small sample size cannot, by itself, establish a causal connection between smoking behavior and healthcare costs. Historical regional variations in smoking behavior (including those due to the effects of state tobacco control programs, smoking restrictions, and differences in taxation) are associated with substantial differences in per capita healthcare expenditures across the United States. Those regions (and the states in them) that have lower smoking have substantially lower medical costs. Likewise, those that have higher smoking have higher medical costs. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that these results are robust. Conclusions Changes in healthcare expenditure appear quickly after changes in smoking behavior. A 10% relative drop in smoking in every

  12. Applying the theory of planned behavior to explore the relation between smoke-free air laws and quitting intentions.

    PubMed

    Macy, Jonathan T; Middlestadt, Susan E; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J; Jay, Stephen J

    2012-02-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a comprehensive law. Agreement with regulating smoking in public places was significantly associated with attitudes and perceived normative pressure about quitting. Nicotine dependence was significantly associated with attitudes and perceived behavioral control. There was also a direct effect of nicotine dependence on intention to take measures to quit smoking. Smoke-free air laws appear to influence quitting intentions through the formation of positive attitudes about regulating smoking in public places and the perception of normative pressure to take measures to quit. Implications for smoke-free air policy campaigns and challenges in evaluating their effectiveness are discussed.

  13. Implementation of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Study at Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs: Smoking Behavior and Treatment Feasibility Across Varied Community-based Outpatient Programs.

    PubMed

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Nunes, Edward V; Lima, Jennifer; Jiang, Huiping; Tyson, Clare; Hiott, Robert; Arfken, Cynthia; Bohs, Rhonda; Orr, Deborah; Muir, Joan; Pihlgren, Eric; Loree, Amy; Fuller, Brett E; Giordano, Louis; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2007-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is widely prevalent among individuals in treatment for drug or alcohol dependence; however, the treatment of nicotine addiction in this population has numerous obstacles at both programmatic and patient levels. Despite these difficulties, recent studies have demonstrated moderate success in implementing smoking cessation treatment in drug rehabilitation programs. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network sponsored a smoking cessation study in 13 community-based outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation programs across the country. The study evaluated the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment provided as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual. This report summarizes the practical and clinical experiences encountered at each of the study sites with regard to implementing the smoking cessation treatment intervention. Smoking behavior of the treatment clientele was assessed by anonymous survey at each site. In addition, sites were systematically characterized by using program review and assessment tools completed by the respective staff and program directors at the site. Survey and recruitment data indicated that cigarette smoking is more prevalent and that smoking cessation treatment is more feasible, in methadone maintenance treatment programs. Other factors associated with smoking behavior and with the recruitment of drug- and alcohol-dependent individuals into the smoking cessation treatment study are described.

  14. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking-cue distractors.

    PubMed

    MacLean, R Ross; Nichols, Travis T; LeBreton, James M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies have suggested that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. For the present study, we adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that the performance of daily smokers (n = 17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. The results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, as compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed that the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low-load condition than in the high-load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking-cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. These results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions.

  15. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking-cue distractors.

    PubMed

    MacLean, R Ross; Nichols, Travis T; LeBreton, James M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies have suggested that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. For the present study, we adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that the performance of daily smokers (n = 17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. The results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, as compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed that the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low-load condition than in the high-load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking-cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. These results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions. PMID:27012714

  16. Genome-wide meta-analyses of smoking behaviors in African Americans.

    PubMed

    David, S P; Hamidovic, A; Chen, G K; Bergen, A W; Wessel, J; Kasberger, J L; Brown, W M; Petruzella, S; Thacker, E L; Kim, Y; Nalls, M A; Tranah, G J; Sung, Y J; Ambrosone, C B; Arnett, D; Bandera, E V; Becker, D M; Becker, L; Berndt, S I; Bernstein, L; Blot, W J; Broeckel, U; Buxbaum, S G; Caporaso, N; Casey, G; Chanock, S J; Deming, S L; Diver, W R; Eaton, C B; Evans, D S; Evans, M K; Fornage, M; Franceschini, N; Harris, T B; Henderson, B E; Hernandez, D G; Hitsman, B; Hu, J J; Hunt, S C; Ingles, S A; John, E M; Kittles, R; Kolb, S; Kolonel, L N; Le Marchand, L; Liu, Y; Lohman, K K; McKnight, B; Millikan, R C; Murphy, A; Neslund-Dudas, C; Nyante, S; Press, M; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Redline, S; Rodriguez-Gil, J L; Rybicki, B A; Signorello, L B; Singleton, A B; Smoller, J; Snively, B; Spring, B; Stanford, J L; Strom, S S; Swan, G E; Taylor, K D; Thun, M J; Wilson, A F; Witte, J S; Yamamura, Y; Yanek, L R; Yu, K; Zheng, W; Ziegler, R G; Zonderman, A B; Jorgenson, E; Haiman, C A; Furberg, H

    2012-01-01

    The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n = 32,389). We identified one non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2036527[A]) on chromosome 15q25.1 associated with smoking quantity (cigarettes per day), which exceeded genome-wide significance (β = 0.040, s.e. = 0.007, P = 1.84 × 10(-8)). This variant is present in the 5'-distal enhancer region of the CHRNA5 gene and defines the primary index signal reported in studies of the European ancestry. No other SNP reached genome-wide significance for smoking initiation (SI, ever vs never smoking), age of SI, or smoking cessation (SC, former vs current smoking). Informative associations that approached genome-wide significance included three modestly correlated variants, at 15q25.1 within PSMA4, CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 for smoking quantity, which are associated with a second signal previously reported in studies in European ancestry populations, and a signal represented by three SNPs in the SPOCK2 gene on chr10q22.1. The association at 15q25.1 confirms this region as an important susceptibility locus for smoking quantity in men and women of African ancestry. Larger studies will be needed to validate the suggestive loci that did not reach genome-wide significance and further elucidate the contribution of genetic variation to disparities in cigarette consumption, SC and smoking-attributable disease between African Americans and European Americans. PMID:22832964

  17. Genome-wide meta-analyses of smoking behaviors in African Americans.

    PubMed

    David, S P; Hamidovic, A; Chen, G K; Bergen, A W; Wessel, J; Kasberger, J L; Brown, W M; Petruzella, S; Thacker, E L; Kim, Y; Nalls, M A; Tranah, G J; Sung, Y J; Ambrosone, C B; Arnett, D; Bandera, E V; Becker, D M; Becker, L; Berndt, S I; Bernstein, L; Blot, W J; Broeckel, U; Buxbaum, S G; Caporaso, N; Casey, G; Chanock, S J; Deming, S L; Diver, W R; Eaton, C B; Evans, D S; Evans, M K; Fornage, M; Franceschini, N; Harris, T B; Henderson, B E; Hernandez, D G; Hitsman, B; Hu, J J; Hunt, S C; Ingles, S A; John, E M; Kittles, R; Kolb, S; Kolonel, L N; Le Marchand, L; Liu, Y; Lohman, K K; McKnight, B; Millikan, R C; Murphy, A; Neslund-Dudas, C; Nyante, S; Press, M; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Redline, S; Rodriguez-Gil, J L; Rybicki, B A; Signorello, L B; Singleton, A B; Smoller, J; Snively, B; Spring, B; Stanford, J L; Strom, S S; Swan, G E; Taylor, K D; Thun, M J; Wilson, A F; Witte, J S; Yamamura, Y; Yanek, L R; Yu, K; Zheng, W; Ziegler, R G; Zonderman, A B; Jorgenson, E; Haiman, C A; Furberg, H

    2012-05-22

    The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n = 32,389). We identified one non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2036527[A]) on chromosome 15q25.1 associated with smoking quantity (cigarettes per day), which exceeded genome-wide significance (β = 0.040, s.e. = 0.007, P = 1.84 × 10(-8)). This variant is present in the 5'-distal enhancer region of the CHRNA5 gene and defines the primary index signal reported in studies of the European ancestry. No other SNP reached genome-wide significance for smoking initiation (SI, ever vs never smoking), age of SI, or smoking cessation (SC, former vs current smoking). Informative associations that approached genome-wide significance included three modestly correlated variants, at 15q25.1 within PSMA4, CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 for smoking quantity, which are associated with a second signal previously reported in studies in European ancestry populations, and a signal represented by three SNPs in the SPOCK2 gene on chr10q22.1. The association at 15q25.1 confirms this region as an important susceptibility locus for smoking quantity in men and women of African ancestry. Larger studies will be needed to validate the suggestive loci that did not reach genome-wide significance and further elucidate the contribution of genetic variation to disparities in cigarette consumption, SC and smoking-attributable disease between African Americans and European Americans.

  18. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-08-01

    Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (<100 cigarettes/lifetime; N = 594) and light (100+ cigarettes/lifetime, but ≤5 cigarettes/day; N = 152) adolescent smokers. Time-varying effect models were used to examine the relationship between baseline nicotine dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (<16), but stronger at older ages (20-23), relative to light smokers. Additionally, nicotine dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5-16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression. PMID:27312479

  19. Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Harris, W; Cook, D; Bedford, K; Zuo, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects/setting: 2038 females aged 12–17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Outcomes: Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Results: Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference among smokers in the intervention (26.4%) and control (16.9%) groups (p = 0.28). A higher percentage of current smokers in the intervention group indicated they were unlikely to smoke in 12 months time (47.8%) than smokers in the control condition (31.9%) (p = 0.03). For non-smokers, there was no difference in smoking intentions between conditions, with 95% saying they would be unlikely to be smoking in 12 months time. Conclusions: This "real world" study suggests that placing an anti-smoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking. PMID:15333884

  20. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population.

  1. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.

  2. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population. PMID:25925718

  3. An Ecological System Approach to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine the effect of factors related to school, leisure, family and the individual on adolescent smoking. These determining factors occupy the micro- and mesosystems of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. Data were collected using questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of…

  4. Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Knishkowy, Barry; Amitai, Yona

    2005-07-01

    Narghile, or water-pipe smoking (WPS), has been practiced extensively for approximately 400 years. It is common in the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey, India, Pakistan, and other countries. In recent years, there has been a revival of WPS, notably among youth. Most US health professionals are unfamiliar with the practice and health consequences of WPS. Therefore, this trend presents a new challenge for adolescent health care providers. The composition of the tobacco used in WPS is variable and not well standardized. Studies that have examined narghile smokers and the aerosol of narghile smoke have reported high concentrations of carbon monoxide, nicotine, "tar," and heavy metals. These concentrations were as high or higher than those among cigarette smokers. The few scientific data regarding the adverse health consequences of WPS point to dangers that are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking: malignancy, impaired pulmonary function, low birth weight, and others. Additional dangers not encountered with cigarette smoking are infectious diseases resulting from pipe sharing and the frequent addition of alcohol or psychoactive drugs to the tobacco. Public health strategies for controlling the emerging epidemic of WPS include carrying out epidemiologic and toxicologic research; implementation of laws to limit acquisition and use; and health education, targeting adolescents in particular.

  5. A Multilevel Analysis Examining the Association between School-Based Smoking Policies, Prevention Programs and Youth Smoking Behavior: Evaluating a Provincial Tobacco Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…

  6. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  7. Self-Reported Smoking Behavior and Attitudes in Aboriginal Treatment Centers across Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Greyeyes, Deanna

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 246 clients aged 11-63 from 15 Aboriginal addiction-treatment centers across Canada examined nicotine-related behavior and attitudes and other addictive behaviors. Over three-quarters of respondents were smokers. Males and females differed in reasons for beginning and quitting smoking. Data tables detail client characteristics, drug…

  8. Links between Socio-Economic Circumstances and Changes in Smoking Behavior in the Mexican Population: 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, HIRAM; Thomas, DUNCAN; Teruel, GRACIELA; Wheaton, FELICIA; Crimmins, EILEEN M.

    2013-01-01

    While deleterious consequences of smoking on health have been widely publicized, in many developing countries, smoking prevalence is high and increasing. Little is known about the dynamics underlying changes in smoking behavior. This paper examines socio-economic and demographic characteristics associated with smoking initiation and quitting in Mexico between 2002 and 2010. In addition to the influences of age, gender, education, household economic resources and location of residence, changes in marital status, living arrangements and health status are examined. Drawing data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, a rich population-based longitudinal study of individuals, smoking behavior of individuals in 2002 is compared with their behavior in 2010. Logistic models are used to examine socio-demographic and health factors that are associated with initiating and quitting smoking. There are three main findings. First, part of the relationship between education and smoking reflects the role of economic resources. Second, associations of smoking with education and economic resources differ for females and males. Third, there is considerable heterogeneity in the factors linked to smoking behavior in Mexico indicating that the smoking epidemic may be at different stages in different population subgroups. Mexico has recently implemented fiscal policies and public health campaigns aimed at reducing smoking prevalence and discouraging smoking initiation. These programs are likely to be more effective if they target particular socio-economic and demographic sub-groups. PMID:23888371

  9. Association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with smoking behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijie; Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Lulu; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Nan; Han, Mingkui; Jia, Chongqi

    2015-12-01

    Published articles reported controversial results about the association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with the risk of smoking behaviors. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and smoking behaviors. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies (from January, 1990 to December, 2014) of the aforementioned association. The Q test and the I(2) statistic were used to examine between-study heterogeneity. Fixed or random effect model was selected based on heterogeneity test among studies. Meta-regression was used to explore the potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated using funnel plots and Harbord test. Twenty-one published articles were included. Overall, we didn't find any significant association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with smoking initiation and smoking cessation in any of allele, dominant and recessive models. In the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian and Asian) or by whether smokers accepted the treatment for smoking cessation or not (Yes/No), there were still no significant associations detected in all genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that there might be no association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with the risk of smoking behaviors. Further studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  10. Smoking among upper secondary pupils with asthma: reasons for their smoking behavior: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Nielsen, Gert Allan; Madsen, Mette

    2006-07-01

    We compared why adolescent pupils with and without asthma started smoking and currently smoke. Girls with asthma started smoking less often because of friends smoking, and asthmatics started more often because of pressure, especially asthmatic boys. Fewer asthmatics smoked currently for social reasons and more to stay slim, mainly asthmatic boys.

  11. Multiple Independent Loci at Chromosome 15q25.1 Affect Smoking Quantity: a Meta-Analysis and Comparison with Lung Cancer and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Cannon, Dale S.; Chen, Xiangning; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Han, Shizhong; Han, Younghun; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Kong, Xiangyang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Ma, Jennie Z.; Short, Susan E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Sun, Lingwei; Wang, Yufei; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Breslau, Naomi; Broderick, Peter; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Heath, Andrew C.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hoft, Nicole R.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Niu, Tianhua; Payne, Thomas J.; Peltonen, Leena; Pergadia, Michele L.; Rice, John P.; Sherva, Richard; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sun, Juzhong; Wang, Jen C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Wheeler, William; Witt, Stephanie H.; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Caporaso, Neil E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Eisen, Tim; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gelernter, Joel; Houlston, Richard; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kraft, Peter; Leppert, Mark F.; Li, Ming D.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pillai, Sreekumar; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Schwartz, Ann; Amos, Christopher I.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP) is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking), lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers), and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers). We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10−35 and <10−8 respectively). Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10−6). In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10−20) and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01); the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765

  12. Smoking behavior in a low-income multiethnic HIV/AIDS population.

    PubMed

    Gritz, Ellen R; Vidrine, Damon J; Lazev, Amy B; Amick, Benjamin C; Arduino, Roberto C

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe smoking prevalence and smoking behavior in a multiethnic low-income HIV/AIDS population. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study site was Thomas Street Clinic, an HIV/AIDS care facility serving a medically indigent and ethnically diverse population. Demographic, disease status, behavioral, and psychosocial variables were assessed by participant self-report. Surveys were collected from 348 study participants. Demographic composition of the sample was 78% male, 25% White, 44% Black, and 29% Hispanic. Study participants had a mean age of 40.2 years (SD=7.8). The HIV exposure profile of the sample was diverse: 46% men who have sex with men, 35% heterosexual contact, and 11% injection drug use. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking in the sample was 46.9%. Among participants with a lifetime history of smoking 100 or more cigarettes (62.8%), only 26.6% were currently abstinent, lower than the 48.8% rate seen in the general population. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that race/ethnicity, education level, age, and heavy drinking were significantly associated with smoking status. Hispanics were less likely than Whites were to smoke, younger participants were less likely than older participants were to be current smokers, and heavy drinkers were more likely to be current smokers than were those who were not heavy drinkers. As education level increased, the likelihood of smoking decreased and the likelihood of quitting increased. The high smoking prevalence in this HIV/AIDS population demonstrates the need for smoking cessation interventions targeted to the special needs of this patient group.

  13. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  14. Smoking behaviors in a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Penko, Joanne; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bangsberg, David R.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kushel, Margot B.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults to examine smoking behaviors and factors associated with quitting. We assessed “hardcore” smoking behaviors associated with a low probability of quitting. Of the 296 participants, 218 were current smokers (73.6%). The prevalence of “hardcore” smoking was high: 59.6% smoked ≥ 15 cigarettes per day, and 67.3% were daily smokers. During the study interval, 20.6% made at least one quit attempt. Of these, 53.3% were abstinent at 6 months. The successful quit rate over two years was 4.6%. Illegal substance use (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.6) and smoking within 30 minutes of waking (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) were associated with lower likelihood of making a quit attempt. Interventions that reduce nicotine dependence prior to smoking cessation and those that are integrated with substance use treatment may be effective for this population. PMID:23918243

  15. Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Among Rural- to-Urban Migrant Women in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Karen; Ma, Shaojun; Qin, Dingxin; Xin, Guo; Xia, Wan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of cigarette smokers worldwide; surveys suggest rising prevalence among young women. Migratory lifestyles may confer increased susceptibility. Objectives we aimed to understand how migration relates to smoking among young women. Methods we implemented a cross-sectional behavioral survey of rural-to-urban Chinese women (n = 206) working in restaurants and commercial sex venues, assessing smoking attitudes, behaviors, and health-risk knowledge. Results rates of ever smoking and current smoking among restaurant workers were high compared with the rates in general population surveys (16.1% and 6.5%, respectively); rates were much higher among sex workers (54.9% and 33.3%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed education to be protective, whereas exposure to female-branded cigarettes was a risk for ever smoking. Conclusions Chinese migrant women appear to be smoking at higher rates than nonmigrant women. Priorities for future research include representative studies in multiple cities examining reasons for uptake and stimuli to quit. PMID:19443881

  16. Escalating doses of transdermal nicotine in heavy smokers: effects on smoking behavior and craving.

    PubMed

    Selby, Peter; Andriash, Katherine; Zawertailo, Laurie; Persad, Desmond; Zack, Martin; Busto, Usoa E

    2013-10-01

    Fixed-dose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is efficacious for smoking cessation in the general population of smokers. However, it is less effective in populations with psychiatric comorbidities and/or severe tobacco dependence where the percent nicotine replacement is suboptimal. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of nicotine patch dose titration in response to continued smoking in heavily dependent smokers with psychiatric comorbidity. In a single-arm, open-label study adult smokers (mean cigarettes per day, 25.4 ± 13.4; range, 14-43; n = 12) willing to quit were treated with escalating doses of transdermal nicotine and brief counseling intervention if they continued to smoke over a 9-week treatment period. Plasma nicotine and cotinine, along with expired carbon monoxide levels, and the subjective effects of smoking, urge to smoke, demand elasticity, and mood symptoms were also assessed. The mean NRT dose was 32.7 (SD, 16.4) mg/d (range, 7-56 mg/d). Smokers reported significant reductions in both cigarettes per day (mean decrease, 18.4 ± 11.5) confirmed by expired carbon monoxide (mean decrease, 13.5 ± 13.0) with no significant changes in plasma nicotine concentrations during the course of NRT dose titration. There were significant effects on the subjective effects of smoking and measures of smoking behavior. Most commonly reported adverse events were respiratory infections, skin irritation at patch site, nausea, and sleep disturbances, which were generally mild and transient. Titrating doses of NRT to effect with brief intervention hold promise as an effective clinical strategy to assist heavily dependent psychiatrically ill smokers to change their smoking behavior.

  17. Behavioral Couples Therapy for Smoking Cessation: A pilot randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    LaChance, Heather; Cioe, Patricia A.; Tooley, Erin; Colby, Suzanne M.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) has been found to improve long-term abstinence rates in alcohol- and substance-dependent populations but has not been tested for smoking cessation. This pilot study examined the feasibility and acceptability of BCT for smoking-discordant couples. Methods Forty-nine smokers (smoking >10 cigarettes/day) with non-smoking partners were randomized to receive a couples social support (BCT-S) intervention, or an individually-delivered smoking cessation (ST) treatment. The couples were married or cohabiting for at least one year, with partners who had never smoked or had not used tobacco in one year. Both treatments included seven weekly sessions and 8-weeks of nicotine replacement therapy. Participants were followed for six months post-treatment. The Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ) was used to measure perceived smoking-specific partner support. Results Participants were 67% male and 88% White. Biochemically-verified cessation rates were 40.9%, 50% and 45% in BCT-S, and 59.1%, 50%, and 55% in ST, at end of treatment, 3-, and 6-months, respectively, and did not differ significantly between treatment conditions at any time point (all p’s > .05). Perceived smoking-specific partner support at post-treatment did not significantly differ between treatment groups (M=2.45, SD .81 in BCT-S; M=2.27, SD .92 in ST; t(38) = .67, p = .51). Conclusions Results of this pilot study do not provide support for the efficacy of BCT in smoking discordant couples. PMID:25642582

  18. Contingency management for behavior change: applications to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among patients who are being treated for opioid-dependence, yet there have been limited scientific efforts to promote smoking cessation in this population. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioral treatment that provides monetary incentives contingent upon biochemical evidence of drug abstinence. This paper discusses the results of two studies that utilized CM to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients. Participants in a pilot study were randomly assigned for a 2-week period to a Contingent group that earned monetary vouchers for providing biochemical samples that met criteria for smoking abstinence, or a Noncontingent group that earned monetary vouchers independent of smoking status (Dunn et al., 2008). Results showed Contingent participants provided significantly more smoking-negative samples than Noncontingent participants (55% vs. 5%, respectively). A second randomized trial that utilized the same 2-week intervention and provided access to the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy bupropion replicated the results of the pilot study (55% and 17% abstinence in Contingent and Noncontingent groups, respectively; Dunn et al, 2010). Relapse to illicit drug use was also evaluated prospectively and no association between smoking abstinence and relapse to illicit drug use was observed (Dunn et al., 2009). It will be important for future studies to evaluate participant characteristics that might predict better treatment outcome, to assess the contribution that pharmacotherapies might have alone or in combination with a CM intervention on smoking cessation and to evaluate methods for maintaining the abstinence that is achieved during this brief intervention for longer periods of time. PMID:21341920

  19. Women and cigarette smoking: does amount of weight gain following a failed quit attempt affect social disapproval?

    PubMed

    Knauss, Faye; Martz, Denise; Parker, Amy; Curtin, Lisa; Pai, Shilpa

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the perception of social attractiveness and approval of smoking in a vignette of an American college female smoker after a failed quit attempt. It was hypothesized that she would be perceived more favorably when she was smoking to control her weight, compared to a non-weight related excuse during a failed quit attempt. The design was a 2 (gender: male vs. female)x4 (condition: control, 5, 10, 20 lb gain)x3 (participants' smoking status: never, former, or current smoker) factorial design with the Social Attraction Index and Perception of Smoking Index as dependent variables. Contrary to the hypothesis, perceptions of the female were not affected by her disclosed amount of weight gain. However, consistent with the literature on stigmatization of smokers, smoking participants perceived the female target as most socially attractive and nonsmokers perceived her to be the least attractive. PMID:15833570

  20. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  1. Seventh graders' self-reported exposure to cigarette marketing and its relationship to their smoking behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Schooler, C; Feighery, E; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined among youth the extent of their perceived exposure to cigarette marketing and the relationship of their perceptions to their smoking behavior. METHODS: Surveys measuring exposure to cigarette advertisements and promotions were completed by 571 seventh graders in San Jose, Calif. RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent of these 13-year-olds reported exposure to cigarette marketing: the majority often saw ads in magazines, on billboards, and at stores and events, and one quarter owned cigarette promotional items. After social influences to smoke were controlled for, exposure to cigarette marketing was related to self-reported smoking behavior. Likelihood of experimenting with smoking was 2.2 times greater among those who owned promotional items and 2.8 times greater among those who had received mail from a tobacco company. Seeing cigarette advertisements in magazines increased this likelihood by 21%, and seeing tobacco marketing in stores increased it by 38%. CONCLUSIONS: Youth are daily and widely exposed to tobacco industry marketing efforts; this exposure is related to smoking behavior. More effective regulation is needed. PMID:8806371

  2. Are you in or out? Recruitment of adolescent smokers into a behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Goecke, Michaela; Bühler, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Even though many adolescent smokers want to quit, it is difficult to recruit them into smoking cessation interventions. Little is known about which adolescent smokers are currently reached by these measures. In this study we compare participants of a group-based, cognitive behavioral smoking cessation intervention with adolescent smokers who decided against participating. Within a non-randomized controlled trial, data of 1053 smokers (age 11–19) from 42 German secondary schools were analyzed. Of these smokers, 272 were recruited into 47 courses of the intervention. An in-class information session, individually addressing potential participants, and incentives were used as means of recruitment. Personal predictors of participation were analyzed using regression analyses and multivariate path analyses to test for mediation. In the path analysis model, nicotine dependence, quit motivation, and a previous quit attempt were directly positively related to participation. Heavier smoking behavior was indirectly positively associated with participation through nicotine dependence and negatively through quit motivation, yielding an overall positive indirect effect. The positive effect of a previous quit attempt on participation was partially mediated through nicotine dependence and quit motivation. The proportion of smoking friends were indirectly positively related to participation, mediated through nicotine dependence. Since adolescents with heavier smoking behavior and stronger nicotine dependence are less likely to undertake a successful unassisted quit attempt, the reach of these young smokers with professional cessation interventions is desirable. Further measures to improve the recruitment of those currently not motivated to quit have to be examined in future studies. PMID:25678303

  3. Three intervention levels for improving smoking behavior among Royal Thai Army conscripts.

    PubMed

    Pantaewan, Pannee; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Tansakul, Supreya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated a smoking cessation program based on an ecological model among Royal Thai Army conscripts with three levels of behavioral change intervention: intrapersonal level, interpersonal level and organizational level. The program applied processes of change in the Transtheoretical Model for intervention at the intrapersonal level; social support from the family at the interpersonal level; strengthening policies and activities to support quitting, including providing a smoke-free workplace at the organizational level. Eighty-nine participants were purposively selected from the first regiment of conscripts at the King's Royal Guard, recruited into the Army in 2009. The behavioral change intervention was conducted during their first six months of duty. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data between May and November 2009. Individual interviews and checklist observations were employed to collect data. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics, comparing means by paired t-test and the chi-square test was used to analyze correlations. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-three percent of participants significantly (p<0.001) reduced the number of cigarettes smoked, and 4.5% quit smoking. There was significant improvement in self-efficacy for improving smoking behavior (p=0.002) and making an effort to quit (p<0.001).

  4. Three intervention levels for improving smoking behavior among Royal Thai Army conscripts.

    PubMed

    Pantaewan, Pannee; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Tansakul, Supreya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated a smoking cessation program based on an ecological model among Royal Thai Army conscripts with three levels of behavioral change intervention: intrapersonal level, interpersonal level and organizational level. The program applied processes of change in the Transtheoretical Model for intervention at the intrapersonal level; social support from the family at the interpersonal level; strengthening policies and activities to support quitting, including providing a smoke-free workplace at the organizational level. Eighty-nine participants were purposively selected from the first regiment of conscripts at the King's Royal Guard, recruited into the Army in 2009. The behavioral change intervention was conducted during their first six months of duty. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data between May and November 2009. Individual interviews and checklist observations were employed to collect data. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics, comparing means by paired t-test and the chi-square test was used to analyze correlations. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-three percent of participants significantly (p<0.001) reduced the number of cigarettes smoked, and 4.5% quit smoking. There was significant improvement in self-efficacy for improving smoking behavior (p=0.002) and making an effort to quit (p<0.001). PMID:23077826

  5. Effects of physician counseling on the smoking behavior of asbestos-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Ewart, C.K.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Wood, J.; Emmett, E.A.; Permutt, S.

    1984-09-01

    Physician antismoking advice has been shown to increase smoking cessation, particularly among patients who have medical problems or perceive themselves to be at risk. The present study tested three hypotheses: (a) providing 3 to 5 min of behavioral counseling regarding a cessation strategy would be more effective than simply warning the smoker to quit smoking; (b) smokers with abnormal pulmonary function would be more likely to comply with medical advice than would smokers with normal pulmonary function; and (c) that smokers with abnormal pulmonary function who receive behavioral counseling would be the group most likely to achieve prolonged abstinence. Asbestos-exposed smoking men undergoing screening in a mandated program for naval shipyard workers were categorized as having normal or abnormal pulmonary status on the basis of chest X ray and pulmonary function tests (PFT). They were then randomly assigned within PFT categories to receive either a simple warning or 3 to 5 min of behavioral cessation counseling from the physician who gave them the results of their pulmonary tests. Subjects smoking status was evaluated at 3- and 11-month intervals following the physician intervention. Smokers who received behavioral counseling were more likely to quit and remain abstinent over the 11-month period (8.4% abstinent) than were smokers given a minimal warning (3.6% abstinent). Prolonged abstinence rates among abnormal PFT subjects (3.7%) did not differ from those of normals (5.9%). The group with normal PFT who received behavioral counseling achieved the highest level of abstinence (9.5%).

  6. A longitudinal test of the theory of planned behavior predicting smoking onset among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2007-10-01

    Despite the particularly detrimental health risks of smoking for adolescent with asthma, several studies demonstrated higher smoking rates among asthmatic adolescents than among healthy adolescents. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, longitudinal studies on differences in smoking predictors between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents are essential. This longitudinal study with two waves with an 18 months interval tests the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) among 346 asthmatic adolescents and 3,733 non-asthmatic adolescents aged 12-16 years. Structural equation models were used to test the predictive value of the TPB in these two groups. The results show, consistent with the TPB, that smoking-related cognitions (attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm) predict smoking onset via intention among both asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. The TPB predicted smoking onset even stronger among adolescents with asthma. These findings may contribute to the development of tailored interventions for the prevention of smoking among asthmatic adolescents.

  7. Assessment of smoking behaviors of 2509 Turkish university students and its correlates: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mergen, Haluk; Mergen, Berna Erdoğmuş; Tavli, Vedide; Ongel, Kurtuluş; Tan, Seref

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study is to determine smoking behavior and its correlates among the faculty of education students. 2509 students, out of 3200, participated in the smoking questionnaire survey in the Faculty of Education of Celal Bayar University, in Manisa, Turkey at the beginning of 2007 educational year. General smoking percentage in school was 45.9%. Regarding daily smoked packet numbers, 186 (16.2%) students smoked less than a packet per day, 330 (28.6%) students between half and one packet, and 636 (55.2%) students more than one packet per day. Monthly familial income found inversely related with smoking (p= 0.003). According to Linear Regression Analysis, drinking behavior could be guessed by smoking behavior (r= 0.081) so that all of smokers had drunk also. Our study indicates also that the starting age to smoking has decreased to as low as 10 years. In past 10 years while smoking prevalence in western countries decreased, it is increased in developing countries. In a Slovakian study, smoking prevalence was 21.6%, in French 34.6% and in Israeli 24.1%. Therefore, more education on the burdens of smoking must be given to university students. PMID:21740386

  8. Symptoms of depression and smoking behaviors following treatment with transdermal nicotine patch.

    PubMed

    Schnoll, Robert A; Leone, Frank T; Hitsman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Subscales from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CESD), assessed prior to treatment, were examined as predictors of withdrawal, craving, and affect during the first week of abstinence, as well as smoking abstinence during the first week of abstinence and at the end of treatment. The negative affect and somatic features CESD subscales were related to higher levels of nicotine withdrawal. The relationship between the interpersonal disturbance CESD subscale and nicotine withdrawal approached significance. This study suggests the need to examine novel psychological mechanisms that may account for the relationship between depression symptoms and smoking cessation.

  9. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:27300740

  10. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  11. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  12. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  13. Poisson Growth Mixture Modeling of Intensive Longitudinal Data: An Application to Smoking Cessation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Li, Yuelin; Rindskopf, David

    2012-01-01

    Intensive longitudinal data (ILD) have become increasingly common in the social and behavioral sciences; count variables, such as the number of daily smoked cigarettes, are frequently used outcomes in many ILD studies. We demonstrate a generalized extension of growth mixture modeling (GMM) to Poisson-distributed ILD for identifying qualitatively…

  14. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  15. The Home Smoking Environment: Influence on Behaviors and Attitudes in a Racially Diverse Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica Legge; Latham, Teaniese; Annang, Lucy; Johnson, William D.; Burdell, Alexandra C.; West, Sabra J.; Clayton, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies indicate that public policy can influence the decrease in smoking behaviors, these policies have not necessarily transferred to home environments at the same rate. The authors surveyed 4,296 students in a southern urban area. African American students were 76.3% of the respondents and Caucasians accounted for 23.7%. African…

  16. Attributional Processes in Behavior Change and Maintenance: Smoking Cessation and Continued Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of attributions in initial and long-term smoking behavior change. Manipulated the externality of treatment. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were superior to the intrinsic self-help group in initial cessation but were inferior in maintaining abstinence. Subjects in the intrinsic self-help group made fewer external attributions for…

  17. The Association between Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Maternal Behavior during the Neonatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Dombkowski, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal behavior during mother-infant interactions during the neonatal period. Participants included 84 mother-infant dyads (43 cigarette-exposed and 41 nonexposed) who were recruited after birth and assessed at 2 to 4 weeks of infant age. Results indicated that…

  18. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  19. Knowledge of the new Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act is associated with smokers' behavior of seeking help in smoking cessation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Yin; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chen, Chien-Chih; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-03-01

    Evidence that smoking area restrictions and raising cigarette taxes affect smokers' behavior of seeking help in cessation is limited. The authors conducted a case-control study of 200 participants in Taipei City, Taiwan, from December 2008 to June 2009 to evaluate the association between knowledge on legislation and the behavior of seeking help in smoking cessation. They compared smokers who sought assistance in clinics/classes and smokers who did not, matching for age, gender, and recruitment time. In a univariate model, both banning smoking and increasing prices had positive effects on smokers' behavior, but the effect size of the latter was larger (P = .021). A better knowledge of the regulations was associated with cessation effort (odds ratio [OR] = 2.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-5.23), as were being more influenced by increased prices (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.38-4.34) and by smoking bans (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.29-4.16). Increased knowledge of the regulations is associated with seeking help for smoking.

  20. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  1. The Long-Term Consequences of Vietnam-Era Conscription and Genotype on Smoking Behavior and Health.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lauren; Conley, Dalton

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to understand the extent to which environmental factors moderate links between genetic risk and the development of smoking behaviors. The Vietnam-era draft lottery offers a unique opportunity to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to smoking is influenced by risky environments in young adulthood. Access to free or reduced-price cigarettes coupled with the stress of military life meant conscripts were exposed to a large, exogenous shock to smoking behavior at a young age. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we interact a genetic risk score for smoking initiation with instrumented veteran status in an instrumental variables (IV) framework to test for genetic moderation (i.e. heterogeneous treatment effects) of veteran status on smoking behavior and smoking-related morbidities. We find evidence that veterans with a high genetic predisposition for smoking were more likely to have been smokers, smoke heavily, and are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with cancer or hypertension at older ages. Smoking behavior was significantly attenuated for high-risk veterans who attended college after the war, indicating post-service schooling gains from veterans' use of the GI Bill may have reduced tobacco consumption in adulthood.

  2. The Long-Term Consequences of Vietnam-Era Conscription and Genotype on Smoking Behavior and Health.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lauren; Conley, Dalton

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to understand the extent to which environmental factors moderate links between genetic risk and the development of smoking behaviors. The Vietnam-era draft lottery offers a unique opportunity to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to smoking is influenced by risky environments in young adulthood. Access to free or reduced-price cigarettes coupled with the stress of military life meant conscripts were exposed to a large, exogenous shock to smoking behavior at a young age. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we interact a genetic risk score for smoking initiation with instrumented veteran status in an instrumental variables (IV) framework to test for genetic moderation (i.e. heterogeneous treatment effects) of veteran status on smoking behavior and smoking-related morbidities. We find evidence that veterans with a high genetic predisposition for smoking were more likely to have been smokers, smoke heavily, and are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with cancer or hypertension at older ages. Smoking behavior was significantly attenuated for high-risk veterans who attended college after the war, indicating post-service schooling gains from veterans' use of the GI Bill may have reduced tobacco consumption in adulthood. PMID:26341507

  3. Predictors of Intention to Smoke among Junior High School Students in Shanghai, China: An Empirical Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jin; Li, Na; Zhu, Jingfen; He, Yaping; Redmon, Pamela; Qiao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking is a worldwide problem that is particularly severe in low- and middle-income countries. Many endogenous and environmental factors affect the intention to smoke, so a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. The study aimed to test the associations among information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model constructs as predictors of intention to smoke in junior high school students in Shanghai, China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 16,500 junior high school students in Shanghai, China. Data on tobacco-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors were collected from students. Structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. Results The mean age of participants was 13.8 years old (standard deviation = 1.02; range 11–17). The experimental smoking rate among junior high school students was 6.6% and 8.7% of the participants expected that they would be smokers in 5 years. The IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.984, root mean square error of approximation = 0.04). Intention to smoke was predicted by behavioral skills (β= 0.670, P < 0.001) and motivation (β= 0.095, P<0.001) among junior high school students. Conclusion The IMB model provides a good understanding of the predictors of intention to smoke and it suggests future interventions among junior high school students should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills. PMID:24244690

  4. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  5. Student Behavior and Attitudes: The Affective Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Patricia F.

    This two-part learning module, designed to acquaint teachers with the affective domain of Bloom's Taxonomy, provides a methodology for identifying the attitudinal and motivational problems of non-traditional students. Part I discusses the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains considered in Bloom's Taxonomy and presents possible learning…

  6. Development and evaluation of treatment paradigms for the suppression of smoking behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Dericco, D A; Brigham, T A; Garlington, W K

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-baseline component-analysis design was employed to assess the effectiveness of three treatment programs for suppressing the cigarette smoking behavior of 24 subjects. Sartiation, cognitive control, and continger shock procedures were evaluated. The results demonstrated a consistent relationship between contingent shock and suppression of smoking. It was further indicated that subjects should be exposed to the number of sessions necessary to achieve total suppression in order to gain maximally from treatment and to avoid relapse. Neither the satiation component nor the cognitive control component was correlated with clear, permanent decrements in smoking frequencies. To date no other treatment program has demonstrated the dramatic effects ofethe contingent shock procedures used in the present study. PMID:885824

  7. Smoker Identity and Its Potential Role in Young Adults’ Smoking Behavior: A Meta-Ethnography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identity is an important influence on behavior. To identify potential targets for smoking cessation interventions in young adults, we synthesized findings from qualitative studies on smoker identity and potential influences on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: A systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to September 19, 2013, was conducted to identify qualitative studies on smoker identity in smokers and ex-smokers aged 16–34. Key concepts were extracted from individual studies and synthesized into higher-order interpretations by following the principles of meta-ethnography. Results: Seventeen relevant papers were identified. At the highest level of interpretation, we identified 4 types of findings: (a) contributory factors to identity, (b) identity in relation to smoking, (c) contextual and temporal patterning, and (d) behavior in relation to smoking. Contributory factors included the desire to establish aspirational individual and social identities, enact a smoker identity appropriate to the momentary social context, and alter personal nonsmoking rules when consuming alcohol. Smoker identity was multifaceted and incorporated individuals’ defensive rationalizations, and both positive and negative feelings attached to it. Smoker identities took time to develop, were subject to change, and were context dependent. Identity was found to play a role in quit attempts. Conclusions: Qualitative research into the identity of young adult smokers has established it as a multifaceted phenomenon serving important functions but also involving conflict and defensive rationalizations. It develops over time and contextual factors influence its expression. The nature of a smoker’s identity can play an important role in smoking cessation. PMID:25622078

  8. Smoke-Free Policies in Multiunit Housing: Smoking Behavior and Reactions to Messaging Strategies in Support or in Opposition

    PubMed Central

    Haardörfer, Regine; Windle, Michael; Solomon, Madeleine; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Given the high proportion of US adults living in multiunit housing (MUH) and the related risks of secondhand smoke, we examined correlates of having smoke-free MUH policies, level of support for such policies, and reactions to related messaging among a quota-based nonprobability sample of US adults. Methods In 2013, 752 adult MUH residents were recruited through an online survey panel to complete a cross-sectional survey assessing tobacco use, personal smoke-free policies in homes and cars, smoke-free MUH policies, and reactions to messaging on smoke-free MUH policies. We sought sufficient representation of smokers, racial/ethnic minorities, and residents of the Southeast. Results Overall, 56.3% had no smoke-free MUH policies and 16.2% had complete policies; 62.8% favored living in smoke-free MUH, and 28.9% said they would move if their building became smoke-free. Multivariate regression indicated that correlates of living in MUH with partial or no policies included younger age, less education, lower income, and current smoking (P’s ≤ .01); more restrictive smoke-free MUH policies were associated with lower cigarette consumption and recent quit attempts among current smokers (P’s < .05); and correlates of support for MUH policies included greater education, nonsmoker status, and having complete MUH policies (P’s < .05). Of 9 messages opposing smoke-free MUH policies, the most persuasive was “People have the right to smoke in their own homes”; the most persuasive message of 11 in support was “You have the right to breathe clean air in your home.” Conclusion Smoke-free MUH policies may reduce smoking. Messaging in favor of smoke-free MUH policies was more persuasive than messaging opposing such policies, indicating the potential for using these approaches. PMID:26111158

  9. A Qualitative Study of Smoking Behaviors among Newly Released Justice-Involved Men and Women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Valera, Pamela; Bachman, Lauren; Rucker, A Justin

    2016-05-01

    Long-term effects of cigarette smoking result in an estimated 443,000 deaths each year, including approximately 49,400 deaths due to exposure to secondhand smoke. Tobacco is a major risk factor for a variety of chronic health problems, including certain cancers and heart disease. In this article, authors present qualitative findings derived from individual interviews with men and women who were incarcerated in New York state and New York City. Participants were 60 racially and ethnically diverse men and women ages 21 through 60 (M = 46.42, SD = 6.88). Of the participants interviewed, 91.7 percent released from a smoke-free correctional facility resumed cigarette smoking and 8.3 percent remained abstinent. Daily consumption ranged from smoking four cigarettes to 60 cigarettes. The four themes that emerged from the study were (1) lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking influences smoking behavior; (2) cigarettes help relieve stress and are pleasurable; (3) there is a relationship between access, availability, and relapse; and (4) smoking cessation strategies are available. Negative influences from participants' families and peers, stressful housing situations, and mandated programs emerged from this study as key challenges to abstaining from smoking cigarettes. Involving family members and partners in smoking cessation interventions could influence newly released justice-involved men and women not to resume cigarette smoking and possibly maintain long-term abstinence.

  10. A Qualitative Study of Smoking Behaviors among Newly Released Justice-Involved Men and Women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Valera, Pamela; Bachman, Lauren; Rucker, A Justin

    2016-05-01

    Long-term effects of cigarette smoking result in an estimated 443,000 deaths each year, including approximately 49,400 deaths due to exposure to secondhand smoke. Tobacco is a major risk factor for a variety of chronic health problems, including certain cancers and heart disease. In this article, authors present qualitative findings derived from individual interviews with men and women who were incarcerated in New York state and New York City. Participants were 60 racially and ethnically diverse men and women ages 21 through 60 (M = 46.42, SD = 6.88). Of the participants interviewed, 91.7 percent released from a smoke-free correctional facility resumed cigarette smoking and 8.3 percent remained abstinent. Daily consumption ranged from smoking four cigarettes to 60 cigarettes. The four themes that emerged from the study were (1) lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking influences smoking behavior; (2) cigarettes help relieve stress and are pleasurable; (3) there is a relationship between access, availability, and relapse; and (4) smoking cessation strategies are available. Negative influences from participants' families and peers, stressful housing situations, and mandated programs emerged from this study as key challenges to abstaining from smoking cigarettes. Involving family members and partners in smoking cessation interventions could influence newly released justice-involved men and women not to resume cigarette smoking and possibly maintain long-term abstinence. PMID:27263202

  11. Smoking outcome by psychiatric history after behavioral and varenicline treatment.

    PubMed

    McClure, Jennifer B; Swan, Gary E; Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa; Javitz, Harold; McAfee, Tim; Deprey, Mona; Richards, Julie; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2010-06-01

    Treatment outcomes were compared across smokers enrolled in the COMPASS cessation trial with (positive psychiatric history [PH+], n = 271) and without (PH-, n = 271) a diagnosis of PH based on medical record evidence of anxiety, depression, psychotic disorder, or bipolar disorder. Everyone received behavioral counseling plus varenicline and was followed for 6 months post quit date. PH+ smokers took varenicline for fewer days on average (59.4 vs. 68.5, p < or = .01) but did not differ in their use of behavioral treatment. PH+ smokers were more likely to report anxiety and depression, but side-effect intensity ratings did not differ after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Overall, all side effects were rated as moderate intensity or less. Groups had similar 30-day abstinence rates at 6 months (31.5% PH+ vs. 35.4% PH-, p = .35). In sum, having a psychiatric diagnosis in this trial did not predict worse treatment outcome or worse treatment side effects.

  12. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  13. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  14. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  15. The Role of Affect in Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamokoski, Cynthia A.; Scheel, Karen R.; Rogers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, theoretical explanations, and treatment suggestions for suicidal behaviors have historically focused largely on cognitions, but a more comprehensive picture may be provided by examining the role of affect in suicidal thoughts and behaviors. In the current study the link between affect and suicide within the theoretical framework of…

  16. Cognition, Affect, and Behavior in the Prediction of Group Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Research was designed to identify the cognitions (stereotypes and values), affects, and behavior associated by white college students (n=869) with 3 target groups: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans. Affect and behavior were the strongest predictors of attitudes toward minority groups; cognition made a minor contribution…

  17. Assessing the congruence between physician behavior and expert opinion in smoking cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P D; Ito, J R; Carbonari, J P; DiClemente, C C

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the degree of transfer of smoking cessation innovation from research to health care settings by comparing frequency-of-practice ratings by a national sample of family practice physicians (n = 903, response rate = 70%) and importance ratings by smoking cessation and prevention experts (n = 58, response rate = 84%) for 14 counseling techniques. The physician survey elicited a profile that combines traditional and behavioral techniques--discussing smoking with patients, encouraging goal setting, suggesting specific steps for quitting, and presenting pamphlets. They refer to others infrequently and rarely report planning for follow-up about smoking. The experts rated these selected techniques as moderately to highly important. They favored a behavioral approach coupled with active follow-up. The major differences between physician and expert rankings were that the experts placed higher priority on planned follow-up and a lower priority on pamphlets. The uneven quality of counseling reported by physicians suggests that weighting their responses according to expert opinion would provide a more sensitive profile. Scaled weighting produced scores that may help researchers define a composite quality-quantity measure of activity. PMID:1776538

  18. Clinical management of smoking cessation: patient factors affecting a reward-based approach.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jeanette M; Halpern, Michael T

    2010-12-10

    Although the majority of current smokers indicate they would like to quit, only about half of smokers make a quit attempt each year. Of those who attempt to quit, only about 5% are successful. Many effective products and programs are available to assist in smoking cessation; however those interested in quitting often do not make use of these resources. To increase use of cessation products in order to improve successful cessation rates, the Consumer Demand Roundtable has argued that smokers need to be viewed as consumers of cessation products rather than as patients needing treatment. With this consumer-based approach in mind, the current review examines how participant characteristics, perceptions, and behavior influence, and are influenced by, contingency management (CM) paradigms in various settings. Findings suggest that participant factors associated with success in these programs include demographic characteristics (eg, gender, marital status), self-efficacy, motivation to quit, and impulsivity. Overall, participants perceive incentives for successful cessation as motivating. However, such programs may involve greater withdrawal symptoms (eg, craving for cigarettes) initially, but these symptoms tend to decrease at a greater rate over time compared with nonincentive group participants. CM programs have also been shown to be successful across a number of settings (eg, communities, schools), including settings in which smokers are often considered difficult to treat (eg, substance abuse treatment centers). Overall, CM programs are perceived positively by participants and can increase rates of successful cessation. Furthermore, CM interventions have the flexibility to adapt to individual preferences and needs, leading to greater participation and likelihood of successful cessation. Thus, CM provides an important framework for addressing the need for consumer-focused smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  20. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  1. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  2. Poisson Growth Mixture Modeling of Intensive Longitudinal Data: An Application to Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Li, Yuelin; Rindskopf, David

    2011-01-01

    Intensive longitudinal data (ILD) have become increasingly common in the social and behavioral sciences; count variables, such as the number of daily smoked cigarettes, are frequently-used outcomes in many ILD studies. We demonstrate a generalized extension of growth mixture modeling (GMM) to Poisson-distributed ILD for identifying qualitatively distinct trajectories in the context of developmental heterogeneity in count data. Accounting for the Poisson outcome distribution is essential for correct model identification and estimation. In addition, setting up the model in a way that is conducive to ILD measures helps with data complexities – large data volume, missing observations, and differences in sampling frequency across individuals. We present technical details of model fitting, summarize an empirical example of patterns of smoking behavior change, and describe research questions the generalized GMM helps to address. PMID:22408365

  3. Social Network Behavior and Engagement Within a Smoking Cessation Facebook Page

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Perotte, Adler; Galica, Kasia; Dreyer, Lindy; Griffith, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Yun, Christopher; Patrick, Heather; Coa, Kisha

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media platforms are increasingly being used to support individuals in behavior change attempts, including smoking cessation. Examining the interactions of participants in health-related social media groups can help inform our understanding of how these groups can best be leveraged to facilitate behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of participation, self-reported smoking cessation length, and interactions within the National Cancer Institutes’ Facebook community for smoking cessation support. Methods Our sample consisted of approximately 4243 individuals who interacted (eg, posted, commented) on the public Smokefree Women Facebook page during the time of data collection. In Phase 1, social network visualizations and centrality measures were used to evaluate network structure and engagement. In Phase 2, an inductive, thematic qualitative content analysis was conducted with a subsample of 500 individuals, and correlational analysis was used to determine how participant engagement was associated with self-reported session length. Results Between February 2013 and March 2014, there were 875 posts and 4088 comments from approximately 4243 participants. Social network visualizations revealed the moderator’s role in keeping the community together and distributing the most active participants. Correlation analyses suggest that engagement in the network was significantly inversely associated with cessation status (Spearman correlation coefficient = −0.14, P=.03, N=243). The content analysis of 1698 posts from 500 randomly selected participants identified the most frequent interactions in the community as providing support (43%, n=721) and announcing number of days smoke free (41%, n=689). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of the moderator for network engagement and provide helpful insights into the patterns and types of interactions participants are engaging in. This study adds knowledge of how the

  4. Effects of tobacco taxation and pricing on smoking behavior in high risk populations: a knowledge synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bader, Pearl; Boisclair, David; Ferrence, Roberta

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.

  5. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Krasny, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial declines in smoking in the United States. However, smoking still remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature deaths in the country. Despite the continuing challenges of implementing tobacco control strategies and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry to undermine such strategies, there are now unprecedented opportunities to prevent smoking initiation, facilitate cessation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent literature discussing key strategies that have proven effective in tobacco control including regulations on sales and marketing of tobacco products, taxation, and smoke-free legislation. We focused on these three tobacco control strategies because of their potential to positively influence the environment of both minors and adults regardless of their smoking status. Although research has identified significant individual and social predictors of tobacco use, environmental influences are also important risk factors for tobacco use. PMID:24634706

  6. Does passive smoking affect the outcome of grommet insertion in children?

    PubMed

    Praveen, C V; Terry, R M

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral myringotomy with insertion of ventilation tube (grommet) is the most common surgical procedure done on children under general anaesthetic. A prospective study was conducted on children undergoing grommet insertion to ascertain any relationship between exposures of passive smoking to the outcome of grommet insertion. Six hundred and six children (with 1174 ears) who underwent grommet insertion for recurrent secretory otitis media were followed up till the grommets were extruded. Thirty-three children (65 per cent), whose mothers smoked when they were pregnant, had bilateral narrow external ear canals. The median survival rate of grommet was 59 weeks in children who were exposed to passive smoking as compared to 86 weeks for non-exposed children and the extrusion rate of grommet was 36 per cent higher at the end of one year if both parents smoked compared to the non-smoking group. Post-extrusion myringosclerosis was 64 per cent if both parents smoked and less than 20 per cent if neither parents smoked. It is concluded that post-operative infection rate, attic retraction, post-extrusion myringosclerosis and permanent perforations of tympanic membrane were more common in children exposed to passive smoking. The study provides further support to professional and governmental advice that passive smoking is harmful.

  7. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  8. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change. PMID:16182458

  9. [Characteristics of smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical exercise in health behavioral models].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Shimouchi, A; Hayashi, K; Hatta, H; Morita, M; Fukumoto, M; Masumoto, T; Oonishi, S

    1995-12-01

    Various kinds of preventive health behaviors are promoted by health education. The extent of behavioral modification achieved, however, obviously differs from individual to individual according to habits, one of the reasons being the characteristics of various health habits are perceived differently. This cross-sectional study examined the association of indices representing health behavior models with smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical exercise. The indices and their meaning were as follows; health locus of control (HLC) and saliency of health are thought to cause the most active behavioral change, health norm relatively passive change, and vulnerability to illness the most passive change. The indices and lifestyle (health related practices) were surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire in a rural town in March 1994. The study sample consisted of 1,010 males and 1,055 females aged 20 years or older who responded to all questions related to the indices. Results are as follows: 1) Smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with vulnerability to illness, suggesting that people who quit smoking or alcohol drinking do so because of perception of their association with illness. Alcohol drinking seemed to have a higher magnitude of being associated with becoming ill or with fear of illness than smoking. 2) Consuming green-yellow vegetables and fresh fish, and physical fitness were associated with internal HLC, saliency of health, and health norm. These habits appeared to be easy to modify by active personal behavior choice. 3) Consuming milk, yogurt, boiled beans, tofu, oranges, and other fruits were associated with saliency of health. These habits seemed to relate to personal sense of being "healthy". 4) It seemed that younger people more likely changed their behavior by active self-management, while, older people changed due to their sense of value or norm. While it is important for health education to promote "self-management of health" by active

  10. Testing the indirect effect of trait mindfulness on adolescent cigarette smoking through negative affect and perceived stress mediators.

    PubMed

    Black, David S; Milam, Joel; Sussman, Steve; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness refers to an enhanced attention to and awareness of present moment experience. This study examined how trait mindfulness, as measured with six items from Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, might influence adolescent cigarette smoking frequency through its impact on depressive affect, anger affect and perceived stress mediators. Self-reported data from Chinese adolescents (N = 5287, mean age = 16.2 years, SD = 0.7; 48.8% females) were collected within 24 schools. The product of coefficients test was used to determine significant mediation paths. Results from baseline cross-sectional data indicated that trait mindfulness had a significant indirect effect on past 30-day smoking frequency through depressive affect, anger affect and perceived stress mediators. Results from 13-month longitudinal data indicated that these indirect effects remained significant for depressive affect and perceived stress but not for anger affect. Findings from this study may suggest that heightening mindfulness among adolescents may indirectly reduce cigarette smoking perhaps by improving affect regulation competencies.

  11. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  12. A Syndemic including Cigarette Smoking and Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of MSM in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, F; Nehl, EJ; Zheng, T; He, N; Berg, CJ; Lemieux, AF; Lin, L; Tran, A; Sullivan, PS; Wong, FY

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We explored possible correlates of cigarette smoking and their associations with levels of smoking among a sample of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We also explored the syndemic associations of substance use and psychosocial problems on sexual risk behaviors. Methods Cross-sectional data collection from 404 MSM in Shanghai, China. Results MSM exhibit a high prevalence of smoking (66.3%). Both light and heavy smoking were associated with alcohol and drug use, depression, intimate partner violence, sexual attitudes, and gay identity (though the associations for light smokers were moderate compared to those for heavy smokers). Conclusions Our findings indicate the presence of a health syndemic among MSM, and suggest that smoking prevention and cessation and other substance abuse interventions should be integrated into efforts preventing sexual risk behaviors among MSM. PMID:23517682

  13. Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and a control group were designed as stimulus material in a repeated measure nonequivalent group experimental design. The 2 intervention workshops developed included: analysis + analysis (where participants discussed and analyzed cigarette and antismoking ads) and analysis + production (where participants discussed, analyzed, and then created their own antismoking ads). The analysis + production workshop was generally more successful than the analysis + analysis workshop and control group in changing participants' behavioral intention to smoke and attitude toward smoking but not subjective norms over time. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17617012

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Social Smoking in Young Adults: Comparisons of Behavioral and Self-Identified Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Social smoking is an increasingly common pattern among emerging adults. Although distinct patterns have emerged between social smokers and non-social smokers, there is discrepancy about how to define the construct, with inconsistencies between self-identified social smoking and behavioral social smoking. We report prevalence and correlates of young adult smokers who self-identify and behave as social smokers (SELF + BEH), self-identified non-behavioral social smokers (SELF-ONLY), and non-social smokers (NON-SOCIAL). Methods: Young adults age 18–25 years who have smoked at least 1 cigarette in the past 30 days (N = 1,811) were recruited through Facebook for a national anonymous, online survey of tobacco and other substance use. Three social smoking items were used to categorize respondents into 1 of 3 smoking groups. Groups were examined for prevalence and differences on demographics, substance use, motivation to quit smoking and thoughts about tobacco abstinence. Results: SELF-ONLY (46%) was the largest group, followed by SELF + BEH (27%) and NON-SOCIAL (27%). SELF + BEH smoke less frequently, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, are less addicted to cigarettes, have a higher desire to quit, and perceive a lower quitting difficulty compared with SELF-ONLY. SELF + BEH and SELF-ONLY were more likely to be male, be marijuana users, and be addicted to marijuana than NON-SOCIAL. SELF + BEH exhibited a lower frequency of smoking, less cigarettes per day, were less addicted, and had more days co-using alcohol and cigarettes than NON-SOCIAL. Conclusion: Identifying social smokers based on self-identification in addition to behavioral components appears to be important for designing smoking cessation interventions for emerging adults. PMID:25385876

  15. Do we believe the tobacco industry lied to us? Association with smoking behavior in a military population

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; DeBon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and smoking cessation and relapse has not been studied. In a large military sample entering Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT), where tobacco use is prohibited, we investigated (i) the prevalence of agreement with a statement that tobacco companies have misled the public about the health consequences of smoking and (ii) the association of this acknowledgement with smoking status upon entry into BMT (N = 36 013). At baseline, 56.6% agreed that tobacco companies have been deceptive, and agreement was a strong predictor of smoking status [smokers less likely to agree, odds ratio (OR) = 0.39, P < 0.01]. At 12-month follow-up, we examined the association between industry perception at baseline and current smoking status (N = 20 672). Recruits who had been smoking upon entry into BMT and who had acknowledged industry deception were less likely to report current smoking (OR = 0.84, P = 0.01). These findings suggest that anti-industry attitudes may affect smoking relapse following cessation. PMID:19528314

  16. Personality, Perceived Environment, and Behavior Systems Related to Future Smoking Intentions among Youths: An Application of Problem-Behavior Theory in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Na, Li; He, Yaping; Redmon, Pam; Qiao, Yun; Ma, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking among youths is a worldwide problem, particularly in China. Many endogenous and environmental factors influence smokers’ intentions to smoke; therefore, a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. This study aimed to develop a prediction model based on problem-behavior theory (PBT) to interpret intentions to smoke among Chinese youths. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,675 adolescents from junior, senior, and vocational high schools in Shanghai, China. Data on smoking status, smoking knowledge, attitude toward smoking, parents’ and peers’ smoking, and media exposure to smoking were collected from students. A structural equation model was used to assess the developed prediction model. Results The experimental smoking rate and current smoking rate among the students were 11.0% and 3%, respectively. Our constructed model showed an acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.987, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.034). Intention to smoke was predicted by perceived environment (β = 0.455, P < 0.001) system consisting of peer smoking (β = 0.599, P < 0.001), parent smoking (β = 0.152, P < 0.001), and media exposure to smoking (β = 0.226, P < 0.001), and behavior system (β = 0.487, P < 0.001) consisting of tobacco experimentation (β = 0.663, P < 0.001) and current smoking (β = 0.755, P < 0.001). Smoking intention was irrelevant for personality system in students (β = -0.113, P>0.05) which consisted of acceptance of tobacco use (β = 0.668, P < 0.001) and academic performance (β = 0.171, P < 0.001). Conclusion The PBT-based model we developed provides a good understanding of the predictors of intentions to smoke and it suggests future interventions among youths should focus on components in perceived environment and behavior systems, and take into account the moderating effects of personality system. PMID:25826611

  17. Smoke-free law did not affect revenue from gaming in Delaware

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, L; Alamar, B; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Linear regression of gaming revenue and average revenue per machine on a public policy variable, time, while controlling for economic activity and seasonal effects. Results: The linear regression showed that the smoke-free law was associated with no effect on total revenue or average revenue per machine. Conclusion: Smoke-free laws are associated with no change in gaming revenue. PMID:15735294

  18. Measures of Affect and Nicotine Dependence Predict Differential Response to Smoking Cessation Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelman, Diane C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Randomly assigned smokers (n=126) to six-session smoking cessation treatments consisting of skills training or support counseling strategies and nicotine gum or rapid smoking nicotine exposure strategies. Counseling and nicotine strategies were completely crossed; all four combinations resulted in equivalent one-year abstinence rates. Treatments…

  19. A Study of Smoking Disparity and Factors Associated with Children Smoking Behavior in the Mountain and City Schools in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Ted; Chen, Fu-Li; Magnus, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Yen, Yea-Yin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Background: While higher smoking prevalences have been better described for adults and adolescents in the mountainous areas than in the plain area in Taiwan, no studies have previously examined whether this disparity begins with children in elementary schools. The purpose of this study was thus designed to explore clustering in smoking behavior…

  20. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  1. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior1,2. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], β = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, P = 2.8 × 10−73). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], β = 0.367, s.e. = 0.059, P = 5.7 × 10−10; and rs1028936[A], β = 0.446, s.e. = 0.074, P = 1.3 × 10−9) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], β = 0.333, s.e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 × 10−8) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04–1.08, P = 1.8 × 10−8). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08–1.18, P = 3.6 × 10−8) was significantly associated with smoking cessation. PMID:20418890

  2. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    2010-05-01

    Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], beta = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, P = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], beta = 0.367, s.e. = 0.059, P = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], beta = 0.446, s.e. = 0.074, P = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], beta = 0.333, s.e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.

  3. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  4. A Positive Affective Neuroendocrinology Approach to Reward and Behavioral Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Welker, Keith M.; Gruber, June; Mehta, Pranjal H.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging lines of research suggest that both testosterone and maladaptive reward processing can modulate behavioral dysregulation. Yet, to date, no integrative account has been provided that systematically explains neuroendocrine function, dysregulation of reward, and behavioral dysregulation in a unified perspective. This is particularly important given specific neuroendocrine systems are potential mechanisms underlying and giving rise to reward-relevant behaviors. In this review, we propose a forward-thinking approach to study the mechanisms of reward and behavioral dysregulation from a positive affective neuroendocrinology (PANE) perspective. This approach holds that testosterone increases reward processing and motivation, which increase the likelihood of behavioral dysregulation. Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation. We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework. Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology. PMID:26191007

  5. [Smoking behavior and alcohol drinking in students in a rural area of East Germany].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, R; Zirm, E; Uischner, C

    2001-06-01

    The present investigation ("Torgau Study") provides epidemiological information on a target population which in the past has hardly been in the focus of health promotion activities: the subgroup of children and adolescents of rural regions in Eastern Germany. A total survey was conducted that encompassed all classes from grade 6 to 10 of all schools in the district of Torgau (Saxony). Together, 5,925 students in the age range 12 to 16 years participated in this study (participation rate: 81.3%). The results provide a differentiated picture of their smoking behavior and alcohol use broken down by gender, school-type and grade. With respect to smoking the data show that the prevalence of regular smokers (i.e., daily smokers) in grade 10 is 41% in the Mittelschule (the school-type with a stronger vocational orientation) and 29% in the Gymnasium (the school-type with a university-preparatory curriculum). 51.9% of all students report that at least one parent smokes. There is a highly significant association between smoking status of the parents and smoking status of their children. The analysis of reasons for smoking highlight the stepwise transition into nicotine dependency from a psychological perspective. Most of the adolescents (about 80%) know about the dangers of passive smoking. However, with increasing age this knowledge loses its subjective relevance because dissonance-reducing strategies are applied ("doesn't matter"-attitude). Among girls, even in grade 10, there are almost no daily alcohol consumers (less than 1%); among boys in grade 10 the rate of daily alcohol users is about 8%. The rate of those 10th graders who consume alcoholic beverages at least once a week is however 30.6% (girls: 18.7%; boys: 44.2%). The longer the alcohol experience the more specific become the social and emotional motives for drinking. Altogether, the results suggest that efforts to prevent substance misuse in the rural regions of Eastern Germany are as necessary as in other

  6. Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children.

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, B; Castorina, R

    1999-01-01

    We review the potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects of children's prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Children's exposure to ETS has been assessed in epidemiologic studies as a risk factor for a variety of behavioral and neurodevelopmental problems including reduced general intellectual ability, skills in language and auditory tasks, and academic achievement, and behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and decreased attention spans. We review 17 epidemiologic studies that have attempted to separate the effects of maternal active smoking during pregnancy from passive ETS smoke exposure by the pregnant mother or the child. Based on the available data, we found that ETS exposure could cause subtle changes in children's neurodevelopment and behavior. However, studies to date are difficult to interpret because of the unknown influence of uncontrolled confounding factors, imprecision in measurements of smoking exposure, and collinearity of pre- and postnatal maternal smoking. Although some evidence suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with deficits in intellectual ability and behavioral problems in children, the impact of prenatal or postnatal ETS exposure remains less clear. PMID:10585903

  7. Cigarette ignition propensity, smoking behavior, and toxicant exposure: A natural experiment in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study used a 'pre-post' research design to measure the impact of the Canadian reduced ignition propensity law on cigarette toxicity and smoking behavior among Canadian smokers. Method The study was conducted in Ontario, Canada over a ten-month period in 2005-2006, consisting of 4 laboratory visits (baseline N = 61, final N = 42). At Visit 1, questionnaire data and biospecimens were collected. During the following 24 hours, participants smoked 5 cigarettes ad libitum through a topography recording device and collected their cigarette butts. Visit 2 consisted of a questionnaire and smoking one cigarette to measure laboratory topography values. After ten months, these procedures were repeated. Results Generalized estimating equations, with law status (pre and post) as a fixed within-subject factor, were used to determine changes in behavior and biomarker exposure. Overall, there were no significant differences in smoking topography, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine pre-post law (p>0.1). However, analyses revealed a significant increase in the summed concentrations of hydroxyfluorene metabolites (N = 3),, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine, with at notable increase in hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites (N = 3) (pΣhydroxyfluorene = 0.013, 22% increase; p1-hydroxypyrene = 0.018, 24% increase; pΣhydroxyphenanthrene = 0.061, 17% increase). Conclusion While the results suggest no change in topography variables, data showed increases in exposure to three PAH biomarkers following reduced ignition propensity implementation in Canada. These findings suggest that human studies should be considered to evaluate policy impacts. PMID:22189009

  8. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  9. The Protective Effect of Hispanic Ethnicity on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mortality is Mitigated by Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Gregory L; Thomas, Deborah SK; Cicutto, Lisa; Newman, Lee S; Lutz, Sharon; Hokanson, John E

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Studies in Hispanic/Latino populations have shown ethnicity to be either a predictive or protective factor for COPD mortality and it is unclear whether this disagreement is attributable to ethnic differences in smoking rates, smoking behavior or differences in genetic susceptibility. Objectives This study will examine the role of smoking behavior as a means of explaining differences in risk for COPD mortality between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Methods Participants were recruited into a cohort study from the San Luis Valley in Colorado beginning in the early 1980’s and followed for mortality until 2012. COPD and cardiovascular disease are often comorbid conditions and account for the competing risk of CVD in the analysis of COPD mortality. Mortality searches were conducted regularly and all ICD codes were collected for mortality event. Primary and secondary causes of each event were assessed using appropriate codes. Results Hispanic current smokers did not differ from NHW current smokers in years smoked (p=0.6) but Hispanic former smokers accumulated more years smoked compared to NHW former smokers (22 vs. 20, p=0.047). Hispanic ethnicity was significantly protective for COPD mortality adjusting for age, gender, pre-existing emphysema, hypertension and smoking status and accounting for the effect of CVD mortality (RR=0.58, 95% C.I. 0.34–0.99, p=0.035). Further adjustment for smoking behavior mitigated this effect. Conclusions The lower COPD mortality seen in Hispanic smokers may be due lower cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Thus, smoking behavior may play a key role in explaining differences in COPD mortality as they relate to Hispanic ethnicity.

  10. Sociodemographic and smoking behavioral predictors associated with smoking cessation according to follow-up periods: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches.

    PubMed

    Myung, Seung Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeol; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Do Hoon; Seong, Moon Woo; Nam, Myung Hyun; Oh, Seung Won; Kim, Ji Ae; Kim, Mi Young

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated sociodemographic and smoking behavioral factors associated with smoking cessation according to follow-up periods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches, subjects were a total of 118 adult male smokers, who were followed up for 12 months. Univariable logistic regression analysis and stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of smoking cessation. The overall self-reported point prevalence rates of abstinence were 20% (24/118) at 12 months follow-up, and there was no significant difference in abstinence rates between placebo and nicotine patch groups. In the univariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of successful smoking cessation were the low consumption of cigarettes per day and the low Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores (p<0.05) at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. In the stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses, predictors of successful smoking cessation, which were different according to the follow- up periods, were found to be the low consumption of cigarettes per day at the short-term and midterm follow-up (< or =6 months), older age, and the low consumption of cigarettes per day at the long-term follow-up (12 months).

  11. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior.

  12. Fighting experience affects fruit fly behavior in a mating context.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In animals, correlations exist among behaviors within individuals, but it is unclear whether experience in a specific functional context can affect behavior across different contexts. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the effects of conflict-induced behavioral modifications on male mating behavior. In D. melanogaster, males fight for territories and experience a strong winner-loser effect, meaning that winners become more likely to win subsequent fights compared to losers, who continue to lose. In our protocol, males were tested for courtship intensity before and after fighting against other males. We show that male motivation to copulate before fights cannot predict the fight outcomes, but that, afterwards, losers mate less than before and less than winner and control males. Contrarily, winners show no differences between pre- and post-fight courtship intensity, and do not differ from control males. This suggests that the physiological modifications resulting from fight outcomes indirectly affect male reproductive behavior. PMID:27108453

  13. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bojing; Greiner, Felix; Bremberg, Sven; Galanti, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    We used a structured approach to assess whether active smokers presented with pictorial warnings on cigarette packages (PWCP) had a higher probability of quitting, reducing, and attempting to quit smoking than did unexposed smokers. We identified 21 articles from among nearly 2500 published between 1993 and 2013, prioritizing coverage over relevance or quality because we expected to find only a few studies with behavioral outcomes. We found very large heterogeneity across studies, poor or very poor methodological quality, and generally null or conflicting findings for any explored outcome. The evidence for or against the use of PWCP is insufficient, suggesting that any effect of PWCP on behavior would be modest. Determining the single impact of PWCP on behavior requires studies with strong methodological designs and longer follow-up periods. PMID:25122019

  14. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  15. Motivational effects of smoked marijuana: behavioral contingencies and low-probability activities.

    PubMed Central

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V; Bernstein, D J; Capriotti, R M; Nellis, M J; Kelly, T H

    1990-01-01

    Six adult male research volunteers, in two groups of 3 subjects each, lived in a residential laboratory for 15 days. All contact with the experimenters was through a networked computer system, and subjects' behavior was monitored continuously and recorded. During the first part of each day, they were allowed to socialize. Two cigarettes containing active marijuana (2.7% delta 9-THC) or placebo were smoked during the private work period and the period of access to social activities. Three-day contingency conditions requiring subjects to engage in a low-probability work activity (instrumental activity) in order to earn time that could be spent engaging in a high-probability work activity (contingent activity) were programmed during periods of placebo and active-marijuana smoking. During placebo administration, the contingency requirement reliably increased the amount of time that subjects spent engaged in the low-probability instrumental activity and decreased the time spent engaged in the high-probability activity. During active-marijuana administration, however, the increases in instrumental activity were consistently larger than observed under placebo conditions. The decreases in contingent activity were similar to those seen under placebo conditions. Smoking active marijuana was thus observed to produce increments in instrumental activity under motivational conditions involving contingencies for "work activities." PMID:2299291

  16. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-06-01

    The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further.

  17. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  18. [Health attitudes and behaviors of students of the faculty of dentistry Jagiellonian university collegium medicum towards tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Cabała, Agnieszka; Virtanen, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a serious medical and social problem in Poland. In a very specific way it affects youth and students because in this period of life health behaviours and habits are formed. The aim of the research was the valuation of the scale of smoking habits, attitude and knowledge of this problem among dental students of CMUJ. The research included 345 students. The study was based on special questionnaire. The results allowed to claim that the frequency of smoking among dental students was lower then among general Polish population. Dental students were conscious how harmful smoking and passive cigarette smoking to health is. They understood their role in anti-nicotine actions, but had a low opinion about the effectiveness of such actions.

  19. Alcohol and Smoking Affect Risk of Uncomplicated Colonic Diverticulosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Katsunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Aoki, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Junichi; Yanase, Mikio; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Mizokami, Masashi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1–180 g/week), moderate (181–360 g/week), and heavy (≥361 g/week). Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, <400, 400–799, and ≥800. A total of 2,164 consecutive patients were enrolled. Overall, 542 patients (25.1%) had uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis located on the right side (50%), bilaterally (29%), and on the left side (21%). Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (P<0.01), increasing alcohol consumption (P<0.01) and smoking (P<0.01), and atherosclerotic disease (P<0.01) as significantly associated factors. Alcohol and smoking were associated with right-sided and bilateral diverticula. In conclusion, one in four Japanese adults have colonic diverticulosis (50% right-sided). Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral. PMID:24339905

  20. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome.

    PubMed

    Eyring, Kenneth R; Pedersen, Brent S; Yang, Ivana V; Schwartz, David A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (FA). DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3) are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:26642056

  1. Associations between smoking behaviors and financial stress among low-income smokers

    PubMed Central

    Widome, Rachel; Joseph, Anne M.; Hammett, Patrick; Van Ryn, Michelle; Nelson, David B.; Nyman, John A.; Fu, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many American households struggle to bring in sufficient income to meet basic needs related to nutrition, housing, and healthcare. Nicotine addiction and consequent expenditures on cigarettes may impose extra financial strain on low-income households. We examine how cigarette use behaviors relate to self-reported financial stress/strain among low-income smokers. Methods At baseline in 2011/12, OPT-IN recruited adult smokers age 18–64 from the administrative databases of the state-subsidized Minnesota Health Care Programs (N = 2406). We tested whether nicotine dependency, type of cigarettes used, and smoking intensity were associated with self-reported difficulty affording food, healthcare, housing, and living within one’s income. All regression models were adjusted for race, education, income, age, and gender. Results Difficulty living on one’s income (77.4%), paying for healthcare (33.6%), paying for housing (38.4%), and paying for food (40.8%) were common conditions in this population. Time to first cigarette and cigarettes smoked per day predicted financial stress related to affording food, housing, and living within one’s income (all p < 0.05). For instance, those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 60 minutes had about half the odds of reporting difficulty paying for housing compared to those who had their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (adjusted odds ratio = 0.55 [95% CI: 0.41, 0.73]). Type of cigarette used was not associated with any type of financial stress/strain. Conclusions Smoking and particularly heavy smoking may contribute in an important way to the struggles that low-income households with smokers face in paying for necessities. PMID:26844167

  2. Understanding smoking behavior using wearable sensors: relative importance of various sensor modalities.

    PubMed

    Patil, Yogendra; Tiffany, Stephen; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker (PACT) system, which consists of abdominal (AB) and thoracic (TC) breathing sensors, and a RF hand-to-mouth proximity sensor (PS), has proven to be useful in the detection and characterization of cigarette smoke inhalations. In this research, we further analyze the impact of subjects' anthropometric characteristics on the quality of sensor signals and evaluate the contribution of each sensor modality to the accuracy of the classifier for smoke inhalations detection. Results indicated that subjects with medium BMI, high BMI, and in a standing position were, respectively, 1.91, 4.74 and 4.32 times more likely to affect the quality of the breathing signal. Features extracted from TC+AB+PS, TC, AB, and PS sensors for individual detection models, resulted in F-scores of 94%, 85.39%, 88.54% and 90.48% respectively. For group models, the F-scores were 67.12%, 41.46%, 46.56% and 59.14%. This indicates higher contribution of abdominal breathing and hand gestures to detection of smoke inhalations. PMID:25571582

  3. Household Smoking Behavior: Effects on Indoor Air Quality and Health of Urban Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Arlene M.; Breysse, Patrick; Rand, Cynthia; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Eggleston, Peyton; Diette, Gregory B.; Williams, D'Ann; Bernert, John T.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association between biomarkers and environmental measures of second hand smoke (SHS) with caregiver, i.e. parent or legal guardian, report of household smoking behavior and morbidity measures among children with asthma. Baseline data were drawn from a longitudinal intervention for 126 inner city children with asthma, residing with a smoker. Most children met criteria for moderate to severe persistent asthma (63%) versus mild intermittent (20%) or mild persistent (17%). Household smoking behavior and asthma morbidity were compared with child urine cotinine and indoor measures of air quality including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine (AN). Kruskal–Wallis, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Spearman rho correlation tests were used to determine the level of association between biomarkers of SHS exposure and household smoking behavior and asthma morbidity. Most children had uncontrolled asthma (62%). The primary household smoker was the child's caregiver (86/126, 68%) of which 66 (77%) were the child's mother. Significantly higher mean PM2.5, AN and cotinine concentrations were detected in households where the caregiver was the smoker (caregiver smoker: PM2.5 μg/m3: 44.16, AN: 1.79 μg/m3, cotinine: 27.39 ng/ml; caregiver non-smoker: PM2.5: 28.88 μg/m3, AN: 0.71 μg/m3, cotinine:10.78 ng/ml, all P ≤ 0.01). Urine cotinine concentrations trended higher in children who reported 5 or more symptom days within the past 2 weeks (>5 days/past 2 weeks, cotinine: 28.1 ng/ml vs. <5 days/past 2 weeks, cotinine: 16.2 ng/ml; P = 0.08). However, environmental measures of SHS exposures were not associated with asthma symptoms. Urban children with persistent asthma, residing with a smoker are exposed to high levels of SHS predominantly from their primary caregiver. Because cotinine was more strongly associated with asthma symptoms than environmental measures of SHS exposure and is independent of the site of exposure, it remains the gold

  4. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors.

  5. Before escalation: behavioral and affective forecasting in escalation of commitment.

    PubMed

    Ku, Gillian

    2008-11-01

    This research examines preinvestment forecasting processes in escalation of commitment, considering two questions: whether individuals are able to accurately predict their behavior and affect in escalation situations and how forecasting processes may be linked to actual escalation. Three experiments demonstrated that individuals underpredicted their escalation and overpredicted their postescalation regret. Two of the experiments also indicated that the less individuals predicted being entrapped, the more they escalated. Counter to expectations, anticipated regret did not predict escalation. The discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical importance of forecasting on escalation and on the importance of understanding both behavioral and affective forecasting effects simultaneously.

  6. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

    PubMed

    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians. PMID:25530128

  7. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

    PubMed

    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.

  8. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  9. Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Grenard, L Jerry; Stacy, W Alan; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Fu, Xiaolu; Johnson, C Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15-16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. PMID:19573273

  10. Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Chi; Huang, Yin-Mei

    2002-10-01

    Past empirical evidence has indicated that employee affective delivery can influence customer reactions (e.g., customer satisfaction, service quality evaluation). This study extends previous research by empirically examining mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions. Data were collected from 352 employee-customer pairs in 169 retail shoe stores in Taiwan. Results showed that the influence of employee affective delivery on customers' willingness to return to the store and pass positive comments to friends was indirect through the mediating processes of customer in-store positive moods and perceived friendliness. The study also indicated that employee affective delivery influences customers' time spent in store, which, in turn, influences customer behavioral intentions. PMID:12395825

  11. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Hersperger, Fabian; Mazija, Lorena; Widmann, Annekathrin; Wüst, Alexander; Thum, Andreas S.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and change locomotion on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to the initiation of an escape response or changes in foraging behavior on more rigid substrates. PMID:24478658

  12. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and criminal/deviant behavior: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Travis C; McGloin, Jean Marie; Fearn, Noelle E

    2006-12-01

    A growing body of empirical literature has emerged examining the somewhat inconsistent relationship between maternal cigarette smoking (MCS) during pregnancy and children's subsequent antisocial behavior. To systematically assess what existing studies reveal regarding MCS as a criminogenic risk factor for offspring, the authors subjected this body of literature to a meta-analysis. The analysis reveals a statistically significant--yet rather small--overall mean "effect size" of the relationship between MCS and the likelihood children will engage in deviant/criminal behavior. In addition to being rather moderate in size, the MCS-crime/deviance relationship is sensitive to a number of methodological specifications across empirical studies--particularly those associated with sample characteristics. The implications of this modest, and somewhat unstable, relationship are discussed in terms of guidelines for future research on this subject and how existing theoretical perspectives may be integrated to explain the MCS-crime/deviance link.

  13. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  14. Behavior Therapy and the Transdermal Nicotine Patch: Effects on Cessation Outcome, Affect, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…

  15. Explaining adolescents' smoking and drinking behavior: the concept of smoker and drinker prototypes in relation to variables of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vitale, Salvatore; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that social image factors play an important role in the course of adolescent's substance use, that is, smoking and drinking. The concept of social images or prototypes is embedded into a theoretical model called the prototype/willingness model. The present study addresses the relative value of the prototype/willingness model in relation to the theory of planned behavior. To study relations between prototypes and adolescents' willingness and intention to engage in smoking and drinking behavior, cross-sectional data among 2814 adolescents (12-16 years) were gathered. Results show that adolescents describe daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers generally as slightly well adjusted, slightly rebellious, not really cool, and not really attractive. Positive relations were observed between smoker and drinker prototypes and adolescents' intention and willingness to smoke and drink in the future. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that prototypes of daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers explained a significant part of the variance in intention and willingness to smoke and drink, and added significantly to the variance explained by the variables of the theory of planned behavior.

  16. Understanding the relationship between socioeconomic status, smoking cessation services provided by the health system and smoking cessation behavior in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Fong, Geoffrey; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2013-03-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of smoking cessation policies requires greater consideration of the cultural and socioeconomic complexities of smoking. The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between socioeconomic status and "selected midpoints" linked to smoking cessation in Brazil. Data was collected from a representative sample of urban adult smokers as part of the ITC-Brazil Survey (2009, N = 1,215). After controlling for age and gender, there were no statistically significant differences quit attempts in the last six months between individuals with different socioeconomic status. However, smokers with high socioeconomic status visited a doctor 1.54 times more often than those with low socioeconomic status (p-value = 0.017), and were also 1.65 times more likely to receive advice to quit smoking (p-value = 0.025). Our results demonstrate that disparities in health and socioeconomic status are still a major challenge for policymakers to increase the population impact of tobacco control actions worldwide.

  17. Affect-Congruent Social-Cognitive Evaluations and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the affect children feel toward peers would influence children's social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors. The sample consisted of 209 fifth-grade children (11- to 12-year-olds; 119 boys and 90 girls). For each child, 3 target peers (liked, disliked, and neutral) were identified via a sociometric nomination procedure.…

  18. Understanding How Domestic Violence Affects Behavior in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Malika

    2011-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…

  19. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  20. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  1. Affective Behavior and Nonverbal Interaction in Collaborative Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peña, Adriana; Rangel, Nora; Muñoz, Mirna; Mejia, Jezreel; Lara, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    While a person's internal state might not be easily inferred through an automatic computer system, within a group, people express themselves through their interaction with others. The group members' interaction can be then helpful to understand, to certain extent, its members' affective behavior in any case toward the task at hand. In this…

  2. Creating Research-Based Videos that Can Affect Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To engage recipients of Extension science-based video programming involves understanding what behaviors and decisions the recipients may be considering that can be affected by the programming. Such understanding may be developed through interviews, focus groups, and surveys, which should provide guidance for elements of the style and content of…

  3. Laboratory-based, cue-elicited craving and cue reactivity as predictors of naturally occurring smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research.

  4. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female "attractiveness" was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline and three different behavioral treatment formats for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Javitz, Harold S; Zbikowski, Susan M; Deprey, Mona; McAfee, Timothy A; McClure, Jennifer B; Richards, Julie; Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa M; Swan, Gary E

    2011-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence of the relative cost-effectiveness of proactive telephone counseling (PTC) and Web-based delivery of smoking cessation services in conjunction with pharmacotherapy. We calculated the differential cost-effectiveness of three behavioral smoking cessation modalities with varenicline treatment in a randomized trial of current smokers from a large health system. Eligible participants were randomized to one of three smoking cessation interventions: Web-based counseling (n=401), PTC (n=402), or combined PTC-Web counseling (n=399). All participants received a standard 12-week course of varenicline. The primary outcome was a 7-day point prevalent nonsmoking at the 6month follow-up. The Web intervention was the least expensive followed by the PTC and PTC-Web groups. Costs per additional 6-month nonsmoker and per additional lifetime quitter were $1,278 and $2,601 for Web, $1,472 and $2,995 for PTC, and $1,617 and $3,291 for PTC-Web. Cost per life-year (LY) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved were $1,148 and $1,136 for Web, $1,320 and $1,308 for PTC, and $1,450 and $1,437 for PTC-Web. Based on the cost per LY and QALY saved, these interventions are among the most cost-effective life-saving medical treatments. Web, PTC, and combined PTC-Web treatments were all highly cost-effective, with the Web treatment being marginally more cost-effective than the PTC or combined PTC-Web treatments. PMID:21731592

  6. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline and three different behavioral treatment formats for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Javitz, Harold S; Zbikowski, Susan M; Deprey, Mona; McAfee, Timothy A; McClure, Jennifer B; Richards, Julie; Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa M; Swan, Gary E

    2011-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence of the relative cost-effectiveness of proactive telephone counseling (PTC) and Web-based delivery of smoking cessation services in conjunction with pharmacotherapy. We calculated the differential cost-effectiveness of three behavioral smoking cessation modalities with varenicline treatment in a randomized trial of current smokers from a large health system. Eligible participants were randomized to one of three smoking cessation interventions: Web-based counseling (n=401), PTC (n=402), or combined PTC-Web counseling (n=399). All participants received a standard 12-week course of varenicline. The primary outcome was a 7-day point prevalent nonsmoking at the 6month follow-up. The Web intervention was the least expensive followed by the PTC and PTC-Web groups. Costs per additional 6-month nonsmoker and per additional lifetime quitter were $1,278 and $2,601 for Web, $1,472 and $2,995 for PTC, and $1,617 and $3,291 for PTC-Web. Cost per life-year (LY) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved were $1,148 and $1,136 for Web, $1,320 and $1,308 for PTC, and $1,450 and $1,437 for PTC-Web. Based on the cost per LY and QALY saved, these interventions are among the most cost-effective life-saving medical treatments. Web, PTC, and combined PTC-Web treatments were all highly cost-effective, with the Web treatment being marginally more cost-effective than the PTC or combined PTC-Web treatments.

  7. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  8. The impact of neighborhood violence and social cohesion on smoking behaviors among a cohort of smokers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Lozano, Paula; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighborhood-level violence and smoking behaviors in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011–2012, and whether neighborhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 5–6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico Survey. Self-reported neighborhood violence and social cohesion were asked of Wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighborhoods). Neighborhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (range 4–14 and 10–25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviors, and relapse. Results Higher neighborhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85). Neighborhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the association between neighborhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighborhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. Conclusion In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighborhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighborhoods. Neighborhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. PMID:26043898

  9. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg−1 per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg−1 galantamine and 3.0 mg kg−1 donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects. PMID:26784967

  10. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-19

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg(-1) per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg(-1) galantamine and 3.0 mg kg(-1) donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects.

  11. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, R L; Kimmey, B A; Rupprecht, L E; Bowers, M E; Hayes, M R; Schmidt, H D

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and current smoking cessation medications have limited efficacy. Thus, there is a clear need for translational research focused on identifying novel pharmacotherapies for nicotine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that acute administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) attenuates nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that AChEIs could be repurposed for smoking cessation. Here, we expand upon these findings with experiments designed to determine the effects of repeated AChEI administration on voluntary nicotine taking in rats as well as smoking behavior in human smokers. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of nicotine (0.03 mg kg(-1) per 0.59 ml) on a fixed-ratio-5 schedule of reinforcement. Once rats maintained stable nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg(-1) galantamine and 3.0 mg kg(-1) donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects. PMID:26784967

  12. Challenges for the smoking ban in Israeli pubs and bars: analysis guided by the behavioral ecological model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The latest amendment to the ban on smoking in public places in Israel was implemented in 2007, adding pubs and bars (P&B) to the list of public places in which smoking is prohibited. However, smoking in most P&B continued. The aim of the study was to identify the theoretically plausible reasons for the partial success of a public ban on smoking in P&B settings. Explanations provided by P&B owners were interpreted as probable causal factors based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with 36 P&B owners in Tel-Aviv and 18 Israeli towns and cities of various population size. Results P&B owners reported a variety of situational factors (i.e., contingencies) and reinforcers as likely explanations of the partial failure of the legislated ban on smoking in public places, particularly P&B. The major reinforcers for non-adherence with the law were no or low frequency of inspections and low penalties from authorities. P&B owners also feared loss of customers and revenue if bans were enforced in their own establishment but not in competing establishments. Finally, owners reported social norms prevailing among some Israeli patrons supporting smoking in P&B settings, in part to express opposition to the new law. Conclusions Qualitative assessment can uncover probable social situations that operate to prevent greater adherence to smoking bans. The results warrant confirmation by quantitative analyses. Policies with mandated inspections and penalty requirements that are implemented in all bars without prejudice could lead to greater adherence to smoking bans. Positive reinforcing consequences that encourage adherence (such as publicity and support from non-smokers) would be more likely to generate both greater adherence to the policy and good will toward the government. Principles of behavior outlined in the BEM offer guidance for designing quantitative confirmation analyses of future bans. PMID:22913392

  13. Smoking affects the self-healing capacity of periodontal tissues. A histological study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Bruno Braga; César-Neto, João Batista; Gonçalves, Patrícia Furtado; Sallum, Enílson Antônio; Nociti, Francisco Humberto

    2005-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in rats the impact of cigarette smoke inhalation (CSI) and nicotine administration (NA) on a periodontal healing model in the absence of a plaque biofilm. Wistar rats (n = 42) were assigned to three groups: Group 1, control (n = 14); Group 2, NA (3 mg kg(-1)) (n = 14); and Group 3, CSI (n = 14). Thirty days after CSI and NA exposure, fenestration defects were created buccally to the distal root of the first mandibular molar. The animals were killed 21 d later and their mandibles were processed for histological examination. The percentage of bone fill and the density of newly formed bone were assessed histometrically. Intergroup analysis demonstrated that compared to the control and NA groups, CSI was associated with a reduced rate of bone repair. No new cementum had been formed along the root surface in any of the three groups. It is concluded that cigarette smoke reduces the self-healing capacity of periodontal tissues.

  14. Particles from wood smoke and road traffic differently affect the innate immune system of the lung.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Mari; Cecilie Nygaard, Unni; Løvik, Martinus

    2009-09-01

    The effect of particles from road traffic and wood smoke on the innate immune response in the lung was studied in a lung challenge model with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Female Balb/cA mice were instilled intratracheally with wood smoke particles, particles from road traffic collected during winter (studded tires used; St+), and during autumn (no studded tires; St-), or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Simultaneously with, and 1 or 7 days after particle instillation, 10(5) bacteria were inoculated intratracheally. Bacterial numbers in the lungs and spleen 1 day after Listeria challenge were determined, as an indicator of cellular activation. In separate experiments, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected 4 h and 24 h after particle instillation. All particles tested reduced the numbers of bacteria in the lung 24 h after bacterial inoculation. When particles were given simultaneously with Listeria, the reduction was greatest for DEP, followed by St+ and St-, and least for wood smoke particles. Particle effects were no longer apparent after 7 days. Neutrophil numbers in BAL fluid were increased for all particle exposed groups. St+ and St- induced the highest levels of IL-1beta, MIP-2, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha, followed by DEP, which induced no TNF-alpha. In contrast, wood smoke particles only increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicating a cytotoxic effect of these particles. In conclusion, all particles tested activated the innate immune system as determined with Listeria. However, differences in kinetics of anti-Listeria activity and levels of proinflammatory mediators point to cellular activation by different mechanisms. PMID:19552530

  15. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice.

  16. A latent modeling approach to genotype–phenotype relationships: maternal problem behavior clusters, prenatal smoking, and MAOA genotype

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, B.; Metzger, A.; Pine, D. S.; Kistner-Griffin, E.; Cook, E.; Wakschlag, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the application of a latent modeling approach to genotype–phenotype relationships and gene×environment interactions, using a novel, multidimensional model of adult female problem behavior, including maternal prenatal smoking. The gene of interest is the mono-amine oxidase A (MAOA) gene which has been well studied in relation to antisocial behavior. Participants were adult women (N=192) who were sampled from a prospective pregnancy cohort of non-Hispanic, white individuals recruited from a neighborhood health clinic. Structural equation modeling was used to model a female problem behavior phenotype, which included conduct problems, substance use, impulsive-sensation seeking, interpersonal aggression, and prenatal smoking. All of the female problem behavior dimensions clustered together strongly, with the exception of prenatal smoking. A main effect of MAOA genotype and a MAOA× physical maltreatment interaction were detected with the Conduct Problems factor. Our phenotypic model showed that prenatal smoking is not simply a marker of other maternal problem behaviors. The risk variant in the MAOA main effect and interaction analyses was the high activity MAOA genotype, which is discrepant from consensus findings in male samples. This result contributes to an emerging literature on sex-specific interaction effects for MAOA. PMID:22610759

  17. Do smoke-free laws affect revenues in pubs and restaurants?

    PubMed

    Melberg, Hans Olav; Lund, Karl E

    2012-02-01

    In the debate about laws regulating smoking in restaurants and pubs, there has been some controversy as to whether smoke-free laws would reduce revenues in the hospitality industry. Norway presents an interesting case for three reasons. First, it was among the first countries to implement smoke-free laws, so it is possible to assess the long-term effects. Second, it has a cold climate so if there is a negative effect on revenue one would expect to find it in Norway. Third, the data from Norway are detailed enough to distinguish between revenue from pubs and restaurants. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis of bi-monthly observations of revenues in restaurants and pubs show that the law did not have a statistically significant long-term effect on revenue in restaurants or on restaurant revenue as a share of personal consumption. Similar analysis for pubs shows that there was no significant long-run effect on pub revenue.

  18. Do smoke-free laws affect revenues in pubs and restaurants?

    PubMed

    Melberg, Hans Olav; Lund, Karl E

    2012-02-01

    In the debate about laws regulating smoking in restaurants and pubs, there has been some controversy as to whether smoke-free laws would reduce revenues in the hospitality industry. Norway presents an interesting case for three reasons. First, it was among the first countries to implement smoke-free laws, so it is possible to assess the long-term effects. Second, it has a cold climate so if there is a negative effect on revenue one would expect to find it in Norway. Third, the data from Norway are detailed enough to distinguish between revenue from pubs and restaurants. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis of bi-monthly observations of revenues in restaurants and pubs show that the law did not have a statistically significant long-term effect on revenue in restaurants or on restaurant revenue as a share of personal consumption. Similar analysis for pubs shows that there was no significant long-run effect on pub revenue. PMID:21103905

  19. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  20. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics.

    PubMed

    Marti, Joachim; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12). PMID:26356844

  1. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics.

    PubMed

    Marti, Joachim; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12).

  2. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Joachim; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12) PMID:26356844

  3. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  4. Healthy and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Leung, Leigh Ann

    2014-12-01

    Smoking rates in the country of origin were used to empirically examine whether immigrants converge toward natives' level of smoking prevalence with assimilation. Results show that assimilation is associated with a lower likelihood of ever quitting smoking for immigrants from countries with lower smoking rates relative to the USA and a higher likelihood for immigrants from countries with higher smoking rates, but for current or ever smoking, the estimated effects of assimilation are statistically insignificant. Although these findings demonstrate that health assimilation depends on the country of origin, the extent to which this pattern of assimilation is due to peer influence, differences in responsiveness to anti-smoking interventions such as taxes or smoke-free air restrictions, and/or other factors remains unclear because of the limitations of this study.

  5. An examination of exposure and avoidance behavior related to second-hand cigarette smoke among adolescent girls in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although rates of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) are declining in Canada, SHS exposure among non-smoking adolescents remains high. This study aimed to describe frequency, locations, and avoidance behavior related to SHS exposure among adolescent girls in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data were analyzed from 841 adolescent girls aged 13 to 15 years old who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of a cohort study examining SHS exposure and substance use. Measures assessed demographics, smoking behavior and intentions, frequency and locations of SHS exposure, and avoidance behavior related to SHS. Results Excluding their own smoking, 27% of girls reported exposure at least once a week and an additional 17% reported daily or almost daily exposure over the past month. Among girls who reported daily or almost daily exposure, the locations of most frequent levels of high exposure were in the home, at or near school, inside a vehicle, and outdoor public places. Avoidance behavior related to SHS exposure significantly differed by overall SHS exposure in the past month. Conclusions Despite historically low smoking rates, many adolescent girls continue to report regular SHS exposure in multiple locations in British Columbia. Girls with the most frequent exposure were significantly less likely to report habitual avoidance behavior related to SHS compared to those less frequently exposed. This study elucidates settings of high SHS exposure among adolescent girls that could be targeted in future policy interventions. Additionally, future interventions could target adolescent girls who are frequently exposed to SHS and report infrequent avoidance behavior around their SHS exposure. PMID:24885176

  6. Developing a Method for Specifying the Components of Behavior Change Interventions in Practice: The Example of Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Seymour, Natalie; Michie, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a difference between interventions as planned and as delivered in practice. Unless we know what was actually delivered, we cannot understand "what worked" in effective interventions. This study aimed to (a) assess whether an established taxonomy of 53 smoking cessation behavior change techniques (BCTs) may be applied or adapted…

  7. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  8. Social Stress, Smoking Behavior and Mortality from Cancer of the Respiratory System: A Macro-Social Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between the stressfulness of each state's social environment, smoking, and mortality rates for respiratory cancer. It was based on a health behavior model which assumed that under conditions of high stress some people fail to exercise normal prudence in either protecting their health or engage in practices…

  9. Onset of Smoking Behaviors and Participation in Leisure Physical Activities of Turkish Adolescents Attending Vocational Health Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Feryal; Hey, William; Mumcu, Gonca; Koksal, Leyla; Luleci, Emel; Sur, Haydar

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationships between smoking behavior and leisure physical activity habits of adolescents (n=170, 85F & 85M, mean age= 15.42 [plus or minus] 0.58, age range=15-17 years) attending vocational health schools in Turkey. Participants were randomly selected from four provinces of…

  10. Treating Smoking Behavior by Discussion and Hypnosis: Destroying the Myths of Habit, Addiction, and Willpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Ferris

    1987-01-01

    Describes an innovative procedure which uses discussion and hypnosis to help smokers lose their desire to smoke. The smoker is asked to reevaluate the validity of beliefs concerning smoking and urged to see destructive effects from poisonous tobacco smoke on mind and body. With hypnosuggestion the client is helped to implement abstinence from…

  11. Emotion and motivated behavior: postural adjustments to affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Rosengren, Karl S; Smith, Darin P

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-six participants (18 female, 18 male) viewed affective pictures to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Framed within the biphasic theory of emotion, the three systems approach was employed by collecting measures of subjective report, expressive physiology, and motivated behavior. Postural adjustments associated with viewing affective pictures were measured. Results indicated sex-differences for postural responses to unpleasant pictures; an effect not found for pleasant and neutral picture contents. Females exhibited increased postural movement in the posterior direction, and males exhibited increased movement in the anterior direction, for unpleasant pictures. Subjective report of valence and arousal using the self-assessment manikin (SAM), and the startle eye-blink reflex were collected during a separate session, which replicated previous picture-viewing research. Specifically, participants rated pleasant pictures higher in valence and exhibited smaller startle responses compared to unpleasant pictures. Females also reported lower valence ratings compared to males across all picture contents. These findings extend our knowledge of motivated engagement with affective stimuli and indicate that postural responses may provide insight into sex-related differences in withdrawal behavior.

  12. Does smoking, age or gender affect the protein phenotype of extracellular vesicles in plasma?

    PubMed

    Bæk, R; Varming, K; Jørgensen, M M

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in several diseases, which have formed the basis for the potential use of EV analyses in a clinical setting. The protein phenotype of EVs can provide information on the functionality of the vesicles and may be used for identification of disease-related biomarkers. With this extensive study of 161 healthy individuals it was elucidated that certain markers of plasma EVs are influenced by demographic variations such as gender, age and smoking status. When the purpose is to use EVs as a diagnostic tool, it should be emphasized how important it is to choose the correct demographic group when comparing marker levels of plasma EVs. PMID:27470710

  13. A Smoke-Free Paso del Norte: Impact Over 10 Years on Smoking Prevalence Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Thom; Hernandez, Nora; Kelly, Michael; Law, Jon; Colwell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of a tobacco control initiative over 10 years on cessation and prevention. Methods. We examined 2000–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System cases of a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) with systematic tobacco control efforts throughout the decade (El Paso, TX) and 2 comparison MSAs similar in size and population with less coordinated tobacco control efforts (Austin-Round Rock, TX and San Antonio, TX). Results. Yearly, El Paso exhibited a 6% increase in the prevalence of former smokers, a 6% decrease in prevalence of daily smokers, and a 7% decrease in the prevalence of established smoking (≥ 100 cigarettes per lifetime and currently smoking); we did not observe similar trends in the comparison MSAs. There was no change in the prevalence of nondaily smokers in any of the MSAs. Conclusions. The coordinated tobacco control activities in El Paso are related to cessation among daily smokers and prevention of established smoking at the population level but have not stimulated cessation among nondaily smokers. Comprehensive tobacco control should focus more on not only daily smokers but also nondaily smokers. PMID:22494000

  14. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378

  15. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li Yuan; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Eun Whan; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378

  16. Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147

  17. Cognitive and Behavioral Impairments Evoked by Low-Level Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Components: Comparison with Nicotine Alone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brandon J; Cauley, Marty; Burke, Dennis A; Kiany, Abtin; Slotkin, Theodore A; Levin, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    Active maternal smoking has adverse effects on neurobehavioral development of the offspring, with nicotine (Nic) providing much of the underlying causative mechanism. To determine whether the lower exposures caused by second-hand smoke are deleterious, we administered tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week, corresponding to all 3 trimesters of fetal brain development. Dosing was adjusted to produce maternal plasma Nic concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers. We then compared TSE effects to those of an equivalent dose of Nic alone, and to a 10-fold higher Nic dose. Gestational exposure to TSE and Nic significantly disrupted cognitive and behavioral function in behavioral tests given during adolescence and adulthood (postnatal weeks 4-40), producing hyperactivity, working memory deficits, and impairments in emotional processing, even at the low exposure levels corresponding to second-hand smoke. Although TSE effects were highly correlated with those of Nic, the effects of TSE were much larger than could be attributed to just the Nic in the mixture. Indeed, TSE effects more closely resembled those of the 10-fold higher Nic levels, but still exceeded their magnitude. In combination with our earlier findings, this study thus completes the chain of causation to prove that second-hand smoke exposure causes neurodevelopmental deficits, originating in disruption of neurodifferentiation, leading to miswiring of neuronal circuits, and as shown here, culminating in behavioral dysfunction. As low level exposure to Nic alone produced neurobehavioral teratology, 'harm reduction' Nic products do not abolish the potential for neurodevelopmental damage.

  18. Cognitive and Behavioral Impairments Evoked by Low-Level Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Components: Comparison with Nicotine Alone.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brandon J; Cauley, Marty; Burke, Dennis A; Kiany, Abtin; Slotkin, Theodore A; Levin, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    Active maternal smoking has adverse effects on neurobehavioral development of the offspring, with nicotine (Nic) providing much of the underlying causative mechanism. To determine whether the lower exposures caused by second-hand smoke are deleterious, we administered tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week, corresponding to all 3 trimesters of fetal brain development. Dosing was adjusted to produce maternal plasma Nic concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers. We then compared TSE effects to those of an equivalent dose of Nic alone, and to a 10-fold higher Nic dose. Gestational exposure to TSE and Nic significantly disrupted cognitive and behavioral function in behavioral tests given during adolescence and adulthood (postnatal weeks 4-40), producing hyperactivity, working memory deficits, and impairments in emotional processing, even at the low exposure levels corresponding to second-hand smoke. Although TSE effects were highly correlated with those of Nic, the effects of TSE were much larger than could be attributed to just the Nic in the mixture. Indeed, TSE effects more closely resembled those of the 10-fold higher Nic levels, but still exceeded their magnitude. In combination with our earlier findings, this study thus completes the chain of causation to prove that second-hand smoke exposure causes neurodevelopmental deficits, originating in disruption of neurodifferentiation, leading to miswiring of neuronal circuits, and as shown here, culminating in behavioral dysfunction. As low level exposure to Nic alone produced neurobehavioral teratology, 'harm reduction' Nic products do not abolish the potential for neurodevelopmental damage. PMID:26919958

  19. Clarithromycin might attenuate the airway inflammation of smoke-exposed asthmatic mice via affecting HDAC2

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Min; Shu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Qiongzhen; Pan, Lin; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoke has been proved to be one of the most dangerous ingredients leading to the unsatisfying treatment response of asthmatics to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) therapy. Macrolides, a class of antibiotics, possess the traits of immunomodulation and anti-inflammation besides antimicrobial activity. Given that studies on the efficacy of macrolides on the refractory asthma patient have diverting conclusions, this article was carried on to investigate the effects of macrolide on the airway inflammation of smoke-exposed asthmatic mice. Methods BALB/c mice were chosen to be the subjects of this study. They were raised to establish asthma model (OVA group); and one asthma group were exposed to the smoke (SEA group), one asthma group were treat with clarithromycin (CAM group) after smoke exposure. Control group mice were used as parallel comparison. Total inspiratory resistance (RL), expiratory resistance of the lung (Re) and lung compliance (Cdyn) were the main index to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The histopathological change was studied to assess lung tissue inflammation. Cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also tested to represent airway inflammation. IL-4 and CXCL1 in BALF and serum were also used to evaluate the airway inflammation. Histone deacelytase2 (HDAC2) activity of lung tissues was measure by assay kit. HDAC2 expression in the lung tissue had been detected by western blot. Results Re, RL and Cdyn were monitored to represent airway responsiveness. All of the three indicators in SEA group were significantly different from control group, while clarithromycin improved airway responsiveness and the three indicator were statistically significant (P<0.01). Histopathology observation had showed massive infiltration of inflammatory cells in both OVA group and SEA group, while inflammation infiltration attenuated in CAM group. Total cell counts in SEA group was much higher than that in CAM group (P=0.019), so were neutrophils

  20. The affective domain: behaviors important in entry-level practice.

    PubMed

    Bedford, M R

    1984-06-01

    Affective behaviors, those associated with attitudes, beliefs, and values, were identified by a Delphi panel of dietetic experts. Statements converged through four rounds into a set of behaviors categorized into five components: human, technical, conceptual, personal, and professional. One group of registered dietitians rated each of these statements from most to least important within each component. Another group rated each statement using the scale 1 = absolutely essential to 4 = not of concern. Mean rankings within each of the five components tended to have a small range. Mean ratings of the statements indicated respondents considered all of the behaviors to be essential or at least important. For an additional analysis, ratings of statements were subjected to principal components analysis. Inspection of the varimax-rotated factor matrix revealed that all but 1 of the 41 behavior statements could be grouped in an additional way to yield six internally consistent scales: initiative/flexibility, professional commitment, interpersonal, personal responsibility, leadership, and personal commitment. Additional research should be done to determine the practicality of utilizing these behavior statements to evaluate the performance of dietitians both at the entry level and at more advanced levels.

  1. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  2. The Self-Reported Clinical Practice Behaviors of Australian Optometrists as Related to Smoking, Diet and Nutritional Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional), therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242). Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake) and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior. Results A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%). Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05) less likely to enquire about patients’ smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05). Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2%) and dry eye disease (63.9%). The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners’ nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications

  3. Snus use and smoking behaviors: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Naomi; Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The effect of snus use on smoking behaviors among US young adults is largely unknown. Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected in 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 (participants aged 20-28 years) showed that young adult nonsmokers who had tried snus were subsequently more likely than those who had not tried snus to become current smokers (n = 1696; adjusted odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 3.14). Snus use was not associated with subsequent smoking cessation or reduction among young adult current smokers (n = 488; P > .46).

  4. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  5. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified

  6. Intense, natural pollution affects Arctic tundra vegetation at the Smoking Hills, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B. ); Zobens, V.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Gizyn, W.I. )

    1990-04-01

    Long-term, natural emissions of sulfur dioxide and acidic aerosols have had an impact on remote tundra at the Smoking Hills. The emissions have caused plant damage by SO{sub 2} toxicity, and have severely acidified soil and freshwater. At the most intensively fumigated locations closest to the sources of emission, pollution stresses have devegetated the terrestrial ecosystem. The first plants that are encountered along a spatial gradient of decreasing pollution stress are Artemisia tilesii and Arctagrostis latifolia, which dominate a characteristic, pollution-tolerant community. Farther away at moderately polluted sites there are mixed communities with floristic elements of both fumigated and reference, unfumigated tundra. This pattern of ecosystem response to a concatenation of stresses caused by natural air and soil pollution is qualitatively similar to the damage that occurs in the vicinity of anthropogenic point sources of air pollution, such as smelters.

  7. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nasar U.; Ahmed, Noushin S.; Semenya, Kofi A.; Elzey, Jared D.; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C. Ray; Hinds, Joseph E.

    2004-01-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking. PMID:14977279

  9. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking. PMID:14977279

  11. Out of the smokescreen II: will an advertisement targeting the tobacco industry affect young people's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christine; Oakes, Wendy; Bull, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of an antismoking advertisement on young people's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects/setting 3091 cinema patrons aged 12–24 years in three Australian states; 18.6% of the sample (n = 575) were current smokers. Design/intervention Quasi‐experimental study of patrons, surveyed after having viewed a movie. The control group was surveyed in week 1, and the intervention group in weeks 2 and 3. Before seeing the movie in weeks 2 and 3, a 30 s antismoking advertisement was shown, shot in the style of a movie trailer that warned patrons not to be sucked in by the smoking in the movie they were about to see. Outcomes Attitude of current smokers and non‐smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non‐smokers to smoke in 12 months. Results Among non‐smokers, 47.8% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the viewed movie was not OK compared with 43.8% of the control subjects (p = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference among smokers in the intervention (16.5%) and control (14.5%) groups (p = 0.4). A higher percentage of smokers in the intervention group indicated that they were likely to be smoking in 12 months time (38.6%) than smokers in the control group (25.6%; p<0.001). For non‐smokers, there was no significant difference in smoking intentions between groups, with 1.2% of intervention subjects and 1.6% of controls saying that they would probably be smoking in 12 months time (p = 0.54). Conclusions This real‐world study suggests that placing an antismoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to immunise non‐smokers against the influences of film stars' smoking. Caution must be exercised in the type of advertisement screened as some types of advertising may reinforce smokers' intentions to smoke. PMID:17565137

  12. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  13. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders.

  14. Corridors and olfactory predator cues affect small mammal behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock, John L.

    2005-03-30

    Abstract The behavior of prey individuals is influenced by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, habitat configuration, risk of predation, and availability of resources, and these habitat-dependent factors may have interactive effects. We studied the responses of mice to an increase in perceived predation risk in a patchy environment to understand how habitat corridors might affect interactions among species in a fragmented landscape. We used a replicated experiment to investigate corridor-mediated prey responses to predator cues in a network of open habitat patches surrounded by a matrix of planted pine forest. Some of the patches were connected by corridors. We used mark–recapture techniques and foraging trays to monitor the movement, behavior, and abundance of small mammals. Predation threat was manipulated in one-half of the replicates by applying an olfactory predator cue. Corridors synchronized small mammal foraging activity among connected patches. Foraging also was inhibited in the presence of an olfactory predator cue but apparently increased in adjacent connected patches. Small mammal abundance did not change as a result of the predator manipulation and was not influenced by the presence of corridors. This study is among the 1st to indicate combined effects of landscape configuration and predation risk on prey behavior. These changes in prey behavior may, in turn, have cascading effects on community dynamics where corridors and differential predation risk influence movement and patch use.

  15. Physical Exercise Affects Attentional Orienting Behavior through Noradrenergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), a commonly-used animal model of ADHD, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a non-reinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, was not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  16. Chronic intracerebral cannula can affect feeding behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Larue-Achagiotis, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1989-04-01

    Intracerebral cannulae were placed in the lateral ventricle of rats. It was shown that the cannulae per se can affect feeding behavior. After recovery from surgery, rats displayed an unusual eating rate which consisted of very long, slow and large meals. This slow eating rate led to a modification of the circadian pattern; it induced a decrease in night-time and increase in day-time cumulative intakes. This phenomenon appeared when cannulae crossed the cortical motor area concerned with forelimb movements. Different stereotaxic coordinates had to be used in order to place cannulae in the lateral ventricle without disturbing the feeding pattern. This observation underlines the importance of recording feeding pattern before any surgery in any study of feeding behavior.

  17. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health.

  18. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  19. Cognitions about smoking and not smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Vitale, Salvatore

    2009-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior identifies important proximal determinants of behavior, including attitude toward the behavior, perception of subjective norms exerted by significant others, and perception of perceived control over performance of the behavior. Because research in the planned behavior tradition has focused on desirable target behaviors, it is not clear how these determinants can best be conceptualized to account for adolescents' acquisition of health risk behaviors such as smoking. This cross-sectional study compared the explanatory power of planned behavior constructs assessed in relation to "smoking" and "not smoking" in a sample of 248 Dutch secondary students (aged 12 to 17 years; 56% girls). The results indicated that four variables--attitude toward smoking, perceived subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control over both smoking and not smoking--best explained the adolescents' smoking intentions and smoking behavior. Methodological and practical implications for smoking interventions are discussed.

  20. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  1. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  2. Smoking at the workplace: Effects of genetic and environmental causal accounts on attitudes towards smoking employees and restrictive policies

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Zuckerman, Miron; Duberstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    People hold diverse beliefs regarding the etiologies of individual and group differences in behaviors which, in turn, might affect their attitudes and behaviors. It is important to establish how perceived etiologies for smoking might affect the effectiveness of policy initiatives and prevention efforts. The present study assessed whether exposure to genetic vs. environmental accounts for smoking affects attitudes towards a) workplace-related smoking policies and b) smokers at the workplace. Results indicate that exposure to a genetic explanation led to stronger objections to a smoking restrictive policy compared with a non-genetic explanation. Additionally, participants in the genetic condition were more accepting of a smoker in the workplace than in the environmental condition. Evidently, beliefs about the etiology of smoking influence a range of attitudes related to smokers and smoking related policies. PMID:25530710

  3. Perceived hotness affects behavior of basketball players and coaches.

    PubMed

    Attali, Yigal

    2013-07-01

    Although "hot hands" in basketball are illusory, the belief in them is so robust that it not only has sparked many debates but may also affect the behavior of players and coaches. On the basis of an entire National Basketball Association season's worth of data, the research reported here shows that even a single successful shot suffices to increase a player's likelihood of taking the next team shot, increase the average distance from which this next shot is taken, decrease the probability that this next shot is successful, and decrease the probability that the coach will replace the player. PMID:23630221

  4. Perceived hotness affects behavior of basketball players and coaches.

    PubMed

    Attali, Yigal

    2013-07-01

    Although "hot hands" in basketball are illusory, the belief in them is so robust that it not only has sparked many debates but may also affect the behavior of players and coaches. On the basis of an entire National Basketball Association season's worth of data, the research reported here shows that even a single successful shot suffices to increase a player's likelihood of taking the next team shot, increase the average distance from which this next shot is taken, decrease the probability that this next shot is successful, and decrease the probability that the coach will replace the player.

  5. The Relations of School Staff Smokers' Attitudes about Modeling Smoking Behavior in Students and Their Receptivity to No-Smoking Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaif, Elisha R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines school personnel smokers' reports on how they would feel if a no-smoking ban was instituted on school premises. Results show that the 59 respondents from 14 schools were interested in quitting smoking, but did not favor a policy prohibiting smoking on campus. Discusses smoking influences on students and other issues. (RJM)

  6. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed. PMID:2252468

  7. Mood and organizational citizenship behavior: the effects of positive affect on employee organizational citizenship behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Shiaw, W T

    1999-11-01

    This study, involving 139 employees from a variety of industries, organizations, and positions in Singapore, measured the effects of mood on the intentions of employees to contribute actions that are organizationally desirable but are not part of their formal job requirements (organizational citizenship behavior). After effects of established patterns of historical organizational citizenship behavior, demographic characteristics, and employee positive and negative affectivity had been controlled, stepwise regression analysis revealed that the amount of positive affect currently experienced by an employee significantly influenced the employee's intention to perform specific acts of organizational citizenship.

  8. Behavior, knowledge, and attitude of surgeons and patients toward preoperative smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, Waseem M.; Al-Nassar, Sami A.; Alahmadi, Reem M.; Almohanna, Shahad M.; Alhilali, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for postoperative complications. Quitting smoking prior to surgery helps overcome those complications. PROBLEM: Surgeons' attention for educating their patients about the importance of smoking cessation prior to surgery is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking-related surgical complications. The extent of advised patients by their surgeons has not been identified. METHODS: A descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study using a survey was conducted in 2013 including eligible patients in King Khalid University Hospital. Simultaneously, 69 surgeons were included. All participant data were randomly collected and analyzed using Chi-square analysis. RESULTS: The frequency of smokers is more in surgical patients (37.5%) when compared to ex-smokers (12.5%) and passive smokers (8.3%), which were ex- and passive smokers, and it demonstrated an increased risk (P = 0.001) for surgery group compared to the nonsurgery group (P = 0.001). When comparing with nonsurgery group, most surgical patients agreed to quit smoking before surgery (95.3%). More than half (58.8%) of the patients said that they have been advised by their treating surgeons to quit smoking before surgery. Concerning the surgeons, 66 nonvascular and nonpediatric surgeons responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 22.83%). The majority of the surgeons (60.9%) were interacting with smoker patients. With regard to smoking cessation, 69.6% surgeons have advised smoker patients to stop smoking for more than 2 weeks before surgery. More than half of the surgeons (53.6%) believed that patients quit smoking after preoperative smoking cessation advice. CONCLUSION: The surgeons and patients who participated in this study were aware that smoking cessation improves outcomes, but most of the surgeons did not provide brief advice about time duration to stop smoking. PMID:27168862

  9. Smoking behavior among 84 315 open-university students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pachanee, Cha-aim; Lim, Lynette; Bain, Christopher; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking among students in an open university in Thailand and to describe smoking patterns in relation to the personal and social characteristics of the sample. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005 with 87 134 open-university students in Thailand; the respondents aged 15 to 60 years (N = 84 315) are the participants in this study. We found a substantial difference in smoking prevalence by sex, with a much higher proportion of smoking male (20.9%) than female (1.0%) students in all sociodemographic categories. Smoking decreased among men with a higher level of education or income; in contrast, among women, higher incomes were associated with more smoking. Most of the smokers started smoking in high school. The findings provide evidence that future policy making should aim to reduce smoking among the younger population in Thailand, and in particular, they point to the need to preserve low smoking rates among women.

  10. Complete workplace indoor smoking ban and smoking behavior among male workers and female nonsmoking workers' husbands: a pseudo cohort study of Japanese public workers.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hama, Hitomi; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation) and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID) with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage) for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (-4.7, 19.2) and 8.4 (-2.0, 18.7), respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study.

  11. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action.

  12. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment.

    PubMed

    Burks, Stephen V; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-05-12

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success.

  13. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success. PMID:19416865

  14. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Externalizing Behavior in 18-Month-Old Children: Results from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Borge, Anne I. H.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the data on 22,545 smoking mothers and their 18-month-old children finds that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for externalizing behavior problem at the age of 18-months. The child's gender is found to have no moderating effects on the findings.

  15. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii.

  16. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26245228

  17. An Examination of Extreme Fire Behavior and its Impact on Smoke Injection Altitude using Remote Sensing and Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Hyer, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Fromm, M. D.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    A variety of regional smoke forecasting applications are currently available to identify air quality, visibility, and societal impacts during large fire events. However, these systems typically assume persistent fire activity, and therefore can have large errors before, during, and after short-term periods of extreme fire behavior. This study employs a wide variety of ground, airborne, and satellite observations, including data collected during a major NASA airborne and field campaign, to examine the conditions required for both extreme spread and pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) development. Results highlight the importance of upper-level and nocturnal meteorology, as well as the limitations of traditional fire weather indices. Increasing values of fire radiative power (FRP) at the pixel and sub-pixel level are shown to systematically correspond to higher altitude smoke plumes, and an increased probability of injection above the boundary layer. Lidar data collected during the 2013 Rim Fire, one of the most severe fire events in California's history, show that high FRP observed during extreme spread can facilitate long-distance smoke transport, but fails to loft smoke to the altitude of a large pyroCb. The most extreme fire spread was also observed on days without pyroCb activity or significant regional convection. By incorporating additional fire events across North America, conflicting hypotheses surrounding the primary source of moisture during pyroCb development are examined. The majority of large pyroCbs, and therefore the highest direct injection altitude of smoke particles, is shown to occur with conditions very similar to those that produce dry thunderstorms. The current suite of automated forecasting applications predict only general trends in fire behavior, and specifically do not predict (1) extreme fire spread events and (2) injection of smoke to high altitudes. While (1) and (2) are related, results show that they are not predicted by the same set of

  18. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  19. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  20. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  1. Behavioral, attitudinal, and physiologic characteristics of smoking and nonsmoking asbestos-exposed shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Roter, D.; Emmett, E.A.; Harvey, A.; Permutt, S.

    1983-12-01

    The smoking characteristics of shipyard workers participating in an Asbestos Medical Surveillance Program (N=3991) were assessed. Sources of data were: 1) a self-assessment questionnaire on the smoking history and respiratory symptomatology of the 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, and 2) chest roentgenograms and pulmonary function test results and medical records for the entire population. The study population included 1711 current smokers, 988 former smokers and 1292 never smokers. The annual ''quit rate'' for former smokers had increased from less than 1% in 1961 to 4.2% in 1978. Of the 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, 19% had resumed smoking after having given up cigarettes for one year or longer. Men in the smoking study were reasonably well informed about the health consequences of smoking. While they perceived themselves to be susceptible to disease, and the disease to be serious, the benefits they saw in quitting were related more to economics and aesthetics than to health. When the results were age adjusted, no differences in rate of pulonary function abnormalities and chest film abnormalities were found betwen current smokers who voluntarily participated in the smoking study and those who did not. All pulmonary function testing abnormality and chest film abnormality rates were significantly lower for former smokers and never smokers.

  2. Behavioral, attitudinal, and psysiologic characteristics of smoking and nonsmoking asbestos-exposed shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Roter, D.; Emmett, E.A.; Harvey, A.; Permutt, S.

    1983-12-01

    The smoking characteristics of shipyard workers participating in an Asbestos Medical Surveillance Program (N=3991) were assessed. Sources of data were: 1) a self-assessment questionnaire on the smoking history and respiratory symptomatology of the 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, and 2) chest roentgenograms and pulmonary function test results and medical records for the entire population. The study population included 1711 current smokers, 988 former smokers and 1292 never smokers. The annual ''quit rate'' for former smokers had increased from less than 1% in 1961 to 4.2% in 1978. Of the 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, 19% had resumed smoking after having given up cigarettes for one year or longer. Men in the smoking study were reasonably well informed about the health consequences of smoking. While they perceived themselves to be susceptible to disease, and the disease to be serious, the benefits they saw in quitting were related more to economics and aesthetics than to health. When the results were age adjusted, no differences in rate of pulonary function abnormalities and chest film abnormalities were found betwen current smokers who voluntarily participated in the smoking study and those who did not. All pulmonary function testing abnormality and chest film abnormality rates were significantly lower for former smokers and never smokers.

  3. Use of Self-Imposed Contingencies to Reduce the Frequency of Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexrod, Saul; And Others

    Two studies were done in which the subjects applied punishment contingencies to themselves for smoking cigarettes. After Baseline in Experiment I, the subject set a limit of 15 cigarettes for himself. If he exceeded the level, he was to tear a dollar bill into pieces for every additional cigarette he smoked. Every five days the criterion was…

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Health Characteristics in Individuals With Serious Mental Illness Enrolled in a Behavioral Weight Loss Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Faith B.; Yu, Airong; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J.; Gennusa, Joseph V.; Charleston, Jeanne; Crum, Rosa M.; Campbell, Leslie; Oefinger, Meghan; Appel, Lawrence J.; Daumit, Gail L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the most preventable cause of disease and death in the US. We examined the prevalence of smoking and the association between smoking status and health characteristics in persons with serious mental illness. Methods: A total of 291 overweight or obese adults with serious mental illness were enrolled in a behavioral weight loss trial. Cigarette smoking, co-occurring medical diagnoses, dietary intake, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, body mass index, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms were assessed at baseline in 2008–2011. Fasting glucose and lipid markers were measured from blood samples. Cardiovascular risk profile was calculated based on the global Framingham Health Study Risk Equation. Results: A total of 128 (44%) of participants were current smokers or had smoked in the previous one year. The smokers had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure and blood triglyceride levels, and lower HDL cholesterol than the nonsmokers, adjusted for age, sex, education, and diagnosis. They were more likely to have a history of emphysema, and had a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk of 13.2%, significantly higher than the 7.4% in the nonsmokers. The smokers also had elevated ratings of psychopathology on the BASIS-24 scale. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers in cardiovascular fitness, body mass index, depression, quality of life, or other comorbid medical diagnoses. There was no characteristic in which smokers appeared healthier than nonsmokers. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking in this contemporary cohort of individuals with serious mental illness who were motivated to lose weight was more than twice that in the overall population. Smokers had more indicators of cardiovascular disease and poorer mental health than did nonsmokers. The high burden of comorbidity in smokers with serious mental illness indicates a need for broad health interventions. PMID:24072987

  5. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-03-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents' smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs.

  6. Implications of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Graphic warning labels (GWLs) have been developed as a representative non-price policy to block such marketing. This study investigated the current state and effect of the global introduction of GWLs and examines the future tasks related to GWLs. We systematically reviewed literatures on GWL and a tobacco control strategy in the past fifteen years. The policy of enforcing GWLs has spread globally based on the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. GWLs are more effective than text warnings and are implemented in over 70 countries. The policy has showed the impact of GWLs as a preventive effect on adolescents’ smoking, inducement of smoking cessation, reduction in the amount of tobacco smoked, and reduction in smoking rates. The success of an anti-smoking policy can manifests itself as an effect of individual policies, the rise of tobacco prices, and the introduction of GWLs. PMID:27051645

  7. Examining the relationship between cue-induced craving and actual smoking.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Cynthia A; Vella, Elizabeth J; Joyce, Christopher J; Salkeld, Ronald P; Perkins, Kenneth A; Parzynski, Craig S

    2015-04-01

    Smoking cue-reactivity studies have consistently demonstrated heightened self-report craving, as well as moderate autonomic reactivity, among smokers exposed to salient drug-related cues. However, significantly fewer studies have examined whether exposure to smoking cues affects smokers' actual smoking, or examined the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and smoking behavior. Using our well-tested pictorial cues in a cue-reactivity paradigm, we investigated the impact of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues on subjective craving and smoking behavior (assessed via CReSS; Plowshare Technologies, Baltimore, MD) measures of latency to smoke, puff volume, and number of puffs). Further, we examined the predictive value of cue-induced craving on subsequent smoking behavior. Sixty nondeprived daily smokers completed 2 experimental sessions involving exposure to either smoking-related or neutral pictorial cues. Following initial exposure to cues, smokers rated their craving and were then allowed to smoke freely if they chose to during a subsequent 6-min cue exposure period. Result showed that exposure to smoking cues relative to neutral predicted significantly greater craving and increases in smoking behavior. Likewise, the magnitude of the difference in cue-induced craving when exposed to smoking cues relative to neutral cues (i.e., the cue-reactivity effect) was highly predictive of shorter latency to smoke, as well as increased number of puffs and puff volume.

  8. Examining the relationship between cue-induced craving and actual smoking

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Cynthia A.; Vella, Elizabeth J.; Joyce, Christopher J.; Salkeld, Ronald P.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Parzynski, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Smoking cue reactivity studies have consistently demonstrated heightened self-report craving, as well as moderate autonomic reactivity, among smokers exposed to salient drug-related cues. However, significantly fewer studies have examined whether exposure to smoking cues affects smokers’ actual smoking, or examined the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and smoking behavior. Using our well-tested pictorial cues in a cue-reactivity paradigm, we investigated the impact of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues on subjective craving and smoking behavior (assessed via CReSS measures of latency to smoke, puff volume, and number of puffs). Further, we examined the predictive value of cue-induced craving on subsequent smoking behavior. Sixty non-deprived daily smokers completed two experimental sessions involving exposure to either smoking-related or neutral pictorial cues. Following initial exposure to cues, smokers rated their craving and were then allowed to smoke freely if they chose to during a subsequent 6-minute cue exposure period. Result showed that exposure to smoking cues relative to neutral predicted significantly greater craving and increases in smoking behavior. Likewise, the magnitude of the difference in cue-induced craving when exposed to smoking cues relative to neutral cues (i.e., the cue reactivity effect) was highly predictive of shorter latency to smoke, as well as increased number of puffs and puff volume. PMID:25730416

  9. Smoking behavior characteristics of non-selected smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) history: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Guillaume, Sebastien; Quantin, Xavier; Macgregor, Alexandra; Lopez, Régis; Courtet, Philippe; Bernard, Paquito; Bailly, Daniel; Abbar, Mocrane; Leboyer, Marion; Boyer, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether adult smokers with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder history (CH) have more severe smoking behavior than non-CH smokers, while it is clearly suggested that CH adolescents have more severe smoking behavior than CH adolescents. The aim of the present comprehensive meta-analysis is to determine whether CH smokers have more severe smoking behavior characteristics than those without and the effect of age on the association between CH and smoking behavior. We included all case-control studies and first round data collection of observational studies addressing the difference in smoking behavior characteristics of CH smokers versus non-CH smokers, with validated scales or structured interviews, without any language or date restriction. Nine studies (including 365 smokers with CH and 1,708 smokers without) were included. Compared to non-CH smokers, CH smokers smoked significantly more cigarettes [standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.15, 95 % CI 0.01-0.28, p = 0.04] and began to regularly smoke earlier (SMD = -0.28, 95 % CI -0.49; -0.07, p = 0.01) but were not significantly more nicotine dependent (SMD = 0.23, 95 % CI -0.04 to 0.48, p = 0.08). After removing the single adolescent study, the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared, and subgroups analyses confirmed that the significant association between CH and number of daily smoked cigarettes disappeared as age increased. Our meta-analysis illustrates a clinically important link between CH and tobacco smoking in adolescence but not later in life. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm this finding, as only two studies included participants with a mean age below 20 years.

  10. Real-world comparative study of behavioral group therapy program vs education program implemented for smoking cessation in community-dwelling elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Deesomchok, Athavudh

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is known to be an important contributor to a wide variety of chronic diseases, especially in older adults. Information on health policy and practice, as well as evaluation of smoking cessation programs targeting older people, is almost nonexistent. Purpose To compare the real-world implementation of behavioral group therapy in relation to education alone for elderly smokers. Materials and methods Elderly smokers ready to quit smoking were identified from a cohort who completed a questionnaire at a smoking exhibition. They were allocated into two groups, behavioral therapy (3 days 9 hours) and education (2 hours), depending on their preferences. Demographic data, the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score, and exhaled carbon monoxide level were recorded at baseline. Smoking status of all subjects was followed at months 3, 6, and 12. Statistical differences in continuous abstinence rate (CAR) between the two groups were analyzed using chi-square tests. Results Two hundred and twenty-four out of 372 smoking exhibition attendants met the enrollment criteria; 120 and 104 elected to be in behavioral group therapy and education-alone therapy, respectively. Demographic characteristics and smoking history were similar between both groups, including age, age of onset of smoking, years of smoking, smoking pack-years, education level, and nicotine dependence as measured by the FTND scale. The CAR of the behavioral therapy group at the end of the study (month 12) was significantly higher than the education group (40.1% vs 33.3%, P=0.034). Similar results were also found throughout all follow-up visits at month 3 (57.3% vs 27.0%, P<0.001) and month 6 (51.7% vs 25%, P<0.001). Conclusion Behavioral group therapy targeting elderly smokers could achieve higher short-and long-term CARs than education alone in real-world practice. PMID:25926726

  11. Smoking to self-medicate attentional and emotional dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Loughlin, Sandra E; Whalen, Carol K; Potkin, Steven G; Fallon, James H; Jamner, Larry D; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2007-11-01

    Individuals with attentional and emotional dysfunctions are most at risk for smoking initiation and subsequent nicotine addiction. This article presents converging findings from human behavioral research, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience on smoking as self-medication for attentional and emotional dysfunctions. Nicotine and other tobacco constituents have significant effects on neural circuitry underlying the regulation of attention and affect. Age, sex, early environment, and exposure to other drugs have been identified as important factors that moderate both the effects of nicotine on brain circuitry and behavior and the risk for smoking initiation. Findings also suggest that the effects of smoking differ depending on whether smoking is used to regulate attention or affect. Individual differences in the reinforcement processes underlying tobacco use have implications for the development of tailored smoking cessation programs and prevention strategies that include early treatment of attentional and emotional dysfunctions. PMID:18067030

  12. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. PMID:21655144

  13. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups.

  14. Hot and Cool Forms of Inhibitory Control and Externalizing Behavior in Children of Mothers Who Smoked during Pregnancy: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Warren, Alison J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether children exposed to prenatal smoking show deficits in "hot" and/or "cool" executive functioning (EF). Hot EF is involved in regulation of affect and motivation, whereas cool EF is involved in handling abstract, decontextualized problems. Forty 7 to 9-year-old children (15 exposed to prenatal smoking, 25 non-exposed)…

  15. Behavioral aspects of cigarette smoking among industrial college men of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Li, V C; Hu, J H; Zhou, M L; Zheng, J B

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted among 7,665 students and staff in the factory-operated industrial colleges in Shanghai, China. Response rate was 95.7 per cent. The proportion of smokers among the men was 50.5 per cent; only 0.33 per cent of the women reported they were smokers. Male smokers began smoking upon entering the work force, where social interaction encourages cigarette smoking. Seventy per cent of the male smokers smoked fewer than 10 cigarettes per day. Only 4.3 per cent perceived themselves as very addicted; 3.4 per cent reported they had no confidence in their ability to control the amount they smoke. The Chinese smokers are more likely to succeed in giving up cigarette smoking for at least one day, as well as for longer periods, compared to US smokers. The number of cigarettes smoked may be related to the individual's purchasing power. For China, strategic timeliness in legislative action and education is urgently needed to combat the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in males, at extremely high risk. PMID:3189631

  16. Patterns of Use, Cessation Behavior and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Smoking in Saudi Arabia: a Cross- Sectional Multi-Step Study.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibarhim; El-Setohy, Maged; Alsharqi, Abdalla; Elsanosy, Rashad; Mohammed, Umar Yagoub

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is accountable for the fatality of a substantial number of persons and increases the likelihood of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Although data have shown high prevalence rates of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia, relatively little is known about the broader scope. The objectives of this study were to investigate socio-demographic factors, patterns of use and cessation behavior associated with smoking in Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study utilized a cross-sectional, multi-step design of sampling. Residents (N=1,497; aged 15 years and older) were recruited from seven administrative areas in Southwest Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was utilized to obtain data on participant cigarette smoking, including their daily use, age, education, income, marital status and employment status. The current study is the first of its kind to gather data cessation behavior of Saudi subjects. With the exception of 1.5% females, all the respondents were male. The majority of the respondents were married, had a university level of education, were employed, and were younger than 34 years old. The same trends were also observed among smokers' samples. The current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 49.2% and 65.7% of smokers had smoking at less than 18 years of age. The mean daily use amongst smokers was 7.98 cigarettes (SD=4.587). More than 50% of the study sample had tried at least once to quit smoking. However, 42% of the smokers participating had never. On the other hand, about 25% of the respondents were willing to consider quitting smoking in the future. Modeling of cigarette smoking suggested that the most significant independent predictors of smoking behavior were geographic area, gender, marital status, education, job and age. Considerable variation in smoking prevalence was noted related with participant sociodemographics. Findings recommend the necessity for control and intervention programs in Saudi community.

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  18. Psychological motives versus health concerns: predicting smoking attitudes and promoting antismoking attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from 2 studies of smoking attitudes and behavior among Taiwanese adolescents. In the first, a survey, the motivations to gain positive external rewards, enhance positive internal affect, and reduce negative internal affect were all found to predict positive attitudes toward smoking, the intention to smoke, and actual smoking behavior. Concern for short-term health consequences was negatively associated with these outcomes (although concern for long-term consequences was not). In the 2nd study, smokers responded more defensively to ad messages arguing against psychological rewards from smoking than to health-consequence messages, and actually had more positive attitudes toward their own smoking behavior after viewing the antirewards ads. In contrast, nonsmokers responded more favorably to ads arguing against the psychological rewards of smoking than to ads highlighting health consequences, and also strengthened their antismoking attitudes after exposure to the ads that downplayed psychological rewards. Implications for antismoking campaigns are discussed. PMID:19204853

  19. [Attitudes and behaviors related to smoking habit among elementary and high school students].

    PubMed

    Marmon, Grazyna; Flak, Elzbieta

    2004-01-01

    Survey in Krakow (2001) preceding implementing of the anti-nicotine program in elementary schools and gymnasiums was done in order to determine the frequency of smoking, attitudes towards smoking habit and smokers and the influence of family on developing these attitudes. In this survey questionnaire consisting of 32-41 questions (depending on the school type) on socio-demographic data and attitudes scale was used. Statistical analyses were done using chi2 test to evaluate significant relations between variables and multilevel logistic regression models to establish risk. Obtained results show, that in the recent years the number of pupils initiating smoking is not diminishing (13.8% of gymnasium pupils and 3.0% of elementary school pupils smoke and 19.3% and 8.2% smoked in the past, respectively). In majority pupils' attitude towards smoking was negative (89.2% in elementary schools and 74.5% in gymnasiums). However, attitudes towards smokers were more differentiated. Lack of defined attitude towards smokers presented 62.6% of elementary school pupils and only 32.4% of gymnasium pupils. Although smoking is not approved by majority of pupils, in particular gymnasium pupils are more tolerant towards smokers and more often have positive attitude towards smokers (25.8%) in comparison with their younger colleagues. The fact of lack of determined attitude towards smokers among 42.1% of gymnasium pupils and 30.3% of elementary school pupils is distressing. Odds ratio of lack of determined attitude towards smokers increases when at least one of parents smokes (OR=2.05) and also when older colleagues smoke and peers do not smoke (OR=24.5). It decreases for those, who were characterized by lack of acceptance for smoking (OR=0.172). Obtained results confirm the role of social environment (especially family) in developing of attitudes towards smokers among pupils. They also the presence of pupils together with psychosocial immaturity characteristic for process of development

  20. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  1. Knowledge of Occupational Chemical Exposure and Smoking Behavior in Korean Immigrant Drycleaners.

    PubMed

    Chin, Dal Lae; Duffy, Sonia A; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between knowledge of chemical exposure at work and cigarette smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a total of 151 Korean immigrant drycleaners (mean age = 49 years, 64 % male) from 96 drycleaning shops in a Midwestern state. The data were collected on demographic and work-related characteristics, knowledge of occupational chemical exposure, health concerns associated with chemical exposure, and smoking status. Approximately 25 % of participants were current smokers. The multivariate regression showed that greater knowledge of occupational chemical exposures was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) .63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) .41-.95]. Furthermore, male gender (OR 6.32; 95 % CI 1.66-24.00), shorter-term residence in the US (OR .93; 95 % CI .88-.98), and having multiple duties (OR 2.76; 95 % CI 1.01-7.51) were important covariates associated with current smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Knowledge on occupational chemical exposure was significantly associated with smoking among Korean immigrant drycleaners. Smoking cessation programs for this population should consider integrated approaches that incorporate work environment factors into individual and sociocultural components.

  2. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  3. Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Externalized Behaviors at School Age Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943

  4. Situational and affective risk situations of relapse and the quality of implementation intentions in an e-health smoking relapse prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Elfeddali, Iman; Bolman, Catherine; de Vries, Hein

    2013-06-01

    The quality of coping plans made to deal with personal smoking related risk situations and the relation between plan quality (PQ) and continued smoking abstinence (CA) were assessed. The respondents (N = 563) were smokers who had made a coping planning assignment in the experimental conditions of a larger randomized controlled trial. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The specificity of the plans made was related to short and long-term CA and was significantly lower for plans made to deal with situational situations. More research on how to foster specificity and target the difficulties that quitters have with specifying plans for affective situations is required.

  5. Sex-specific effects of cigarette mentholation on brain nicotine accumulation and smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yantao; Mukhin, Alexey G; Garg, Sudha; Nazih, Rachid; Behm, Frederique M; Garg, Pradeep K; Rose, Jed E

    2015-03-01

    Menthol cigarettes are likely associated with greater risks of smoking dependence than non-menthol cigarettes. We sought to test the hypothesis that menthol increases the rate of brain nicotine accumulation (BNA) during smoking and thereby enhances its addictive effects. In a counter-balanced cross-over design, 10 menthol and 9 non-menthol smokers (10 females and 9 males; mean age 44.3) underwent two study phases. In each phase, the participant smoked exclusively either menthol or non-menthol research cigarettes for approximately 1 week prior to a positron emission tomography (PET) scan session, during which the subject's head was scanned following inhalation of a single puff of smoke from a cigarette containing (11)C-nicotine. No differences in initial slope, Cmax, area under curve (AUC), and T1/2 of BNA were found between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across all subjects; however, menthol relative to non-menthol cigarettes were associated with steeper initial slopes in men (p=0.008). Unexpectedly, women had faster BNA as indicated by greater values of the initial slope, Cmax, AUC, and shorter T1/2 than men (all ps<0.04). The rates of BNA were significantly correlated with ratings of smoking motivations of getting a 'rush', getting relaxing effects and marginally with alleviation of craving. These results do not provide strong support for the putative role of menthol in enhancing BNA, although further studies should explore the apparent effect of menthol on BNA in men. Fast BNA during smoking and preference of sensory properties of menthol cigarettes may independently or jointly contribute to smoking dependence among women.

  6. Sex-Specific Effects of Cigarette Mentholation on Brain Nicotine Accumulation and Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Yantao; Mukhin, Alexey G; Garg, Sudha; Nazih, Rachid; Behm, Frederique M; Garg, Pradeep K; Rose, Jed E

    2015-01-01

    Menthol cigarettes are likely associated with greater risks of smoking dependence than non-menthol cigarettes. We sought to test the hypothesis that menthol increases the rate of brain nicotine accumulation (BNA) during smoking and thereby enhances its addictive effects. In a counter-balanced cross-over design, 10 menthol and 9 non-menthol smokers (10 females and 9 males; mean age 44.3) underwent two study phases. In each phase, the participant smoked exclusively either menthol or non-menthol research cigarettes for approximately 1 week prior to a positron emission tomography (PET) scan session, during which the subject's head was scanned following inhalation of a single puff of smoke from a cigarette containing 11C-nicotine. No differences in initial slope, Cmax, area under curve (AUC), and T1/2 of BNA were found between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across all subjects; however, menthol relative to non-menthol cigarettes were associated with steeper initial slopes in men (p=0.008). Unexpectedly, women had faster BNA as indicated by greater values of the initial slope, Cmax, AUC, and shorter T1/2 than men (all ps<0.04). The rates of BNA were significantly correlated with ratings of smoking motivations of getting a ‘rush', getting relaxing effects and marginally with alleviation of craving. These results do not provide strong support for the putative role of menthol in enhancing BNA, although further studies should explore the apparent effect of menthol on BNA in men. Fast BNA during smoking and preference of sensory properties of menthol cigarettes may independently or jointly contribute to smoking dependence among women. PMID:25267342

  7. Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

    2011-01-01

    Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

  8. Exploring the association of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fernander, Anita F; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Stevens, Susanna R; Eberman, Kay M; Hurt, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    Although smoking is used as a coping tool in response to stress and Blacks have been found to report smoking more in response to stress than Whites, little research exists that has examined ethno-culturally specific constructs of stress and coping as they relate to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA. This study explored the association between the ethno-culturally interactively defined construct of John Henryism, as well as the individual contributions of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a relatively urban-Midwestern Black population. Self-identified Black patients (n = 146) who had previously received a clinical intervention for nicotine dependence were followed to assess smoking status and John Henry active coping. Results revealed that patients with low levels of education who had low levels of John Henry active coping reported higher nicotine dependence scores than any other education by John Henry active coping group. Furthermore, low levels of John Henry active coping were associated with the use of menthol cigarettes and lower-educational level was associated with smoking greater than 20 cigarettes per day. Further community-based studies examining this construct among Black smokers in various socio-cultural contexts are needed to clarify the association between John Henry active coping and socioeconomic status on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks.

  9. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  10. Effects of smoking abstinence on impulsive behavior among smokers high and low in ADHD-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity, a multifaceted construct that includes inhibitory control and heightened preference for immediate reward, is central to models of drug use and abuse. Within a self-medication framework, abstinence from smoking may lead to an increase in impulsive behavior and the likelihood of relapse, particularly among persons with disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity) linked to impulsive behavior. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of smoking abstinence on multiple measures of impulsivity among a non-clinical sample of adult smokers selected for high and low levels of ADHD symptoms. Methods In a within-subjects design, participants selected for high or low levels of self-reported ADHD symptoms (N=56) completed sessions following overnight abstinence and when smoking as usual (order counterbalanced). Measures of impulsive behavior included response inhibition (i.e., stop signal task), interference control (i.e., attentional modification of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle), and impulsive choice (i.e., hypothetical delay discounting). Results As hypothesized, abstinence decreased response inhibition and PPI. Although ADHD symptoms moderated abstinence effects on impulsive choice and response inhibition, the pattern was opposite to our predictions: the low-ADHD group responded more impulsively when abstinent, whereas the high-ADHD group was relatively unaffected by abstinence. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of utilizing multiple laboratory measures to examine a multifactorial construct such as impulsive behavior and raise questions about how best to assess symptoms of ADHD and impulsivity among non-abstinent smokers. PMID:21559802

  11. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting Birmingham-Hoover, Alabama metropolitan area. Participants Sample of 100 children aged 7 to 12. Main Outcome Measure Dietary quality was assessed using the average of two 24 hour recalls and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Analysis Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between neighborhood disorder and dietary quality. Results Perceived neighborhood disorder was associated with increased iron intake (P = .031) and lower potassium levels (P = .041). Perceived neighborhood disorder was marginally associated with increased energy intake (P = .074) and increased sodium intake (P = .078). Conclusions and Implications Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly related to differences in dietary quality. This indicates that subjective neighborhood characteristics may pose barriers to healthful eating behaviors for children. Future research efforts and policy should address sociostructural factors and ways to manipulate and improve food environments and individual’s perceptions of their neighborhoods. PMID:20880752

  12. Cigarette smoking adversely affects disease activity and disease-specific quality of life in patients with Crohn’s disease at a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Sandra M; Langenberg, Patricia; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity in Crohn’s disease (CD). Smoking may also affect the quality of life, but this has not been evaluated using validated measures over time. We assessed the relationship between smoking and disease-specific quality of life over time in a tertiary referral inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Patients and methods Retrospective cohort study from July 2004 to July 2009 in patients with CD identified from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Institutional Review Board-approved University of Maryland School of Medicine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program database. Smoking status was classified as current, former, and never. Age was categorized as <40 years, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years. Index visit disease activity and quality of life was measured with the Harvey–Bradshaw index, and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). Repeated measures linear regression was used to assess the association between smoking and quality of life over time after adjustment for confounding variables. Results A total of 608 patients were included, of whom 42% were male; 80% were Caucasian; 22% were current smokers; 24% were former smokers; and 54% were never smokers. Over time, adjusted Harvey–Bradshaw index scores declined in all patients, but current smokers had consistently higher scores. After adjustment for sex, age, and disease duration, never smokers had higher mean SIBDQ scores at index visit compared to former and current smokers (P<0.0001); all increased over time but SIBDQ scores for never smokers remained consistently highest. Conclusion Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity and quality of life in patients with CD. Prospects of improved disease activity and quality of life should be proposed as an additional incentive to encourage smoking cessation in patients with CD. PMID:27703391

  13. Separating Family-Level and Direct Exposure Effects of Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring Externalizing Symptoms: Bridging the Behavior Genetic and Behavior Teratologic Divide.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Ryne; Massey, Suena H; Clark, Caron A C; Burns, James L; Mustanski, Brian S; Cook, Edwin H; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Makowski, Beth; Espy, Kimberly A; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been robustly associated with externalizing problems and their developmental precursors in offspring in studies using behavioral teratologic designs (Wakschlag et al., Am J Public Health 92(6):966-974, 2002; Espy et al., Dev Psychol 47(1):153-169, 2011). In contrast, the use of behavior genetic approaches has shown that the effects commonly attributed to MSDP can be explained by family-level variables (D'Onofrio et al., Dev Psychopathol 20(01):139-164, 2008). Reconciling these conflicting findings requires integration of these study designs. We utilize longitudinal data on a preschool proband and his/her sibling from the Midwest Infant Development Study-Preschool (MIDS-P) to test for teratologic and family level effects of MSDP. We find considerable variation in prenatal smoking patterns both within and across pregnancies within families, indicating that binary smoking measures are not sufficiently capturing exposure. Structural equation models indicate that both conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms showed unique effects of MSDP over and above family level effects. Blending high quality exposure measurement with a within-family design suggests that it is premature to foreclose the possibility of a teratologic effect of MSDP on externalizing problems. Implications and recommendations for future studies are discussed. PMID:26581695

  14. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families.

  15. Frequency and Characteristics Associated With Exposure to Tobacco Direct Mail Marketing and Its Prospective Effect on Smoking Behaviors Among Young Adults From the US Midwest

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the exposure to tobacco direct mail marketing and its effect on subsequent smoking behaviors in a US Midwest regional cohort of young adults. Methods. Data were collected from 2622 young adults (mean age = 24 years) in 2010 to 2011 (baseline) and 2011 to 2012 (follow-up). We collected information on demographics, tobacco use, and exposure to tobacco direct mail materials in the previous 6 months at baseline. Smoking behaviors were reassessed at follow-up. We investigated the characteristics associated with receiving these materials at baseline, and the associations between receiving cigarette coupons in the mail at baseline and smoking behaviors at follow-up. Results. Thirteen percent of participants reported receiving tobacco direct mail materials in the previous 6 months. Receipt of these materials was associated with age, education, and tobacco use (P < .05). Among those who received these materials, 77% and 56% reported receiving coupons for cigarettes and other tobacco products, respectively. Among baseline nonsmokers and ex-smokers, receiving coupons was associated with becoming current smokers at follow-up (P < .05). Among baseline current smokers, receiving coupons was associated with lower likelihood of smoking cessation at follow-up (P < .05). Conclusions. Tobacco direct mail marketing promoted and sustained smoking behaviors among US Midwest young adults. Regulating this marketing strategy might reduce the prevalence of smoking in this population. PMID:25211739

  16. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  17. Movie Character Smoking and Adolescent Smoking: Who Matters More, Good Guys or Bad Guys?

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah; Gibson, Jennifer; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between smoking onset and exposure to movie smoking according to character type. Methods A longitudinal, random-digit-dial telephone survey of 6522 US adolescents was performed with movie exposure assessed at 4 time points over 24 months. Adolescents were asked whether they had seen a random subsample of recently released movies, for which we identified smoking by major characters and type of portrayal (divided into negative, positive, and mixed/neutral categories). Multivariate hazard regression analysis was used to assess the independent effects of these exposures on the odds of trying smoking. Results By the 24-month follow-up survey, 15.9% of baseline never-smokers had tried smoking. Within the sample of movies, 3848 major characters were identified, of whom 69% were male. Smokers represented 22.8% of 518 negative characters, 13.7% of 2486 positive characters, and 21.1% of 844 mixed/neutral characters. Analysis of the crude relationship showed that episodes of negative character smoking exposure had the strongest influence on smoking initiation. However, because most characters were portrayed as positive, exposure to this category was greatest. When the full population effect of each exposure was modeled, each type of character smoking independently affected smoking onset. There was an interaction between negative character smoking and sensation-seeking with stronger response for adolescents lower in sensation-seeking. Conclusions Character smoking predicts adolescent smoking initiation regardless of character type, which demonstrates the importance of limiting exposure to all movie smoking. Negative character portrayals of smoking have stronger impact on low risk-taking adolescents, undercutting the argument that greater exposure is a marker for adolescent risk-taking behavior. PMID:19564293

  18. Behavioral Filter Vent Blocking on the First Cigarette of the Day Predicts Which Smokers of Light Cigarettes Will Increase Smoke Exposure From Blocked Vents

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Sanborn, Paul M.; Zhou, Jon Y.; Kozlowski, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    Filter vent blocking on best-selling light cigarettes increases smoke yield during standard machine testing but not in clinical investigations of smokers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of (a) manipulating cigarette filter vent blocking and (b) blocking status of first cigarette of the day on carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Participants (n = 25; Marlboro Lights nonmenthol cigarette smokers, age range 21–60 years, minimum 15 daily cigarettes, and daily smoking for a minimum 5 years) completed the laboratory-based, within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design of 2 smoking sessions, one utilizing a smoking topography device, one without. Each session consisted of smoking 4 cigarettes; 2 with filter vents blocked and 2 with filter vents unblocked. Spent first daily cigarette filters collected between sessions were scored for evidence of filter vent blocking. Smoking cigarettes with blocked filter vents significantly increased CO boost in both laboratory sessions ( p < .001). Those who blocked their first cigarette of the day (n = 10) had significantly greater CO boost when smoking a blocked cigarette, in relation to smoking an unblocked cigarette and in comparison with nonblockers ( p = .04). Total puff volume was a significant predictor of CO boost when smoking unblocked and blocked cigarettes ( ps < .04). Blocking filter vents significantly increased smoke exposure in relation to when filter vents are not blocked, particularly for those who block filter vents on their first cigarette of the day. Total puff volume predicted CO boost, and results suggest that smokers adjust their smoking behavior by cigarette blocking status. Those smokers who block filter vents may be increasing their exposure by 30%. PMID:19968405

  19. Behavioral filter vent blocking on the first cigarette of the day predicts which smokers of light cigarettes will increase smoke exposure from blocked vents.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Sanborn, Paul M; Zhou, Jon Y; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2009-12-01

    Filter vent blocking on best-selling light cigarettes increases smoke yield during standard machine testing but not in clinical investigations of smokers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of (a) manipulating cigarette filter vent blocking and (b) blocking status of first cigarette of the day on carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Participants (n = 25; Marlboro Lights nonmenthol cigarette smokers, age range 21-60 years, minimum 15 daily cigarettes, and daily smoking for a minimum 5 years) completed the laboratory-based, within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design of 2 smoking sessions, one utilizing a smoking topography device, one without. Each session consisted of smoking 4 cigarettes; 2 with filter vents blocked and 2 with filter vents unblocked. Spent first daily cigarette filters collected between sessions were scored for evidence of filter vent blocking. Smoking cigarettes with blocked filter vents significantly increased CO boost in both laboratory sessions (p < .001). Those who blocked their first cigarette of the day (n = 10) had significantly greater CO boost when smoking a blocked cigarette, in relation to smoking an unblocked cigarette and in comparison with nonblockers (p = .04). Total puff volume was a significant predictor of CO boost when smoking unblocked and blocked cigarettes (ps < .04). Blocking filter vents significantly increased smoke exposure in relation to when filter vents are not blocked, particularly for those who block filter vents on their first cigarette of the day. Total puff volume predicted CO boost, and results suggest that smokers adjust their smoking behavior by cigarette blocking status. Those smokers who block filter vents may be increasing their exposure by 30%. PMID:19968405

  20. Demographic, Mental Health, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking Status Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Paul A.; Yu, Kalvin; Kapadia, Farzana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Young sexual minority men smoke at higher rates relative to heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of smoking in a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who might differ from more general and age-diverse samples of sexual minority individuals and, thus, inform tailored approaches to addressing tobacco use within this population. Methods: Data on smoking status were examined in relation to demographics, mental health, substance use behavior, and psychosocial factors. Using multinomial logistic regression, factors were identified that differentiate current and former smokers from never smokers. Results: In bivariate analysis, smoking status was related to demographic, mental health, substance use, and psychosocial factors. Most significantly, smoking status was associated with school enrollment status, current alcohol and marijuana use, and symptoms of depression. Multivariate modeling revealed that, compared to being a never smoker, the odds of current or former smoking were highest among those currently using either alcohol or marijuana. The odds of both current and former smoking were also higher among those reporting greater levels of gay community affinity. Finally, the odds of being a former smoker were higher for those reporting internalized antihomosexual prejudice. Conclusion: This study identifies several factors related to smoking status in a diverse sample of young sexual minority males. These findings should encourage investigations of smoking disparities among younger MSM to look beyond common smoking risk factors in an attempt to understand etiologies that may be unique to this group. Such findings may indicate multiple points of potential intervention aimed at decreasing cigarette smoking within this vulnerable population. PMID:27158762

  1. Pregnancy outcome in North American women. II. Effects of diet, cigarette smoking, stress, and weight gain on placentas, and on neonatal physical and behavioral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Picone, T A; Allen, L H; Olsen, P N; Ferris, M E

    1982-12-01

    This study evaulated the effects of diet, weight gain (low = LWG, less than or equal to 15 lb; adequate greater than 15 lb), smoking, and stress on the pregnancy outcomes of 60 women. LWG mothers, compared to adequate weight gain, had lower calorie intakes, shorter gestations (0.5 wk, Dubowitz) smaller placentas (345 +/- 65 versus 373 +/- 75 g), and infants with lower birth weight 2640 +/- 329 versus 3192 +/- 307 g), ponderal indices (2.37 versus 2.62), and growth rates. Mothers who smoked had increased calorie intake, but showed no alterations in gestational age of infants or placenta weights. Infants of smokers weighed less than those of nonsmokers (2875 +/- 522 versus 309 +/- 511 g), but had a normal ponderal index. LWG or smoking were associated with impaired motor performance, visual habituation and orientation, and reflexes. Smoking adversely affected auditory habituation and orientation, and autonomic regulation. LWG and smoking have significant, but separate, detrimental effects on pregnancy outcome.

  2. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in smoking cessation treatment including nicotine patch and cognitive-behavioral group therapy.

    PubMed

    Saules, Karen K; Schuh, Leslie M; Arfken, Cynthia L; Reed, Karen; Kilbey, M Marlyne; Schuster, Charles R

    2004-01-01

    Smoking cessation attempts are often complicated by dysphoria/depression, weight gain, craving, and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Fluoxetine's antidepressant and anorectant properties, along with its capacity to attenuate compulsive behavior, suggest that this medication might facilitate smoking cessation treatment. We examined the effect of fluoxetine on smoking cessation in the context of a program that included group cognitive-behavioral therapy (six weeks) and transdermal nicotine patch(ten weeks). In a double-blind randomized trial of fluoxetine for smoking cessation, 150 daily smokers were assigned to placebo (n=48), 20 mg (n=51), or 40 mg fluoxetine (n=51). Fluoxetine did not significantly improve smoking cessation rates, either for those with or without major depressive disorder(MDD)histories or elevated current depression. Our results suggest that fluoxetine may moderate withdrawal symptoms, even if that was not manifested in improved smoking cessation rates. Our results, however, clearly favor the use of fluoxetine if weight gain is a major clinical obstacle to smoking cessation.

  3. Problems of Applying Communication/Behavior Theories to a Program of Smoking Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Samuel L.; And Others

    Because the use of tobacco contributes to a large number of deaths each year in the United States, a current research project at the University of Iowa tests the application of a number of theoretical ideas--including social bonding, diffusion, and the spiral of silence--and attempts to develop new ideas in an effort to reduce smoking. The…

  4. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  5. Studies in the Self-Regulation of Behavior: Effects of Contingent Cognitive and Affective Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, John C.; Santrock, John W.

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the evaluations and affective responses which accompany ongoing behavior may operate as reinforcers and punishers, thus exercising control over the persistence of those behaviors. Results indicate potent systematic effects due to the differing content of such evaluations and the associated affect or affective tone.…

  6. Active Smoking May Negatively Affect Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods. An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Results. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p < .0001), non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p < .0001), use of angiotensin system inhibitors (HR: 0.63, p = .01), sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (HR: 0.72, p = .045), and Heng risk (good and intermediate risk: HR: 1.07, p = .77; poor risk: HR: 1.87, p = .046). Factors associated with OS were smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p < .0001), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 2.95, p < .0001), and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR: 0.57, p = .002). Conclusion. Active smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC. PMID:24309979

  7. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Smoking Behavior and Results of a One Year Follow-up of a Smoking Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Rodney M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A smoking prevention program consisting of eight one-hour sessions was conducted with seventh- and eighth-grade students focusing on resisting peer pressure and understanding the role of mass media in encouraging smoking. One year after the program, the proportion of nonsmoking students remained higher among program participants. (FG)

  8. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  9. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Smoking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Davide S.; Kozlitina, Julia; Sainz, Eduardo; Gutierrez, Joanne; Wooding, Stephen; Getachew, Betelihem; Luiselli, Donata; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Common TAS2R38 taste receptor gene variants specify the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally related compounds. Tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of chemical substances of varying structure and functionality, some of which activate different taste receptors. Accordingly, it has been suggested that non-taster individuals may be more likely to smoke because of their inability to taste bitter compounds present in tobacco smoke, but results to date have been conflicting. We studied three cohorts: 237 European-Americans from the state of Georgia, 1,353 European-Americans and 2,363 African-Americans from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), and 4,973 African-Americans from the Dallas Biobank. Tobacco use data was collected and TAS2R38 polymorphisms were genotyped for all participants, and PTC taste sensitivity was assessed in the Georgia population. In the Georgia group, PTC tasters were less common among those who smoke: 71.5% of smokers were PTC tasters while 82.5% of non-smokers were PTC tasters (P = 0.03). The frequency of the TAS2R38 PAV taster haplotype showed a trend toward being lower in smokers (38.4%) than in non-smokers (43.1%), although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.31). In the DHS European-Americans, the taster haplotype was less common in smokers (37.0% vs. 44.0% in non-smokers, P = 0.003), and conversely the frequency of the non-taster haplotype was more common in smokers (58.7% vs. 51.5% in non-smokers, P = 0.002). No difference in the frequency of these haplotypes was observed in African Americans in either the Dallas Heart Study or the Dallas Biobank. We conclude that TAS2R38 haplotypes are associated with smoking status in European-Americans but not in African-American populations. PTC taster status may play a role in protecting individuals from cigarette smoking in specific populations. PMID:27711175

  10. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  11. The effects of hypnotic susceptibility on reducing smoking behavior treated by an hypnotic technique.

    PubMed

    Perry, C; Mullen, G

    1975-07-01

    This study sought to obtain empirical data on the issue of whether susceptibility to hypnosis influences the outcome of an hypnotic therapy. At the first of two sessions, Ss had their susceptibility evaluated unobtrusively. At the second session, they learned Spiegel's self-hypnotic method to stop smoking. At the end of 3 months' follow-up 7 of 54 volunteers were completely abstinent (13%), while 31% had reduced smoking by 50% or more. Of the 7 totally abstaining Ss, 1 was high, 1 was low and 5 were medium susceptible, which is not unlike the distribution of hypnotic susceptibility in the general population. However, it was found that significantly more Ss of higher susceptibility reduced by 50% or more than did less susceptible Ss.

  12. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  13. Epidemiologic determinants affecting cigarette smoking cessation: a retrospective study in a National Health System (SSN) treatment service in Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Marino, Maria Giulia; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Magnatta, Rosanna; Panà, Augusto; Maurici, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of patients attending stop smoking courses, based on group therapy, testing their influence on smoking cessation in univariate and multivariate model. A total of 123 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 53 (+/-11). Sixty-seven percent were women. At the end of the courses 66% of patients stopped smoking, after 12 months only 39% remained abstinent. Patients younger than 50 years statistically tended to continue smoking 6 months (P = .02-R.R. = 1.49, C.I. 95%: 1.06-2.44) and 12 months (P = .03-R.R. = 1.37, C.I. 95%: 1.02-2.52) after the end of the courses. A low self-confidence in quitting smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco consumption after 6 months (P = .016-R.R. = 1.84, C.I. 95%: 1.14-2.99). Low adherence to therapeutic program was statistically associated to maintenance of tobacco use at 6 months (P = .006-R.R. = 1.76, C.I. 95%: 1.32-2.35) and 12 months (P = .050-R.R. = 1.45, C.I. 95%: 1.11-1.88). This association was confirmed at 6 months in the analysis performed on logistic regression model (P = .013).

  14. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  15. Effect of cigarette tax increase in combination with mass media campaign on smoking behavior in Mauritius: Findings from the ITC Survey

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Burhoo, Premduth; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Mauritius has made great strides in adopting evidence-based tobacco control measures, including an increase in its cigarette excise tax and anti-tobacco mass media (Sponge) campaign. The primary objective of this study is to examine the combined effect of these measures on smoking behavior. Methods This study used longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Mauritius Survey, 2009–2011. Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the tax increase and wave 3 was conducted shortly after the Sponge campaign and six months after the cigarette excise tax increase. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of these two key tobacco control measures on smoking prevalence and the quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results The results showed that the combination of cigarette tax increase and the Sponge campaign had a significant negative effect on the prevalence of smoking in Mauritius and the number of cigarettes smoked among continuing smokers. Specifically, the measures significantly reduced the odds of being a smoker (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97). For average daily cigarettes smoked, the measures had a significant reduction in cigarettes per day by about 6% (Incidence-rate ratios 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.99). Conclusions The combination of policy measures significantly reduced the consumption of cigarettes in Mauritius. While these results are encouraging, these efforts must be part of a sustained effort to further reduce the smoking prevalence in Mauritius. PMID:25701857

  16. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  17. Social networks and smoking: exploring the effects of peer influence and smoker popularity through simulations.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, David R; Adams, Jimi; Haas, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw on recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention strategies targeted toward micro-level processes. Our approach begins by estimating a stochastic actor-based model using data from one school in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The model provides estimates of several factors predicting friendship ties and smoking behavior. We then use estimated model parameters to simulate the coevolution of friendship and smoking behavior under potential intervention scenarios. Namely, we manipulate the strength of peer influence on smoking and the popularity of smokers relative to nonsmokers. We measure how these manipulations affect smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Results indicate that both peer influence and smoking-based popularity affect smoking behavior and that their joint effects are nonlinear. This study demonstrates how a simulation-based approach can be used to explore alternative scenarios that may be achievable through intervention efforts and offers new hypotheses about the association between friendship and smoking.

  18. Social networks and smoking: exploring the effects of peer influence and smoker popularity through simulations.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, David R; Adams, Jimi; Haas, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw on recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention strategies targeted toward micro-level processes. Our approach begins by estimating a stochastic actor-based model using data from one school in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The model provides estimates of several factors predicting friendship ties and smoking behavior. We then use estimated model parameters to simulate the coevolution of friendship and smoking behavior under potential intervention scenarios. Namely, we manipulate the strength of peer influence on smoking and the popularity of smokers relative to nonsmokers. We measure how these manipulations affect smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Results indicate that both peer influence and smoking-based popularity affect smoking behavior and that their joint effects are nonlinear. This study demonstrates how a simulation-based approach can be used to explore alternative scenarios that may be achievable through intervention efforts and offers new hypotheses about the association between friendship and smoking. PMID:24084397

  19. Environmental Crack Growth Behavior Affected by Thickness/Geometry Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawski, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    This article gives a short review on the effects of thickness/constraint and environment on crack growth behavior under cyclic and static loadings. Fatigue crack growth data taken from the literature, corresponding to different environments, ranging from vacuum to air and NaCl solution for a number of alloys and different specimens geometries are presented and analyzed. Reported results indicate that for relatively inert material/environment systems, there is a weak thickness/constraint effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. On the other hand, for corrosive material/environment systems, there is a significant thickness/constraint effect on crack growth rate behavior under both cyclic and static loadings. Some implications related to crack growth modeling are suggested.

  20. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  1. Simulated Birdwatchers’ Playback Affects the Behavior of Two Tropical Birds

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Berton C.; Haskell, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Although recreational birdwatchers may benefit conservation by generating interest in birds, they may also have negative effects. One such potentially negative impact is the widespread use of recorded vocalizations, or “playback,” to attract birds of interest, including range-restricted and threatened species. Although playback has been widely used to test hypotheses about the evolution of behavior, no peer-reviewed study has examined the impacts of playback in a birdwatching context on avian behavior. We studied the effects of simulated birdwatchers’ playback on the vocal behavior of Plain-tailed Wrens Thryothorus euophrys and Rufous Antpittas Grallaria rufula in Ecuador. Study species’ vocal behavior was monitored for an hour after playing either a single bout of five minutes of song or a control treatment of background noise. We also studied the effects of daily five minute playback on five groups of wrens over 20 days. In single bout experiments, antpittas made more vocalizations of all types, except for trills, after playback compared to controls. Wrens sang more duets after playback, but did not produce more contact calls. In repeated playback experiments, wren responses were strong at first, but hardly detectable by day 12. During the study, one study group built a nest, apparently unperturbed, near a playback site. The playback-induced habituation and changes in vocal behavior we observed suggest that scientists should consider birdwatching activity when selecting research sites so that results are not biased by birdwatchers’ playback. Increased vocalizations after playback could be interpreted as a negative effect of playback if birds expend energy, become stressed, or divert time from other activities. In contrast, the habituation we documented suggests that frequent, regular birdwatchers’ playback may have minor effects on wren behavior. PMID:24147094

  2. Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Freda; Malone, Susan Kohl; Lozano, Alicia; Grandner, Michael A.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep duration has been implicated in the etiology of obesity but less is known about the association between sleep and other behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the associations among sleep duration, chronotype, and physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, tobacco use, and dietary intake. Methods Regression models were used to examine sleep duration and chronotype as the predictors and cardiovascular risk factors as outcomes of interest in a cross-sectional sample of 439,933 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank project. Results Short sleepers were 45 % more likely to smoke tobacco than adequate sleepers (9.8 vs. 6.9 %, respectively). Late chronotypes were more than twice as likely to smoke tobacco than intermediate types (14.9 vs. 7.4 %, respectively). Long sleepers reported 0.61 more hours of television per day than adequate sleepers. Early chronotypes reported 0.20 fewer daily hours of computer use per day than intermediate chronotypes. Early chronotypes had 0.25 more servings of fruit and 0.13 more servings of vegetables per day than late chronotypes. Conclusions Short and long sleep duration and late chronotype are associated with greater likelihood of cardiovascular risk behaviors. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are maintained in the context of objective sleep and circadian estimates, and in more diverse samples. The extent to which promoting adequate sleep duration and earlier sleep timing improves heart health should also be examined prospectively. PMID:27056396

  3. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  4. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    population groups described in this study including elderly support the hypothesis that telomere length is a predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

  5. Haploinsufficiency for Steroidogenic Factor 1 Affects Maternal Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spanic, Tanja; Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), officially designated NR5A1, is essential for gonadal and adrenal development and for the normal structure of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), as demonstrated by SF-1 knockout mice (SF-1 KO), but much less is known about the possible effects of haploinsufficiency of the SF-1 gene. In the present study, maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous mice was evaluated. Behavioral tests revealed that SF-1 KO heterozygous females have impaired maternal behavior. In comparison to wild-type (WT) females, SF-1 KO heterozygous females retrieved significantly fewer pups into their nests, latency to retrieve and crouch over the pups was longer, and their nests were lower quality. As suggested by previous studies full dosage of SF-1 gene is needed for appropriate stress response and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and this might present a mechanism through which maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous females is impaired. PMID:27445727

  6. Does Viewing Documentary Films Affect Environmental Perceptions and Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…

  7. Factors Affecting Co-Operative vs. Competitive Behavior in Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Gerald; Phelan, Joseph G.

    Theoretical interpretations of cooperation and competition are discussed in relation to motivational and situational determinants. It is suggested that the degree of competition exhibited in an interaction is an inverse function of the quantity of resources available, and that the effect of situational characteristics on cooperative behavior is…

  8. Haploinsufficiency for Steroidogenic Factor 1 Affects Maternal Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Spanic, Tanja; Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), officially designated NR5A1, is essential for gonadal and adrenal development and for the normal structure of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), as demonstrated by SF-1 knockout mice (SF-1 KO), but much less is known about the possible effects of haploinsufficiency of the SF-1 gene. In the present study, maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous mice was evaluated. Behavioral tests revealed that SF-1 KO heterozygous females have impaired maternal behavior. In comparison to wild-type (WT) females, SF-1 KO heterozygous females retrieved significantly fewer pups into their nests, latency to retrieve and crouch over the pups was longer, and their nests were lower quality. As suggested by previous studies full dosage of SF-1 gene is needed for appropriate stress response and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and this might present a mechanism through which maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous females is impaired. PMID:27445727

  9. Regulation of Expressive Behavior as Reflecting Affect Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Regulated expressiveness (the modification of expressive behavior) is a complex phenomenon. Accomplished basically in four ways, regulated expressiveness has developmental dimensions, motivational precursors, and cognitive antecedents, including perspective-taking ability and the growth of self-awareness. Ability to regulate expressiveness appears…

  10. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  11. Performance-Based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA). Implementation and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    This document contains two sections: implementation of the performance-based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA), and supporting research. Section 1 presents OABA, an analytic procedure designed to identify those affective behaviors important to success in an occupation, and gives directions on how to implement the procedure. The…

  12. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  13. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  14. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  15. Changes in smoking behavior and subsequent mortality risk during a 35-year follow-up of a cohort in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Li, Liang Shou; Li, Lan Sun; Sun, Dong Ling; Wu, Lei; Liu, Miao; He, Shu Fang; Liang, Bao Qing; Hu, Frank B; Lam, Tai Hing

    2014-05-01

    Prospective evidence of the associations of smoking cessation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other causes of death in Asia is scarce. Previous studies, which were mostly based on baseline smoking behavior only, were subject to sick-quitter bias and misclassification resulting from changes in smoking behavior during follow-up. We followed up a cohort for 18 years (1976-1994) to assess changes in smoking behavior and then for an additional 17 years (1994-2011) to examine the relationships of continuing to smoke and new quitting with mortality risk in 1,494 Chinese people (961 men, 533 women). Of the baseline current smokers, 38.7% quit between 1976 and 1994. From 1994 to 2011, a total of 488 persons (359 men, 129 women) died. Ever smokers had increased risks of lung cancer, coronary heart disease, thrombotic stroke, and COPD, with dose-response relationships. For all tobacco-related mortality, the relative risk for new quitters compared with continuing smokers was 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.99) for those who had quit 2-7 years previously and 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.37, 0.85) for those who had quit 8 years or more previously. The corresponding relative risks were 0.69 and 0.45 for lung cancer, 0.78 and 0.51 for coronary heart disease, 0.76 and 0.84 for thrombotic stroke, and 0.89 and 0.61 for COPD, respectively. Smoking increased tobacco-related deaths, and particularly deaths from COPD, in China, whereas quitting at middle age (at approximately 50 years of age) substantially reduced the risks of death from these causes. The benefits of smoking cessation were underestimated in previous studies that did not use repeated measures.

  16. Effects of signaling invasive procedures on a hospitalized infant's affective behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Derrickson, J G; Neef, N A; Cataldo, M F

    1993-01-01

    We report the effects of using a visual and auditory stimulus signaling impending painful medical procedures versus