Science.gov

Sample records for affect specific aspects

  1. [Caring for a person affected by Alzheimer's disease: specific aspects of grief in family caregivers and their social support].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne; Pierrot, Marylène

    2007-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (DTA) leads to some behavioural, physical and psychic modifications in the patient that the natural helper (family-spouse-child) will have to face throughout the course of the disease. The authors have tried to identify the nature of losses experienced by helpers so as to bring out some preventive and curative support tracks. This preparatory research-action was conducted with 27 families through semi-directive conversations which enabled to reveal their difficulties (somatic-emotional-affective-organizational), their reactions of adaptation in echo with the losses of the patient along the course of the DTA as well as the elements enabling to maintain or not the ill person's family/close relation link. The analysis of obtained results is proposed according to the concepts of adaptation, affection and separation, systemic approach and coping. The comments and behaviours of helpers are put in relation with the symptoms of mourning as well as with the medical interactions, helper or not. Five chronological times were identified (before diagnosis-moment of the diagnosis-keeping at home-admission in institution-life in institution). The period of white mourning (connected to the loss of the recognition of his/her close relations by the patient) is mainly felt as a vector of suffering. As part of the dynamics of social support, the proposed tracks of nursing interventions mainly target the admission and life in institution; their aim is to offer an adapted support to natural helpers, whether they make the choice or not to support their close patients throughout the institutionalization. In appendices, all the key ideas helping to track down the elements contributing to maintain the ill person's helper/close relation link or accelerating his/her breaking down.

  2. Affective and Cognitive Aspects of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrell, Ileana Collado; Herrell, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A study showing that lexically equivalent words in two languages have different affective meanings, that affective intensity of dominant language words is greater than for second language equivalents, and that the difference is greatest for words with high affective meaning demonstrates that affective meaning is an important component of…

  3. Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

  4. STRUCTURAL AND AFFECTIVE ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALBERG, HERBERT J.

    USING THE CLASSROOM AS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS A 25 PERCENT RANDOM SAMPLE OF STUDENTS IN 72 CLASSES FROM ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY TOOK THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORDER TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURAL (ORGANIZATIONAL) AND AFFECTIVE (PERSONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN GROUP MEMBERS) DIMENSIONS OF GROUP CLIMATE. REGRESSION AND…

  5. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  6. Specific aspects of erectile dysfunction in sexology.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Valls, J J; Gonzalez-Correales, R

    2004-10-01

    The sexology of erectile dysfunction (ED) is approached from a perspective that integrates medical, psychological, and social aspects. This article reviews the clinical intervention in sexology beginning with the diagnostic evaluation, where the organic and psychological factors (predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating) contributing to ED are determined. A description of the differential diagnosis process follows, which establishes the relevance of organic factors in order to organize therapeutic strategies. There are three possible treatment processes: psychological intervention with the patient, intervention on the partner relationship, or intervention with the partner. Referral criteria are also described, such as when patients with ED should be referred to a sexologist, and to whom sexologists should refer patients with ED.

  7. Specific pharmacokinetic aspects of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Cees; Krauwinkel, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for "specific" pharmacokinetics playing a role in currently marketed drugs intended to treat lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms. Principles of drug targeting include intrinsic properties of drugs or organs as well as drug formulations to modify drug release or to create confinement of drug presence. Prodrugs and specific formulations to deliver high drug concentrations at the site(s) of action as well as other ways to manipulate drug distribution to achieve enrichment in target tissues are considered. In overactive bladder (OAB), specific formulations for oxybutynin have been introduced to reduce the level of side effects of the active drug. Extended release tablet formulations and a topical gel formulation have been introduced, with efficacy similar to immediate release (IR) tablets, but with a reduction in anticholinergic adverse effects. However, these modifications have not led to outstanding performance parameters compared to other anticholinergic drugs marketed as IR formulations. Urinary excretion is discussed as potential mechanism for targeting LUT symptoms, but no strong indications appear to exist that this mechanism would contribute for currently available drugs. Intravesical administration of drugs is not a preferred option and only considered for drugs like botulinum toxin, where the inconvenient application compensates for a reasonable degree of long-term efficacy in severe refractory OAB. Alpha acid glycoprotein binding is discussed as a potential factor to influence drug tissue distribution, and it is concluded that there is reasonable evidence that for tamsulosin this mechanism is responsible for the difference in free fraction of the drug observed in plasma and prostate, which could contribute to its relative absence of blood pressure effects in patients with LUT symptoms related to benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). The principle of irreversible inhibition of type II 5α-reductase as a tool to develop drugs

  8. Lung transplantation in children. Specific aspects.

    PubMed

    Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Solé Montserrat, Juan; Roman Broto, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung transplantation has become in recent years a therapeutic option for infantswith terminal lung disease with similar results to transplantation in adults.In Spain, since 1996 114 children lung transplants have been performed; this corresponds to3.9% of the total transplant number.The most common indication in children is cystic fibrosis, which represents between 70-80% of the transplants performed in adolescents. In infants common indications areinterstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.In most children a sequential double lung transplant is performed, generally with the help ofextracorporeal circulation. Lung transplantation in children presents special challenges in monitoring and follow-up, especially in infants, given the difficulty in assessing lung function and performing transbronchial biopsies.There are some more specific complications in children like postransplant lymphoproliferative syndrome or a greater severity of respiratory virus infections .After lung transplantation children usually experiment a very important improvement in their quality of life. Eighty eight per cent of children have no limitations in their activity after 3 years of transplantation.According to the registry of the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) survival at 5 years of transplantation is 54% and at 10 years is around 35%. PMID:24239132

  9. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  10. Teachers’ perceptions of aspects affecting seminar learning: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many medical schools have embraced small group learning methods in their undergraduate curricula. Given increasing financial constraints on universities, active learning groups like seminars (with 25 students a group) are gaining popularity. To enhance the understanding of seminar learning and to determine how seminar learning can be optimised it is important to investigate stakeholders’ views. In this study, we qualitatively explored the views of teachers on aspects affecting seminar learning. Methods Twenty-four teachers with experience in facilitating seminars in a three-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Three focus groups met twice with an interval of two weeks led by one moderator. Sessions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects that influence seminar learning. Results Teachers identified seven key aspects affecting seminar learning: the seminar teacher, students, preparation, group functioning, seminar goals and content, course coherence and schedule and facilities. Important components of these aspects were: the teachers’ role in developing seminars (‘ownership’), the amount and quality of preparation materials, a non-threatening learning climate, continuity of group composition, suitability of subjects for seminar teaching, the number and quality of seminar questions, and alignment of different course activities. Conclusions The results of this study contribute to the unravelling of the ‘the black box’ of seminar learning. Suggestions for ways to optimise active learning in seminars are made regarding curriculum development, seminar content, quality assurance and faculty development. PMID:23399475

  11. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Franziska; Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer's perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor's perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors-transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading-in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  12. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer’s perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor’s perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors—transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading—in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  13. [THE MANIC DEPRESSIVE DISEASE: PSYCHODYNAMICS ASPECTS AND AFFECTIVE SYNTONY].

    PubMed

    Widakowich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In a time when manic-depressive disease became bipolar disorder, and it is conceptualized and treated almost as a fully medical illness, such as epilepsy, we found worth returning to some psychodynamic aspects underlying this condition. Conventionally, we depart from the concept of melancholy, to introduce in a second time, the mania, as a liberating solution of the depression. To Abraham (1912), mania is the liberation from suffering imposed by the reality principle For Freud (1915), mania becomes a leak from the ego face a tyrannical superego (the encounter of ego and the ego ideal). Klein (1934) explains that the mania serves to counter the depressive position and thus avoid the guilt inside of ego. For Racamier (1979), mania is clearly a frantic negation of the anguish and emotional suffering. Today, some authors as Chabot and Husain try to define the manic depression organization, with the help of projective tests. This personality structure would be between psychosis and borderline. An axial element of this structure is the research for an affective symbiosis with each other. These concept, strongly resemble the "syntony", from Bleuler. We trace the evolution of manic depression from a psychodynamic and structural point of view, with particular interesting in the concept of syntony. PMID:26323110

  14. Specific and nonspecific aspects of humoral immune response in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Lombardi, C; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    1. We have studied some generic and specific aspects of the humoral immune response in 96 patients with leprosy (29 paucibacillary and 67 multibacillary individuals). We determined serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG and IgA), CH50, C1q, C3 and C4, circulating immune complexes (CIC), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies. No specific pattern of general humoral immune changes could be observed. 2. The specific immune response was studied by the detection of specific IgM anti-M. leprae antibodies. An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and an ELISA were compared for clinical effectiveness. IRMA showed greater sensitivity for the serodiagnosis of leprosy as compared to ELISA (88.1% vs 58.2% for multibacillary patients and 20.7% vs 10.3% for paucibacillary leprosy patients). Specificity was 96% for IRMA and 97% for ELISA. 3. Our results indicate that nonspecific changes in the humoral immune response are of little value in assessing leprosy patients and that immune assays for the detection of specific anti-M. leprae antibodies may be of value in the diagnosis, study and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8173529

  15. Some aspects of powerplant airframe integration affecting fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbridge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The performance criteria for STOL transport aircraft place many constraints on engineering design, which, in turn, may have a direct bearing on fuel efficiency: these constraints become even more severe with the introduction of powered-lift for turbofan aircraft. Consideration is given to some aspects of performance and design which arise as a result of powerplant/airframe integration and an attempt is made to assess these factors in terms of transport fuel efficiency. The drag polars of various powered lift concepts are analyzed to determine the installed thrust/weight required and a simple method of relating this to fuel efficiency is suggested. Some other factors have been identified as being important to this aspect of design and these are discussed in more general terms. Finally, special consideration is given to recent Canadian research in the realm of supercritical airfoil technology as applied to an multi-foil section which could be utilized both for the STOL regime of flight and for cruise at transonic speeds.

  16. New aspects on patients affected by dysferlin deficient muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, Lars; Aboumousa, Ahmed; Eagle, Michelle; Hudson, Judith; Sarkozy, Anna; Vita, Gianluca; Charlton, Richard; Roberts, Mark; Straub, Volker; Barresi, Rita; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the dysferlin gene lead to limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B, Miyoshi myopathy and distal anterior compartment myopathy. A cohort of 36 patients affected by dysferlinopathy is described, in the first UK study of clinical, genetic, pathological and biochemical data. The diagnosis was established by reduction of dysferlin in the muscle biopsy and subsequent mutational analysis of the dysferlin gene. Seventeen mutations were novel; the majority of mutations were small deletions/insertions, and no mutational hotspots were identified. Sixty-one per cent of patients (22 patients) initially presented with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B, 31% (11 patients) with a Miyoshi phenotype, one patient with proximodistal mode of onset, one patient with muscle stiffness after exercise and one patient as a symptomatic carrier. A wider range of age of onset was noted than previously reported, with 25% of patients having first symptoms before the age of 13 years. Independent of the initial mode of presentation, in our cohort of patients the gastrocnemius muscle was the most severely affected muscle leading to an inability to stand on tiptoes, and lower limbs were affected more severely than upper limbs. As previous anecdotal evidence on patients affected by dysferlinopathy suggests good muscle prowess before onset of symptoms, we also investigated pre-symptomatic fitness levels of the patients. Fifty-three per cent of the patients were very active and sporty before the onset of symptoms which makes the clinical course of dysferlinopathy unusual within the different forms of muscular dystrophy and provides a challenge to understanding the underlying pathomechanisms in this disease. PMID:19528035

  17. Important aspects of placental-specific gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Melissa R; Albers, Renee E; Keoni, Chanel; Kulkarni-Datar, Kashmira; Natale, David R; Brown, Thomas L

    2014-10-15

    The placenta is a unique and highly complex organ that develops only during pregnancy and is essential for growth and survival of the developing fetus. The placenta provides the vital exchange of gases and wastes, the necessary nutrients for fetal development, acts as immune barrier that protects against maternal rejection, and produces numerous hormones and growth factors that promote fetal maturity to regulate pregnancy until parturition. Abnormal placental development is a major underlying cause of pregnancy-associated disorders that often result in preterm birth. Defects in placental stem cell propagation, growth, and differentiation are the major factors that affect embryonic and fetal well-being and dramatically increase the risk of pregnancy complications. Understanding the processes that regulate placentation is important in determining the underlying factors behind abnormal placental development. The ability to manipulate genes in a placenta-specific manner provides a unique tool to analyze development and eliminates potentially confounding results that can occur with traditional gene knockouts. Trophoblast stem cells and mouse embryos are not overly amenable to traditional gene transfer techniques. Most viral vectors, however, have a low infection rate and often lead to mosaic transgenesis. Although the traditional method of embryo transfer is intrauterine surgical implantation, the methodology reported here, combining lentiviral blastocyst infection and nonsurgical embryo transfer, leads to highly efficient and placental-specific gene transfer. Numerous advantages of our optimized procedures include increased investigator safety, a reduction in animal stress, rapid and noninvasive embryo transfer, and higher a rate of pregnancy and live birth.

  18. Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

    2014-09-01

    Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed.

  19. Environmental colour affects aspects of single-species population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Petchey, O L

    2000-04-22

    Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental colour influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the colour of population dynamics is tinged by the colour of the environmental variability. However, environmental colour had no effect on the colour of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this experiment were reddened, regardless of environmental colour. (ii) Models predict that populations will track reddened environmental variability more closely than white environmental variability and that populations with a higher intrinsic growth rate (r) will track environmental variability more closely than populations with a low r. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. (iii) Models predict that population variability is determined by interaction between r and the environmental variability. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. These results show that (i) reddened population dynamics may need no special explanation, such as reddened environments, spatial subdivision or interspecific interactions, and (ii) and (iii) that population dynamics are sensitive to environmental colour, in agreement with population models. Correct specification of the colour of the environmental variability in models is required for accurate predictions. Further work is needed to study the effects of environmental colour on communities and ecosystems.

  20. Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Sengottuvel, Kuppuraj; Rao, Prema K S

    2013-10-01

    Procedural deficit hypothesis claims that language deficit in children with specific language impairment is affiliated to sequence learning problems. However, studies did not explore on aspects of grammar vulnerable to sequence learning deficits. The present study makes predictions for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis. The hypothesis for the present study was that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment. Further, the influence of sequencing difficulties would be even greater in agglutinating inflectional languages. An adapted serial reaction time task for sequence learning measurements along with grammatical tasks on derivation, inflection, and sentence complexity were examined on typically developing and language impaired children. Results were in favor of procedural deficit hypothesis and its close relation to non-adjacent grammatical operations. The findings were discussed using procedural deficits, declarative compensatory mechanism, and statistical learning deficits.

  1. Emotion-specific load disrupts concomitant affective processing.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M; Pleyers, Gordy; Bayot, Marie; Corneille, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Findings in the neuroimaging literature suggest that separate brain circuitries are involved when individuals perform emotional compared to nonemotional working memory (WM) tasks. Here we test this hypothesis with behavioural measures. We predicted that the conceptual processing of affect would be disrupted more by concurrent affective than nonaffective load. Participants performed a conceptual task in which they verified affective versus sensory properties of concepts, and a second, concurrent, working memory (n-back) task in which the target stimuli were facial expressions. Results revealed that storing and updating affective (as compared with identity) features of facial expressions altered performance more for affective than for sensory properties of concepts. The findings are supportive of the ideas that affective resources exist and that these resources are specifically used during the processing and representation of affective properties of objects and events.

  2. Specific aspects of consanguinity: some examples from the Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Romdhane, Lilia; Ben Halim, Nizar; Rejeb, Insaf; Kefi, Rym; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Ben Rekaya, Mariem; Messai, Habib; Messaoud, Olfa; Riahi, Zied; Bonnet, Crystel; Ben Rhouma, Faten; Nagara, Majdi; Petit, Christine; McElreavey, Ken; Romeo, Giovanni; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Located at the cross-road between Europe and Africa, Tunisia is a North African country of 11 million inhabitants. Throughout its history, it has been invaded by different ethnic groups. These historical events, and consanguinity, have impacted on the spectrum and frequency of genetic diseases in Tunisia. Investigations of Tunisian families have significantly contributed to elucidation of the genetic bases of rare disorders, providing an invaluable resource of cases due to particular familial structures (large family size, consanguinity and share of common ancestors). In the present study, we report on and review different aspects of consanguinity in the Tunisian population as a case study, representing several features common to neighboring or historically related countries in North Africa and the Middle East. Despite the educational, demographic and behavioral changes that have taken place during the last four decades, familial and geographical endogamy still exist at high frequencies, especially in rural areas. The health implications of consanguinity in Tunisian families include an increased risk of the expression of autosomal recessive diseases and particular phenotypic expressions. With new sequencing technologies, the investigation of consanguineous populations provides a unique opportunity to better evaluate the impact of consanguinity on the genome dynamic and on health, in addition to a better understanding of the genetic bases of diseases. PMID:25060280

  3. Single locus affects embryonic segment polarity and multiple aspects of an adult evolutionary novelty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The characterization of the molecular changes that underlie the origin and diversification of morphological novelties is a key challenge in evolutionary developmental biology. The evolution of such traits is thought to rely largely on co-option of a toolkit of conserved developmental genes that typically perform multiple functions. Mutations that affect both a universal developmental process and the formation of a novelty might shed light onto the genetics of traits not represented in model systems. Here we describe three pleiotropic mutations with large effects on a novel trait, butterfly eyespots, and on a conserved stage of embryogenesis, segment polarity. Results We show that three mutations affecting eyespot size and/or colour composition in Bicyclus anynana butterflies occurred in the same locus, and that two of them are embryonic recessive lethal. Using surgical manipulations and analysis of gene expression patterns in developing wings, we demonstrate that the effects on eyespot morphology are due to changes in the epidermal response component of eyespot induction. Our analysis of morphology and of gene expression in mutant embryos shows that they have a typical segment polarity phenotype, consistent with the mutant locus encoding a negative regulator of Wingless signalling. Conclusions This study characterizes the segregation and developmental effects of alleles at a single locus that controls the morphology of a lineage-specific trait (butterfly eyespots) and a conserved process (embryonic segment polarity and, specifically, the regulation of Wingless signalling). Because no gene with such function was found in the orthologous, highly syntenic genomic regions of two other lepidopterans, we hypothesize that our locus is a yet undescribed, possibly lineage-specific, negative regulator of the conserved Wnt/Wg pathway. Moreover, the fact that this locus interferes with multiple aspects of eyespot morphology and maps to a genomic region containing

  4. [Aspects of psychotherapies. Music therapy and its specificity].

    PubMed

    Verdeau-Pailles, J

    1991-01-01

    Musicotherapy, associating art and science, concerns a sensorial approach, in a therapeutic aim, through sound and music, to psychological difficulties, of numerous somatic and psychosomatic troubles, as well as neurotic and psychotic disease. Music therapy is one of the art-therapy methods, all of them dealing with mediation in reference to Winnicott, leading the patients to active and creative participation and being most of the time shorter than classical verbal therapies. It may be considered as being related to the main theories of modern psychotherapies, and refers either to Psychoanalysis or to behaviour therapies, or to cognitive therapies, or to humanistic therapies ... but, whatever its main basic theory, musicotherapy shows its specificity. Its specific features are: the variety and complexity of its techniques; the specificity of the therapeutic relation; patient, music, and therapist are united through a triangular relationship; transference is of a special quality; the way the therapist answers the patient and helps him may be either verbal or musical. Practising music and listening to music must not be considered as a therapy. Music is not therapeutic in itself. It becomes so when music is used in techniques organised in a therapeutic aim. Musicotherapy may be necessary for a patient who suffers, who asks to be helped and who finds through music a way of expression and communication. The therapeutic aim has nothing to do with musical training. Musicotherapy concerns children as well as adults and elderly people, but requires different techniques adapted to the category of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  6. [Specific aspects of anesthesiological management of laser surgery in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Beutner, D; Stuermer, K J; Padosch, S A

    2014-03-01

    Transoral laser surgery has become a standard procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract. As the laser cuts and coagulates simultaneously, intraoperative bleeding is reduced, thus improving visualization of the operative field. However, the specific risks for patients and personnel that are associated with this technique necessitate strict compliance with safety regulations and precautions. The safe anesthesiological and surgical management of such procedures requires explicit knowledge of the risks inherent to laser use, as well as close communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist throughout all operative and perioperative procedures. Although potentially fatal complications are rare, surgeon and anesthesiologist need to be aware of the dangers at all times and have exact knowledge of emergency measures. The use of suitable laser-resistant endotracheal tubes, total intravenous anesthesia and an optimized breathing gas mixture can contribute to minimize the occurrence of complications in otorhinolaryngology laser surgery.

  7. [Specific aspects of anesthesiological management of laser surgery in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Beutner, D; Stuermer, K J; Padosch, S A

    2014-06-01

    Transoral laser surgery has become a standard procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract. As the laser cuts and coagulates simultaneously, intraoperative bleeding is reduced, thus improving visualization of the operative field. However, the specific risks for patients and personnel that are associated with this technique necessitate strict compliance with safety regulations and precautions. The safe anesthesiological and surgical management of such procedures requires explicit knowledge of the risks inherent to laser use, as well as close communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist throughout all operative and perioperative procedures. Although potentially fatal complications are rare, surgeon and anesthesiologist need to be aware of the dangers at all times and have exact knowledge of emergency measures. The use of suitable laser-resistant endotracheal tubes, total intravenous anesthesia and an optimized breathing gas mixture can contribute to minimize the occurrence of complications in otorhinolaryngology laser surgery.

  8. Age-Specific Preferences for Infant-Directed Affective Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Christine; Lam, Christa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the developmental course of infants' attentional preferences for 3 types of infant-directed affective intent, which have been shown to be commonly used at particular ages in the first year of life. Specifically, Kitamura and Burnham (2003) found mothers' tone of voice in infant-directed speech is most comforting between birth…

  9. Comparison versus Contrast: Task Specifics Affect Category Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankowski, Amber A.; Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature has documented that comparison and contrast lead to better performance in a variety of tasks. However, studies of comparison and contrast present contradictory conclusions as to when and how these processes benefit learners. Across four studies, we examined how the specifics of the comparison and contrast task affect performance…

  10. Understanding the Emotional Aspects of Escalation of Commitment: The Role of Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Yik, Michelle; Kwong, Jessica Y. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding the emotional aspects of organizational decision making, prior research has paid scant attention to the role of emotion in escalation of commitment. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between negative affect and escalation of commitment. Results showed that regardless of…

  11. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  12. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17β-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  13. An Extensible Aspect-Oriented Modeling Environment for Constructing Domain-Specific Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Kamei, Yasutaka

    AspectM, an aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) language, provides not only basic modeling constructs but also an extension mechanism called metamodel access protocol (MMAP) that allows a modeler to modify the metamodel. MMAP consists of metamodel extension points, extension operations, and primitive predicates for navigating the metamodel. Although the notion of MMAP is useful, it needs tool support. This paper proposes a method for implementing a MMAP-based AspectM support tool. It consists of model editor, model weaver, and model verifier. We introduce the notion of edit-time structural reflection and extensible model weaving. Using these mechanisms, a modeler can easily construct domain-specific languages (DSLs). We show a case study using the AspectM support tool and discuss the effectiveness of the extension mechanism provided by MMAP. As a case study, we show a UML-based DSL for describing the external contexts of embedded systems.

  14. Understanding the emotional aspects of escalation of commitment: the role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Yik, Michelle; Kwong, Jessica Y Y

    2006-03-01

    Despite the importance of understanding the emotional aspects of organizational decision making, prior research has paid scant attention to the role of emotion in escalation of commitment. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between negative affect and escalation of commitment. Results showed that regardless of whether negative affect was measured as a dispositional trait (Neuroticism) in Studies 1 and 2 or as a transient mood state in Study 3, it was negatively correlated with escalation tendency when one was personally responsible for a prior decision. This pattern of results is consistent with the predictions derived from the coping perspective, suggesting that people seek to escape from the unpleasant emotions that are associated with escalation situations.

  15. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes Reflecting Aspect and Modality by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia; Miller, Carol A.; Charest, Monique; Kurtz, Robert; Rauf, Leila

    2003-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have well-documented problems in the use of tense-related grammatical morphemes. However, in English, tense often overlaps with aspect and modality. In this study, 15 children with SLI (mean age 5;2) and two groups of 15 typically developing children (mean ages 3;6 and 5;3) were compared in terms of…

  16. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  17. Chronic Loss of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Affects Motivational Aspects of Feeding in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Toonen, Pim W.; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Sears, Robert M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; De Vries, Taco J.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding. Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch+/+ or pmch−/− rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch−/− rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch−/− rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system. Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption. PMID

  18. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Charles T.; Teie, David

    2010-01-01

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech (‘motherese’) influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state. PMID:19726444

  19. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Teie, David

    2010-02-23

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech ('motherese') influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis patients affected by oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This literature review aims to evaluate the epidemiologic profile of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that developed a bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis that affect the jaws (BRONJ), including demographic aspects, as well as clinical and therapeutic issues. A search of PUBMED/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from January 2003 to September 2011 was conducted with the objective of identifying publications that contained case reports regarding oral BRONJ in RA patients. Patients with RA who develop oral BRONJ are usually women above 60 years taking steroids and long-term alendronate. Most of them have osteoporosis, and lesions, triggered by dental procedures, are usually detected at stage II in the mandible. Although there is no accepted treatment protocol, these patients seem to have better outcomes with conservative approaches that include antibiotic therapy, chlorhexidine, and drug discontinuation. PMID:22376948

  1. Simulation and investigation of factors affecting high aspect ratio UV embossing.

    PubMed

    Chan-Park, Mary B; Lam, Y C; Laulia, P; Joshi, S C

    2005-03-01

    UV embossing is a replication method whereby an UV-curable polymer is pressed against a patterned mold and cured with UV irradiation, resulting in a patterned polymeric substrate. High aspect ratio UV embossing will find diverse applications in tissue engineering, micro-optics, display technologies, and sensors. Demolding of an UV-embossed polymer pattern with aspect ratio of 5 from the mold has previously been demonstrated experimentally. In this paper, parameters that affect the demolding process have been identified and investigated. They include cross-linking shrinkage during curing by UV irradiation, modulus of cured polymer, interfacial fracture strength and toughness, and loading method during demolding. Shrinkage is an important parameter, and an optimum level of shrinkage to avoid breakage of the embossing during demolding was found to exist. This optimum level is that at which the maximum stress (sigma(1)max) experienced by the polymer during demolding is minimized. The micromechanics of demolding was found to be different for shrinkage values lower or larger than the optimum value. PMID:15723501

  2. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice.

    PubMed

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI-Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS-Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  3. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  4. Specific aspects of contemporary triathlon: implications for physiological analysis and performance.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Millet, Grégoire P; Vleck, Verónica E; McNaughton, Lars R

    2002-01-01

    Triathlon competitions are performed over markedly different distances and under a variety of technical constraints. In 'standard-distance' triathlons involving 1.5km swim, 40km cycling and 10km running, a World Cup series as well as a World Championship race is available for 'elite' competitors. In contrast, 'age-group' triathletes may compete in 5-year age categories at a World Championship level, but not against the elite competitors. The difference between elite and age-group races is that during the cycle stage elite competitors may 'draft' or cycle in a sheltered position; age-group athletes complete the cycle stage as an individual time trial. Within triathlons there are a number of specific aspects that make the physiological demands different from the individual sports of swimming, cycling and running. The physiological demands of the cycle stage in elite races may also differ compared with the age-group format. This in turn may influence performance during the cycle leg and subsequent running stage. Wetsuit use and drafting during swimming (in both elite and age-group races) result in improved buoyancy and a reduction in frontal resistance, respectively. Both of these factors will result in improved performance and efficiency relative to normal pool-based swimming efforts. Overall cycling performance after swimming in a triathlon is not typically affected. However, it is possible that during the initial stages of the cycle leg the ability of an athlete to generate the high power outputs necessary for tactical position changes may be impeded. Drafting during cycling results in a reduction in frontal resistance and reduced energy cost at a given submaximal intensity. The reduced energy expenditure during the cycle stage results in an improvement in running, so an athlete may exercise at a higher percentage of maximal oxygen uptake. In elite triathlon races, the cycle courses offer specific physiological demands that may result in different fatigue responses

  5. Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula--status quo and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Burghaus, Désirée; Bayer, Gudrun; Kindler-Röhrborn, Andrea; Heue, Matthias; Becker, Jan Carl

    2012-01-01

    The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany) revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany) in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively - using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students' workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis - ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM) is obligatory. PMID:23255960

  6. ALE meta‐analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emotionally‐laden tactile stimulation—such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet—may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta‐analysis was performed. This meta‐analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta‐analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta‐analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta‐analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network‐level co‐activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective‐related PI and discriminative‐related SI regions co‐activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co‐activations. Taken together, these meta‐analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct

  7. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  8. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  9. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  10. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  11. Preschool Sleep Problems and Differential Associations With Specific Aspects of Executive Control in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Kidwell, Katherine M; James, Tiffany D; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the differential associations between parent-reported child sleep problems in preschool and specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school in a large sample of typically developing children (N = 215). Consistent with expectations, sleep problems were negatively associated with performance on tasks assessing working memory and interference suppression inhibition, even after controlling for general cognitive abilities, but not with flexible shifting or response inhibition. The findings add to the literature on cognitive impairments associated with pediatric sleep loss and highlight the need for early intervention for children with sleep problems to promote healthy cognitive development. PMID:26151614

  12. Specific previous experience affects perception of harmony and meter.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C

    2011-10-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was presented simultaneously with a melody. After a listener was familiarized with melodies embedded in contexts, the listener heard melodies in isolation and judged the fit of a final harmonic or metrical probe event. The probe event matched either the familiar (but absent) context or an unfamiliar context. For both harmonic (Experiments 1 and 3) and metrical (Experiment 2) information, exposure to context shifted listeners' preferences toward a probe matching the context that they had been familiarized with. This suggests that listeners rapidly form specific musical memories without explicit instruction, which are then activated during music listening. These data pose an interesting challenge for models of music perception which implicitly assume that the listener's knowledge base is predominantly schematic or abstract. PMID:21553992

  13. Do increases in selected fitness parameters affect the aesthetic aspects of classical ballet performance?

    PubMed

    Twitchett, Emily A; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Research has indicated that classical ballet dancers tend to have lower fitness levels and increased injury rates compared to other athletes with similar workloads. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specifically tailored fitness training programme on the incidence of injury and the aesthetic quality of performance of classical ballet dancers compared to a control group. Proficiency in performance was evaluated at the beginning and end of the intervention period for both groups through a 4-min dance sequence using previously ratified marking criteria. The intervention group (n = 8) partook in a weekly 1-hr training session that included aerobic interval training, circuit training, and whole body vibration. All dancers' performance proficiency scores increased from pre-intervention testing to post-intervention. The intervention group's overall performance scores demonstrated a significantly greater increase (p = 0.03) than the equivalent for the control group. It was concluded that supplementary fitness training has a positive effect on aspects related to aesthetic dance performance as studied herein; further research is recommended on a larger and more varied sample. Practical applications from this study suggest that supplemental training should be part of a ballet dancer's regime, and minimal intervention time is required to have observable effects.

  14. Specific aspects of minority stress associated with depression among LDS affiliated non-heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Katherine A; Galliher, Renee V; Dehlin, John; Bradshaw, William S

    2015-01-01

    A nation-wide sample of 634 previous or current members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), non-heterosexual adults (ages 18-33), were surveyed to examine how specific aspects of minority stress are individually and collectively associated with depression, and how such associations differ across sex, sexual orientation, and level of affiliation with the LDS church. When five stressors were examined simultaneously, need for others' acceptance (NA) was the strongest predictor of depression, followed by internalized homophobia (IH). All minority stress factors were found to be individually predictive of depression and did not differ across sex or sexual orientation subgroups. Differences were observed, however, when considering current LDS status, such that participants who were no longer affiliated with the LDS church reported stronger relationships between some minority stressors and depression. Implications of religious identity salience as a potential mediator of relationships between specific stressors and depression are discussed.

  15. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    PubMed

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  16. Resident microbiota affect Bordetella pertussis infectious dose and host specificity.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Laura S; Feaga, Heather A; Park, Jihye; Muse, Sarah J; Safi, Chetan Y; Rolin, Olivier Y; Young, Sarah E; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-03-01

    Before contacting host tissues, invading pathogens directly or indirectly interact with host microbiota, but the effects of such interactions on the initial stages of infection are poorly understood. Bordetella pertussis is highly infectious among humans but requires large doses to colonize rodents, unlike a closely related zoonotic pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, raising important questions about the contributions of bacterial competition to initial colonization and host selection. We observed that <100 colony-forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica efficiently infected mice and displaced culturable host microbiota, whereas 10 000 CFU of B. pertussis were required to colonize murine nasal cavities and did not displace host microorganisms. Bacteria isolated from murine nasal cavities but not those from the human lower respiratory tract limited B. pertussis growth in vitro, indicating that interspecies competition may limit B. pertussis colonization of mice. Further, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment delivered before B. pertussis inoculation reduced the infectious dose to <100 CFU, and reintroduction of single Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species was sufficient to inhibit B. pertussis colonization of antibiotic-treated mice. Together, these results reveal that resident microorganisms can prevent B. pertussis colonization and influence host specificity, and they provide rationale for manipulating microbiomes to create more-accurate animal models of infectious diseases.

  17. [Rehabilitation after occupational accidents in professional dancers: advice with due regard to dance specific aspects].

    PubMed

    Wanke, E M; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2012-08-01

    The highly specialized occupation of professional dancers is a combination of sport and artistic expression. The exertion is only possible with a fully operative body. Although professional dancers may be compared with elite athletes and acute injuries frequently happen, dancers do not seem to be granted an appropriate therapy after accidents as compared with athletes. Although even minor injuries may potentially endanger the career of a professional dancer, physiotherapeutic or physical treatment methods are applied in every tenth case only. Alternative and holistic concepts such as Pilates or dance-specific re-integration that proved successful in professional dancers, are used in even fewer instances. The aim of this study is to develop a rehabilitation concept for professional dancers focusing on dance-medicine aspects. It has been taken into account that the best physical outcomes are reflected in an optimized, holistic, dance-specific therapy and rehabilitation. Intensifying and exploiting dance-specific methods of treatment can not only reduce costs in the end but can even contribute to reducing the duration of rehabilitation after injuries of dancers. Preconditions for realization of the rehabilitative model are a high qualification of all persons working in the rehabilitative field as well as a marked willingness to cooperate in the various dance fields. Both gender-specific and dance-style particularities are to be taken into account to ensure a successful rehabilitation.

  18. Predicting Emotional Responses to Horror Films from Cue-Specific Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Sparks, Glenn G.

    1988-01-01

    Assesses individuals' fear and enjoyment reactions to horror films, applying theories of cognition and affect that predict emotional responses to a stimulus on the basis of prior affect toward specific cues included in that stimulus. (MM)

  19. Long-range correlations and burstiness in written texts: Universal and language-specific aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Kalimeri, Maria; Diakonos, Fotis; Karamanos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Chatzigeorgiou, Manolis; Papageorgiou, Harris

    2016-08-01

    Recently, methods from the statistical physics of complex systems have been applied successfully to identify universal features in the long-range correlations (LRCs) of written texts. However, in real texts, these universal features are being intermingled with language-specific influences. This paper aims at the characterization and further understanding of the interplay between universal and language-specific effects on the LRCs in texts. To this end, we apply the language-sensitive mapping of written texts to word-length series (wls) and analyse large parallel (of same content) corpora from 10 languages classified to four families (Romanic, Germanic, Greek and Uralic). The autocorrelation functions of the wls reveal tiny but persistent LRCs decaying at large scales following a power-law with a language-independent exponent ˜0.60-0.65. The impact of language is displayed in the amplitude of correlations where a relative standard deviation >40% among the analyzed languages is observed. The classification to language families seems to play a significant role since, the Finnish and Germanic languages exhibit more correlations than the Greek and Roman families. To reveal the origins of the LRCs, we focus on the long words and perform burst and correlation analysis in their positions along the corpora. We find that the universal features are linked more to the correlations of the inter-long word distances while the language-specific aspects are related more to their distributions.

  20. [Specific learning disabilities and psychopathological aspects: the importance of early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, M; Zoppello, M; Rossi, R; Scarabello, E M; Piazza, F

    2007-06-01

    The case of a couple of monozygotic twins, for whom the diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities was made when they were 14.5 years old, even if reading and writing difficulties had been present since the beginning of primary school, is described. The consultation had been required due to difficulties in relating with same age boys, with social withdrawal and depressive traits, leaving in second place school difficulties; clinical suspect has led to extend the evaluation to include the neuropsychological aspects and so to reach the diagnosis. The differences in terms of adaptive modalities facing the discomfort, probably based on temperament differences, and neuropsychological disorder (low grade dyslexia for one twin, dis-orthography and low-to-medium grade dyslexia for the other one) are discussed. The acquired awareness of being intelligent has permitted the boys to look back in a new way to the school failures they had collected through years; namely, understanding that their difficulties reflected a specific neuropsychological deficit has permitted to reconsider their own past history with a consequent modification of the ''beliefs'' about their abilities. This all has led as a consequence to an increase of life quality (with an improved school and relational adaptation), without cancelling but instead supporting the research of on individuality based on temperament differences. This was possible in spite of the evident delay in reaching the diagnosis and the consequent accumulation of frustration and inadequacy experiences for many years; it's therefore demonstrated the importance of a global evaluation of patients with anamnesis of difficulties in learning to read and write, also in order to treat the possible psychopathological aspects of the clinical picture, which can be the result of a sense of helplessness. PMID:17519874

  1. The emotional eyewitness: the effects of emotion on specific aspects of eyewitness recall and recognition performance.

    PubMed

    Houston, Kate A; Clifford, Brian R; Phillips, Louise H; Memon, Amina

    2013-02-01

    The present set of experiments aimed to investigate the effects of negative emotion on specific aspects of eyewitness recall and recognition performance. The experience of emotion was manipulated between subjects, with participants either viewing a crime scenario (a mugging) or a neutral scenario (a conversation). Eyewitness recall was categorized into descriptions of the perpetrator, critical incident, victim, and environmental details. The completeness and accuracy of eyewitness recall across categories of detail were measured in Experiment 1. A significant main effect of negative emotion was found for the completeness of recall. Furthermore, a significant main effect of the completeness of eyewitness statements was found, but not for their accuracy. However, these main effects were qualified by a significant interaction between emotion and category of detail recalled. Specifically, emotional participants provided a more complete description of the perpetrator than neutral participants; however, they were less able than their neutral counterparts to describe what the perpetrator did to the victim. In light of these findings, Experiment 2 investigated whether enhanced completeness of perpetrator descriptions during recall translated into an enhanced ability to recognize the perpetrator from a photographic lineup by emotional compared with neutral participants. Results from Experiment 2 suggest that while emotional participants again provide a more complete description of the perpetrator, they are less able than their neutral counterparts to recognize the perpetrator from a photographic lineup. Results are discussed in terms of a retrieval motivation hypothesis of negative emotional experience and the possible consequences for eyewitness testimony. PMID:22775133

  2. The emotional eyewitness: the effects of emotion on specific aspects of eyewitness recall and recognition performance.

    PubMed

    Houston, Kate A; Clifford, Brian R; Phillips, Louise H; Memon, Amina

    2013-02-01

    The present set of experiments aimed to investigate the effects of negative emotion on specific aspects of eyewitness recall and recognition performance. The experience of emotion was manipulated between subjects, with participants either viewing a crime scenario (a mugging) or a neutral scenario (a conversation). Eyewitness recall was categorized into descriptions of the perpetrator, critical incident, victim, and environmental details. The completeness and accuracy of eyewitness recall across categories of detail were measured in Experiment 1. A significant main effect of negative emotion was found for the completeness of recall. Furthermore, a significant main effect of the completeness of eyewitness statements was found, but not for their accuracy. However, these main effects were qualified by a significant interaction between emotion and category of detail recalled. Specifically, emotional participants provided a more complete description of the perpetrator than neutral participants; however, they were less able than their neutral counterparts to describe what the perpetrator did to the victim. In light of these findings, Experiment 2 investigated whether enhanced completeness of perpetrator descriptions during recall translated into an enhanced ability to recognize the perpetrator from a photographic lineup by emotional compared with neutral participants. Results from Experiment 2 suggest that while emotional participants again provide a more complete description of the perpetrator, they are less able than their neutral counterparts to recognize the perpetrator from a photographic lineup. Results are discussed in terms of a retrieval motivation hypothesis of negative emotional experience and the possible consequences for eyewitness testimony.

  3. Neural substrates for the processing of cognitive and affective aspects of taste in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Taste is unique among the sensory systems in that, besides its recognition of quality, it is innately associated with hedonic aspects of reward and aversion. This review of the literature will show how taste information is conveyed through the central gustatory pathways to the cortical gustatory area and is processed in terms of qualitative and quantitative aspects. Taste information is also sent to the reward system and feeding center via several brain sites including the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, and amygdala. The reward system contains the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum; it finally sends information to the lateral hypothalamic area, the feeding center. The dopamine system originating from the ventral tegmental area mediates the motivation to consume palatable food. The actual ingestive behavior is promoted by the orexigenic neuropeptides from the hypothalamus. In the last section, the neural substrate of learning and memory of taste is introduced and the biological mechanisms are elucidated. PMID:17287579

  4. Resting-state Networks Predict Individual Differences in Common and Specific Aspects of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reineberg, Andrew E.; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Depue, Brendan; Friedman, Naomi P.; Banich, Marie T.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between individual differences in resting state functional connectivity as ascertained by fMRI (rs-fcMRI) and performance on tasks of executive function (EF), broadly defined as the ability to regulate thoughts and actions. Unlike most previous research that focused on the relationship between rs-fcMRI and a single behavioral measure of EF, in the current study we examined the relationship of rs-fcMRI with individual differences in subcomponents of EF. Ninety-one adults completed a resting state fMRI scan and three separate EF tasks outside the magnet: inhibition of prepotent responses, task set shifting, and working memory updating. From these three measures, we derived estimates of common aspects of EF, as well as abilities specific to working memory updating and task shifting. Using Independent Components Analysis (ICA), we identified across the group of participants several networks of regions (Resting State Networks, RSNs) with temporally correlated time courses. We then used dual regression to explore how these RSNs covaried with individual differences in EF. Dual regression revealed that increased higher common EF was associated with connectivity of a) frontal pole with an attentional RSN, and b) Crus I and II of the cerebellum with the right frontoparietal RSN. Moreover, higher shifting-specific abilities were associated with increased connectivity of angular gyrus with a ventral attention RSN. The results of the current study suggest that the organization of the brain at rest may have important implications for individual differences in EF, and that individuals higher in EF may have expanded resting state networks as compared to individuals with lower EF. PMID:25281800

  5. An examination of referential and affect specificity with five emotions in infancy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole G; Maza, Lindey; McGrath, Savannah J; Phelps, Amber E

    2014-08-01

    Referential specificity and affect specificity were examined in 12- to 14-month-olds (n=20), and 16- to 18-month-olds (n=20). Infants were presented with a televised social referencing paradigm involving an actress who emoted a simple descriptive message to one of two objects appearing on the video. The actress altered her affective message using a neutral baseline first, followed by 5 discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, happiness, surprise). Infants were given 30s to interact with the objects after watching the affective episode. Older infants demonstrated referential and affect specificity, as evidenced by their differential treatment of the target and distracter toy in response to messages of anger, fear, surprise, and happiness. In contrast, the younger infants did not show evidence of either referential or affect specificity, as evidenced by the lack of differentiation in their treatment of the target and distracter toy in response to positive and negative emotional messages across all emotional episodes. PMID:24813588

  6. Psychological aspects in children affected by duchenne de boulogne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Filippo, Teresa Di; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2012-07-26

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease. PMID:25478112

  7. Psychological Aspects in Children Affected by Duchenne De Boulogne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease. PMID:25478112

  8. Appraisal of Specific Aspects of Self, Salience, and Spontaneous Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Mangiarcina, Janet

    Although self-concept is traditionally viewed as being fairly stable over time and situations, a more recent position takes note of the variability or inconsistency characteristic of certain aspects of the self-concept. To determine whether spontaneous self-esteem (SSE) increases when a valued aspect of self is made salient, college students…

  9. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  10. More intense experiences, less intense forecasts: why people overweight probability specifications in affective forecasts.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Eva C; Zhang, Jiao; Morewedge, Carey K; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that affective forecasters overestimate the extent to which experienced hedonic responses to an outcome are influenced by the probability of its occurrence. The experience of an outcome (e.g., winning a gamble) is typically more affectively intense than the simulation of that outcome (e.g., imagining winning a gamble) upon which the affective forecast for it is based. We suggest that, as a result, experiencers allocate a larger share of their attention toward the outcome (e.g., winning the gamble) and less to its probability specifications than do affective forecasters. Consequently, hedonic responses to an outcome are less sensitive to its probability specifications than are affective forecasts for that outcome. The results of 6 experiments provide support for our theory. Affective forecasters overestimated how sensitive experiencers would be to the probability of positive and negative outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Consistent with our attentional account, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications disappeared when the attention of forecasters was diverted from probability specifications (Experiment 3) or when the attention of experiencers was drawn toward probability specifications (Experiment 4). Finally, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications between forecasters and experiencers were diminished when the forecasted outcome was more affectively intense (Experiments 5 and 6).

  11. More intense experiences, less intense forecasts: why people overweight probability specifications in affective forecasts.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Eva C; Zhang, Jiao; Morewedge, Carey K; Vosgerau, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that affective forecasters overestimate the extent to which experienced hedonic responses to an outcome are influenced by the probability of its occurrence. The experience of an outcome (e.g., winning a gamble) is typically more affectively intense than the simulation of that outcome (e.g., imagining winning a gamble) upon which the affective forecast for it is based. We suggest that, as a result, experiencers allocate a larger share of their attention toward the outcome (e.g., winning the gamble) and less to its probability specifications than do affective forecasters. Consequently, hedonic responses to an outcome are less sensitive to its probability specifications than are affective forecasts for that outcome. The results of 6 experiments provide support for our theory. Affective forecasters overestimated how sensitive experiencers would be to the probability of positive and negative outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Consistent with our attentional account, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications disappeared when the attention of forecasters was diverted from probability specifications (Experiment 3) or when the attention of experiencers was drawn toward probability specifications (Experiment 4). Finally, differences in sensitivity to probability specifications between forecasters and experiencers were diminished when the forecasted outcome was more affectively intense (Experiments 5 and 6). PMID:24128184

  12. Reproductive physiology in Zebu cattle. Unique reproductive aspects that affect their performance.

    PubMed

    Galina, C S; Orihuela, A; Duchateau, A

    1987-11-01

    This article describes the reproductive physiology of Zebu cattle and specific strategies that, when used in concert with an understanding of the physiologic differences between Zebu and other cattle, can improve reproductive performance. PMID:3319088

  13. Affective Aspects on Mathematics Conceptualization: From Dichotomies to an Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Claudia Roberta; Andrade, Fernanda; Hazin, Izabel; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; do Nascimento, Jorge Costa; Lessa, Monica Maria Lins

    2003-01-01

    The present paper aims to propose a theoretical reflection in order to overcome a strong tradition in psychology concerning the analysis of cognition and affectivity as dichotomic processes explaining human behaviours. A general theory of the human subject is presented to discussion, followed by the proposition of a new unit of analysis for the…

  14. PATIENT-SPECIFIC AND SURGERY-SPECIFIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT RETURN TO SPORT AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Andrew; Rabuck, Stephen; Lynch, Brittany; Davin, Sarah; Irrgang, James

    2016-01-01

    Context Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is frequently performed to allow individuals to return to their pre-injury levels of sports participation, however, return to pre-injury level of sport is poor and re-injury rates are unacceptably high. Re-injury is likely associated with the timeframe and guidelines for return to sport (RTS). It is imperative for clinicians to recognize risk factors for re-injury and to ensure that modifiable risk factors are addressed prior to RTS. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize the current literature on the outcomes following return to sport after ACL reconstruction and to outline the biologic and patient-specific factors that should be considered when counseling an athlete on their progression through rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify RTS criteria and RTS rates after ACL reconstruction with consideration paid to graft healing, anatomic reconstruction, and risk factors for re-injury and revision. Results were screened for relevant original research articles and review articles, from which results were summarized. Study Design Clinical Review of the Literature Results Variable RTS rates are presented in the literature due to variable definitions of RTS ranging from a high threshold (return to competition) to low threshold (physician clearance for return to play). Re-injury and contralateral injury rates are greater than the risk for primary ACL injury, which may be related to insufficient RTS guidelines based on time from surgery, which do not allow for proper healing or resolution of post-operative impairments and elimination of risk factors associated with both primary and secondary ACL injuries. Conclusions RTS rates to pre-injury level of activity after ACLR are poor and the risk for graft injury or contralateral injury requiring an additional surgery is substantial. Resolving impairments while eliminating movement patterns associated with

  15. The Development of Affect Specificity in Infants' Use of Emotion Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole Gendler; Witherington, David C.; Edwards, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the emergence of affect specificity in infancy. In this study, infants received verbal and facial signals of 2 different, negatively valenced emotions (fear and sadness) as well as neutral affect via a television monitor to determine if they could make qualitative distinctions among emotions of the same valence. Twenty 12- to…

  16. Aspects on antidote therapy in acute poisoning affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Persson, H

    1984-01-01

    The number of toxic substances affecting the nervous system through acute or chronic exposure is overwhelming. This survey will elucidate the possibilities of antidote therapy in some acute cases of poisoning, caused by nervous system toxicants. Antidotes exert their therapeutic effects through a variety of mechanisms: Adsorption, formation of inert complexes, inhibited conversion to toxic metabolites, enhancement of endogenous detoxification, interference at receptor sites, and physiological antagonism. The application of these principles in treating some poisonings caused by important nervous system toxicants will be considered. This survey is by no means comprehensive, but rather gives some relevant examples and deals only with acute poisoning.

  17. Aspects of social cognition in anorexia nervosa: affective and cognitive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Russell, Tamara Anne; Schmidt, Ulrike; Doherty, Liz; Young, Vicky; Tchanturia, Kate

    2009-08-15

    Although social functioning is clearly impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been limited empirical assessment of this domain in this illness. This study assesses social cognition in AN by examining performance on two 'theory of mind' (ToM) tasks; Baron-Cohen's "Reading the mind in the Eyes" task (RME) and Happé's cartoon task. These tasks probe affective and cognitive ToM, respectively. Forty-four female participants were recruited (AN N=22; healthy controls N=22) and completed both tasks, with concurrent clinical and intellectual functioning assessment. Compared with healthy controls, AN performed significantly worse on both the RME and the Cartoon task (both conditions). The mental state condition did not facilitate performance in the AN group, as it did in the healthy controls. The findings broadly replicate limited previous work [Tchanturia, K., Happé, F., Godley, J., Bara-Carill, N., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., 2004. Theory of mind in AN. European Eating Disorders Review 12, 361-366] but in addition demonstrate abnormalities on a task requiring affective ToM interpretation. More detailed information about the components of ToM and the ToM difficulties demonstrated in AN sufferers may inform our understanding of the disorder as well as future social-cognitive based treatments.

  18. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  19. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone and dexamethasone failed to affect milk yield in dairy goats: comparative aspects.

    PubMed

    Shamay; Mabjeesh; Shapiro; Silanikove

    2000-11-01

    The ability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH; single i.v. injection of 2.5IU/kg BW) and dexamethasone (single i.m. injection of 36mg/kg BW) to affect milk production was studied in mid-lactating Israeli Saanen goats. None of these treatments produced changes in milk yield and composition of the goats. The effects of ACTH on blood cortisol levels, and the effects of ACTH and dexamethasone on blood plasma concentrations of glucose, however, were consistent with previous reports in goats and cows. These responses suggest that ACTH and dexamethasone treatments produced their expected glucocorticoid effects. It is suggested that obstructing the axis: stress-ACTH-glucocorticoid-down regulation of milk yield, which was demonstrated in dairy cows, reflects the adaptation of goats to harsh conditions, and the selection pressure to produce milk under conditions which are considered stressful for other ruminants. PMID:11024343

  20. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  1. Behavioural aspects of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) that affect their dental management

    PubMed Central

    Limeres-Posse, Jacobo; Castaño-Novoa, Patricia; Abeleira-Pazos, Maite; Ramos-Barbosa, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Dental treatment in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can be complicated due to the presence of behavioral alterations. In this group, there are no specific behavioral profiles that allow dentist to anticipate the attitude that a patient will show during a visit. Thus, behavioral attitudes have been described that vary from total permissiveness and collaboration during even bloody procedures, to the absolute impossibility in conducting a simple oral examination. There is no effective behavioral management technique for all ASD patients. Prior information, such as the type of ASD or the presence of certain concurrent pathologies can help predict the patient’s likely behavior. Therefore, gathering all the information in a preliminary interview with the parents/guardians of the patient is recommended. Knowing these factors will allow individualized behavioral management strategies to be designed and facilitates the planning of dental treatment. Key words:Dentistry, autism, ASD, behavior management. PMID:24608219

  2. The impact of dispositional cynicism on job-specific affect and work intentions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Taylor Peyton; Zigarmi, Drea

    2014-10-01

    Working from the Employee Work Passion Appraisal (EWPA) model, this article examines the relationship between employee dispositional cynicism, job-specific affect (i.e. positive and negative) and work intentions including intent to use discretionary effort, intent to perform, intent to endorse, intent to stay and intent to be an organisational citizen. An online survey generated participation from 747 current and potential clients of an international consulting company. To evaluate the fit of the data in accordance with the EWPA framework, structural equation modeling was conducted to test the overall fit of the proposed model and to examine the hypothesised relationships between constructs. Analyses confirmed correlations between dispositional cynicism and job-specific affect, supported notable relationships between positive job-specific affect and all work intentions, provided evidence for job-specific affect's mediation of cynicism and work intentions and uncovered a direct negative relationship between cynicism and intent to use organisational citizenship behaviour. Results suggest that state-specific workplace emotions are important for understanding the degree to which employee dispositional cynicism will ultimately influence most performance-related work intentions. However, independent of affect, employee cynicism may directly result in somewhat lower intentions to help others at work. Study limitations and practical implications for employee selection and training are considered.

  3. The impact of dispositional cynicism on job-specific affect and work intentions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Taylor Peyton; Zigarmi, Drea

    2014-10-01

    Working from the Employee Work Passion Appraisal (EWPA) model, this article examines the relationship between employee dispositional cynicism, job-specific affect (i.e. positive and negative) and work intentions including intent to use discretionary effort, intent to perform, intent to endorse, intent to stay and intent to be an organisational citizen. An online survey generated participation from 747 current and potential clients of an international consulting company. To evaluate the fit of the data in accordance with the EWPA framework, structural equation modeling was conducted to test the overall fit of the proposed model and to examine the hypothesised relationships between constructs. Analyses confirmed correlations between dispositional cynicism and job-specific affect, supported notable relationships between positive job-specific affect and all work intentions, provided evidence for job-specific affect's mediation of cynicism and work intentions and uncovered a direct negative relationship between cynicism and intent to use organisational citizenship behaviour. Results suggest that state-specific workplace emotions are important for understanding the degree to which employee dispositional cynicism will ultimately influence most performance-related work intentions. However, independent of affect, employee cynicism may directly result in somewhat lower intentions to help others at work. Study limitations and practical implications for employee selection and training are considered. PMID:25178960

  4. The Sociability Aspect of Extraversion as a Situation-Specific Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Shaul

    1984-01-01

    Examined the generalizability of the sociability aspect of extraversion-introversion dimension as measured by Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (1975) in Israeli students (N=900). Results indicated that dissemblances between extraverts and introverts exist in the desire for company and in the overall desire to associate with strangers, where…

  5. From specificity to sensitivity: affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces

    PubMed Central

    Maran, Thomas; Sachse, Pierre; Furtner, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that visual working memory (VWM) preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in VWM. To explore the influence of affective context on VWM for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a VWM task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1) and pleasant (Experiment 2) IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively) compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of VWM for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced VWM for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in VWM to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of VWM along with flexible resource allocation. In VWM, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events. PMID:26379609

  6. Targeting the affective and cognitive aspects of chronic neuropathic pain using basal forebrain neuromodulation: rationale, review and proposal.

    PubMed

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Salma, Asem; Rezai, Ali R

    2012-09-01

    Chronic pain is a major health problem in developed countries where it may affect as much as 20% of the adult population. There have been no significant clinical breakthroughs in therapeutic options for persons with chronic neuropathic pain. These limitations underscore the importance of developing new therapies for this disabling pain syndrome. We have reviewed the limitations of the present treatment strategies for chronic pain, neurophysiology of somatosensory transmission and nociception, mechanisms of neuropathic pain, the concept of a "pain matrix" and the "top-down" modulation of pain, and the cognitive affective role in processing of the pain experience. We found that affective and cognitive aspects of pain constitute important considerations in achieving improvements in the outcomes of pain neuromodulation in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Based on our review, we propose that future novel neuromodulatory therapeutic strategies should be directed at areas in the brain that are involved in the neural mechanisms of reward valuation and appetitive motivation such as nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and prefrontal cortex.

  7. Digenean-gastropod host associations inform on aspects of specific immunity in snails

    PubMed Central

    Adema, C.M.; Loker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gastropod immunology is informed importantly by the study of the frequent encounters snails endure with digeneans (digenetic trematodes). One of the hallmarks of gastropod-digenean associations is their specificity: any particular digenean parasite species is transmitted by a limited subset of snail taxa. We discuss the nature of this specificity, including its immunological basis. We then review studies of the model gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata indicating that the baseline responses of snails to digeneans can be elevated in a specific manner. Studies incorporating molecular and functional approaches are then highlighted, and are further suggestive of the capacity for specific gastropod immune responses. These studies have led to the compatibility polymorphism hypothesis: the interactions between diversified fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and diverse carbohydrate-decorated polymorphic parasite antigens determine recognition and trigger specific immunity. Complex glycan structures are also likely to play a role in the host specificity typifying snail-digenean interactions. We conclude by noting the dynamic and consequential interactions between snails and digeneans can be considered as drivers of diversification of digenean parasites and in the development and maintenance of specific immunity in gastropods. PMID:25034871

  8. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    PubMed

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  9. The impact of cognitive and affective aspects of cognitive conflict on learners' conceptual change about floating and sinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiachilleos, Stella; Valanides, Nicos; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-07-01

    Background: Cognitive conflict has been identified as an important factor for bringing about students' conceptual change. Researchers draw attention to the need to study not only cognitive factors related to cognitive conflict but affective factors as well. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of cognitive and non-cognitive aspects involved in cognitive conflict on students' conceptual change. Sample: Fifteen students, five from each of fourth, sixth and eighth grades, participated in the study. Seven students were male, and the rest were female. All students had high academic performance and were good at explaining their reasoning. Design and method: The study focused on gaining in-depth information, using semi-structured clinical interviews, about students' thinking when they were engaged in an inquiry process, which incorporated cognitive conflict using a scenario about floating and sinking. Students' initial conceptions related to the phenomenon of floating and sinking were first diagnosed and, subsequently, discrepant events were presented to challenge their initial conceptions. The 15 interviews were qualitatively analyzed using the constant comparative analysis method. Results: The results of this study showed that students' conceptual change was directly related to both cognitive and affective aspects of cognitive conflict. The results also showed that some students showed persistence on alternative frameworks even after their exposure to cognitive conflict. Conclusions: Cognitive conflict is an idiosyncratic, or personal event, that may not be experienced by all learners in the same way. Thus, the effect of cognitive conflict on learners' conceptual change is directly related to learners' ability to experience and feel the conflict when it is presented to them.

  10. MYRRHA, a Pb-Bi experimental ADS: specific approach to radiation protection aspects.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, H Aït; Aoust, Th; Malambu, E; Sobolev, V; Van Tichelen, K; De Bruyn, D; Maes, D; Haeck, W; Van den Eynde, G

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, SCK*CEN, in partnership with IBA s.a. and many European research laboratories, is designing a multipurpose accelerator driven system (ADS) for Research and Development (R&D) applications-MYRRHA-and is conducting an associated R&D support programme. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at Mol in Belgium and is aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R&D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV x 5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. In the first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept, safety research on sub-critical systems and nuclear waste transmutation studies. In a later stage, the device will also be dedicated to research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metal technology and associated aspects, and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as radioisotope production. A first preliminary conceptual design file of MYRRHA was completed by the end of 2001 and has been reviewed by an International Technical Guidance Committee, which concluded that there are no show stoppers in the project and even though some topics such as the safety studies and the fuel qualification need to be addressed more deeply before concluding it. In this paper, we are reporting on the state-of-the art of the MYRRHA project at the beginning of 2004 and in particular on the radiation shielding assessment and the radiation protection particular aspects through a remote handling operation approach in order to minimise the personnel exposure to radiation.

  11. Human blood-group MN and precursor specificities: structural and biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Springer, G F; Desai, P R

    1975-03-01

    The human blood-group MM and NN antigens carry 2 to 4 immunodominant groupings per repeating subunit and differ only by one sialic acid residue per immunodominant group. This residue covers in the MM antigen the beta-D-galactopyranosyl group that is terminal in the N immunodominant structure and that, together with a terminal alpha-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residue, is responsible for N specificity. M specificity was readily converted into N specificity by mild acid treatment. N structure is the immediate biochemical precursor of M structure, and M and N antigenic specificities are not determined by two allelic genes as believed hitherto. The NN antigen was inactivated by beta-D-galactosidase as well as by removal of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Some of the reactivities of the NN antigen, lost upon beta-D-galactosidase treatment, reappeared on subsequent partial N-acetylneuraminic acid removal. The structure uncovered by complete sialic acid depletion of MN antigens is the Thomsen-Friedenreich T antigen, the specificity of which is determined by beta-D-galactopyranosyl groups. Beta-D-Galactosidase treatment transformed the T antigen into one possessing Tnactivity. The significance of blood-group MN active substances extends to human breast cancer, where MN antigens were found in benign and malignant glands, but some of their precursors in cancerous tissue only.

  12. Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Biomarker: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Isgrò, Maria Antonietta; Bottoni, Patrizia; Scatena, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. In vertebrate organisms three isozymes of enolase, expressed by different genes, are present: enolase α is ubiquitous; enolase β is muscle-specific and enolase γ is neuron-specific. The expression of NSE, which occurs as γγ- and αγ-dimer, is a late event in neural differentiation, thus making it a useful index of neural maturation.NSE is a highly specific marker for neurons and peripheral neuroendocrine cells. As a result of the findings of NSE in specific tissues under normal conditions, increased body fluids levels of NSE may occur with malignant proliferation and thus can be of value in diagnosis, staging and treatment of related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).NSE is currently the most reliable tumour marker in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), even though increased levels of NSE have been reported also in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of NSE correlates with tumour burden, number of metastatic sites and response to treatment.NSE can be also useful at diagnosis of NETs and gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs.Raised serum levels of NSE have been found in all stages of neuroblastoma, although the incidence of increased concentration is greater in widespread and metastatic disease. Moreover, NSE determination in cord blood offers an early postnatal possibility of confirming the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in newborns.NSE has been demonstrated to provide quantitative measures of brain damage and/or to improve the diagnosis and the outcome evaluation in ischaemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, comatose patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury.Increased NSE serum levels have also been found associated with melanoma, seminoma, renal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell tumour, carcinoid tumours, dysgerminomas and immature teratomas, malignant phaechromocytoma

  13. Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Biomarker: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Isgrò, Maria Antonietta; Bottoni, Patrizia; Scatena, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. In vertebrate organisms three isozymes of enolase, expressed by different genes, are present: enolase α is ubiquitous; enolase β is muscle-specific and enolase γ is neuron-specific. The expression of NSE, which occurs as γγ- and αγ-dimer, is a late event in neural differentiation, thus making it a useful index of neural maturation.NSE is a highly specific marker for neurons and peripheral neuroendocrine cells. As a result of the findings of NSE in specific tissues under normal conditions, increased body fluids levels of NSE may occur with malignant proliferation and thus can be of value in diagnosis, staging and treatment of related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).NSE is currently the most reliable tumour marker in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), even though increased levels of NSE have been reported also in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of NSE correlates with tumour burden, number of metastatic sites and response to treatment.NSE can be also useful at diagnosis of NETs and gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs.Raised serum levels of NSE have been found in all stages of neuroblastoma, although the incidence of increased concentration is greater in widespread and metastatic disease. Moreover, NSE determination in cord blood offers an early postnatal possibility of confirming the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in newborns.NSE has been demonstrated to provide quantitative measures of brain damage and/or to improve the diagnosis and the outcome evaluation in ischaemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, comatose patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury.Increased NSE serum levels have also been found associated with melanoma, seminoma, renal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell tumour, carcinoid tumours, dysgerminomas and immature teratomas, malignant phaechromocytoma

  14. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  15. Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (ages 4 ; 1 to 6 ; 4) and typically developing (TD) children (ages 3 ; 5 to 6 ; 5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from…

  16. Developmental Change and Time-Specific Variation in Global and Specific Aspects of Self-Concept in Adolescence and Association with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuzucu, Yasar; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hofer, Scott M.; Stallings, Michael C.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that adolescents make differential self-evaluations in multiple domains that include physical appearance, academic competence, and peer acceptance. We report growth curve analyses over a seven year period from age 9 to age 16 on the six domains of the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children. In general, we find little change in self-concept, on average, but do find substantial individual differences in level, rate of change, and time-specific variation in these self- evaluations. The results suggest that sex differences and adoptive status were related to only certain aspects of the participants’ self-concept. Depressive symptoms were found to have significant effects on individual differences in rate of change and on time-specific variation in general self-concept, as well as on some of the specific domains of self-concept. PMID:25143664

  17. Genetic and Disorder-Specific Aspects of Resting State EEG Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Bernat, Edward M.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether abnormal frequency composition of the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in schizophrenia was associated with genetic liability for the disorder by studying first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. The study included a data-driven method for defining EEG frequency components and determined the specificity of resting state EEG frequency abnormalities by assessing schizophrenia patients, bipolar disorder patients, and relatives of both patient groups. Schizophrenia patients and their relatives, but not bipolar patients or their relatives, exhibited increased high-frequency activity (beta) providing evidence for disturbances in resting state brain activity being specific to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented low-frequency EEG activity (delta, theta), while bipolar disorder patients and the 2 groups of relatives generally failed to manifest similar low-frequency EEG abnormalities. The Val158Met polymorphism for the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene was most strongly associated with delta and theta activity in schizophrenia patients. Met homozygote schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented activity for the 2 low-frequency bands compared with control subjects. Excessive high-frequency EEG activity over frontal brain regions may serve as an endophenotype that reflects cortical expression of genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. Low-frequency resting state EEG anomalies in schizophrenia may relate to disorder-specific pathophysiology in schizophrenia and the influence of the COMT gene on tonic dopamanergic function. PMID:18381357

  18. Specific aspects of modern life for people with multiple sclerosis: considerations for the practitioner.

    PubMed

    Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Wiendl, Heinz; Kieseier, Bernd C; Airas, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating, neurodegenerative disease that has a high impact on patients' quality of life. Individuals are often diagnosed in early adulthood and are faced with the difficulty of managing their lifestyle within the context of this chronic illness. Here we review factors that influence the disease course and the challenges that might be encountered when managing patients with MS. The majority of diagnosed patients are women of childbearing age, making pregnancy-related issues a key concern. MS typically stabilizes during pregnancy and evidence suggests that the disease has no impact on the risk of complications or outcomes. However, the effect of disease-modifying therapies on outcomes is less clear, and discontinuation of treatment prior to pregnancy or when breastfeeding is recommended. Awareness of genetic risk factors is important for patients planning a family, as several genes increase the risk of MS. Further aspects that require consideration include infections, vaccinations, environmental factors, surgery and the emergence of osteoporosis. Vaccinations are generally not a risk factor for MS and may be beneficial in terms of protection against infection and reducing the number of relapses. Environmental factors such as vitamin D deficiency, low exposure to sunlight, smoking and Epstein-Barr virus infection can all negatively influence the disease course. Furthermore, osteoporosis is generally higher in patients with MS than the general population, and the risk is increased by the environmental and genetic factors associated with the disease; bone mineral density should be assessed and smoking cessation and correction of serum vitamin D levels are recommended. Finally, as patients with MS are typically young, they are at low risk of surgery-related complications, although they should be carefully monitored postoperatively. Awareness of, and planning around, these factors may minimize the impact of the disease on patients

  19. Dissociating motivational direction and affective valence: specific emotions alter central motor processes.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Stephen A; Cauraugh, James H; Janelle, Christopher M

    2007-11-01

    We aimed to clarify the relation between affective valence and motivational direction by specifying how central and peripheral components of extension movements are altered according to specific unpleasant affective states. As predicted, premotor reaction time was quicker for extension movements initiated during exposure to attack than for extension movements initiated during exposure to all other valence categories (mutilation, erotic couples, opposite-sex nudes, neutral humans, household objects, blank). Exposure to erotic couples and mutilations yielded greater peak force than exposure to images of attack, neutral humans, and household objects. Finally, motor reaction time and peak electromyographic amplitude were not altered by valence. These findings indicate that unpleasant states do not unilaterally prime withdrawal movements, and that the quick execution of extension movements during exposure to threatening images is due to rapid premotor, rather than motor, reaction time. Collectively, our findings support the call for dissociating motivational direction and affective valence. PMID:17958705

  20. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt.

  1. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  2. Functional aspects of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus-specific T cells induced by therapeutic DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Brass, Anette; Frelin, Lars; Milich, David R; Sällberg, Matti; Ahlén, Gustaf

    2015-03-01

    Current therapies for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of severe liver disease, suppress viral replication but replication rebounds if therapy is withdrawn. It is widely accepted that immune activation is needed to control replication off-therapy. To specifically activate T cells crossreactive between the hepatitis B core and e antigens (HBcAg/HBeAg) in chronically infected patients, we developed a therapeutic vaccine candidate. The vaccine encompass codon-optimized HBcAg and IL-12 expressing plasmids delivered using targeted high-pressure injection combined with in vivo electroporation. One dose of the vaccine primed a B-cell-independent polyfunctional T-cell response, in wild-type, and in HBeAg-transgenic mice with an impaired ability to respond to HBc/eAg. The response peaked at 2 weeks and contracted at week 6 after vaccination. Coadministration of IL-12 improved antibody levels, and T-cell expansion and functionality. The vaccine primed T cells that, 2 weeks after a single dose, cleared hepatocytes transiently expressing HBcAg in vaccinated wild-type and HBeAg-transgenic mice. However, 4 weeks later, these functional responses were lost. Booster doses after 8-12 weeks effectively restored function and expansion of the rapidly contracting T cells. Thus, this vaccine strategy primes functional HBcAg-specific T cells in a host with dysfunctional response to HBV.

  3. [Nutrition in overweight and obesity with a specific focus on gender aspects].

    PubMed

    Dämon, Sabine; Schindler, Karin; Rittmannsberger, Barbara; Schätzer, Manuel; Hoppichler, Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to optimize the diet in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity aim at long-term adaptation and reduction of energy intake according to age and physiological requirements while preserving the nutrient density with consideration of individual food preferences.As the nutritional habits of the average Austrian people are unfavorable for obesity prevention there is a clear need for action. Women are "disadvantaged" in weight control compared to men in terms of physiological conditions-and are confronted with specific needs during life course (e.g. pregnancy), whereas the average man or male adolescents present "unhealthier" behaviors and attitudes and are (still) less interested on nutrition or weight control.To achieve better nutrition a target-group specific, gender-sensitive guidance of the individual is needed, starting with pregnant women, but also habitat-oriented interventions for improved nutrition offers, which have to be sustainably assured through the support of a relevant legal and social framework. PMID:26832129

  4. Dietary selenium and nutritional plane alter specific aspects of maternal endocrine status during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Lemley, C O; Meyer, A M; Neville, T L; Hallford, D M; Camacho, L E; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-01-01

    reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status.

  5. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  6. Emotional Stimuli and Context Moderate Effects of Nicotine on Specific, But Not Global Affects

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, David G.; Riise, Hege; Dillon, Amber; Huber, Jamie; Rabinovich, Norka E.; Sugai, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the effects of nicotine on affect are moderated by the presence or absence of emotionally positive and negative stimuli and by attentional choice to avoid attending to emotionally negative stimuli. Thirty-two habitual smokers were assigned to tasks allowing attentional freedom to look back and forth at two simultaneously presented pictures, while another 32 habitual smokers viewed single pictures without attentional choice. Picture contents in both tasks were one of four combinations: emotionally negative + neutral, negative + positive, positive + neutral, or neutral + neutral. Participants wore a nicotine patch on one day and placebo patch on another day. Nicotine reduced anxiety most when negative pictures were presented in combination with neutral pictures, but had no effects on anxiety when negative pictures were presented in combination with positive pictures and when negative pictures were not presented. In contrast, nicotine only reduced depressive affect when the participant had attentional choice between positive and negative pictures. Nicotine also enhanced PANAS positive affect and reduced PANAS negative affect, but these effects were not moderated by task manipulations. Overall, the findings support the view that nicotine’s ability to reduce specific negative affects is moderated by emotional context and attentional freedom. Nicotine tended to enhance eye-gaze orientation to emotional pictures versus neutral pictures in women, but had no significant effect on eye-gaze in men. PMID:18266550

  7. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors. PMID:23398579

  8. [Rare diseases: specific ethical and legal aspects of genetic counseling and screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caro, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the specific rights of patients with rare diseases from a dual perspective. On the one hand, they concern a new generation of patients' rights that arise once the consolidation of basic rights has occurred, fundamentally after the application of Law 41/2002 (on Regulating Patient Autonomy and Rights and Obligations in the Field of Health Documentation and Information) and its development by the autonomous communities. On the other hand, the fundamental question raises a serious issue related to these patients, which involves the principles of equality, equity, non-discrimination and solidarity. This is aimed at promoting legislative measures to protect patients' equality of access to health and social services, with the ultimate aim of improving their quality of life. The author has given special relevance in his study to the treatment of rare diseases that are genetic in origin, and to the importance of adequate genetic counseling.

  9. [Gender medicine. Sex- and gender-specific aspects of clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, A

    2014-09-01

    Gender medicine studies sex- and gender-based differences in the development and prevention of diseases, the awareness and presentation of symptoms, and the effectiveness of therapy. Gender medicine is part of personalized medicine, considering differences in biological and psychosocial factors individually. There are differences in genes, chromosomes, hormones, and metabolism as well as differences in culture, environment, and society. Lifelong interactions between physical and psychosocial factors will influence the health and ill-health of men and women in different ways. Epigenetic modifications provide evidence of the impact of environment and lifestyle during vulnerable phases on biological processes, effecting future generations. Maternal lifestyle and environmental factors during pregnancy can impact the health of offspring in later life already in utero in a sex-specific way. Pain, stress, and coping styles differ between men and women. Women experience more dramatic physical changes during their lifetime, which are associated with specific burdens and psychosocial alterations. Women with multiple roles and responsibilities suffering from stress develop depression more frequently. However, men are often not diagnosed and treated appropriately in cases of depression or osteoporosis, diseases that are typically considered "female." There are prominent differences between men and women in medicine regarding the immune system, inflammation, and noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Women experience more often autoimmune diseases and suffer more frequently from (chronic) pain, neurodegenerative changes, and functional disabilities. Men have shorter life expectancy but relatively more healthy years of life, which is in greater part ascribed to psychosocial determinants. State-of-the-art clinical medicine comprises individual risk factors based on sex- and gender-sensitive health programs in order to

  10. Nature of immobilization surface affects antibody specificity to placental alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Khan, Imran; Sinha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Retention of native conformation of immobilized protein is essential for various applications including selection and detection of specific recombinant antibodies (scFvs). Placental alkaline phosphatase (PAP), an onco-fetal antigen expressed on the surface of several tumors, was immobilized on supermagnetic particles for selection of recombinant antibodies from a human phage display antibody library. The isolated antibodies were found to be cross-reactive to either of the isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, i.e., bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) or intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and could not be used for tumor targeting. A specific anti-PAP monoclonal antibody H17E2 was tested for retention of specificity under these conditions. Binding of the antibody to magnetic beads conjugated IAP and BAP along with PAP and the ability of the two isozymes to inhibit its binding to PAP depicted the loss of isozyme specificity of the antibody. However, the antibody retained its specificity to PAP immobilized on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface. Enzyme activity was observed on both surfaces. This demonstrates that nature of immobilization may affect antigen-antibody binding in subtle ways, resulting in alteration of conformation of the epitopes. This may have consequences for determining the specificity of antibody binding for proteins that share a high degree of homology.

  11. A family with a dystrophin gene mutation specifically affecting dystrophin expression in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Muntoni, F.; Davies, K.; Dubowitz, V.

    1994-09-01

    We recently described a family with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy where a large deletion in the muscle promoter region of the dystrophin gene was associated with a severe dilated cardiomyopathy in absence of clinical skeletal muscle involvement. The deletion removed the entire muscle promoter region, the first muscle exon and part of intron 1. The brain and Purkinje cell promoters were not affected by the deletion. Despite the lack of both the muscle promoter and the first muscle exon, dystrophin was detected immunocytochemically in relative high levels in the skeletal muscle of the affected males. We have now found that both the brain and Purkinje cell promoters were transcribed at high levels in the skeletal muscle of these individuals. This phenomenon, that does not occur in normal skeletal muscle, indicates that these two isoforms, physiologically expressed mainly in the central nervous system, can be transcribed and be functionally active in skeletal muscle under specific circumstances. Contrary to what is observed in skeletal muscle, dystrophin was not detected in the heart of one affected male using immunocytochemistry and an entire panel of anti-dystrophin antibodies. This was most likely the cause for the pronounced cardiac fibrosis observed and eventually responsible for the severe cardiac involvement invariably seen in seven affected males. In conclusion, the mutation of the muscle promoter, first muscle exon and part of intron 1 specifically affected expression of dystrophin in the heart. We believe that this deletion removes sequences involved in regulation of dystrophin expression in the heart and are at the moment characterizing other families with X-linked cardiomyopathy secondary to a dystrophinopathy.

  12. Habitat avoidance: overlooking an important aspect of host-specific mating and sympatric speciation?

    PubMed

    Forbes, Andrew A; Fisher, Joan; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-07-01

    Understanding speciation requires discerning how reproductive barriers to gene flow evolve between previously interbreeding populations. Models of sympatric speciation for phytophagous insects posit that reproductive isolation can evolve in the absence of geographic isolation as a consequence of an insect shifting and ecologically adapting to a new host plant. One important adaptation contributing to sympatric differentiation is host-specific mating. When organisms mate in preferred habitats, a system of positive assortative mating is established that facilitates sympatric divergence. Models of host fidelity generally assume that host choice is determined by the aggregate effect of alleles imparting positive preferences for different plant species. But negative effect genes for avoiding nonnatal plants may also influence host use. Previous studies have shown that apple and hawthorn-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of fruit as key chemosensory cues to recognize and distinguish between their host plants. Here, we report results from field trials indicating that in addition to preferring the odor of their natal fruit, apple and hawthorn flies, and their undescribed sister species infesting flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), also avoid the odors of nonnatal fruit. We discuss the implications of nonnatal fruit avoidance for the evolutionary dynamics and genetics of sympatric speciation. Our findings reveal an underappreciated role for habitat avoidance as a potential postmating, as well as prezygotic, barrier to gene flow.

  13. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:21091914

  14. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed.

  15. The Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in induction of cancer-specific T-cell responses and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Song; Liu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Jin-Qing; Zhu, Xiaotong; Liu, Zhihao; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences from animal studies have indicated that both endogenous and exogenous IL-27, an IL-12 family of cytokine, can increase antitumor T-cell activities and inhibit tumor growth. IL-27 can modulate Treg responses, and program effector T cells into a unique T-effector stem cell (TSEC) phenotype, which enhances T-cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. However, animal studies also suggest that IL-27 induces molecular pathways such as IL-10, PD-L1 and CD39, which may downregulate tumor-specific T-cell responses. In this review paper, we will discuss the Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses, and the potential impacts of these functions of IL-27 in the design of cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Patients' experiences and satisfaction with health care: results of a questionnaire study of specific aspects of care

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, C; Coulter, A; Bruster, S; Richards, N; Chandola, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine what aspects of healthcare provision are most likely to influence satisfaction with care and willingness to recommend hospital services to others and, secondly, to explore the extent to which satisfaction is a meaningful indicator of patient experience of healthcare services. Design: Postal survey of a sample of patients who underwent a period of inpatient care. Patients were asked to evaluate their overall experience of this episode of care and to complete the Picker Inpatient Survey questionnaire on specific aspects of their care. Sample: Patients aged 18 and over presenting at five hospitals within one NHS trust in Scotland. Method: 3592 questionnaires were mailed to patients' homes within 1 month of discharge from hospital during a 12 month period. Two reminders were sent to non-responders; 2249 (65%) questionnaires were returned. Results: Almost 90% of respondents indicated that they were satisfied with their period of inpatient care. Age and overall self-assessed health were only weakly associated with satisfaction. A multiple linear regression indicated that the major determinants of patient satisfaction were physical comfort, emotional support, and respect for patient preferences. However, many patients who reported their satisfaction with the care they received also indicated problems with their inpatient care as measured on the Picker Inpatient Survey; 55% of respondents who rated their inpatient episode as "excellent" indicated problems on 10% of the issues measured on the Picker questionnaire. Discussion: The evidence suggests that patient satisfaction scores present a limited and optimistic picture. Detailed questions about specific aspects of patients' experiences are likely to be more useful for monitoring the performance of various hospital departments and wards and could point to ways in which delivery of health care could be improved. PMID:12468693

  17. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants.

  18. Natural Variation in Epigenetic Pathways Affects the Specification of Female Gamete Precursors in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  19. Natural variation in epigenetic pathways affects the specification of female gamete precursors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; León-Martínez, Gloria; Abad-Vivero, Ursula; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In angiosperms, the transition to the female gametophytic phase relies on the specification of premeiotic gamete precursors from sporophytic cells in the ovule. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a single diploid cell is specified as the premeiotic female gamete precursor. Here, we show that ecotypes of Arabidopsis exhibit differences in megasporogenesis leading to phenotypes reminiscent of defects in dominant mutations that epigenetically affect the specification of female gamete precursors. Intraspecific hybridization and polyploidy exacerbate these defects, which segregate quantitatively in F2 populations derived from ecotypic hybrids, suggesting that multiple loci control cell specification at the onset of female meiosis. This variation in cell differentiation is influenced by the activity of ARGONAUTE9 (AGO9) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6), two genes involved in epigenetic silencing that control the specification of female gamete precursors. The pattern of transcriptional regulation and localization of AGO9 varies among ecotypes, and abnormal gamete precursors in ovules defective for RDR6 share identity with ectopic gamete precursors found in selected ecotypes. Our results indicate that differences in the epigenetic control of cell specification lead to natural phenotypic variation during megasporogenesis. We propose that this mechanism could be implicated in the emergence and evolution of the reproductive alternatives that prevail in flowering plants. PMID:25829442

  20. Setting radon-specific release criteria and demonstrating compliance for land affected by NORM.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; Martínez, M; Matarranz, J L M; Ramos, L

    2008-11-01

    Residues from industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) may cause radiation exposures to members of the public, particularly when NORM-affected land is brought into residential use. To provide an adequate protection against radiation in such situations, the following limiting criteria are currently required in Spain for releasing NORM-affected land: (i) no more than a 300 microSv yr(-1) increase (excluding radon doses) over the natural background; (ii) (222)Rn concentrations in hypothetical future dwellings lower than 200 Bq m(-3); and (iii) reduction of all radiation exposures to as low as reasonable achievable. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in translating the (222)Rn criterion into site-specific release limits and in demonstrating compliance with them. PMID:18508275

  1. Characterizing scale-specific environmental factors affecting soil organic carbon along two landscape transects.

    PubMed

    She, Dongli; Cao, Yutong; Chen, Qian; Yu, Shuang'en

    2016-09-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important soil properties affecting many other soil and environmental properties and processes. In order to understand and manage SOC effectively, it is important to identify the scale-specific main factors affecting SOC distributions, which in this study occurred in a watershed on the Loess Plateau. Two transects were selected that passed along the upper slopes on each side of the main gully of the Liudaogou watershed. Transect 1 (3411-m length) had 27 sampling sites at 131-m intervals; transect 2 (3597 m length) had 30 sampling sites at 124-m intervals. The two transects were chosen in order to compare landscape patterns of differing complexity that were in close proximity, which reduced the effects of factors that would be caused by different locations. The landscape of transect 1 was more complex due to the greater diversity in cultivation. Multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) decomposed the total variation in SOC and five selected environmental factors into four intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual according to the scale of occurrence. Scale-specific correlation analysis was used to identify significant relationships between SOC and the environmental factors. The dominant scales were those that were the largest contributors to the total SOC variance; for transect 1, this was the IMF 1 (scale of 403 m), whereas for transect 2, it was the medium scale of the IMF 2 (scale of 688 m). For both transects, vegetation properties (vegetation cover and aboveground biomass) were the main factors affecting SOC distributions at their respective dominant scales. At each scale, the main effective factors could be identified although at the larger scales, their contributions to the overall variance were almost negligible. The distributions of SOC and the factors affecting it were found to be scale dependent. The results of this study highlighted the suitability of the MEMD method in revealing the main scale-specific

  2. Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based…

  3. Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test: the exercise thallium scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Detrano, R.; Janosi, A.; Lyons, K.P.; Marcondes, G.; Abbassi, N.; Froelicher, V.F.

    1988-04-01

    Technical and methodological factors might affect the reported accuracies of diagnostic tests. To assess their influence on the accuracy of exercise thallium scintigraphy, the medical literature (1977 to 1986) was non-selectively searched and meta-analysis was applied to the 56 publications thus retrieved. These were analyzed for year of publication, sex and mean age of patients, percentage of patients with angina pectoris, percentage of patients with prior myocardial infarction, percentage of patients taking beta-blocking medications, and for angiographic referral (workup) bias, blinding of tests, and technical factors. The percentage of patients with myocardial infarction had the highest correlation with sensitivity (0.45, p = 0.0007). Only the inclusion of subjects with prior infarction and the percentage of men in the study group were independently and significantly (p less than 0.05) related to test sensitivity. Both the presence of workup bias and publication year adversely affected specificity (p less than 0.05). Of these two factors, publication year had the strongest association by stepwise linear regression. This analysis suggests that the reported sensitivity of thallium scintigraphy is higher and the specificity lower than that expected in clinical practice because of the presence of workup bias and the inappropriate inclusion of post-infarct patients.

  4. Affect-specific activation of shared networks for perception and execution of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Tilo; Pohl, Anna; Krach, Sören; Thimm, Markus; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Anders, Silke; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown overlapping neural activations for observation and execution or imitation of emotional facial expressions. These shared representations have been assumed to provide indirect evidence for a human mirror neuron system, which is suggested to be a prerequisite of action comprehension. We aimed at clarifying whether shared representations in and beyond human mirror areas are specifically activated by affective facial expressions or whether they are activated by facial expressions independent of the emotional meaning. During neuroimaging, participants observed and executed happy and non-emotional facial expressions. Shared representations were revealed for happy facial expressions in the pars opercularis, the precentral gyrus, in the superior temporal gyrus/medial temporal gyrus (MTG), in the pre-supplementary motor area and in the right amygdala. All areas showed less pronounced activation in the non-emotional condition. When directly compared, significant stronger neural responses emerged for happy facial expressions in the pre-supplementary motor area and in the MTG than for non-emotional stimuli. We assume that activation of shared representations depends on the affect and (social) relevance of the facial expression. The pre-supplementary motor area is a core-shared representation-structure supporting observation and execution of affective contagious facial expressions and might have a modulatory role during the preparation of executing happy facial expressions.

  5. Specific aspects of cognitive and language proficiency account for variability in neural indices of semantic and syntactic processing in children

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amanda Hampton; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The neural activity mediating language processing in young children is characterized by large individual variability that is likely related in part to individual strengths and weakness across various cognitive abilities. The current study addresses the following question: How does proficiency in specific cognitive and language functions impact neural indices mediating language processing in children? Thirty typically developing seven- and eight-year-olds were divided into high-normal and low-normal proficiency groups based on performance on nonverbal IQ, auditory word recall, and grammatical morphology tests. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited by semantic anomalies and phrase structure violations in naturally spoken sentences. The proficiency for each of the specific cognitive and language tasks uniquely contributed to specific aspects (e.g., timing and/or resource allocation) of neural indices underlying semantic (N400) and syntactic (P600) processing. These results suggest that distinct aptitudes within broader domains of cognition and language, even within the normal range, influence the neural signatures of semantic and syntactic processing. Furthermore, the current findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of developmental studies of ERPs indexing language processing, and they highlight the need to take into account cognitive abilities both within and outside the classic language domain. PMID:23557881

  6. Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?

    PubMed

    Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD.

  7. [Diving medicine aspects in otorhinolaryngology. II. Diving-specific illnesses and dysfunctions as well as assessment for diving fitness].

    PubMed

    Dieler, R; Shehata-Dieler, W E

    2001-01-01

    Scuba diving with compressed air has become a recreational sport that can be performed at all stages of adulthood. The human body including all gas-filled cavities are exposed to an increased ambient pressure during a dive. In the present review article, specific aspects of diving related disorders are that are of importance in the otolaryngology field are presented and discussed: the multitude of causes for divers' vertigo and the so called divers ear. Furthermore, useful recommendations in the assessment of physical fitness for diving are presented. This review will provide a background and foundation for both, an adequate treatment of these diseases and a critical and responsible health education of the diver.

  8. DNA sequences affecting specific initiation of transcription in vitro from the EIII promoter of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D C; Roeder, R G; Wold, W S

    1982-01-01

    We have identified those sequences affecting the level of specific initiation of transcription in vitro from the EIII promoter of adenovirus 2. Mutants containing deletions in and around the initiation sites were constructed in cloned viral DNA fragments and assayed for their ability to initiate transcription in vitro. Three classes of mutants were studied with deletions in the following regions: -38 to -268, -21 to -71 (which includes the T-A-T-A-A box), and -29 through the cap sites (+1 and +3). Deletions that remove some or all of the area from -28 to several nucleotides downstream from the cap sites essentially abolished specific transcription. Small deletions in the region -30 to -41 reduced transcription to approximately 60% of wild type; larger deletions in the region -35 to -268 reduced transcription to 30-40% of wild type. Deletions beginning from approximately +10 to +25 and extending further downstream reduced transcription to 20-40% of wild type, whereas a deletion beginning at +31 had little or no effect. Our results suggest that the region including the T-A-T-A-A box and extending to the area immediately beyond the cap sites is essential for specific transcription in vitro from the EIII promoter. However, sequences upstream from the T-A-T-A-A box and those downstream from the cap sites appear to significantly modulate the levels of transcription. Images PMID:6275389

  9. Parasitoid-specific induction of plant responses to parasitized herbivores affects colonization by subsequent herbivores.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Erik H; Zheng, Si-Jun; Zhang, Zhao; Heemskerk, Nanda M; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Dicke, Marcel

    2011-12-01

    Plants are exposed to a suite of herbivorous attackers that often arrive sequentially. Herbivory affects interactions between the host plants and subsequently attacking herbivores. Moreover, plants may respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. However, information borne by VOCs is ubiquitous and may attract carnivores, such as parasitoids, that differ in their effectiveness at releasing the plant from its herbivorous attackers. Furthermore, the development of parasitoids within their herbivorous hosts, attacking a given host plant, may influence the elicitation of defensive reactions in the host plant. This may, in turn, affect the behavior of subsequent herbivores attacking the host plant. Here, we show that the species identity of a parasitoid had a more significant effect on defense responses of Brassica oleracea plants than the species identity of the herbivorous hosts of the parasitoids. Consequently, B. oleracea plants that were damaged by caterpillars (Pieris spp.) parasitized by different parasitoid species varied in the degree to which diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) selected the plants for oviposition. Attracting parasitoids in general benefitted the plants by reducing diamondback moth colonization. However, the species of parasitoid that parasitized the herbivore significantly affected the magnitude of this benefit by its species-specific effect on herbivore-plant interactions mediated by caterpillar regurgitant. Our findings show that information-mediated indirect defense may lead to unpredictable consequences for plants when considering trait-mediated effects of parasitized caterpillars on the host plant and their consequences because of community-wide responses to induced plants. PMID:22084113

  10. Parasitoid-specific induction of plant responses to parasitized herbivores affects colonization by subsequent herbivores.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Erik H; Zheng, Si-Jun; Zhang, Zhao; Heemskerk, Nanda M; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Dicke, Marcel

    2011-12-01

    Plants are exposed to a suite of herbivorous attackers that often arrive sequentially. Herbivory affects interactions between the host plants and subsequently attacking herbivores. Moreover, plants may respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. However, information borne by VOCs is ubiquitous and may attract carnivores, such as parasitoids, that differ in their effectiveness at releasing the plant from its herbivorous attackers. Furthermore, the development of parasitoids within their herbivorous hosts, attacking a given host plant, may influence the elicitation of defensive reactions in the host plant. This may, in turn, affect the behavior of subsequent herbivores attacking the host plant. Here, we show that the species identity of a parasitoid had a more significant effect on defense responses of Brassica oleracea plants than the species identity of the herbivorous hosts of the parasitoids. Consequently, B. oleracea plants that were damaged by caterpillars (Pieris spp.) parasitized by different parasitoid species varied in the degree to which diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) selected the plants for oviposition. Attracting parasitoids in general benefitted the plants by reducing diamondback moth colonization. However, the species of parasitoid that parasitized the herbivore significantly affected the magnitude of this benefit by its species-specific effect on herbivore-plant interactions mediated by caterpillar regurgitant. Our findings show that information-mediated indirect defense may lead to unpredictable consequences for plants when considering trait-mediated effects of parasitized caterpillars on the host plant and their consequences because of community-wide responses to induced plants.

  11. Puromycin insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase (PILSAP) affects RhoA activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Abe, Mayumi; Miyashita, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Yasufumi

    2007-06-01

    Puromycin insensitive leucyl-specific aminopeptidase (PILSAP) expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) plays an important role in angiogenesis due to its involvement in migration, proliferation and network formation. Here we examined the biological function of PILSAP with respect to EC morphogenesis and the related intracellular signaling for this process. When mouse endothelial MSS31 cells were cultured, a dominant negative PILSAP mutant converted cell shape to disk-like morphology, blocked stress fiber formation, and augmented membrane ruffling in random directions. These phenotypic changes led us to test whether PILSAP affected activities of Rho family small G-proteins. Abrogation of PILSAP enzymatic activity or its expression attenuated RhoA but not Rac1 activation during cell adhesion. This attenuation of RhoA activation was also evident when G-protein coupled receptors such as proteinase-activated receptor or lysophosphatidic acid receptor were activated in ECs. These results indicate that PILSAP affects RhoA activation and that influences the proper function of ECs.

  12. Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kouzoupis, Anastasios V; Lyrakos, Dimitrios; Kokras, Nikolaos; Panagiotarakou, Meropi; Syrigos, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that gender differences appear in a variety of biological and psychological responses to stress and perhaps in coping with acute and chronic illness as well. Dysfunctional parenting is also thought to be involved in the process of coping with stress and illness; hence, the present study aimed to verify whether dysfunctional remembered parenting would influence psychological distress in a gender-specific manner in patients suffering from cancer. Patients attending an outpatient oncology clinic completed the Remembered Relationships with Parents (RRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales and the National Cancer Center Network Distress Thermometer. Although no baseline gender differences were detected, a multivariate analysis confirmed that anxiety and depression symptoms of men and women suffering from cancer are differentially affected by the RRP Control and Alienation scores. Women with remembered parental alienation and overprotection showed significantly more anxiety symptoms than men, whereas men were more vulnerable to remembered alienation than overprotection with regard to the Distress Thermometer scores. These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients.

  13. Factors affecting phytoplankton species-specific differences in accumulation of 40 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, K.; Swackhamer, D.L. )

    1994-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds among different phytoplankton divisions, and to evaluate the factors that affect species-specific differences. Unialgal batch cultures of Selenastrum capricornutum, Anabaena sp., and Synedra sp. were exposed to 40 PCB congeners at 11 C for 40 d. PCBs selected for this study represented all 10 homologs, different substitution patterns, and a wide range of physical-chemical properties representative of compounds known to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Congener-specific partitioning into the algal phase over time was investigated. Species differences were observed in the rate and magnitude of accumulation. For all species, a rapid association of PCBs with the algal phase was followed by a slower partitioning from the media to the algae, which continued for several days. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) could be predicted from K[sub ow] for PCB congeners with log K[sub ow] values < 6.0, whereas no such correlation was found for the more hydrophobic congeners. Normalization of BAFs to total lipid or glycolipid content reduced some of the variability between species for the less hydrophobic congeners, but not for the more hydrophobic congeners. Normalization of BAFs to the phospholipid fraction reduced species variability for the more hydrophobic congeners, supporting the hypothesis that these compounds have restricted membrane permeability.

  14. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  15. The Twofold Multidimensionality of Academic Self-Concept: Domain Specificity and Separation between Competence and Affect Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Academic self-concept is consistently proven to be multidimensional rather than unidimensional as it is domain specific in nature. However, each specific self-concept domain may be further separated into competence and affect components. This study examines the twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept (i.e., its domain specificity and…

  16. Task-specific Aspects of Goal-directed Word Generation Identified via Simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Klovatch, Ilana; Nathan, Dana; Oren, Noga; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-01

    Generating words according to a given rule relies on retrieval-related search and postretrieval control processes. Using fMRI, we recently characterized neural patterns of word generation in response to episodic, semantic, and phonemic cues by comparing free recall of wordlists, category fluency, and letter fluency [Shapira-Lichter, I., Oren, N., Jacob, Y., Gruberger, M., & Hendler, T. Portraying the unique contribution of the default mode network to internally driven mnemonic processes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 110, 4950-4955, 2013]. Distinct selectivity for each condition was evident, representing discrete aspects of word generation-related memory retrieval. For example, the precuneus, implicated in processing spatiotemporal information, emerged as a key contributor to the episodic condition, which uniquely requires this information. Gamma band is known to play a central role in memory, and increased gamma power has been observed before word generation. Yet, gamma modulation in response to task demands has not been investigated. To capture the task-specific modulation of gamma power, we analyzed the EEG data recorded simultaneously with the aforementioned fMRI, focusing on the activity locked to and immediately preceding word articulation. Transient increases in gamma power were identified in a parietal electrode immediately before episodic and semantic word generation, however, within a different time frame relative to articulation. Gamma increases were followed by an alpha-theta decrease in the episodic condition, a gamma decrease in the semantic condition. This pattern indicates a task-specific modulation of the gamma signal corresponding to the specific demands of each word generation task. The gamma power and fMRI signal from the precuneus were correlated during the episodic condition, implying the existence of a common cognitive construct uniquely required for this task, possibly the reactivation or processing of

  17. A Sensitive and Specific Neural Signature for Picture-Induced Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Luke J.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Krishnan, Anjali; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has identified many correlates of emotion but has not yet yielded brain representations predictive of the intensity of emotional experiences in individuals. We used machine learning to identify a sensitive and specific signature of emotional responses to aversive images. This signature predicted the intensity of negative emotion in individual participants in cross validation (n =121) and test (n = 61) samples (high–low emotion = 93.5% accuracy). It was unresponsive to physical pain (emotion–pain = 92% discriminative accuracy), demonstrating that it is not a representation of generalized arousal or salience. The signature was comprised of mesoscale patterns spanning multiple cortical and subcortical systems, with no single system necessary or sufficient for predicting experience. Furthermore, it was not reducible to activity in traditional “emotion-related” regions (e.g., amygdala, insula) or resting-state networks (e.g., “salience,” “default mode”). Overall, this work identifies differentiable neural components of negative emotion and pain, providing a basis for new, brain-based taxonomies of affective processes. PMID:26098873

  18. A Sensitive and Specific Neural Signature for Picture-Induced Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Chang, Luke J; Gianaros, Peter J; Manuck, Stephen B; Krishnan, Anjali; Wager, Tor D

    2015-06-01

    Neuroimaging has identified many correlates of emotion but has not yet yielded brain representations predictive of the intensity of emotional experiences in individuals. We used machine learning to identify a sensitive and specific signature of emotional responses to aversive images. This signature predicted the intensity of negative emotion in individual participants in cross validation (n =121) and test (n = 61) samples (high-low emotion = 93.5% accuracy). It was unresponsive to physical pain (emotion-pain = 92% discriminative accuracy), demonstrating that it is not a representation of generalized arousal or salience. The signature was comprised of mesoscale patterns spanning multiple cortical and subcortical systems, with no single system necessary or sufficient for predicting experience. Furthermore, it was not reducible to activity in traditional "emotion-related" regions (e.g., amygdala, insula) or resting-state networks (e.g., "salience," "default mode"). Overall, this work identifies differentiable neural components of negative emotion and pain, providing a basis for new, brain-based taxonomies of affective processes. PMID:26098873

  19. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M.; Lemm, G.; Hohenstein, E.; Bellemann, N.; Stampfl, U.; Goezen, A. S.; Rassweiler, J.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.; Pereira, P. L.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 {+-} 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 {+-} 13.6 min and 43.7 {+-} 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 {+-} 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 {+-} 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 {+-} 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} before RF ablation vs. 47.2 {+-} 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  20. Childhood depression and conduct disorder: I. Behavioral, affective, and cognitive aspects of family problem-solving interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M R; Dadds, M R; Johnston, B M; Cash, R

    1992-08-01

    We assessed the family interactions of depressed, conduct-disordered, mixed depressed-conduct-disordered, and nonclinic children, ages 7-14 years, during a standardized family problem-solving discussion in the clinic. The child's and the mother's problem-solving proficiency, aversive behavior, and associated affective behavior (depressed and angry-hostile) were observed. The child and mother also rated each other's affect during the interaction for the dimensions sad, angry, critical, and happy on Likert-type scales. The child's and mother's cognitive constructions about the interaction were assessed using video-mediated recall. Although all clinic groups had lower levels of effective problem solving than did nonclinic children, their deficiencies were somewhat different. Mixed and depressed children displayed high levels of depressed affect and low levels of angry affect, whereas conduct-disordered children displayed both angry and depressed affect. In addition, conduct-disordered children had lower levels of positive problem solving and higher levels of aversive content than did non-conduct-disordered children. Depressed and conduct-disordered children had higher levels of self-referent negative cognitions than did mixed and comparison children, and depressed children also had higher other-referent negative cognitions than did all other groups. The study provides support for theories and treatment that stress the importance of family problem-solving and conflict resolution skills in child psychopathology.

  1. Adipose-specific Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency More Profoundly Affects Brown than White Fat Biology*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Hiyama, Yaeko; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G.; Hu, Yunying; Son, Ni Huiping; O'Byrne, Sheila M.; Chang, Chuchun L.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Takahashi, Manabu; Westerterp, Marit; Obunike, Joseph C.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Blaner, William S.; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose fat storage is thought to require uptake of circulating triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids via lipoprotein lipase (LpL). To determine how LpL affects the biology of adipose tissue, we created adipose-specific LpL knock-out (ATLO) mice, and we compared them with whole body LpL knock-out mice rescued with muscle LpL expression (MCK/L0) and wild type (WT) mice. ATLO LpL mRNA and activity were reduced, respectively, 75 and 70% in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT), 90 and 80% in subcutaneous tissue, and 84 and 85% in brown adipose tissue (BAT). ATLO mice had increased plasma TG levels associated with reduced chylomicron TG uptake into BAT and lung. ATLO BAT, but not GAT, had altered TG composition. GAT from MCK/L0 was smaller and contained less polyunsaturated fatty acids in TG, although GAT from ATLO was normal unless LpL was overexpressed in muscle. High fat diet feeding led to less adipose in MCK/L0 mice but TG acyl composition in subcutaneous tissue and BAT reverted to that of WT. Therefore, adipocyte LpL in BAT modulates plasma lipoprotein clearance, and the greater metabolic activity of this depot makes its lipid composition more dependent on LpL-mediated uptake. Loss of adipose LpL reduces fat accumulation only if accompanied by greater LpL activity in muscle. These data support the role of LpL as the “gatekeeper” for tissue lipid distribution. PMID:23542081

  2. Human tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatases: sugar-moiety-induced enzymic and antigenic modulations and genetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Nosjean, O; Koyama, I; Goseki, M; Roux, B; Komoda, T

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the possible role(s) of glycans in human tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity, the iso-enzymes were purified and treated with various exo- and endo-glycosidases. Catalytic activity, oligomerization, conformation and immunoreactivity of the modified TNAPs were evaluated. All TNAPs proved to be N-glycosylated, and only the liver isoform (LAP) is not O-glycosylated. Usually, the kidney (KAP) and bone (BAP) isoenzymes are similar and cannot be clearly discriminated. Differences between the immunoreactivity of KAP/BAP and LAP with a BAP antibody were mainly attributed to the N-glycosylated moieties of the TNAPs. In addition, elimination of O-glycosylations moderately affects the TNAP reactivity. Interestingly, N-glycosylation is absolutely essential for TNAP activity, but not for that of the placental or intestinal enzymes. According to the deduced amino acid sequence of TNAP cDNA, Asn-213 is a possible N-glycosylation site, and our present findings suggest that this sugar chain plays a key role in enzyme regulation. With regard to the oligomeric state of alkaline phosphatase (AP) isoforms, the dimer/tetramer equilibrium is dependent on the deglycosylation of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol(GPI)-free APs, but not GPI-linked APs. This equilibrium does not affect the AP conformation as observed with CD. With regard to TNAPs, no data were available on the gene expression or nature of the 5'-non-translated leader exon of human KAP, as opposed to BAP and LAP genes. cDNA sequencing revealed that cortex/medulla KAP is genetically related to BAP, and medulla KAP to LAP. PMID:9020858

  3. Does Specific Instruction during Collecting from Several Sources Affect the Quality of the Written Text Product?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbig, Annemarie; Proske, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Although academic writing is a complex interplay of comprehending and producing text the aspect of collecting information from source texts is hardly addressed in writing research. This study examined the impact of instructions supporting the collection process on writing quality, as well as the role of prior motivation and computer experience.…

  4. Specific combinations of presenilins and Aph1s affect the substrate specificity and activity of γ-secretase.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Yoji; Futai, Eugene; Yagishita, Sosuke; Kaether, Christoph; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2016-09-30

    The γ-secretase complex comprises presenilin (PS), nicastrin (NCT), anterior pharynx-defective 1 (Aph1), and presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen2). PS has two homologues, PS1 and PS2. Aph1 has two isoforms, Aph1a and Aph1b, with the former existing as two splice variants Aph1aL and Aph1aS. Each complex consists of one subunit each, resulting in six different γ-secretases. To better understand the functional differences among the γ-secretases, we reconstituted them using a yeast system and compared Notch1-cleavage and amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleavage activities. Intriguingly, PS2/Aph1b had a clear substrate specificity: APP-Gal4, but not Notch-Gal4, was cleaved. In HEK cell lines expressing defined γ-secretase subunits, we showed that PS1/Aph1b, PS2/Aph1aL, PS2/Aph1aS and PS2/Aph1b γ-secretase produced amyloid β peptide (Aβ) with a higher Aβ42+Aβ43-to-Aβ40 (Aβ42(43)/Aβ40) ratio than the other γ-secretases. In addition, PS2/Aph1aS γ-secretase produced less Notch intracellular domain (NICD) than did the other 5 γ-secretases. Considering that the Aβ42(43)/Aβ40 ratio is relevant in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that inhibition of Notch cleavage causes severe side effect, these results suggest that the PS2/Aph1aS γ-secretase complex is a potential therapeutic target in AD. PMID:27608597

  5. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  6. Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance Cognition: Explanatory Relevance to Pre- and Post-Cessation Nicotine Withdrawal, Craving, and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative-reinforcement based cognitive processes have been implicated in the maintenance of cigarette smoking. Given the expectation that smoking will attenuate aversive internal experiences, smokers may be particularly unwilling to experience or remain in contact with smoking-related distress (i.e., experiential avoidance). Yet, there is little known about a cognitive-based processes termed smoking-specific experiential avoidance in regard to withdrawal, craving, or negative affect during a quit attempt. Method Data were collected from adult daily smokers (n = 259) participating in a larger smoking cessation trial. Pre- and post-quit experiences of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect were examined in terms of cognitive-based smoking-specific experimental avoidance, measured by the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS). Results Results indicated that baseline smoking-specific experiential avoidance was associated with greater overall levels of withdrawal, craving, and negative affect at treatment initiation (pre-cessation). Reductions in smoking-specific experiential avoidance from baseline to quit day were associated with increased likelihood of quit day abstinence. Such reductions were also predictive of lower levels of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect on quit day. Also, less reduction in experiential avoidance was associated with experiencing greater withdrawal in the early phase of quitting. Discussion The impact of cognitive-based experiential avoidance pertaining to smoking impacts both pre- and post-cessation experiences in terms of negative affect, withdrawal, and smoking cravings and may represent an important treatment target. PMID:25146128

  7. Aspects of Spirituality in Medical Doctors and Their Relation to Specific Views of Illness and Dealing with Their Patients' Individual Situation

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hirdes, Almut Tabea; Baumann, Klaus; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Heusser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We intended to analyse which aspects of spirituality are of relevance for medical doctors in a mostly secular society and how their spiritual/religious attitudes are related to specific views of illness, their dealing with patients' individual situation, and finally physicians' life satisfaction. Data from an anonymous survey enrolling 237 medical doctors from Germany (mean age 45.7 ± 9.6, 58% male, 42% female) indicated that secular forms of spirituality scored highest, while specific religious orientation had the lowest scores. Physicians with a specific specialization in complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) or anthroposophic medicine differed from their conventional counterparts with respect to specific aspects of spirituality; however, the specific views associated with these specialisations were only weakly to moderately correlated with physicians' view on the meaning of illness and how they assume that they would deal with their patients' individual situation. Of interest, the specific aspects of spirituality were negatively correlated with the view of “illness as a meaningless interruption” of life, indicating that physicians with a spiritual attitude would see illness also as a chance for an “individual development” and associated with a “biographical meaning” rather than just a “useless interruption” of life. PMID:23956779

  8. Specific electrophysiological components disentangle affective sharing and empathic concern in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kimberly L.; Cowell, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Empathic impairment is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, a personality dimension associated with poverty in affective reactions, lack of attachment to others, and a callous disregard for the feelings, rights, and welfare of others. Neuroscience research on the relation between empathy and psychopathy has predominately focused on the affective sharing and cognitive components of empathy in forensic populations, and much less on empathic concern. The current study used high-density electroencephalography in a community sample to examine the spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses when viewing people in physical distress under two subjective contexts: one evoking affective sharing, the other, empathic concern. Results indicate that early automatic (175–275 ms) and later controlled responses (LPP 400–1,000 ms) were differentially modulated by engagement in affective sharing or empathic concern. Importantly, the late event-related potentials (ERP) component was significantly impacted by dispositional empathy and psychopathy, but the early component was not. Individual differences in dispositional empathic concern directly predicted gamma coherence (25–40 Hz), whereas psychopathy was inversely modulatory. Interestingly, significant suppression in the mu/alpha band (8–13 Hz) when perceiving others in distress was positively associated with higher trait psychopathy, which argues against the assumption that sensorimotor resonance underpins empathy. Greater scores on trait psychopathy were inversely related to subjective ratings of both empathic concern and affective sharing. Overall, the study demonstrates that neural markers of affective sharing and empathic concern to the same cues of another's distress can be distinguished at an electrophysiological level, and that psychopathy alters later time-locked differentiations and spectral coherence associated with empathic concern. PMID:25948868

  9. Specific electrophysiological components disentangle affective sharing and empathic concern in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Decety, Jean; Lewis, Kimberly L; Cowell, Jason M

    2015-07-01

    Empathic impairment is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, a personality dimension associated with poverty in affective reactions, lack of attachment to others, and a callous disregard for the feelings, rights, and welfare of others. Neuroscience research on the relation between empathy and psychopathy has predominately focused on the affective sharing and cognitive components of empathy in forensic populations, and much less on empathic concern. The current study used high-density electroencephalography in a community sample to examine the spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses when viewing people in physical distress under two subjective contexts: one evoking affective sharing, the other, empathic concern. Results indicate that early automatic (175-275 ms) and later controlled responses (LPP 400-1,000 ms) were differentially modulated by engagement in affective sharing or empathic concern. Importantly, the late event-related potentials (ERP) component was significantly impacted by dispositional empathy and psychopathy, but the early component was not. Individual differences in dispositional empathic concern directly predicted gamma coherence (25-40 Hz), whereas psychopathy was inversely modulatory. Interestingly, significant suppression in the mu/alpha band (8-13 Hz) when perceiving others in distress was positively associated with higher trait psychopathy, which argues against the assumption that sensorimotor resonance underpins empathy. Greater scores on trait psychopathy were inversely related to subjective ratings of both empathic concern and affective sharing. Overall, the study demonstrates that neural markers of affective sharing and empathic concern to the same cues of another's distress can be distinguished at an electrophysiological level, and that psychopathy alters later time-locked differentiations and spectral coherence associated with empathic concern. PMID:25948868

  10. Vitamin D depletion does not affect key aspects of the preeclamptic phenotype in a transgenic rodent model for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Golic, Michaela; Przybyl, Lukasz; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Fruekilde, Palle; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke; Herse, Florian; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Dechend, Ralf; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Haase, Nadine

    2016-07-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency is proposed as a risk factor for preeclampsia in humans. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates and high supplementation ameliorates the preeclampsia phenotype in an established transgenic rat model of human renin-angiotensin system-mediated preeclampsia. Adult rat dams, transgenic for human angiotensinogen (hAGT) and mated with male rats transgenic for human renin (hREN), were fed either vitamin D-depleted chow (VDd) or enriched chow (VDh) 2 weeks before mating and during pregnancy. Mean blood pressure was recorded by tail-cuff, and 24-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at days 6 and 18 of gestation. Rats were sacrificed at day 21 of gestation. Depleted dams (VDd) had negligible serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 levels (mean ± SEM; 2.95 ± 0.45 nmol/l vs. VDh 26.20 ± 2.88 nmol/l, P = .01), but in both groups, levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 remained below detection level of 25 pmol/l. Dietary vitamin D depletion did not aggravate hypertension (mean ± SEM BP, day 20 of gestation: 151.38 ± 5.65 mmHg VDd vs. 152.00 ± 4.10 mmHg VDh) or proteinuria. Fetal anthropometrics were similar between the groups, whereas VDd displayed lower placental:fetal weight ratios (0.15 vs. 0.16 g/g, P = .01) and increased sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Expression of hREN was lower in placenta of VDd dams (0.82 ± 0.44 AU vs. 1.52 ± 0.15 AU, P = .04). Expression of key vitamin D metabolizing enzymes was unchanged. Dietary vitamin D intervention did not alter key aspects of the preeclampsia phenotype using the transgenic rodent model of human renin-angiotensin system-mediated pre-eclampsia, plausibly due to altered vitamin D metabolism or excretion in the transgenic rats. PMID:27450577

  11. Subject-specific geometrical detail rather than cost function formulation affects hip loading calculation.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Mariska; De Groote, Friedl; Bosmans, Lode; Bartels, Ward; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the relative importance of introducing an increasing level of medical image-based subject-specific detail in bone and muscle geometry in the musculoskeletal model, on calculated hip contact forces during gait. These forces were compared to introducing minimization of hip contact forces in the optimization criterion. With an increasing level of subject-specific detail, specifically MRI-based geometry and wrapping surfaces representing the hip capsule, hip contact forces decreased and were more comparable to contact forces measured using instrumented prostheses (average difference of 0.69 BW at the first peak compared to 1.04 BW for the generic model). Inclusion of subject-specific wrapping surfaces in the model had a greater effect than altering the cost function definition.

  12. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  13. Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.

    PubMed

    Mechor, G D; Gröhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

    1992-11-01

    The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866.

  14. Does canopy position affect wood specific gravity in temperate forest trees?

    PubMed

    Woodcock, D W; Shier, A D

    2003-04-01

    The radial increases in wood specific gravity known in many tree species have been interpreted as providing mechanical support in response to the stresses associated with wind loading. This interpretation leads to the hypothesis that individuals reaching the canopy should (1) be more likely to have radial increases in specific gravity and (2) exhibit greater increases than individuals in the subcanopy. Wood specific gravity was determined for three species of forest trees (Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia and Tsuga canadensis) growing in central Massachusetts, USA. Acer rubrum shows radial increases in specific gravity, but these increases are not more pronounced in canopy trees; the other two species show a pattern of radial decreases. The degree of radial increase or decrease is influenced by tree height and diameter. Of the dominant tree species for which we have data, A. rubrum, Betula papyrifera and Pinus strobus show radial increases in specific gravity, whereas F. grandifolia, T. canadensis and Quercus rubra show decreases. The occurrence of radial increases in B. papyrifera and P. strobus, which are often canopy emergents, suggests that it is overall adaptive strategy that is important rather than position (canopy vs. subcanopy) of any individual tree. It is suggested that radial increases in specific gravity are associated with early-successional status or characteristics and decreases with late-successional status or persistence in mature forest.

  15. Does Canopy Position Affect Wood Specific Gravity in Temperate Forest Trees?

    PubMed Central

    WOODCOCK, D. W.; SHIER, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    The radial increases in wood specific gravity known in many tree species have been interpreted as providing mechanical support in response to the stresses associated with wind loading. This interpretation leads to the hypothesis that individuals reaching the canopy should (1) be more likely to have radial increases in specific gravity and (2) exhibit greater increases than individuals in the subcanopy. Wood specific gravity was determined for three species of forest trees (Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia and Tsuga canadensis) growing in central Massachusetts, USA. Acer rubrum shows radial increases in specific gravity, but these increases are not more pronounced in canopy trees; the other two species show a pattern of radial decreases. The degree of radial increase or decrease is influenced by tree height and diameter. Of the dominant tree species for which we have data, A. rubrum, Betula papyrifera and Pinus strobus show radial increases in specific gravity, whereas F. grandifolia, T. canadensis and Quercus rubra show decreases. The occurrence of radial increases in B. papyrifera and P. strobus, which are often canopy emergents, suggests that it is overall adaptive strategy that is important rather than position (canopy vs. subcanopy) of any individual tree. It is suggested that radial increases in specific gravity are associated with early‐successional status or characteristics and decreases with late‐successional status or persistence in mature forest. PMID:12646497

  16. Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.

    PubMed

    Mechor, G D; Gröhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

    1992-11-01

    The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866. PMID:1460140

  17. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    PubMed

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli.

  18. How the negative and positive aspects of partner relationships affect the mental health of young married people.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A V; McLaughlin, J; White, H R

    1998-06-01

    The relationship between marriage and positive mental health is one of the most established findings in the stress literature. Few studies, however, examine the problematic as well as the supportive impacts of marriage on mental health. This paper uses a cohort of young adults who were sampled at 18, 21, or 24 years of age and resampled seven years later when they were married at 25, 28, or 31. It examines what factors are associated with the quality of marital relationships, the relative impact of and balance between negative and positive partner relationships on mental health, and sex differences in the determinants and outcomes of marital quality. The results indicate that the structural strains of parenthood and financial need and their interaction predict problematic and supportive spousal relationships and the difference in the levels of these two relationships. Problematic relationships with spouses have considerably stronger impacts than supportive relationships on depression. However, the difference between the amounts of supportive and problematic relationships with spouses has a greater impact on mental health than levels of either considered separately. Finally, relational quality has a greater impact on the mental health of wives than husbands. These findings indicate the importance of considering how marriage affects mental health in complex, rather than in straightforward, ways.

  19. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  20. Field experimental approach to bromide leaching as affected by scale-specific rainfall characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendroth, Ole; Vasquez, Vicente; Matocha, Christopher J.

    2011-06-01

    Although inherent soil spatial and temporal variabilities complicate analysis of solute leaching, impacts of specific processes associated with rainfall amount, intensity, and frequency on solute leaching under field conditions require investigation. The objective of this study was to introduce (1) a new experimental approach to quantify bromide (Br-) leaching under field conditions as influenced by rainfall characteristics and (2) analytical opportunities applicable to scale-specific spatial treatment distribution. The quantitative range of treatments was established in nonrandom periodically oscillating patterns. The characteristic length of a period over which a treatment fluctuates was considered the specific treatment scale. A Br- tracer study was established in the field with treatments applied at two different spatial scales. The tracer was applied with a sprayer in a transect of 32 plots, each 2 m long, followed by a site-specific sprinkler irrigation, and 128 soil cores subsequently taken at 0.5 m intervals and divided into 10-cm depth increments. The scale-specific associations between treatments and Br- center of mass (COM) were addressed. Treatments can be periodically imposed over specific scales and their spatial relationships quantified with semivariance and power spectral analysis. An additive state-space model was applied to separate the long- and short-wave components of Br- COM. Subsequently, the large-scale process was described in an autoregressive state-space model. The proposed experimental approach and the separation of small- and large-scale variability components support studying soil ecosystem processes that vary at different scales even in the presence of underlying large-scale trends that are currently considered obstacles in field research.

  1. Culture-Specific Variables That May Affect Employment Outcomes for Mexican-American Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier-Kronick, Nancy

    This paper reviews variables specific to the Mexican-American culture that might influence work-related behavior and outcomes for youths with disabilities from this population. Areas covered include: parental/family network; cultural view of disability; religious influences; acculturation levels; language issues; education and employment…

  2. Specific Language Impairment Affects the Early Spelling Process Quantitatively but Not Qualitatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39…

  3. How Does Creating a Concept Map Affect Item-Specific Encoding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Phillip J.; Poston, Laurel; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping has become a popular learning tool. However, the processes underlying the task are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of creating a concept map on the processing of item-specific information. In 2 experiments, subjects learned categorized or ad hoc word lists by making pleasantness ratings, sorting…

  4. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  5. Mild mutations in the pan neural gene prospero affect male-specific behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yaël; Savy, Mathilde; Soichot, Julien; Everaerts, Claude; Cézilly, Frank; Ferveur, Jean François

    2004-01-30

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most appropriate model organisms to study the genetics of behaviour. Here, we focus on prospero (pros), a key gene for the development of the nervous system which specifies multiple aspects from the early formation of the embryonic central nervous system to the formation of larval and adult sensory organs. We studied the effects on locomotion, courtship and mating behaviour of three mild pros mutations. These newly isolated pros mutations were induced after the incomplete excision of a transposable genomic element that, before excision, caused a lethal phenotype during larval development. Strikingly, these mutant strains, but not the strains with a clean excision, produced a high frequency of heterozygous flies, after more than 50 generations in the lab. We investigated the factors that could decrease the fitness of homozygotes relatively to heterozygous pros mutant flies. Flies of both genotypes had slightly different levels of fertility. More strikingly, homozygous mutant males had a lower sexual activity than heterozygous males and failed to mate in a competitive situation. No similar effect was detected in mutant females. These findings suggest that mild mutations in pros did not alter vital functions during development but drastically changed adult male behaviour and reproductive fitness. PMID:14744542

  6. Gravitaional/Mechanical Factors Affect Gene Expression Profile and Phenotypic Specification of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Romano, Giovanni; Cialdai, Francesca; Fusi, Fanco; Marziliano, Nicola; Benvenuti, Susana; Cellai, Ilaria; Egli, Marcel; Cogoli, Augusto

    2008-06-01

    Stem cell implantation is a promising approach for tissue repair. Unfortunately this possibility is strictly limited because these cells early withdraw from the cell cycler and seem to form passive, rather than active grafts. Therefore, the development of strategies capable of increasing the yield of phenotypic specification would be a primary aim in biomedical research. It is known that both biochemical and physical factors are needed for tissue homeostasis and their combination in a dose- and time-dependent manner is probably the key to in vitro and in vivo tissue regeneration. In this study, the effects of gravitational factors on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were investigated and compared with the ones caused by mechanical stress. The results showed that gene expression profile and phenotypic specification change according with the gravitational/ mechanical stress to which the hMSCs were exposed. Loading by hyperfuge and photomechanical stress by pulsed Nd:YAG laser induced osteoblastogenesis and chondrogenesis while microgravity favoured adipogenesis.

  7. New Verapamil Analogs Inhibit Intracellular Mycobacteria without Affecting the Functions of Mycobacterium-Specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruminiski, Peter G.; Kumar, Malkeet; Singh, Kawaljit; Hamzabegovic, Fahreta; Hoft, Daniel F.; Eickhoff, Christopher S.; Selimovic, Asmir; Campbell, Mary; Chibale, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in repurposing mycobacterial efflux pump inhibitors, such as verapamil, for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. To aid in the design of better analogs, we studied the effects of verapamil on macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells. Macrophage activation was evaluated by measuring levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Since verapamil is a known autophagy inducer, the roles of autophagy induction in the antimycobacterial activities of verapamil and norverapamil were studied using bone marrow-derived macrophages from ATG5flox/flox (control) and ATG5flox/flox Lyz-Cre mice. Our results showed that despite the well-recognized effects of verapamil on calcium channels and autophagy, its action on intracellular M. tuberculosis does not involve macrophage activation or autophagy induction. Next, the effects of verapamil and norverapamil on M. tuberculosis-specific T cells were assessed using flow cytometry following the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from TB-skin-test-positive donors with M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysate for 7 days in the presence or absence of drugs. We found that verapamil and norverapamil inhibit the expansion of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. Additionally, three new verapamil analogs were found to inhibit intracellular Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and one of the three analogs (KSV21) inhibited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication at concentrations that did not inhibit M. tuberculosis-specific T cell expansion. KSV21 also inhibited mycobacterial efflux pumps to the same degree as verapamil. More interestingly, the new analog enhances the inhibitory activities of isoniazid and rifampin on intracellular M. tuberculosis. In conclusion, KSV21 is a promising verapamil analog on which to base structure-activity relationship studies aimed at identifying more effective analogs. PMID:26643325

  8. Automated screening for mutants affecting dopaminergic-neuron specification in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Doitsidou, Maria; Flames, Nuria; Lee, Albert C; Boyanov, Alexander; Hobert, Oliver

    2008-10-01

    We describe an automated method to isolate mutant Caenorhabditis elegans that do not appropriately execute cellular differentiation programs. We used a fluorescence-activated sorting mechanism implemented in the COPAS Biosort machine to isolate mutants with subtle alterations in the cellular specificity of GFP expression. This methodology is considerably more efficient than comparable manual screens and enabled us to isolate mutants in which dopamine neurons do not differentiate appropriately. PMID:18758453

  9. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males' eagle alarms with 'standard' eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males' eagle alarm calls with 'standard' eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males' calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  10. Changing the demand on specific muscle groups affects the walk-run transition speed.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jamie L; Kram, Rodger

    2008-04-01

    It has been proposed that muscle-specific factors trigger the human walk-run transition. We investigated if changing the demand on trigger muscles alters the preferred walk-run transition speed. We hypothesized that (1) reducing the demand on trigger muscles would increase the transition speed and (2) increasing the demand on trigger muscles would decrease the transition speed. We first determined the normal preferred walk-run transition speed (PTS) using a step-wise protocol with a randomized speed order. We then determined PTS while subjects walked with external devices that decreased or increased the demand on specific muscle groups. We concurrently measured the electromyographic activity of five leg muscles (tibialis anterior, soleus, rectus femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius) at each speed and condition. For this study, we developed a dorsiflexor assist device that aids the dorsiflexor muscles. A leg swing assist device applied forward pulling forces at the feet thus aiding the hip flexors during swing. A third device applied a horizontal force near the center of mass, which impedes or aids forward progression thus overloading or unloading the plantarflexor muscles. We found that when demand was decreased in the muscles measured, the PTS significantly increased. Conversely, when muscle demand was increased in the plantar flexors, the PTS decreased. However, combining assistive devices did not produce an even faster PTS. We conclude that altering the demand on specific muscles can change the preferred walk-run transition speed. However, the lack of a summation effect with multiple external devices, suggests that another underlying factor ultimately determines the preferred walk-run transition speed.

  11. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other’s calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other’s alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males’ eagle alarms with ‘standard’ eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males’ eagle alarm calls with ‘standard’ eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males’ calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  12. Display symmetry affects positional specificity in same-different judgment of pairs of novel visual patterns.

    PubMed

    Dill, M; Fahle, M

    1999-11-01

    Deciding whether a novel visual pattern is the same as or different from a previously seen reference is easier if both stimuli are presented to the same rather than to different locations in the field of view (Foster & Kahn (1985). Biological Cybernetics, 51, 305-312; Dill & Fahle (1998). Perception and Psychophysics, 60, 65-81). We investigated whether pattern symmetry interacts with the effect of translation. Patterns were small dot-clouds which could be mirror-symmetric or asymmetric. Translations were displacements of the visual pattern symmetrically across the fovea, either left-right or above-below. We found that same-different discriminations were worse (less accurate and slower) for translated patterns, to an extent which in general was not influenced by pattern symmetry, or pattern orientation, or direction of displacement. However, if the displaced pattern was a mirror image of the original one (along the trajectory of the displacement), then performance was largely invariant to translation. Both positional specificity and its reduction in symmetric displays may be explained by location-specific pre-processing of the visual input.

  13. Engineering of formate dehydrogenase: synergistic effect of mutations affecting cofactor specificity and chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Hoelsch, Kathrin; Sührer, Ilka; Heusel, Moritz; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are frequently used for the regeneration of cofactors in biotransformations employing NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases. Major drawbacks of most native FDHs are their strong preference for NAD(+) and their low operational stability in the presence of reactive organic compounds such as α-haloketones. In this study, the FDH from Mycobacterium vaccae N10 (MycFDH) was engineered in order to obtain an enzyme that is not only capable of regenerating NADPH but also stable toward the α-haloketone ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate (ECAA). To change the cofactor specificity, amino acids in the conserved NAD(+) binding motif were mutated. Among these mutants, MycFDH A198G/D221Q had the highest catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) with NADP(+). The additional replacement of two cysteines (C145S/C255V) not only conferred a high resistance to ECAA but also enhanced the catalytic efficiency 6-fold. The resulting quadruple mutant MycFDH C145S/A198G/D221Q/C255V had a specific activity of 4.00 ± 0.13 U mg(-1) and a K m, NADP(+) of 0.147 ± 0.020 mM at 30 °C, pH 7. The A198G replacement had a major impact on the kinetic constants of the enzyme. The corresponding triple mutant, MycFDH C145S/D221Q/C255V, showed the highest specific activity reported to date for a NADP(+)-accepting FDH (v max, 10.25 ± 1.63 U mg(-1)). However, the half-saturation constant for NADP(+) (K m, NADP(+) , 0.92 ± 0.10 mM) was about one order of magnitude higher than the one of the quadruple mutant. Depending on the reaction setup, both novel MycFDH variants could be useful for the production of the chiral synthon ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate [(S)-ECHB] by asymmetric reduction of ECAA with NADPH-dependent ketoreductases.

  14. Factors affecting exercise intensity in rugby-specific small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Kennett, David C; Kempton, Tom; Coutts, Aaron J

    2012-08-01

    Small-sided games (SSGs) have been suggested as a method for concurrently training physical, technical and tactical capabilities of rugby union players. Therefore, it is important to understand how prescriptive variables such as player number and field size influence the training stimulus during rugby-specific SSGs. Twenty semiprofessional rugby union players participated in a series of SSGs of varying player numbers (4 vs. 4, 6 vs. 6, and 8 vs. 8) on small- (32 × 24 m) and large-sized fields (64 × 48 m). The physiological (blood lactate concentration and heart rate [HR]), perceptual (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and time-motion demands were assessed for each different SSG format. There were significant differences between the 4 vs. 4, 6 vs. 6, and 8 vs.8 SSG formats in mean speed (meters per minute), high-speed running (HSR) distance (meters), and RPE (all p < 0.05). Blood lactate was greater in 4 vs. 4 compared with that in 8 vs. 8 SSGs. The mean speed, HSR distance, number of sprints, peak speed, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were all significantly different between large- and small-field size (all p < 0.05). There were no significant difference between game formats (4 vs. 4, 6 vs. 6, and 8 vs. 8) or field size (small or large) for either percent HRmax or time spent >85% HRmax. These results show that SSGs with fewer players and larger field sizes elicit greater physiological and perceptual responses and time-motion demands. In contrast, the HR response was similar between all SSG formats, which may be attributable to high levels of individual variability in the HR response. This study provides new information about the influence of player number and field size on the training stimulus provided by rugby-specific SSGs. PMID:21997445

  15. Geometrical aspects of patient-specific modelling of the intervertebral disc: collagen fibre orientation and residual stress distribution.

    PubMed

    Marini, Giacomo; Studer, Harald; Huber, Gerd; Püschel, Klaus; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Patient-specific modelling of the spine is a powerful tool to explore the prevention and the treatment of injuries and pathologies. Albeit several methods have been proposed for the discretization of the bony structures, the efficient representation of the intervertebral disc anisotropy remains a challenge, especially with complex geometries. Furthermore, the swelling of the disc's nucleus pulposus is normally added to the model after geometry definition, at the cost of changes of the material properties and an unrealistic description of the prestressed state. The aim of this study was to develop techniques, which preserve the patient-specific geometry of the disc and allow the representation of the system anisotropy and residual stresses, independent of the system discretization. Depending on the modelling features, the developed approaches resulted in a response of patient-specific models that was in good agreement with the physiological response observed in corresponding experiments. The proposed methods represent a first step towards the development of patient-specific models of the disc which respect both the geometry and the mechanical properties of the specific disc. PMID:26243011

  16. Relationship between Conditions Addressed by Hemodialysis Guidelines and Non-ESRD-Specific Conditions Affecting Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Leinau, Lisa; Murphy, Terrence E.; Bradley, Elizabeth; Fried, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Persons with ESRD identify non-disease-specific conditions as negatively affecting their quality of life. It is unknown how these non-ESRD-specific conditions correlate with each other and with ESRD-specific conditions such as anemia, renal osteodystrophy, dialysis access, and dialysis adequacy. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and inter-relatedness of selected conditions among persons receiving hemodialysis and to analyze the relationship between non-ESRD-specific and ESRD-specific conditions. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was an observational cohort study of persons with ESRD that included standardized assessments for pain, fatigue, depression, cognitive impairment, and impaired physical performance. The study was conducted at three dialysis clinics in one urban geographic area. Of the 134 persons who met exclusion criteria, 25 declined participation, yielding a sample size of 109. Results: Pain was present in >81% of participants, fatigue and impaired physical performance in >60% participants, and cognitive impairment and depression in >25% of participants. Pain, fatigue, and depression were highly correlated, but had no correlation with use of a catheter for access, hemoglobin (Hgb), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorous, or Kt/V values outside of the range of guidelines. There was a modest correlation between cognitive function and both Hgb and iPTH. Conclusions: Non-ESRD-specific conditions such as fatigue, pain, and depression are as prevalent as ESRD-specific conditions, and the magnitude of the correlations between the non-ESRD-specific conditions is greater than the correlations between non-ESRD-specific and ESRD-specific conditions. Current guidelines may be failing to address a substantial component of the disease burden for persons with ESRD. PMID:19261828

  17. Observed actions affect body-specific associations between space and valence.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Juanma; Casasanto, Daniel; Santiago, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Right-handers tend to associate "good" with the right side of space and "bad" with the left. This implicit association appears to arise from the way people perform actions, more or less fluently, with their right and left hands. Here we tested whether observing manual actions performed with greater or lesser fluency can affect observers' space-valence associations. In two experiments, we assigned one participant (the actor) to perform a bimanual fine motor task while another participant (the observer) watched. Actors were assigned to wear a ski glove on either the right or left hand, which made performing the actions on this side of space disfluent. In Experiment 1, observers stood behind the actors, sharing their spatial perspective. After motor training, both actors and observers tended to associate "good" with the side of the actors' free hand and "bad" with the side of the gloved hand. To determine whether observers' space-valence associations were computed from their own perspectives or the actors', in Experiment 2 we asked the observer to stand face-to-face with the actor, reversing their spatial perspectives. After motor training, both actors and observers associated "good" with the side of space where disfluent actions had occurred from their own egocentric spatial perspectives; if "good" was associated with the actor's right-hand side it was likely to be associated with the observer's left-hand side. Results show that vicarious experiences of motor fluency can shape valence judgments, and that observers spontaneously encode the locations of fluent and disfluent actions in egocentric spatial coordinates.

  18. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ederli, Luisa; Dawe, Adam; Pasqualini, Stefania; Quaglia, Mara; Xiong, Liming; Gehring, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens. PMID:25750645

  19. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Suárez, María E.; Escolà-Gil, Joan C.; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [3H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [3H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. PMID:27601313

  20. DNA Replication Licensing Affects Cell Proliferation or Endoreplication in a Cell Type–Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    del Mar Castellano, María; Boniotti, María Beatrice; Caro, Elena; Schnittger, Arp; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2004-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the function of DNA replication licensing components (Cdc6 and Cdt1, among others) is crucial for cell proliferation and genome stability. However, little is known about their role in whole organisms and whether licensing control interfaces with differentiation and developmental programs. Here, we study Arabidopsis thaliana CDT1, its regulation, and the consequences of overriding licensing control. The availability of AtCDT1 is strictly regulated at two levels: (1) at the transcription level, by E2F and growth-arresting signals, and (2) posttranscriptionally, by CDK phosphorylation, a step that is required for its proteasome-mediated degradation. We also show that CDC6 and CDT1 are key targets for the coordination of cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. Indeed, altered CDT1 or CDC6 levels have cell type–specific effects in developing Arabidopsis plants: in leaf cells competent to divide, cell proliferation is stimulated, whereas in cells programmed to undergo differentiation-associated endoreplication rounds, extra endocycles are triggered. Thus, we propose that DNA replication licensing control is critical for the proper maintenance of proliferative potential, developmental programs, and morphogenetic patterns. PMID:15316110

  1. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes affect host specificity in a fig-pollinator mutualistic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Wang, N X; Niu, L M; Bian, S N; Xiao, J H; Huang, D W

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between figs and their pollinating wasps is regarded as a model system for studying specialized co-evolved mutualism. Chemoreception of fig wasps plays an important role in this interaction, and odorant-binding proteins (OBP) function in the first step of odorant detection. The OBP repertoire of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi is reported to be one of the smallest among insects; however, it is unknown how these OBPs are related to the complicated mating process occurring within the fig cavity and the extreme host specificity of the species. In the present study, we combined a structural analysis of the conserved cysteine pattern and motif order, a phylogenetic analysis, and previous studies on ligand-binding assays to deduce the function of OBPs. We also quantified the expression of OBP genes in different life stages of female and male fig wasps by using real-time quantitative PCR, which can help to predict the function of these genes. The results indicated that CsolOBP1 and CsolOBP2 (or CsolOBP5) in males may bind to pheromones and play important roles in mate choice, whereas CsolOBP4 and CsolOBP5 may primarily function in host localization by females through binding of volatile compounds emitted by receptive figs.

  2. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Suárez, María E; Escolà-Gil, Joan C; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-09-07

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages.

  3. Foveal crowding in posterior cortical atrophy: a specific early-visual-processing deficit affecting word reading.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2007-12-01

    Visual crowding is a form of masking in which single-letter identification is compromised by the presence of additional letters or other simple visual forms in close proximity. This behavioural phenomenon has been studied most frequently in the context of amblyopic and normal peripheral vision. In the current study, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of two patients with peripheral dyslexia and a third with visual disorientation consequent to bilateral posterior cortical atrophy. In one case, reading showed the effects of word length typical of letter-by-letter reading, whereas the second case was unable to read any whole words. In a series of letter identification tasks, recognition accuracy was shown to decrease significantly in the presence of a range of flanking stimuli (e.g., letters, digits, letter fragments). Compatible with previous reports of the crowding phenomenon, the flanking effect was strengthened by increasing flanker proximity but was unaffected by target or flank size, flank contrast, target-flank lexicality, or flank category. One patient also showed amelioration of the flanking effect when the target and flankers were of opposite contrast polarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of visual crowding in individuals with posterior cortical atrophy. We consider the relevance of these empirical findings to accounts of the letter-by-letter reading form of peripheral dyslexia. In particular, we suggest that crowding constitutes one specific form of early-visual-processing deficit, which impairs the reading process.

  4. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Suárez, María E; Escolà-Gil, Joan C; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. PMID:27601313

  5. Quantile-Specific Penetrance of Genes Affecting Lipoproteins, Adiposity and Height

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantile-dependent penetrance is proposed to occur when the phenotypic expression of a SNP depends upon the population percentile of the phenotype. To illustrate the phenomenon, quantiles of height, body mass index (BMI), and plasma lipids and lipoproteins were compared to genetic risk scores (GRS) derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s having established genome-wide significance: 180 SNPs for height, 32 for BMI, 37 for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, 47 for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, 52 for total cholesterol, and 31 for triglycerides in 1930 subjects. Both phenotypes and GRSs were adjusted for sex, age, study, and smoking status. Quantile regression showed that the slope of the genotype-phenotype relationships increased with the percentile of BMI (P = 0.002), LDL-cholesterol (P = 3×10−8), HDL-cholesterol (P = 5×10−6), total cholesterol (P = 2.5×10−6), and triglyceride distribution (P = 7.5×10−6), but not height (P = 0.09). Compared to a GRS's phenotypic effect at the 10th population percentile, its effect at the 90th percentile was 4.2-fold greater for BMI, 4.9-fold greater for LDL-cholesterol, 1.9-fold greater for HDL-cholesterol, 3.1-fold greater for total cholesterol, and 3.3-fold greater for triglycerides. Moreover, the effect of the rs1558902 (FTO) risk allele was 6.7-fold greater at the 90th than the 10th percentile of the BMI distribution, and that of the rs3764261 (CETP) risk allele was 2.4-fold greater at the 90th than the 10th percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Conceptually, it maybe useful to distinguish environmental effects on the phenotype that in turn alters a gene's phenotypic expression (quantile-dependent penetrance) from environmental effects affecting the gene's phenotypic expression directly (gene-environment interaction). PMID:22235250

  6. Direct selection for mutations affecting specific splice sites in a hamster dihydrofolate reductase minigene.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I T; Chasin, L A

    1993-01-01

    A Chinese hamster cell line containing an extra exon 2 (50 bp) inserted into a single intron of a dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) minigene was constructed. The extra exon 2 was efficiently spliced into the RNA, resulting in an mRNA that is incapable of coding for the DHFR enzyme. Mutations that decreased splicing of this extra exon 2 caused it to be skipped and so produced normal dhfr mRNA. In contrast to the parental cell line, the splicing mutants display a DHFR-positive growth phenotype. Splicing mutants were isolated from this cell line after treatment with four different mutagens (racemic benzo[c]phenanthrene diol epoxide, ethyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, and UV irradiation). By polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct DNA sequencing, we determined the base changes in 66 mutants. Each of the mutagens generated highly specific base changes. All mutations were single-base substitutions and comprised 24 different changes distributed over 16 positions. Most of the mutations were within the consensus sequences at the exon 2 splice donor, acceptor, and branch sites. The RNA splicing patterns in the mutants were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The recruitment of cryptic sites was rarely seen; simple exon skipping was the predominant mutant phenotype. The wide variety of mutations that produced exon skipping suggests that this phenotype is the typical consequence of splice site damage and supports the exon definition model of splice site selection. A few mutations were located outside the consensus sequences, in the exon or between the branch point and the polypyrimidine tract, identifying additional positions that play a role in splice site definition. That most of these 66 mutations fell within consensus sequences in this near-saturation mutagenesis suggests that splicing signals beyond the consensus may consist of robust RNA structures. Images PMID:8417332

  7. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Jr., Joseph J.

    2012-10-16

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan ({sup 5F}W). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that {sup 5F}W incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when {sup 5F}W was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. {sup 19}F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each {sup 5F}W in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody-antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody-antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques.

  8. A Single Mutation in Chikungunya Virus Affects Vector Specificity and Epidemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; McGee, Charles E; Higgs, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus associated with several recent large-scale epidemics. The 2005–2006 epidemic on Reunion island that resulted in approximately 266,000 human cases was associated with a strain of CHIKV with a mutation in the envelope protein gene (E1-A226V). To test the hypothesis that this mutation in the epidemic CHIKV (strain LR2006 OPY1) might influence fitness for different vector species, viral infectivity, dissemination, and transmission of CHIKV were compared in Aedes albopictus, the species implicated in the epidemic, and the recognized vector Ae. aegypti. Using viral infectious clones of the Reunion strain and a West African strain of CHIKV, into which either the E1–226 A or V mutation was engineered, we demonstrated that the E1-A226V mutation was directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity for Ae. albopictus, and led to more efficient viral dissemination into mosquito secondary organs and transmission to suckling mice. This mutation caused a marginal decrease in CHIKV Ae. aegypti midgut infectivity, had no effect on viral dissemination, and was associated with a slight increase in transmission by Ae. aegypti to suckling mice in competition experiments. The effect of the E1-A226V mutation on cholesterol dependence of CHIKV was also analyzed, revealing an association between cholesterol dependence and increased fitness of CHIKV in Ae. albopictus. Our observation that a single amino acid substitution can influence vector specificity provides a plausible explanation of how this mutant virus caused an epidemic in a region lacking the typical vector. This has important implications with respect to how viruses may establish a transmission cycle when introduced into a new area. Due to the widespread distribution of Ae. albopictus, this mutation increases the potential for CHIKV to permanently extend its range into Europe and the Americas. PMID:18069894

  9. [Polycyclic musks exposure affects gene expression of specific proteins in earthworm Eisenia fetida].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Liu, Xiao-wei; Zheng, Shun-an; Zhou, Qi-xing; Li, Song

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the changes in gene expression of earthworm specific proteins following long-term exposure to low-dose polycyclic musks in soil, the mRNA expression levels of the four representative protein-coding genes (HSP70, CRT, cyPA, TCTP) were examined in earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to polycyclic musks using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The purpose of this study was to investigate mRNA expression profiles of test protein genes in response to sublethal galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) for 28 d exposure. The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curves of RT-qPCR reactions showed that the selected primers were appropriately qualified for quantitative mRNA analysis. mRNA expressions of HSP70 gene were not significantly changed in Eisenia fetida exposed to low concentrations of AHTN (less than 30 microg x g(-1)) and HHCB (less than 50 microg x g(-1)). But HSP70 gene expressions were significantly down-regulated at concentrations of AHTN or HHCB equal to or greater than 30 or 50 microg x g(-1). However, up-regulation of CRT gene expressions was induced in response to all test concentrations of AHTN and HHCB. Both cyPA and TCTP gene expressions were not varied compared to control groups after 28 days of exposure. Overall, the results indicated that HSP70 and CRT genes expression patterns might be potential early molecular biomarkers for predicting the harmful exposure level and ecotoxicological effects of polycyclic musks contaminated soil.

  10. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-11-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15-25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  11. Nanosecond electric pulses affect a plant-specific kinesin at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Sebastian; Liu, Qiong; Eing, Christian; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Electric pulses with high field strength and durations in the nanosecond range (nsPEFs) are of considerable interest for biotechnological and medical applications. However, their actual cellular site of action is still under debate--due to their extremely short rise times, nsPEFs are thought to act mainly in the cell interior rather than at the plasma membrane. On the other hand, nsPEFs can induce membrane permeability. We have revisited this issue using plant cells as a model. By mapping the cellular responses to nsPEFs of different field strength and duration in the tobacco BY-2 cell line, we could define a treatment that does not impinge on short-term viability, such that the physiological responses to the treatment can be followed. We observe, for these conditions, a mild disintegration of the cytoskeleton, impaired membrane localization of the PIN1 auxin-efflux transporter and a delayed premitotic nuclear positioning followed by a transient mitotic arrest. To address the target site of nsPEFs, we made use of the plant-specific KCH kinesin, which can assume two different states with different localization (either near the nucleus or at the cell membrane) driving different cellular functions. We show that nsPEFs reduce cell expansion in nontransformed cells but promote expansion in a line overexpressing KCH. Since cell elongation and cell widening are linked to the KCH localized at the cell membrane, the inverted response in the KCH overexpressor provides evidence for a direct action of nsPEFs, also at the cell membrane. PMID:24062185

  12. Prolonged hyperinsulinemia affects metabolic signal transduction markers in a tissue specific manner.

    PubMed

    Campolo, A; de Laat, M A; Keith, L; Gruntmeir, K J; Lacombe, V A

    2016-04-01

    Insulin dysregulation is common in horses although the mechanisms of metabolic dysfunction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that insulin signaling in striated (cardiac and skeletal) muscle and lamellae may be mediated through different receptors as a result of receptor content, and that transcriptional regulation of downstream signal transduction and glucose transport may also differ between tissues sites during hyperinsulinemia. Archived samples from horses treated with a prolonged insulin infusion or a balanced electrolyte solution were used. All treated horses developed marked hyperinsulinemia and clinical laminitis. Protein expression was compared across tissues for the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) by immunoblotting. Gene expression of metabolic insulin-signaling markers (insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt2, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [GSK-3β]) and glucose transport (basal glucose transporter 1 and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4) was evaluated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lamellar tissue contained significantly more IGF-1R protein than skeletal muscle, indicating the potential significance of IGF-1R signaling for this tissue. Gene expression of the selected markers of insulin signaling and glucose transport in skeletal muscle and lamellar tissues was unaffected by prolonged hyperinsulinemia. In contrast, the significant upregulation of Akt2, GSK-3β, GLUT1, and GLUT4 gene expression in cardiac tissue suggested that the prolonged hyperinsulinemia induced an increase in insulin sensitivity and a transcriptional activation of glucose transport. Responses to insulin are tissue-specific, and extrapolation of data across tissue sites is inappropriate. PMID:26773366

  13. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  14. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    PubMed Central

    Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M.; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  15. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  16. Specific binding of gibberellic acid by cytokinin-specific binding proteins: a new aspect of plant hormone-binding proteins with the PR-10 fold.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Sliwiak, Joanna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Barciszewski, Jakub; Sikorski, Michal; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins of class 10 (PR-10) are a family of plant proteins with the same fold characterized by a large hydrophobic cavity that allows them to bind various ligands, such as phytohormones. A subfamily with only ~20% sequence identity but with a conserved canonical PR-10 fold have previously been recognized as Cytokinin-Specific Binding Proteins (CSBPs), although structurally the binding mode of trans-zeatin (a cytokinin phytohormone) was found to be quite diversified. Here, it is shown that two CSBP orthologues from Medicago truncatula and Vigna radiata bind gibberellic acid (GA3), which is an entirely different phytohormone, in a conserved and highly specific manner. In both cases a single GA3 molecule is found in the internal cavity of the protein. The structural data derived from high-resolution crystal structures are corroborated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), which reveals a much stronger interaction with GA3 than with trans-zeatin and pH dependence of the binding profile. As a conclusion, it is postulated that the CSBP subfamily of plant PR-10 proteins should be more properly linked with general phytohormone-binding properties and termed phytohormone-binding proteins (PhBP).

  17. Three-dimensional organization of Drosophila melanogaster interphase nuclei. I. Tissue-specific aspects of polytene nuclear architecture

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Interphase chromosome organization in four different Drosophila melanogaster tissues, covering three to four levels of polyteny, has been analyzed. The results are based primarily on three-dimensional reconstructions from unfixed tissues using a computer-based data collection and modeling system. A characteristic organization of chromosomes in each cell type is observed, independent of polyteny, with some packing motifs common to several or all tissues and others tissue-specific. All chromosomes display a right-handed coiling chirality, despite large differences in size and degree of coiling. Conversely, in each cell type, the heterochromatic centromeric regions have a unique structure, tendency to associate, and intranuclear location. The organization of condensed nucleolar chromatin is also tissue-specific. The tightly coiled prothoracic gland chromosomes are arrayed in a similar fashion to the much larger salivary gland chromosomes described previously, having polarized orientations, nonintertwined spatial domains, and close packing of the arms of each autosome, whereas hindgut and especially the unusually straight midgut chromosomes display striking departures from these regularities. Surprisingly, gut chromosomes often appear to be broken in the centric heterochromatin. Severe deformations of midgut nuclei observed during gut contractions in living larvae may account for their unusual properties. Finally, morphometric measurements of chromosome and nuclear dimensions provide insights into chromosome growth and substructure and also suggest an unexpected parallel with diploid chromatin organization. PMID:3108264

  18. Developmental associations between adolescent change in depressive symptoms and menstrual-cycle-phase-specific negative affect during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François

    2012-10-01

    The causal factors associated with increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls remain an area of theoretical debate, and the limited research considering a hormonal influence has provided mixed results. The goal of the present study was to test a set of longitudinal associations, that, if found, would provide support for a hormonal contribution to these changes. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that changes in depressive symptoms among adolescent girls would be associated with phase-specific symptoms of the menstrual cycle during early adulthood; that these associations would differ across three phases of the menstrual cycle; and that the pattern of associations would differ for changes in depressive symptoms during early- and late-adolescence. The sample consisted of 47 women with longitudinal data from 12 to 21 years old (approximately 91% European Canadian, 4% Middle Eastern Canadian, 2% Haitian Canadian, and 2% Asian Canadian). Consistent with expectations, results showed that early-adolescent increases in depressive symptoms were negatively associated with menstrual-phase negative affect, and positively associated with mid-cycle negative affect, but not associated with premenstrual negative affect; whereas late-adolescent change in depressive symptoms was only associated with depressive symptoms at 20-21 years. Thus, early-adolescent changes in depressive symptoms are longitudinally associated with later mood change across the menstrual cycle, suggesting a common underlying cause, which is hypothesized to be hormonal. Moreover, results suggest that, with respect to variables that are involved in affective development, important differences exist between early- and late-adolescence. The discussion considers menstrual-cycle-related symptoms (e.g., dysmenorrhea) during adolescence, and the need to study their effects on development. It is suggested that focused intervention and prevention efforts may be indicated to interrupt negative

  19. A Translocation Motif in Relaxase TrwC Specifically Affects Recruitment by Its Conjugative Type IV Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Alperi, Anabel; Larrea, Delfina; Fernández-González, Esther; Dehio, Christoph; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2013-01-01

    Type IV secretion system (T4SS) substrates are recruited through a translocation signal that is poorly defined for conjugative relaxases. The relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388 is translocated by its cognate conjugative T4SS, and it can also be translocated by the VirB/D4 T4SS of Bartonella henselae, causing DNA transfer to human cells. In this work, we constructed a series of TrwC variants and assayed them for DNA transfer to bacteria and human cells to compare recruitment requirements by both T4SSs. Comparison with other reported relaxase translocation signals allowed us to determine two putative translocation sequence (TS) motifs, TS1 and TS2. Mutations affecting TS1 drastically affected conjugation frequencies, while mutations affecting either motif had only a mild effect on DNA transfer rates through the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. henselae. These results indicate that a single substrate can be recruited by two different T4SSs through different signals. The C terminus affected DNA transfer rates through both T4SSs tested, but no specific sequence requirement was detected. The addition of a Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain, the translocation signal for the Bartonella VirB/D4 T4SS, increased DNA transfer up to 4% of infected human cells, providing an excellent tool for DNA delivery to specific cell types. We show that the R388 coupling protein TrwB is also required for this high-efficiency TrwC-BID translocation. Other elements apart from the coupling protein may also be involved in substrate recognition by T4SSs. PMID:23995644

  20. [Genetic aspects of sexual behavior in malaria mosquitoes on the basis of specific acoustic signals at mating].

    PubMed

    Perevozkin, V P; Printseva, A A; Maslennikov, P V; Bondarchuk, S S

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic characteristics were studied in two species of the "Anopheles maculipennis" species complex, A. messeae and A. atroparvus. The species were found to clearly differ in sound frequencies, which was assumed to play a key role in species identification during mating in regions of their sympatric distribution. The sound spectrum in A. messeae was far more diverse than in A. atroparvus, which was associated with intraspecific inversion polymorphism of the former. Mosquitoes with the inversion combinations that were most common in populations of the central region of the A. messeae species area specifically differed in acoustic signal spectrum from each other. Hence, sound communication within the species was considered to be the main mechanism that is responsible for sexual partner selection and determines the chromosome associations observed earlier in individual karyotypes. Since males carrying different inversion combinations significantly differed in acoustic characteristics, females were assumed to play a main role in selecting the sexual partner.

  1. Region-Specific Disruption of Adenylate Cyclase Type 1 Gene Differentially Affects Somatosensorimotor Behaviors in Mice(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2014-01-01

    Cover FigureRegion-specific adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) loss of function differentially affects both patterning and sensorimotor behaviors in mice. AC1 is expressed at all levels of the somatosensory pathway and plays a major role in refinement and patterning of topographic sensory maps. Cortex-specific AC1 loss of function (CxAC1KO mice) does not affect barrel patterning and activation of specific barrels corresponding to stimulated whiskers and does not impair sensorimotor behaviors. While global (AC1KO) and thalamus-specific (ThAC1KO) AC1 loss of function leads to absence of barrel patterns, selective whisker stimulation activates topographically aligned cortical loci. Despite functional topography of the whisker-barrel cortex, sensorimotor and social behaviors are impaired, indicating the importance of patterning of topographical sensory maps in the neocortex. Adenylate cyclase type I (AC1) is primarily, and, abundantly, expressed in the brain. Intracellular calcium/calmodulin increases regulate AC1 in an activity-dependent manner. Upon stimulation, AC1 produces cAMP and it is involved in the patterning and the refinement of neural circuits. In mice, spontaneous mutations or targeted deletion of the Adcy1 gene, which encodes AC1, resulted in neuronal pattern formation defects. Neural modules in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, the barrels, which represent the topographic distribution of the whiskers on the snout, failed to form (Welker et al., 1996; Abdel-Majid et al., 1998). Cortex- or thalamus-specific Adcy1 deletions led to different cortical pattern phenotypes, with thalamus-specific disruption phenotype being more severe (Iwasato et al., 2008; Suzuki et al., 2013). Despite the absence of barrels in the "barrelless"/Adcy1 null mice, thalamocortical terminal bouton density and activation of cortical zones following whisker stimulation were roughly topographic (Abdel-Majid et al., 1998; Gheorghita et al., 2006). To what extent does patterning of the

  2. Genetic regulation of carotene biosynthesis in selected tomato strains: aspects of beta-carotene biosynthesis and B gene specificity.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, B R

    1986-01-01

    A comparative qualitative and quantitative study of the carotene compositions of a high beta-carotene type mutant Priya Darshini-1 (PD-1), high lycopene type, Pusa Ruby (PR) and the F1 hybrid of these two strains was carried out. Increased amounts of beta-zeacarotene and gamma-carotene were realized in the PD-1 parent and in the F1 hybrid. This correlates the increased beta-zeacarotene and gamma-carotene synthesis with increased beta-carotene synthesis. Introduction of gene B (the gene that regulates beta-carotene biosynthesis) to a system lacking it induces considerable amount of beta-carotene synthesis at the expense of lycopene in the hybrid. Based on these observations a 'three point control' for the beta-carotene biosynthesis in tomato fruits is suggested with the gene B capable of promoting two different pathways in the high beta-carotene types. The probable sites of action of the modifier mOB (the gene that regulates expression of B gene) are indicated. Beta-carotene and xanthophyll contents of different parts of tomato plants of a PD-1 type and the PR type F2 segregates of the F1 hybrid (PR X PD-1)F1 have been studied. Results indicate that the action of gene B is highly specific and exclusively oriented towards the fruit and not expressed in any other parts of the tomato plant.

  3. Practical aspects of treatment with target specific anticoagulants: initiation, payment and current market, transitions, and venous thromboembolism treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF. The introduction of these agents has created a paradigm shift in anticoagulation by considerably simplifying treatment and anticoagulant initiation for patients by giving clinicians the opportunity to use a rapid onset, rapid offset, oral agent. The availability of these rapid onset TSOACs is allowing for outpatient treatment of low risk pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis which can greatly reduce healthcare costs by avoiding inpatient hospitalizations and treatment for the disease. Additionally with this practice, the complications of an inpatient hospitalization may also be avoided such as nosocomial infections. Single-agent approaches with TSOACs represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of VTE versus the complicated overlap of a parenteral agent with warfarin. Transitions between anticoagulants, including TSOACs, are a high-risk period for the patient, and clinicians must carefully consider patient characteristics such as renal function as well as the agents that are being transitioned. TSOAC use appears to be growing slowly with improved payment coverage throughout the US.

  4. PVC cling film in contact with cheese: health aspects related to global migration and specific migration of DEHA.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Naamansen, E T; Nielsen, P A

    1995-01-01

    Following exposure to the food simulant olive oil for 10 days at 5, 20 or 40 degrees C a global migration ranging from 20 to 30 mg/dm2 was detected from a common 'low migration' PVC film plasticized with a mixture of di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and a polymeric plasticizer. In a laboratory experiment samples of cheese of the types most commonly consumed in Denmark were wrapped in this 'low migration' PVC film using a procedure simulating the actual pattern of use in retail shops. After a storage time of 2 h at 5 degrees C the level of DEHA was 45 mg/kg of cheese, which after 10 days increased to 150 mg DEHA per kg of cheese, corresponding to an estimated specific migration of 12 mg DEHA/dm2 of cheese surface. Based on statistics on dietary habits it is concluded that the retail packaging of small portions of cheese even in a 'low migration' PVC cling film may lead to consumer intakes of DEHA close to or above the tolerable daily intake of 0.3 mg/kg body weight as defined by the EEC Scientific Committee for Food. Furthermore, it is stressed that measurements of global migration followed by uncritical use of reduction factors may result in erroneous evaluation of the suitability of DEHA-plasticized cling film for the packaging of fatty foods.

  5. Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-H.; Cheng, C.-M.; Chang, Y.-F.; Wang, T.-Y.; Yuo, C.-Y.; E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

    2007-03-09

    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

  6. Toward an evolutionary perspective on conceptual representation: species-specific calls activate visual and affective processing systems in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Lopes, Marco; Hauser, Marc D; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex

    2004-12-14

    Non-human primates produce a diverse repertoire of species-specific calls and have rich conceptual systems. Some of their calls are designed to convey information about concepts such as predators, food, and social relationships, as well as the affective state of the caller. Little is known about the neural architecture of these calls, and much of what we do know is based on single-cell physiology from anesthetized subjects. By using positron emission tomography in awake rhesus macaques, we found that conspecific vocalizations elicited activity in higher-order visual areas, including regions in the temporal lobe associated with the visual perception of object form (TE/TEO) and motion (superior temporal sulcus) and storing visual object information into long-term memory (TE), as well as in limbic (the amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) associated with the interpretation and memory-encoding of highly salient and affective material. This neural circuitry strongly corresponds to the network shown to support representation of conspecifics and affective information in humans. These findings shed light on the evolutionary precursors of conceptual representation in humans, suggesting that monkeys and humans have a common neural substrate for representing object concepts. PMID:15583132

  7. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  8. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B

    2016-01-01

    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  9. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  10. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories.

  11. Non-specific phospholipase C1 affects silicon distribution and mechanical strength in stem nodes of rice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huasheng; Zhuo, Lin; Su, Yuan; Sun, Linxiao; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-05-01

    Silicon, the second abundant element in the crust, is beneficial for plant growth, mechanical strength, and stress responses. Here we show that manipulation of the non-specific phospholipase C1, NPC1, alters silicon content in nodes and husks of rice (Oryza sativa). Silicon content in NPC1-overexpressing (OE) plants was decreased in nodes but increased in husks compared to wild-type, whereas RNAi suppression of NPC1 resulted in the opposite changes to those of NPC1-OE plants. NPC1 from rice hydrolyzed phospholipids and galactolipids to generate diacylglycerol that can be phosphorylated to phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid interacts with Lsi6, a silicon transporter that is expressed at the highest level in nodes. In addition, the node cells of NPC1-OE plants have lower contents of cellulose and hemicellulose, and thinner sclerenchyma and vascular bundle fibre cells than wild-type plants; whereas NPC1-RNAi plants displayed the opposite changes. These data indicate that NPC1 modulates silicon distribution and secondary cell wall deposition in nodes and grains, affecting mechanical strength and seed shattering. PMID:26991499

  12. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.

  14. D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase cell type specifically affects angiogenesis pathway in different prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eugenia E; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Zabarovsky, Eugene R; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Grigorieva, Elvira V

    2014-04-01

    D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is involved in breast and lung carcinogenesis as a potential tumor suppressor gene, acting through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis pathways. However, in prostate tumors, increased GLCE expression is associated with advanced disease, suggesting versatile effects of GLCE in different cancers. To investigate further the potential cancer-promoting effect of GLCE in prostate cancer, GLCE was ectopically re-expressed in morphologically different LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Transcriptional profiles of normal PNT2 prostate cells, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, and GLCE-expressing LNCaP and PC3 cells were determined. Comparative analysis revealed the genes whose expression was changed in prostate cancer cells compared with normal PNT2 cells, and those differently expressed between the cancer cell lines (ACTA2, IL6, SERPINE1, TAGLN, SEMA3A, and CDH2). GLCE re-expression influenced mainly angiogenesis-involved genes (ANGPT1, SERPINE1, IGF1, PDGFB, TNF, IL8, TEK, IFNA1, and IFNB1) but in a cell type-specific manner (from basic deregulation of angiogenesis in LNCaP cells to significant activation in PC3 cells). Invasion/metastasis pathway was also affected (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, S100A4, ITGA1, ITGB3, ERBB2, and FAS). The obtained results suggest activation of angiogenesis as a main molecular mechanism of pro-oncogenic effect of GLCE in prostate cancer. GLCE up-regulation plus expression pattern of a panel of six genes, discriminating morphologically different prostate cancer cell sub-types, is suggested as a potential marker of aggressive prostate cancer.

  15. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    PubMed

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits.

  16. Relationship Satisfaction, Affectivity, and Gay-Specific Stressors in Same-Sex Couples Joined in Civil Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todosijevic, Jelica; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction, affect, and stress were examined in 313 same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of this legislation. Similarity between partners on age and on positive/negative affectivity was related to relationship satisfaction whereas there was no association with similarity in income, education,…

  17. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  18. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  19. Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Shi; Zhang, Yuanwei; Yang, Weimei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Liu; Wang, Zheng; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Cooke, Howard J.; Iqbal, Furhan; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. PMID:25395169

  20. Specific Alterations in Complement Protein Activity of Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus) Hibernating in White-Nose Syndrome Affected Sites

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Marianne S.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Murtha, Timothy D.; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  1. Spatiotemporal and species-specific patterns of diseases affecting crustose coralline algae in Curaçao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, G.; Steneck, R. S.; Nugues, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Distribution and abundance of coral diseases have been well documented, but only a few studies considered diseases affecting crustose coralline algae (CCA), particularly at the species level. We investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of diseases affecting CCA along the south coast of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Two syndromes were detected: the Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) previously described and the Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) reported here for the first time. Diseases were present at all six study sites, and our results did not reveal a relationship between disease occurrence and human influence. Both diseases were more prevalent on the shallower reef flat than on the deeper reef slope, and during the warm/rainy season than during the cold/dry season. The patterns observed were consistent with a positive link between temperature and disease occurrence. Reef flat communities were dominated by Neogoniolithon mamillare and Paragoniolithon solubile, whereas deeper habitats were dominated by Hydrolithon boergesenii. Diseases affected all the species encountered, and no preferable host was detected. There was a significant relationship between both disease occurrences and CCA cover. Monitoring of affected patches revealed that 90 % of lesions in CWBS increased in size, whereas 88 % of CWPD lesions regenerated over time. CWBS linear progression rate did not vary between seasons or species and ranged from 0.15 to 0.36 cm month-1, which is in the same order of magnitude as rates previously documented. We conclude that diseases have the potential to cause major loss in CCA cover, particularly in shallow waters. As CCA play a key role in reef ecosystems, our study suggests that the emergence of diseases affecting these algae may pose a real threat to coral reef ecosystems. The levels of disease reported here will provide a much-needed local baseline allowing future comparisons.

  2. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne S; Reichard, Jonathan D; Murtha, Timothy D; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  3. Role of α7- and β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the affective and somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal: studies in knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Astrid K; Olivier, Berend; Markou, Athina

    2012-05-01

    To assess which nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in the aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal, brain reward function and the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were assessed in mice that lack α7 and β4 nAChR subunits. Brain reward function was assessed with the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, in which elevations in ICSS thresholds reflect an anhedonic mood state. At 3-6 h of spontaneous nicotine/saline withdrawal, thresholds were elevated in nicotine-withdrawing α7(+/+) and β4(+/+), but not α7(-/-) or β4(-/-), mice compared with saline-withdrawing mice, indicating a delay in the onset of withdrawal in the knockout mice. From 8 to 100 h of withdrawal, thresholds in α7(+/+) and α7(-/-) mice were equally elevated, whereas thresholds in β4(+/+) and β4(-/-) mice returned to baseline levels. Somatic signs were attenuated in nicotine-withdrawing β4(-/-), but not α7(-/-), mice. Administration of a low dose of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine induced threshold elevations in α7(-/-), but not α7(+/+), mice, whereas the highest dose tested only elevated thresholds in α7(+/+) mice. Mecamylamine-induced threshold elevations were similar in β4(-/-) and β4(+/+) mice. In conclusion, null mutation of the α7 and β4 nAChR subunits resulted in a delayed onset of the anhedonic aspects of the spontaneous nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Previous findings of attenuated somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal in β4(-/-), but not α7(-/-), mice were confirmed in the present study, indicating an important role for β4-containing nAChRs in the somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. The mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal data suggest that compensatory adaptations may occur in constitutive α7(-/-) mice or that mecamylamine may interact with other receptors besides nAChRs in these mice. In summary, the present results indicate an important role for α7 and β4-containing nAChRs in the anhedonic or somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal.

  4. Suicidal behaviour in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Specific risk periods and stage-related factors.

    PubMed

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Alcaraz, Elisa García; Hernández, Begoña Vicente; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; López Moríñigo, Javier David; Duta, Rina; David, Anthony S; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of premature death in psychosis. Earlier stages have been associated with higher risk. However, such risk periods have not been specifically determined and risk factors for suicidal behaviour may change over those periods, which may have crucial implications for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the highest risk period for suicide in a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Suicidal behaviour prior to first presentation of psychosis and during a 3-year follow-up was examined in a sample of 397 individuals. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour during specific time periods were investigated and compared. The greatest suicide risk was found during the month before and 2 months after first contact with psychiatric services (i.e., 'early' attempts). Severity of depressive symptoms and cannabis use emerged as predominant risk factors across time. 'Early' attempters were characterized as being male, living in urban areas, having poor premorbid adjustment, requiring hospitalization, scoring higher on anxiety measures and unusual thought content than non-attempters. Greater suspiciousness and more severe depressive symptoms distinguished the 'late' attempters. In conclusion, there is a specific high risk period for suicide in FEP around the time of the first presentation. Early intervention programmes targeting phase-specific risk factors, particularly psychotic symptoms management and secondary depression prevention strategies may be useful for suicide prevention in psychosis. PMID:26475577

  5. Legal and Definitional Issues Affecting the Identification and Education of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities in Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective…

  6. Assessment of Relationship-Specific Incentive and Threat Sensitivities: Predicting Satisfaction and Affect in Adult Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Kleinman, Brighid M.; Kaczynski, Karen J.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. Initial tests of factor structure and associations with relationship quality were conducted in a sample of persons in intimate relationships (Study 1). Associations with conceptually related measures were examined to determine convergent and…

  7. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanimoto, S.; Thompson, R.; Berninger, V. W.; Nagy, W.; Abbott, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4-9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired…

  8. The 73 kD Subunit of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF) Complex Affects Reproductive Development in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is an important multi-subunit component of the mRNA 3’-end processing apparatus in eukaryotes. We have identified the Arabidopsis CPSF complex that involves five protein subunits named AtCPSF160, AtCPSF100, AtCPSF73-I, AtCPSF73-II and AtCPSF30....

  9. How Does Processing Affect Storage in Working Memory Tasks? Evidence for Both Domain-General and Domain-Specific Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D.; Harvey, Caroline E.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items.…

  10. Muscle or liver-specific Sirt3 deficiency induces hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins without affecting global metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Jeninga, Ellen H; Canto, Carles; Harach, Taoufiq; de Boer, Vincent C J; Andreux, Penelope; Moullan, Norman; Pirinen, Eija; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Houten, Sander M; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin, predominantly expressed in highly metabolic tissues. Germline ablation of Sirt3 has major metabolic consequences, including increased susceptibility to metabolic damage and oxidative stress after high fat feeding. In order to determine the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to these phenotypes, we generated muscle-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3(skm-/-)) and liver-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3(hep-/-)) knock-out mice. Despite a marked global hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins, Sirt3(skm-/-) and Sirt3(hep-/-) mice did not manifest any overt metabolic phenotype under either chow or high fat diet conditions. Similarly, there was no evidence for increased oxidative stress in muscle or liver when Sirt3 was ablated in a tissue-specific manner. These observations suggest that the mitochondrial hyperacetylation induced by Sirt3-deletion in a tissue specific manner is not necessarily linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and does not recapitulate the metabolic abnormalities observed in the germline Sirt3 knock-out mice. PMID:22645641

  11. Legal and definitional issues affecting the identification and education of adults with specific learning disabilities in adult education programs.

    PubMed

    Taymans, Juliana M

    2012-01-01

    Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective instructional practices. This article discusses the development of definitions of SLD and current agreement on the nature of SLD relevant to working with adults. It concludes with implications for adult education programs. PMID:22134963

  12. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Manto, Mario; Honnorat, Jérôme; Hampe, Christiane S.; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Delgado-García, José María; Saitow, Fumihito; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct GAD autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal GAD antibodies. We found that GAD autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15) recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by GAD autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10) or limbic encephalitis (n = 4). We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal GAD antibody representing this epitope specificity; (1) disrupted in vitro the association of GAD with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles; (2) depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect; (3) significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task; (4) markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm; and (5) induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of GAD by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such GAD antibodies could be envisioned. PMID:25870548

  13. Spleen-specific isoforms of Pax5 and Ataxin-7 as potential proteomic markers of lymphoma-affected spleen.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Brij; Mishra, Rajnikant

    2015-04-01

    The splenomegaly, enlargement of spleen, has been observed in several diseases. It has been intended to evaluate histochemical alterations, spleen-specific enzymatic and proteomic markers during splenomegaly, and lympho-proliferative disorders from spleen of mice bearing Dalton's lymphoma. The higher expression of c-fos, c-jun, and MAPK testifies proliferation of lymphocytes. The lower expression of Pax5, higher expression of CD3, and the presence of additional form of Zap-70 suggest hypertrophy of follicles and splenomegaly influenced by weak B-cell receptor-mediated signaling, but activated T-cell receptor-mediated signaling. Simultaneously, lower levels of SOD, NDR2, and MIB2 and higher expression levels of Ataxin-7 and LDH also suggest impact of stress either as a cause or effect of cell proliferation. Spleen-specific isoform of Pax5, NDR2, MIB2, and Ataxin-7 can be considered as spleen-specific unique molecular markers for the evaluation of splenomegaly and lympho-proliferative disorders.

  14. Feature- and category-specific attentional control settings are differently affected by attentional engagement in contingent attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Liu, Xiaoyue; Fu, Shimin

    2016-07-01

    A distractor can capture attention and impair target processing when it shares a target-defining property and matches specific attentional control settings (ACS). We studied how feature-specific ACS (fACS) and category-specific ACS (cACS) operate in a conjunction search task and how they are influenced by attentional engagement. The feature- and category-matching level and temporal lags between the distractor and target were manipulated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The N2pc component and impairment of target identification, which are associated with attentional allocation at an earlier stage and response selection at a later stage, respectively, were measured as markers of attentional capture. The interaction of two ACSs was observed in behavioral data, but disappeared in N2pc data, suggesting two-stage processing of multiple ACSs during a conjunction search, including an early independent and a late integrated stage. Moreover, a reliable N2pc was observed for fACS regardless of the sufficiency of attentional engagement, whereas the N2pc for cACS was only observed with sufficient attentional engagement, but disappeared when the attentional engagement was insufficient. This suggests that cACS demands sufficient attentional engagement, while fACS does not. In conclusion, fACS and cACS can be activated independently at an earlier stage, but they are integrated at a later stage during a conjunction search task and are differently influenced by attentional engagement.

  15. [The pathogenic aspects of fat acids metabolism with short chain and production of cytokines in target affected areas of skin under psoriasis].

    PubMed

    fal'ko, E V; Khyshiktuev, B S; Karavaeva, T M; Tereshkov, P P; Gomboeva, A Ts

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the results of analysis of specters of short-chained fat acids and cytokines in affected skin of patients with psoriasis. The study revealed the significant decrease of short-chained fat acids level, the shift of cytokine profile in the direction of anti-inflammatory factors (interleukins 1L-1beta, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha, interferon IFN-alpha) and mytogenetic factors (EGF) on the background of stable values of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4. The direct pathogenically significant correlation relationships are established between the IL-4 level and the amount of most analyzed short-chained fat acids. The negative correlation relationships were established between content of C2 and IL-1beta.

  16. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland.

    PubMed

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Capek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation ("buried topsoils"), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent ("unburied") topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation.

  17. Site- and horizon-specific patterns of microbial community structure and enzyme activities in permafrost-affected soils of Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Čapek, Petr; Kaiser, Christina; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Richter, Andreas; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils in the Northern latitudes store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) that is prone to microbial degradation and subsequent release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In Greenland, the consequences of permafrost thaw have only recently been addressed, and predictions on its impact on the carbon budget are thus still highly uncertain. However, the fate of OC is not only determined by abiotic factors, but closely tied to microbial activity. We investigated eight soil profiles in northeast Greenland comprising two sites with typical tundra vegetation and one wet fen site. We assessed microbial community structure and diversity (SSU rRNA gene tag sequencing, quantification of bacteria, archaea and fungi), and measured hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. Sampling site and thus abiotic factors had a significant impact on microbial community structure, diversity and activity, the wet fen site exhibiting higher potential enzyme activities and presumably being a hot spot for anaerobic degradation processes such as fermentation and methanogenesis. Lowest fungal to bacterial ratios were found in topsoils that had been relocated by cryoturbation (“buried topsoils”), resulting from a decrease in fungal abundance compared to recent (“unburied”) topsoils. Actinobacteria (in particular Intrasporangiaceae) accounted for a major fraction of the microbial community in buried topsoils, but were only of minor abundance in all other soil horizons. It was indicated that the distribution pattern of Actinobacteria and a variety of other bacterial classes was related to the activity of phenol oxidases and peroxidases supporting the hypothesis that bacteria might resume the role of fungi in oxidative enzyme production and degradation of phenolic and other complex substrates in these soils. Our study sheds light on the highly diverse, but poorly-studied communities in permafrost-affected soils in Greenland and their role in OC degradation. PMID

  18. Genetic variants of MAOB affect serotonin level and specific behavioral attributes to increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) susceptibility in males.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Barnali; Verma, Deepak; Karmakar, Arijit; Jaiswal, Preeti; Sanyal, Aritrika; Paul, Debarshi; Sinha, Swagata; Singh, Asem Surindro; Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Ghosh, Saurabh; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Mukhophadhyay, Kanchan; Rajamma, Usha

    2016-11-01

    Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation. In the present study, we conducted population-based association analysis of eight markers of MAOB with ASD in a study cohort of 203 cases and 236 controls form India and examined its effect on platelet 5-HT content and behaviour. Gender-specific changes were observed for the contrasting LD between pair of markers among cases and controls. Case-control analysis demonstrated over-distribution of major C allele of rs2283728 and rs2283727 in male and female ASD cases respectively. Haplotypic distribution and interaction among markers showed more robust effect in male cases. Interestingly, male ASD cases displayed higher platelet 5-HT content in comparison to the respective controls. Quantitative trait analysis revealed significant correlation of genetic variants and haplotypes of MAOB markers, rs1799836 and rs6324 with increased platelet 5-HT level and CARS scores for specific behavioral symptoms respectively in males. This study suggests that MAOB increases ASD risk in males, possibly through its sex-specific regulatory effect on 5-HT metabolism and behavior.

  19. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

  20. Genetic variants of MAOB affect serotonin level and specific behavioral attributes to increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) susceptibility in males.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Barnali; Verma, Deepak; Karmakar, Arijit; Jaiswal, Preeti; Sanyal, Aritrika; Paul, Debarshi; Sinha, Swagata; Singh, Asem Surindro; Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Ghosh, Saurabh; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Mukhophadhyay, Kanchan; Rajamma, Usha

    2016-11-01

    Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation. In the present study, we conducted population-based association analysis of eight markers of MAOB with ASD in a study cohort of 203 cases and 236 controls form India and examined its effect on platelet 5-HT content and behaviour. Gender-specific changes were observed for the contrasting LD between pair of markers among cases and controls. Case-control analysis demonstrated over-distribution of major C allele of rs2283728 and rs2283727 in male and female ASD cases respectively. Haplotypic distribution and interaction among markers showed more robust effect in male cases. Interestingly, male ASD cases displayed higher platelet 5-HT content in comparison to the respective controls. Quantitative trait analysis revealed significant correlation of genetic variants and haplotypes of MAOB markers, rs1799836 and rs6324 with increased platelet 5-HT level and CARS scores for specific behavioral symptoms respectively in males. This study suggests that MAOB increases ASD risk in males, possibly through its sex-specific regulatory effect on 5-HT metabolism and behavior. PMID:27381555

  1. Specific interactions between lactose repressor protein and DNA affected by ligand binding: ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Masato; Nishikawa, Shin; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2011-06-01

    Transcription mechanisms of gene information from DNA to mRNA are essentially controlled by regulatory proteins such as a lactose repressor (LacR) protein and ligand molecules. Biochemical experiments elucidated that a ligand binding to LacR drastically changes the mechanism controlled by LacR, although the effect of ligand binding has not been clarified at atomic and electronic levels. We here investigated the effect of ligand binding on the specific interactions between LacR and operator DNA by the molecular simulations combined with classical molecular mechanics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results indicate that the binding of anti-inducer ligand strengthens the interaction between LacR and DNA, which is consistent with the fact that the binding of anti-inducer enhances the repression of gene transcription by LacR. It was also elucidated that hydrating water molecules existing between LacR and DNA contribute to the specific interactions between LacR and DNA. PMID:21328406

  2. Laticifer-specific cis-prenyltransferase silencing affects the rubber, triterpene, and inulin content of Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.

    PubMed

    Post, Janina; van Deenen, Nicole; Fricke, Julia; Kowalski, Natalie; Wurbs, David; Schaller, Hubert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-03-01

    Certain Taraxacum species, such as Taraxacum koksaghyz and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, produce large amounts of high-quality natural rubber in their latex, the milky cytoplasm of specialized cells known as laticifers. This high-molecular mass biopolymer consists mainly of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and is deposited in rubber particles by particle-bound enzymes that carry out the stereospecific condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate units. The polymer configuration suggests that the chain-elongating enzyme (rubber transferase; EC 2.5.1.20) is a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants in which the expression of three recently isolated CPTs known to be associated with rubber particles (TbCPT1 to -3) was heavily depleted by laticifer-specific RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the CPT-RNAi plants by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated a significant reduction in rubber biosynthesis and a corresponding 50% increase in the levels of triterpenes and the main storage carbohydrate, inulin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the laticifers in CPT-RNAi plants contained fewer and smaller rubber particles than wild-type laticifers. We also observed lower activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, reflecting homeostatic control of the isopentenyl diphosphate pool. To our knowledge, this is the first in planta demonstration of latex-specific CPT activity in rubber biosynthesis.

  3. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips.

  4. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  5. N-glycosylation affects substrate specificity of chicory fructan 1-exohydrolase: evidence for the presence of an inulin binding cleft.

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Katrien; Verhaest, Maureen; Rabijns, Anja; Clerens, Stefan; Van Laere, André; Van den Ende, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional structure of chicory (Cichorium intybus) fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH IIa) in complex with its preferential substrate, 1-kestose, was determined. Unfortunately, no such data could be generated with high degree of polymerization (DP) inulin, despite several soaking and cocrystallization attempts. Here, site-directed mutagenesis data are presented, supporting the presence of an inulin-binding cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains of 1-FEH IIa. In general, enzymes that are unable to degrade high DP inulins contain an N-glycosylation site probably blocking the cleft. By contrast, inulin-degrading enzymes have an open cleft configuration. An 1-FEH IIa P294N mutant, introducing an N-glycosylation site near the cleft, showed highly decreased activity against higher DP inulin. The introduction of a glycosyl chain most probably blocks the cleft and prevents inulin binding and degradation. Besides cell wall invertases, fructan 6-exohydrolases (6-FEHs) also contain a glycosyl chain most probably blocking the cleft. Removal of this glycosyl chain by site-directed mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana cell wall invertase 1 and Beta vulgaris 6-FEH resulted in a strong decrease of enzymatic activities of the mutant proteins. By analogy, glycosylation of 1-FEH IIa affected overall enzyme activity. These data strongly suggest that the presence or absence of a glycosyl chain in the cleft is important for the enzyme's stability and optimal conformation.

  6. Ajoene, the antiplatelet compound derived from garlic, specifically inhibits platelet release reaction by affecting the plasma membrane internal microviscosity.

    PubMed

    Rendu, F; Daveloose, D; Debouzy, J C; Bourdeau, N; Levy-Toledano, S; Jain, M K; Apitz-Castro, R

    1989-04-15

    Ajoene (E,Z-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide), a product of the rearrangement of allicin (a major component of raw garlic), has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in vitro through inhibition of granule release and fibrinogen binding. Our present study further elaborates on this inhibitory action, through studies of the effect of ajoene on the earliest steps of platelet activation. The transducing mechanism involved in thrombin-induced platelet activation was not modified by the drug as indicated by a normal breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5,bisphosphate and normal production of phosphatidic acid. Likewise, the agonist-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (P20) and of the 43 kD protein (P43) were not impaired by ajoene. Under the same conditions, however, ajoene (100 microM) produced a strong inhibition of the thrombin-induced release of dense body and alpha-granule constituents. Electron spin resonance studies of the effect of ajoene on some physico-chemical properties of the platelet plasma membrane (intact platelets), as well as on artificial lipid membranes, indicated that ajoene increased mobility of the fatty acid spin label 16 nitroxide stearate. This suggests the existence of a decreased microviscosity of the most internal region within the lipid bilayer membrane, without affecting the outer hydrophilic moieties of the bilayer. As a whole, these results suggest that the effect of ajoene on the release reaction must be, in part, due to physical modification of the bilayer, which impairs the fusion of the granules and plasma membrane, a prerequisite for exocytosis.

  7. Contingency learning is not affected by conflict experience: Evidence from a task conflict-free, item-specific Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    A contingency learning account of the item-specific proportion congruent effect has been described as an associative stimulus-response learning process that has nothing to do with controlling the Stroop conflict. As supportive evidence, contingency learning has been demonstrated with response conflict-free stimuli, such as neutral words. However, what gives rise to response conflict and to Stroop interference in general is task conflict. The present study investigated whether task conflict can constitute a trigger or, alternatively, a booster to the contingency learning process. This was done by employing a "task conflict-free" condition (i.e., geometric shapes) and comparing it with a "task conflict" condition (i.e., neutral words). The results showed a significant contingency learning effect in both conditions, refuting the possibility that contingency learning is triggered by the presence of a task conflict. Contingency learning was also not enhanced by the task conflict experience, indicating its complete insensitivity to Stroop conflict(s). Thus, the results showed no evidence that performance optimization as a result of contingency learning is greater under conflict, implying that contingency learning is not recruited to assist the control system to overcome conflict.

  8. Intercepting moving targets: does memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement affect movement timing?

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Machado; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2011-05-01

    This investigation aimed at assessing the extent to which memory from practice in a specific condition of target displacement modulates temporal errors and movement timing of interceptive movements. We compared two groups practicing with certainty of future target velocity either in unchanged target velocity or in target velocity decrease. Following practice, both experimental groups were probed in the situations of unchanged target velocity and target velocity decrease either under the context of certainty or uncertainty about target velocity. Results from practice showed similar improvement of temporal accuracy between groups, revealing that target velocity decrease did not disturb temporal movement organization when fully predictable. Analysis of temporal errors in the probing trials indicated that both groups had higher timing accuracy in velocity decrease in comparison with unchanged velocity. Effect of practice was detected by increased temporal accuracy of the velocity decrease group in situations of decreased velocity; a trend consistent with the expected effect of practice was observed for temporal errors in the unchanged velocity group and in movement initiation at a descriptive level. An additional point of theoretical interest was the fast adaptation in both groups to a target velocity pattern different from that practiced. These points are discussed under the perspective of integration of vision and motor control by means of an internal forward model of external motion.

  9. Detecting the specific parameters that affect the maturation of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets stored in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Baygar, Taçnur; Alparslan, Yunus; Okumuş, Melis; Güler, Merve

    2014-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to detect the specific parameters that effect the maturation of farmed sea bass fillets stored in sunflower oil. Sea bass fillets were taken into the pickling solution (2.5% acetic acid and 11% sodium chloride) at 4 °C(±1). Fish meat in each group was analysed for the following parameters; pH, moisture%, acetic acid% and NaCl% in the maturation pickling solution and in sunflower oil. At the end of the 90 days storage, there were not any negative situations about the fish in terms of the scientific approach. It was detected that the skinless samples had the less NaCl and acidity values but scaly and scaleless samples had the higher values. Main reasons are: for the scaly and scaleless samples, the skin acted as a barrier in the pickling solution or oil and for scaly samples, scales depart from the skin and defeat the passing of NaCl and acid to the meat. When evaluating this study results, the fillet group samples which contain more salt and acetic acid are thought to be more appropriate for marinating in terms of shelf-life and quality. PMID:24876656

  10. Specific dynamic action affects the hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow-water spider crab Maja brachydactyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, Sven; Robinson, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    The bathymetric distribution of marine benthic invertebrates is likely governed by a combination of ecological and physiological factors. The present study investigates oxygen consumption and heartbeat rate in response to attempted feeding at 1, 100 and 150 atm in the shallow-water spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, from temperate European waters. No significant difference was evident between the resting heartbeat rate of specimens at 1 or 100 atm, which were 56 and 65 bpm, respectively (Mann-Whitney, U = 5382.0; n = 95, 98; p = 0.079). However, at 150 atm the resting heartbeat rate was significantly higher than that observed for 100 atm at 108 bpm (Mann-Whitney, U = 149.0; n = 45, 98; p < 0.001). At 150 atm, feeding was never observed and coupled with the elevated resting heartbeat rate; it is suggested by 150 atm continued survival is unfeasible. At 1 and 100 atm, feeding instigated a distinct increase in heartbeat rate, which remained elevated for over 30 h. This increase peaked within 1 h at 1 atm. At 100 atm, this required 4 h and postprandial oxygen consumption was significantly higher than at 1 atm (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 85.036; df = 2; p < 0.001). Elevated hydrostatic pressure is hypothesized to extend the duration and the total metabolic energy devoted to specific dynamic action. The metabolic requirements of feeding under hyperbaric conditions may even reach such a critical demand that feeding is entirely inhibited.

  11. Factors affecting the ability of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D to degrade the membrane anchors of cell surface proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Low, M G; Huang, K S

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian serum and plasma contain high levels of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD). Previous studies with crude serum or partially purified GPI-PLD have shown that this enzyme is capable of degrading the GPI anchor of several purified detergent-solubilized cell surface proteins yet is unable to act on GPI-anchored proteins located in intact cells. Treatment of intact ROS17/2.8, WISH or HeLa cells (or membrane fractions prepared from them) with GPI-PLD purified from bovine serum by immunoaffinity chromatography gave no detectable release of alkaline phosphatase into the medium. However, when membranes were treated with GPI-PLD in the presence of 0.1% Nonidet P-40 substantial GPI anchor degradation (as measured by Triton X-114 phase separation) was observed. The mechanism of this stimulatory effect of detergent was further investigated using [3H]myristate-labelled variant surface glycoprotein and human placental alkaline phosphatase reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. As with the cell membranes the reconstituted substrates exhibited marked resistance to the action of purified GPI-PLD which could be overcome by the inclusion of Nonidet P-40. Similar results were obtained when crude bovine serum was used as the source of GPI-PLD. These data indicate that the resistance of cell membranes to the action of GPI-PLD is not entirely due to the action of serum or membrane-associated inhibitory factors. A more likely explanation is that, in common with many other eukaryotic phospholipases, the action of GPI-PLD is restricted by the physical state of the phospholipid bilayer in which the substrates are embedded. These data may account for the ability of endothelial and blood cells to retain GPI-anchored proteins on their surfaces in spite of the high levels of GPI-PLD present in plasma. PMID:1835378

  12. Specific collagen XVIII isoforms promote adipose tissue accrual via mechanisms determining adipocyte number and affect fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Aikio, Mari; Elamaa, Harri; Vicente, David; Izzi, Valerio; Kaur, Inderjeet; Seppinen, Lotta; Speedy, Helen E; Kaminska, Dorota; Kuusisto, Sanna; Sormunen, Raija; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Jones, Emma L; Muilu, Mikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Savolainen, Markku J; Shoulders, Carol C; Pihlajaniemi, Taina

    2014-07-29

    Collagen XVIII is an evolutionary conserved ubiquitously expressed basement membrane proteoglycan produced in three isoforms via two promoters (P). Here, we assess the function of the N-terminal, domain of unknown function/frizzled-like sequences unique to medium/long collagen XVIII by creating P-specific null mice. P2-null mice, which only produce short collagen XVIII, developed reduced bulk-adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and hypertriglyceridemia. These abnormalities did not develop in P1-null mice, which produce medium/long collagen XVIII. White adipose tissue samples from P2-null mice contain larger reserves of a cell population enriched in early adipocyte progenitors; however, their embryonic fibroblasts had ∼ 50% lower adipocyte differentiation potential. Differentiating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into mature adipocytes produced striking increases in P2 gene-products and dramatic falls in P1-transcribed mRNA, whereas Wnt3a-induced dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes produced reciprocal changes in P1 and P2 transcript levels. P2-derived gene-products containing frizzled-like sequences bound the potent adipogenic inhibitor, Wnt10b, in vitro. Previously, we have shown that these same sequences bind Wnt3a, inhibiting Wnt3a-mediated signaling. P2-transcript levels in visceral fat were positively correlated with serum free fatty acid levels, suggesting that collagen α1 (XVIII) expression contributes to regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in visceral obesity. Medium/long collagen XVIII is deposited in the Space of Disse, and interaction between hepatic apolipoprotein E and this proteoglycan is lost in P2-null mice. These results describe a previously unidentified extracellular matrix-directed mechanism contributing to the control of the multistep adipogenic program that determines the number of precursors committing to adipocyte differentiation, the maintenance of the differentiated state, and the physiological consequences of its impairment on ectopic fat

  13. BRAF and MEK inhibition variably affect GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Fraser, Cara K; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Brown, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has long been used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, and an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody treatment has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Targeted therapies such as small molecule kinase inhibitors targeting deregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling have markedly improved melanoma control in up to 50% of metastatic disease patients and have likewise been recently approved. Combination therapies for melanoma have been proposed as a way to exploit the high-level but short-term responses associated with kinase inhibitor therapies and the low-level but longer-term responses associated with immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy now includes adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and this mode of therapy is a candidate for combination with small molecule drugs. This paper describes CART cells that target GD2-expressing melanoma cells and investigates the effects of approved MAPK pathway-targeted therapies for melanoma [vemurafenib (Vem), dabrafenib (Dab), and trametinib (Tram)] on the viability, activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity of these CAR T cells, as well as on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We report that, although all these drugs lead to inhibition of stimulated T cells at high concentrations in vitro, only Vem inhibited T cells at concentrations equivalent to reported plasma concentrations in treated patients. Although the combination of Dab and Tram also resulted in inhibition of T-cell effector functions at some therapeutic concentrations, Dab itself had little adverse effect on CAR T-cell function. These findings may have implications for novel therapeutic combinations of adoptive CAR T-cell immunotherapy and MAPK pathway inhibitors.

  14. Receptor affinity and extracellular domain modifications affect tumor recognition by ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Hudecek, Michael; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria-Teresa; Kosasih, Paula L.; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Jensen, Michael C.; Rader, Christoph; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The adoptive transfer of T-cells modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprised of an extracellular single chain antibody (scFV) fragment specific for a tumor cell surface molecule, and linked to an intracellular signaling module has activity in advanced malignancies. ROR1 is a tumor-associated molecule expressed on prevalent B-lymphoid and epithelial cancers, and is absent on normal mature B-cells and vital tissues, making it a candidate for CAR T-cell therapy. Experimental Design We constructed ROR1-CARs from scFVs with different affinities and containing extracellular IgG4-Fc spacer domains of different lengths, and evaluated the ability of T-cells expressing each CAR to recognize ROR1+ hematopoietic and epithelial tumors in vitro, and to eliminate human mantle cell lymphoma engrafted into immunodeficient mice. Results ROR1-CARs containing a short ‘Hinge-only’ extracellular spacer conferred superior lysis of ROR1+ tumor cells and induction of T-cell effector functions compared to CARs with long ‘Hinge-CH2-CH3’ spacers. CARs derived from a higher affinity scFV conferred maximum T-cell effector function against primary CLL and ROR1+ epithelial cancer lines in vitro without inducing activation induced T-cell death. T-cells modified with an optimal ROR1-CAR were equivalently effective as CD19-CAR modified T-cells in mediating regression of JeKo-1 mantle cell lymphoma in immunodeficient mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that customizing spacer design and increasing affinity of ROR1-CARs enhances T-cell effector function and recognition of ROR1+ tumors. T-cells modified with an optimized ROR1-CAR have significant anti-tumor efficacy in a preclinical model in vivo, suggesting they may be useful to treat ROR1+ tumors in clinical applications. PMID:23620405

  15. Body composition changes affect energy cost of running during 12 months of specific diet and training in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Giovanna; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Melis, Franco; Angioni, Giuseppina; Sanna, Irene; Loi, Andrea; Pusceddu, Matteo; Pinna, Virginia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Considering the relation between body weight composition and energy cost of running, we tested the hypothesis that by modifying body composition by means of a combined protocol of specific diet and training, the energy cost of motion (Cr) may be reduced. Forty-five healthy and normal-weight subjects were divided into 3 groups that performed a different treatment: the first group attended a dietary protocol (D), the second group participated in a running program (R), and the third group followed both the dietary and running protocols (R&D). Each subject underwent 3 anthropometric and exercise evaluation tests during 1 year (at entry (T0), month 6 (T6), and month 12 (T12)) to assess body composition and Cr adjustments. The mean fat mass (FM) values were reduced in R&D from 12.0 ± 4.0 to 10.4 ± 3.0 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group from 14.2 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 4.7 kg (p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). Conversely, the mean fat free mass values increased in R&D (from 56.3 ± 8.8 to 58.3 ± 9.8 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12) and in the D group (from 50.6 ± 13.2 to 52.9 ± 13.6 kg, p < 0.05 T0 vs. T12). The mean Cr values of the 2 groups were significantly modified throughout the 1-year protocol (1.48 ± 0.16 and 1.40 ± 0.15 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in the R&D group at T0 and T12, respectively; 1.83 ± 0.17 and 1.76 ± 0.23 kcal·kg(-b)·km(-1) in D group at T0 to T12, respectively). The R&D and D groups that underwent the diet protocol had a positive change in body composition during the year (FM/fat free mass ratio decline), which determined a Cr reduction. PMID:26307518

  16. Multidimensional Aspects of Parental Involvement in Korean Adolescents' Schooling: A Mediating Role of General and Domain-Specific Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah; No, Unkyung; Dang, Myley

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation of parental involvement with Korean adolescent academic achievement and self-efficacy, and the mediating role of academic self-efficacy in this relationship. We investigated the effects of parental involvement in both overall and domain-specific self-efficacy and academic achievement across three academic subjects…

  17. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  18. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles.

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  19. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  20. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  1. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  2. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  3. Specificity of Familial Transmission of Schizophrenia Psychosis Spectrum and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Study’s High-Risk Design

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Buka, Stephen L.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2011-01-01

    Context There is a long history of research on the familial transmission of schizophrenia and other psychoses. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of the transmission of schizophrenia-psychosis spectrum (SPS) disorders and affective psychoses (APs) or observed high-risk offspring into mid-adulthood. Objectives To investigate the transmission of psychoses from parents to their offspring and the specificity of transmission across psychosis subtypes. Design High-risk follow-up study. Setting New England Family Study’s High-Risk Study, with population-based community sampling from Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island. Participants A total of 203 high-risk offspring of 159 parents with diagnoses of psychoses (SPS and AP) and 147 control offspring of 114 control parents. Main Outcome Measures Systematically assessed research DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses for adult offspring. Results Compared with those of control parents, offspring of parents with SPS had a significant, almost 6-fold elevated risk of SPS disorders and a nonsignificant doubling of risk for AP. Offspring of parents with AP had a significant 14-fold elevated risk for AP compared with offspring of controls; for SPS disorders, the risk doubled but was not significant. Conclusion Having a parent with psychosis significantly increased the risk for psychosis among offspring and demonstrated specificity for the transmission of SPS disorders and APs within families. PMID:20439827

  4. Concentration of acrylamide in a polyacrylamide gel affects VP4 gene coding assignment of group A equine rotavirus strains with P[12] specificity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is universally acknowledged that genome segment 4 of group A rotavirus, the major etiologic agent of severe diarrhea in infants and neonatal farm animals, encodes outer capsid neutralization and protective antigen VP4. Results To determine which genome segment of three group A equine rotavirus strains (H-2, FI-14 and FI-23) with P[12] specificity encodes the VP4, we analyzed dsRNAs of strains H-2, FI-14 and FI-23 as well as their reassortants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at varying concentrations of acrylamide. The relative position of the VP4 gene of the three equine P[12] strains varied (either genome segment 3 or 4) depending upon the concentration of acrylamide. The VP4 gene bearing P[3], P[4], P[6], P[7], P[8] or P[18] specificity did not exhibit this phenomenon when the PAGE running conditions were varied. Conclusions The concentration of acrylamide in a PAGE gel affected VP4 gene coding assignment of equine rotavirus strains bearing P[12] specificity. PMID:20573245

  5. Denaturant-Dependent Conformational Changes in a [beta]-Trefoil Protein: Global and Residue-Specific Aspects of an Equilibrium Denaturation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Latypov, Ramil F.; Liu, Dingjiang; Jacob, Jaby; Harvey, Timothy S.; Bondarenko, Pavel V.; Kleemann, Gerd R.; Brems, David N.; Raibekas, Andrei A.

    2010-01-12

    Conformational properties of the folded and unfolded ensembles of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are strongly denaturant-dependent as evidenced by high-resolution two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), limited proteolysis, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The folded ensemble was characterized in detail in the presence of different urea concentrations by 1H-15N HSQC NMR. The {beta}-trefoil fold characteristic of native IL-1ra was preserved until the unfolding transition region beginning at 4 M urea. At the same time, a subset of native resonances disappeared gradually starting at low denaturant concentrations, indicating noncooperative changes in the folded state. Additional evidence of structural perturbations came from the chemical shift analysis, nonuniform and bell-shaped peak intensity profiles, and limited proteolysis. In particular, the following nearby regions of the tertiary structure became progressively destabilized with increasing urea concentrations: the {beta}-hairpin interface of trefoils 1 and 2 and the H2a-H2 helical region. These regions underwent small-scale perturbations within the native baseline region in the absence of populated molten globule-like states. Similar regions were affected by elevated temperatures known to induce irreversible aggregation of IL-1ra. Further evidence of structural transitions invoking near-native conformations came from an optical spectroscopy analysis of its single-tryptophan variant W17A. The increase in the radius of gyration was associated with a single equilibrium unfolding transition in the case of two different denaturants, urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). However, the compactness of urea- and GuHCl-unfolded molecules was comparable only at high denaturant concentrations and deviated under less denaturing conditions. Our results identified the role of conformational flexibility in IL-1ra aggregation and shed light on the nature of structural transitions within the

  6. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  7. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage.

  8. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. PMID:26123917

  9. Down-regulation of tomato PHYTOL KINASE strongly impairs tocopherol biosynthesis and affects prenyllipid metabolism in an organ-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Juliana; Azevedo, Mariana da Silva; Spicher, Livia; Glauser, Gaétan; vom Dorp, Katharina; Guyer, Luzia; del Valle Carranza, Andrea; Asis, Ramón; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Buckeridge, Marcos; Demarco, Diego; Bres, Cécile; Rothan, Christophe; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Kessler, Félix; Dörmann, Peter; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2016-02-01

    Tocopherol, a compound with vitamin E (VTE) activity, is a conserved constituent of the plastidial antioxidant network in photosynthetic organisms. The synthesis of tocopherol involves the condensation of an aromatic head group with an isoprenoid prenyl side chain. The latter, phytyl diphosphate, can be derived from chlorophyll phytol tail recycling, which depends on phytol kinase (VTE5) activity. How plants co-ordinate isoprenoid precursor distribution for supplying biosynthesis of tocopherol and other prenyllipids in different organs is poorly understood. Here, Solanum lycopersicum plants impaired in the expression of two VTE5-like genes identified by phylogenetic analyses, named SlVTE5 and SlFOLK, were characterized. Our data show that while SlFOLK does not affect tocopherol content, the production of this metabolite is >80% dependent on SlVTE5 in tomato, in both leaves and fruits. VTE5 deficiency greatly impacted lipid metabolism, including prenylquinones, carotenoids, and fatty acid phytyl esters. However, the prenyllipid profile greatly differed between source and sink organs, revealing organ-specific metabolic adjustments in tomato. Additionally, VTE5-deficient plants displayed starch accumulation and lower CO2 assimilation in leaves associated with mild yield penalty. Taken together, our results provide valuable insights into the distinct regulation of isoprenoid metabolism in leaves and fruits and also expose the interaction between lipid and carbon metabolism, which results in carbohydrate export blockage in the VTE5-deficient plants, affecting tomato fruit quality.

  10. Down-regulation of tomato PHYTOL KINASE strongly impairs tocopherol biosynthesis and affects prenyllipid metabolism in an organ-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Juliana; Azevedo, Mariana da Silva; Spicher, Livia; Glauser, Gaétan; vom Dorp, Katharina; Guyer, Luzia; del Valle Carranza, Andrea; Asis, Ramón; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Buckeridge, Marcos; Demarco, Diego; Bres, Cécile; Rothan, Christophe; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Kessler, Félix; Dörmann, Peter; Carrari, Fernando; Rossi, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Tocopherol, a compound with vitamin E (VTE) activity, is a conserved constituent of the plastidial antioxidant network in photosynthetic organisms. The synthesis of tocopherol involves the condensation of an aromatic head group with an isoprenoid prenyl side chain. The latter, phytyl diphosphate, can be derived from chlorophyll phytol tail recycling, which depends on phytol kinase (VTE5) activity. How plants co-ordinate isoprenoid precursor distribution for supplying biosynthesis of tocopherol and other prenyllipids in different organs is poorly understood. Here, Solanum lycopersicum plants impaired in the expression of two VTE5-like genes identified by phylogenetic analyses, named SlVTE5 and SlFOLK, were characterized. Our data show that while SlFOLK does not affect tocopherol content, the production of this metabolite is >80% dependent on SlVTE5 in tomato, in both leaves and fruits. VTE5 deficiency greatly impacted lipid metabolism, including prenylquinones, carotenoids, and fatty acid phytyl esters. However, the prenyllipid profile greatly differed between source and sink organs, revealing organ-specific metabolic adjustments in tomato. Additionally, VTE5-deficient plants displayed starch accumulation and lower CO2 assimilation in leaves associated with mild yield penalty. Taken together, our results provide valuable insights into the distinct regulation of isoprenoid metabolism in leaves and fruits and also expose the interaction between lipid and carbon metabolism, which results in carbohydrate export blockage in the VTE5-deficient plants, affecting tomato fruit quality. PMID:26596763

  11. Substitution of Asp-309 by Asn in the Arg-Asp-Pro (RDP) motif of Acetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase affects sucrose hydrolysis, but not enzyme specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Batista, F R; Hernández, L; Fernández, J R; Arrieta, J; Menéndez, C; Gómez, R; Támbara, Y; Pons, T

    1999-01-01

    beta-Fructofuranosidases share a conserved aspartic acid-containing motif (Arg-Asp-Pro; RDP) which is absent from alpha-glucopyranosidases. The role of Asp-309 located in the RDP motif of levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) from Acetobacter diazotrophicus SRT4 was studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of Asp-309 by Asn did not affect enzyme secretion. The kcat of the mutant levansucrase was reduced 75-fold, but its Km was similar to that of the wild-type enzyme, indicating that Asp-309 plays a major role in catalysis. The two levansucrases showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and yielded similar product profiles. Thus the mutation D309N affected the efficiency of sucrose hydrolysis, but not the enzyme specificity. Since the RDP motif is present in a conserved position in fructosyltransferases, invertases, levanases, inulinases and sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolases, it is likely to have a common functional role in beta-fructofuranosidases. PMID:9895294

  12. Luteolin induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant cancer cells without affecting the drug transporter function: involvement of cell line-specific apoptotic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prema S.; Satelli, Arun; Moridani, Majid; Jenkins, Marjorie; Rao, U. Subrahmanyeswara

    2011-01-01

    Bioflavonoids are of considerable interest to human health as these serve as antioxidant and anticancer agents. Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that luteolin, a natural bioflavonoid, exhibits chemopreventive properties, its effectiveness as an antiproliferative agent against multidrug resistant (MDR) cancers is unclear. We thus assessed the antiproliferative effects of luteolin and associated molecular mechanisms using two MDR cancer cell lines that express high levels of P-glycoprotein and ABCG2. In this paper, we demonstrate that luteolin induces apoptosis in P-glycoprotein- and ABCG2-expressing MDR cancer cells without affecting the transport functions of these drug transporters. Analysis of various proliferative signaling pathways indicated that luteolin-induced apoptosis involves reactive oxygen species generation, DNA damage, activation of ATR→Chk2→p53 signaling pathway, inhibition of NF-kB signaling pathway, activation of p38 pathway and depletion of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, use of luteolin in these analyses also identified specific molecular characteristics of NCI-ADR/RES and MCF-7/MitoR cells that highlight their different tissue origins. These results suggest that luteolin possesses therapeutic potential to control the proliferation of MDR cancers without affecting the physiological function of drug transporters in the body tissues. PMID:21792893

  13. Tuber-specific silencing of asparagine synthetase-1 reduces the acrylamide-forming potential of potatoes grown in the field without affecting tuber shape and yield.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rekha; Shakya, Roshani; Rommens, Caius M

    2012-10-01

    Simultaneous silencing of asparagine synthetase (Ast)-1 and -2 limits asparagine (ASN) formation and, consequently, reduces the acrylamide-forming potential of tubers. The phenotype of silenced lines appears normal in the greenhouse, but field-grown tubers are small and cracked. Assessing the effects of silencing StAst1 and StAst2 individually, we found that yield drag was mainly linked to down-regulation of StAst2. Interestingly, tubers from untransformed scions grafted onto intragenic StAst1/2-silenced rootstock contained almost the same low ASN levels as those in the original silenced lines, indicating that ASN is mainly formed in tubers rather than being transported from leaves. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that overexpression of StAst2 caused ASN to accumulate in leaves but not tubers. Thus, ASN does not appear to be the main form of organic nitrogen transported from leaves to tubers. Because reduced ASN levels coincided with increased levels of glutamine, it appears likely that this alternative amide amino acid is mobilized to tubers, where it is converted into ASN by StAst1. Indeed, tuber-specific silencing of StAst1, but not of StAst2, was sufficient to substantially lower ASN formation in tubers. Extensive field studies demonstrated that the reduced acrylamide-forming potential achieved by tuber-specific StAst1 silencing did not affect the yield or quality of field-harvested tubers.

  14. The Fading Affect Bias shows healthy coping at the general level, but not the specific level for religious variables across religious and non-religious events.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Hartzler, Jennifer K; Hartzler, Andrew W; Lee, Sherman A; Walker, W Richard

    2015-11-01

    The research on fading emotions has shown that unpleasant emotions fade more over time than pleasant emotions, which is a phenomenon referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB). Based on the negative relation between the FAB and dysphoria (Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003), some researchers have argued that the FAB is a healthy coping mechanism (Walker, Skowronski, & Thompson, 2003). As religious variables are related to positive emotions and emotional coping (e.g., Cohen, 2002; Pargament, Smith, Koenig, & Perez, 1998), we examined the FAB as a healthy coping mechanism at the general and specific levels of analysis in the context of religion. General healthy coping was supported by (1) FAB effects across both religious events (REs) and non-religious events (NREs) and (2) a positive relation for spirituality and the FAB. However, specific healthy coping was not supported by a small FAB for (1) REs at high levels of positive religious coping (PRC) for NREs, (2) NREs at low levels of PRC for NREs, and (3) purely REs relative to REs involving spirituality. Other implications are discussed.

  15. Effect of DcR3-specific siRNA on cell growth suppression and apoptosis induction in glioma cells via affecting ERK and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Suning; Leng, Yuhua; Chen, Xin; Liu, Tiantian; Wang, Hanlin; Wei, Fanglin; Luo, Dianzhong; Chen, Gang; Wei, Zhuxin

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we found that the expression of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) in gliomas was significantly upregulated compared to normal brain tissues. However, the effect of DcR3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) on cell biological function of glioma cells remains incompletely understood. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the effect of DcR3 siRNA on cell growth and apoptosis of glioma cells and to investigate the potential downstream pathways affected by DcR3. Methods DcR3-specific siRNA was transfected into three glioma cell lines (U251MG, LN-308, and U87MG) using combiMAGnetofection method. MTS tetrazolium assay and fluorimetric resorufin viability assay were used to assess the growth of glioma cells. Then, apoptosis was examined using the Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double-staining assay and fluorescent caspase-3/7 assay. Meanwhile, Western blot was performed to explore the probable pathway by which DcR3-specific siRNA acts in glioma cells. Also, microarray dataset analysis was applied to analyze the potential function of DcR3 in glioma. Results The DcR3-specific siRNA had a potent effect on cell growth and apoptosis of all three glioma cells tested, and the effects were time dependent. Among these three glioma cell lines, U251MG had the most significant effect with regard to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. MTS assay showed that the proliferation rate at 72 and 96 hours after the transfection was 76.333%±5.131% (t=7.611, P=0.002) and 64.333%±5.859% (t=10.983, P<0.001), respectively. The viability rate of U251MG cells was 80.667%±2.309% (t=12.302, P<0.001) and 62.333%±2.082% (t=21.213, P<0.001) at 72 and 96 hours posttreatment, respectively. The caspase-3/7 activity of U251MG cells was 2.76 (t=−6.601, P=0.003) and 4.75 (t=−9.189, P=0.001) folds that of the mock control at 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The apoptosis rate was increased to 1.85 (t=−2.496, P=0.067) and 3.93 (t=−12.587, P<0.001) folds at 72 and 96 hours

  16. Effect of DcR3-specific siRNA on cell growth suppression and apoptosis induction in glioma cells via affecting ERK and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Suning; Leng, Yuhua; Chen, Xin; Liu, Tiantian; Wang, Hanlin; Wei, Fanglin; Luo, Dianzhong; Chen, Gang; Wei, Zhuxin

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we found that the expression of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) in gliomas was significantly upregulated compared to normal brain tissues. However, the effect of DcR3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) on cell biological function of glioma cells remains incompletely understood. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the effect of DcR3 siRNA on cell growth and apoptosis of glioma cells and to investigate the potential downstream pathways affected by DcR3. Methods DcR3-specific siRNA was transfected into three glioma cell lines (U251MG, LN-308, and U87MG) using combiMAGnetofection method. MTS tetrazolium assay and fluorimetric resorufin viability assay were used to assess the growth of glioma cells. Then, apoptosis was examined using the Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double-staining assay and fluorescent caspase-3/7 assay. Meanwhile, Western blot was performed to explore the probable pathway by which DcR3-specific siRNA acts in glioma cells. Also, microarray dataset analysis was applied to analyze the potential function of DcR3 in glioma. Results The DcR3-specific siRNA had a potent effect on cell growth and apoptosis of all three glioma cells tested, and the effects were time dependent. Among these three glioma cell lines, U251MG had the most significant effect with regard to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. MTS assay showed that the proliferation rate at 72 and 96 hours after the transfection was 76.333%±5.131% (t=7.611, P=0.002) and 64.333%±5.859% (t=10.983, P<0.001), respectively. The viability rate of U251MG cells was 80.667%±2.309% (t=12.302, P<0.001) and 62.333%±2.082% (t=21.213, P<0.001) at 72 and 96 hours posttreatment, respectively. The caspase-3/7 activity of U251MG cells was 2.76 (t=−6.601, P=0.003) and 4.75 (t=−9.189, P=0.001) folds that of the mock control at 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The apoptosis rate was increased to 1.85 (t=−2.496, P=0.067) and 3.93 (t=−12.587, P<0.001) folds at 72 and 96 hours

  17. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  18. Factors Affecting Specific-Capacity Tests and their Application--A Study of Six Low-Yielding Wells in Fractured-Bedrock Aquifers in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Mining and Reclamation, evaluates factors affecting the application of specific-capacity tests in six low-yielding water wells in areas of coal mining or quarrying in Pennsylvania. Factors such as pumping rate, duration of pumping, aquifer properties, wellbore storage, and turbulent flow were assessed by theoretical analysis and by completing multiple well tests, selected to be representative of low-yielding household-supply wells in areas of active coal mining or quarrying. All six wells were completed in fractured-bedrock aquifers--five in coal-bearing shale, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and coal of Pennsylvanian and Permian age and one in limestone of Cambrian age. The wells were pumped 24 times during 2007-09 at rates from 0.57 to 14 gallons per minute during tests lasting from 22 to 240 minutes. Geophysical logging and video surveys also were completed to determine the depth, casing length, and location of water-yielding zones in each of the test wells, and seasonal water-level changes were measured during 2007-09 by continuous monitoring at each well. The tests indicated that specific-capacity values were reproducible within about ? 20 percent if the tests were completed at the same pumping rate and duration. A change in pumping duration, pumping rate, or saturated aquifer thickness can have a substantial effect on the comparability of repeated tests. The largest effect was caused by a change in aquifer thickness in well YO 1222 causing specific capacity from repeated tests to vary by a factor of about 50. An increase in the duration of pumping from 60 to 180 minutes caused as much as a 62 percent decrease in specific capacity. The effect of differing pumping rates on specific capacity depends on whether or not the larger rate causes the water level in the well to fall below a major water-yielding zone; when this

  19. Genetic aspects of arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goldbourt, U; Neufeld, H N

    1986-01-01

    This review discusses the genetic factors in the development of arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). In several studies, multivariate analysis of prospective mortality/morbidity data and angiographic findings have indicated that a family history of CHD contributed to CHD risk independently of the established risk factors. In addition, ethnic groups that differ in the prevalence and incidence of CHD also markedly differ in blood groups and protein-enzymatic markers. These or other genetic differences may affect CHD rates. Data from fraternal and identical twins, the source of some early genetic CHD findings, are reviewed. Genetic disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and transport, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, as well as other monogenic disorders are discussed. The role of apoprotein E polymorphism i other monogenic disorders are discussed. The role of apoprotein E polymorphism in determining plasma LDL variability among individuals is considered. Recombinant DNA technology, molecular cloning, and the identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms are new tools for investigators who assess DNA polymorphism. Recent advances in that domain include: DNA polymorphisms affecting blood levels of apo A-I and A-II, association of a DNA insertion on chromosome 19 with severe premature atherosclerosis, and information concerning linkage of the genes for various apolipoproteins. In addition, the evidence for a major genetic component in diabetes mellitus and research into the genetic aspects of hypertension are reviewed. The male/female ratio in pathologically and epidemiologically assessed atherosclerosis may provide clues to the role of genetics. Early structural changes in the coronary artery intima are compatible with the ethnic and gender predilection. A key question in understanding underlying mechanisms in atherosclerosis is why coronary arteries are occluded in individuals whose other arterial systems are largely unaffected. The

  20. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor that is specifically expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers affects secondary cell wall biosynthesis and deposition in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Gong, Si-Ying; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Li, Yang; Li, Wen; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cell wall (SCW) is an important industrial raw material for pulping, papermaking, construction, lumbering, textiles and potentially for biofuel production. The process of SCW thickening of cotton fibers lays down the cellulose that will constitute the bulk (up to 96%) of the fiber at maturity. In this study, a gene encoding a MYB-domain protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated as GhMYBL1. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that GhMYBL1 was specifically expressed in cotton fibers at the stage of secondary wall deposition. Further analysis indicated that this protein is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, and is targeted to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhMYBL1 in Arabidopsis affected the formation of SCW in the stem xylem of the transgenic plants. The enhanced SCW thickening also occurred in the interfascicular fibers, xylary fibers and vessels of the GhMYBL1-overexpression transgenic plants. The expression of secondary wall-associated genes, such as CesA4, CesA7, CesA8, PAL1, F5H and 4CL1, were upregulated, and consequently, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were enhanced in the GhMYBL1 transgenic plants. These data suggested that GhMYBL1 may participate in modulating the process of secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition of cotton fibers.

  1. Drought and air warming affect the species-specific levels of stress-related foliar metabolites of three oak species on acidic and calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced air temperature. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, air warming and the combination of drought plus air warming under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and air warming. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or air warming between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea. For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur. In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus air warming; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress

  2. Drought and air warming affect the species-specific levels of stress-related foliar metabolites of three oak species on acidic and calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced air temperature. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, air warming and the combination of drought plus air warming under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and air warming. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or air warming between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea. For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur. In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus air warming; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress

  3. Brain-Specific Inactivation of the Crhr1 Gene Inhibits Post-Dependent and Stress-Induced Alcohol Intake, but Does Not Affect Relapse-Like Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1NestinCre) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1NestinCre mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1NestinCre mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load. PMID:22113086

  4. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1(NestinCre) mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1(NestinCre) mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load.

  5. Substitutions at the opening of the Rubisco central solvent channel affect holoenzyme stability and CO2/O 2 specificity but not activation by Rubisco activase.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, M Gloria; Genkov, Todor; Nogueira, Ana S; Salvucci, Michael E; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the initial step of carbon metabolism in photosynthesis. The holoenzyme comprises eight large subunits, arranged as a tetramer of dimers around a central solvent channel that defines a fourfold axis of symmetry, and eight small subunits, arranged as two tetramers at the poles of the axis. The phylogenetically divergent small-subunit loops between β-strands A and B form the entrance to the solvent channel. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ile-58 from each of the four small-subunit βA-βB loops defines the minimal diameter of the channel opening. To understand the role of the central solvent channel in Rubisco function, directed mutagenesis and transformation of Chlamydomonas were employed to replace Ile-58 with Ala, Lys, Glu, Trp, or three Trp residues (I58W3) to close the entrance to the channel. The I58E, I58K, and I58W substitutions caused only small decreases in photosynthetic growth at 25 and 35 °C, whereas I58W3 had a substantial effect at both temperatures. The mutant enzymes had decreased carboxylation rates, but the I58W3 enzyme had decreases in both carboxylation and CO2/O2 specificity. The I58E, I58W, and I58W3 enzymes were inactivated at lower temperatures than wild-type Rubisco, and were degraded at slower rates under oxidative stress. However, these mutant enzymes were activated by Rubisco activase at normal rates, indicating that the structural transition required for carboxylation is not affected by altering the solvent channel opening. Structural dynamics alone may not be responsible for these distant effects on the Rubisco active site.

  6. Cigarette smoking adversely affects disease activity and disease-specific quality of life in patients with Crohn’s disease at a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Sandra M; Langenberg, Patricia; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity in Crohn’s disease (CD). Smoking may also affect the quality of life, but this has not been evaluated using validated measures over time. We assessed the relationship between smoking and disease-specific quality of life over time in a tertiary referral inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Patients and methods Retrospective cohort study from July 2004 to July 2009 in patients with CD identified from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Institutional Review Board-approved University of Maryland School of Medicine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program database. Smoking status was classified as current, former, and never. Age was categorized as <40 years, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years. Index visit disease activity and quality of life was measured with the Harvey–Bradshaw index, and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). Repeated measures linear regression was used to assess the association between smoking and quality of life over time after adjustment for confounding variables. Results A total of 608 patients were included, of whom 42% were male; 80% were Caucasian; 22% were current smokers; 24% were former smokers; and 54% were never smokers. Over time, adjusted Harvey–Bradshaw index scores declined in all patients, but current smokers had consistently higher scores. After adjustment for sex, age, and disease duration, never smokers had higher mean SIBDQ scores at index visit compared to former and current smokers (P<0.0001); all increased over time but SIBDQ scores for never smokers remained consistently highest. Conclusion Smoking has a negative impact on disease activity and quality of life in patients with CD. Prospects of improved disease activity and quality of life should be proposed as an additional incentive to encourage smoking cessation in patients with CD. PMID:27703391

  7. Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Background High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods and Findings Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors) – loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Conclusions Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains

  8. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  9. The size, shape and specificity of the sugar-binding site of the jacalin-related lectins is profoundly affected by the proteolytic cleavage of the subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Houlès Astoul, Corinne; Peumans, Willy J; van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Bourne, Yves; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Mannose-specific lectins with high sequence similarity to jacalin and the Maclura pomifera agglutinin have been isolated from species belonging to the families Moraceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Musaceae. Although these novel mannose-specific lectins are undoubtedly related to the galactose-specific Moraceae lectins there are several important differences. Apart from the obvious differences in specificity, the mannose- and galactose-specific jacalin-related lectins differ in what concerns their biosynthesis and processing, intracellular location and degree of oligomerization of the protomers. Taking into consideration that the mannose-specific lectins are widely distributed in higher plants, whereas their galactose-specific counterparts are confined to a subgroup of the Moraceae sp. one can reasonably assume that the galactose-specific Moraceae lectins are a small-side group of the main family. The major change that took place in the structure of the binding site of the diverging Moraceae lectins concerns a proteolytic cleavage close to the N-terminus of the protomer. To corroborate the impact of this change, the specificity of jacalin was re-investigated using surface plasmon resonance analysis. This approach revealed that in addition to galactose and N -acetylgalactosamine, the carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin extends to mannose, glucose, N -acetylmuramic acid and N -acetylneuraminic acid. Owing to this broad carbohydrate-binding specificity, jacalin is capable of recognizing complex glycans from plant pathogens or predators. PMID:12169094

  10. The size, shape and specificity of the sugar-binding site of the jacalin-related lectins is profoundly affected by the proteolytic cleavage of the subunits.

    PubMed

    Houlès Astoul, Corinne; Peumans, Willy J; van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Bourne, Yves; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Mannose-specific lectins with high sequence similarity to jacalin and the Maclura pomifera agglutinin have been isolated from species belonging to the families Moraceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Musaceae. Although these novel mannose-specific lectins are undoubtedly related to the galactose-specific Moraceae lectins there are several important differences. Apart from the obvious differences in specificity, the mannose- and galactose-specific jacalin-related lectins differ in what concerns their biosynthesis and processing, intracellular location and degree of oligomerization of the protomers. Taking into consideration that the mannose-specific lectins are widely distributed in higher plants, whereas their galactose-specific counterparts are confined to a subgroup of the Moraceae sp. one can reasonably assume that the galactose-specific Moraceae lectins are a small-side group of the main family. The major change that took place in the structure of the binding site of the diverging Moraceae lectins concerns a proteolytic cleavage close to the N-terminus of the protomer. To corroborate the impact of this change, the specificity of jacalin was re-investigated using surface plasmon resonance analysis. This approach revealed that in addition to galactose and N -acetylgalactosamine, the carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin extends to mannose, glucose, N -acetylmuramic acid and N -acetylneuraminic acid. Owing to this broad carbohydrate-binding specificity, jacalin is capable of recognizing complex glycans from plant pathogens or predators.

  11. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical

  12. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison of pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG measurement and critical parameters that affect assay performance.

    PubMed

    Balloch, A; Licciardi, P V; Leach, A; Nurkka, A; Tang, M L K

    2010-02-01

    Quantitation of specific IgG to polysaccharides (serotypes) of Streptococcus pneumoniae provides the basis for evaluating vaccine efficacy. Different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods are used internationally, making comparisons between laboratories difficult. We undertook an inter-laboratory comparison between two international laboratories performing serotype-specific IgG ELISAs using a panel of well-characterized serum samples: the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Pneumococcal Laboratory (Melbourne, Australia) and the Vaccine Immunology Laboratory, National Public Health Institute (Helsinki, Finland). While good agreement was found for the inter-laboratory comparison for most serotypes, differences in ELISA methodology influenced specific IgG measurement. Therefore, use of the World Health Organization (WHO)-based ELISA methods for measurement of serotype-specific IgG is reliable, accurate and provides consistent results between international laboratories.

  13. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  14. Effect of phosphorothioate modifications on the ability of GTn oligodeoxynucleotides to specifically recognize single-stranded DNA-binding proteins and to affect human cancer cellular growth.

    PubMed

    Morassutti, C; Scaggiante, B; Dapas, B; Xodo, L; Tell, G; Quadrifoglio, F

    1999-12-01

    We have previously identified phosphodiester oligonucleotides exclusively made of G and T bases, named GTn, that significantly inhibit human cancer cell growth and recognize specific nuclear single-stranded DNA binding proteins. We wished to examine the ability of the modified GTn oligonucleotides with different degrees of phosphorothioate modifications to bind specifically to the same nuclear proteins recognized by the GTn phosphodiester analogues and their cytotoxic effect on the human T-lymphoblastic CCRF-CEM cell line. We showed that the full phosphorothioate GTn oligonucleotide was neither able to specifically recognize those nuclear proteins, nor cytotoxic. In contrast, the 3'-phosphorothioate-protected GTn oligonucleotides can maintain the specific protein-binding activity. The end-modified phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were also able to elicit the dose-dependent cell growth inhibition effect, but a loss in the cytotoxic ability was observed increasing the extent of sulphur modification of the sequences. Our results indicate that phosphorothioate oligonucleotides directed at specific single-stranded DNA-binding proteins should contain a number of phosphorothioate end-linkages which should be related to the length of the sequence, in order to maintain the same biological activities exerted by their phosphodiester analogues.

  15. Geographic isolation affects inter- and intra-specific seed variability in the Astragalus tragacantha complex, as assessed by morpho-colorimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Oscar; Mattana, Efisio; Fenu, Giuseppe; Venora, Gianfranco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-02-01

    The effect of geographical isolation on the inter- and intra-specific seed variability of the Astragalus tragacantha complex was investigated by using a computer-aided imaging system. In particular, seed morphometric and colorimetric features of Astragalus balearicus, A. tegulensis, A. terraccianoi, A. thermensis and A. tragacantha were measured and the data were used to discriminate among regions of provenance, taxa and populations. Discriminant analysis of the data supports the accepted taxonomy of the group and the hypothesis that interspecific differentiation resulted from geographical isolation. The results also showed a positive correlation between the wideness of species' distribution and the levels of seed intra-specific variability.

  16. The two consecutive M substates in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin are affected specifically by the D85N and D96N residue replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimanyi, L.; Cao, Y.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The photocycle of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin contains two consecutive intermediates in which the retinal Schiff base is unprotonated; the reaction between these states, termed M1 and M2, was suggested to be the switch in the proton transport which reorients the Schiff base from D85 on the extracellular side to D96 on the cytoplasmic side (Varo and Lanyi, Biochemistry 30, 5016-5022, 1991). At pH 10 the absorption maxima of both M1 and M2 could be determined in the recombinant D96N protein. We find that M1 absorbs at 411 nm as do M1 and M2 in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin, but M2 absorbs at 404 nm. Thus, in M2 but not M1 the unprotonated Schiff base is affected by the D96N residue replacement. The connectivity of the Schiff base to D96 in the detected M2 state, but not in M1, is thereby established. On the other hand, the photostationary state which develops during illumination of D85N bacteriorhodopsin contains an M state corresponding to M1 with an absorption maximum shifted to 400 nm, suggesting that this species in turn is affected by D85. These results are consistent with the suggestion that M1 and M2 are pre-switch and post-switch states, respectively.

  17. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years.

  18. luxR homolog avhR in Agrobacterium vitis affects the development of a grape-specific necrosis and a tobacco hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Zhang, Hongsheng; Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The luxR homolog aviR in Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 was recently shown to be associated with induction of a hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco and necrosis on grape plants, indicating that the responses are regulated by quorum sensing. We now report a second luxR homolog, avhR, whose disruption (mutant M1320) results in HR-negative and reduced grape necrosis phenotypes. The deduced AvhR protein has characteristic autoinducer binding and DNA binding domains and is unique among reported functional LuxR homologs in having substitutions at highly conserved Asp70, Trp57, and Trp85 residues, which are predicted to play important roles in autoinducer binding in TraR. M1320 was fully complemented with cloned avhR. The same array of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) from F2/5, M1320, and complemented M1320 were observed; however, the signal strength from extracts of 6-day-old M1320 cultures was stronger than that of F2/5. Cultures of F2/5 amended with AHL extracts from overnight and 6-day cultures of F2/5 and M1320 were not affected in ability to cause HR or necrosis. A region of about 14 kb flanking avhR was sequenced and compared with homologous regions of A. tumefaciens C58 and Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 genomes. Gene order and homology are conserved between the species. A site-directed mutation in a putative gene that resides downstream of avhR and that has homology to genes belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporter family did not affect HR or necrosis phenotypes. It was determined that avhR and aviR are expressed independently and that neither regulates the expression of a clpA homolog in F2/5. PMID:15601702

  19. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors.

  20. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  1. Loss of the Otx2-Binding Site in the Nanog Promoter Affects the Integrity of Embryonic Stem Cell Subtypes and Specification of Inner Cell Mass-Derived Epiblast.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Dario; Omodei, Daniela; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Garofalo, Arcomaria; Savarese, Marco; Nigro, Vincenzo; Di Giovannantonio, Luca Giovanni; Mercadante, Vincenzo; Simeone, Antonio

    2016-06-21

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the inner cell mass (ICM)-derived epiblast exhibit naive pluripotency. ESC-derived epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) and the postimplantation epiblast exhibit primed pluripotency. Although core pluripotency factors are well-characterized, additional regulators, including Otx2, recently have been shown to function during the transition from naive to primed pluripotency. Here we uncover a role for Otx2 in the control of the naive pluripotent state. We analyzed Otx2-binding activity in ESCs and EpiSCs and identified Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 as direct targets. To unravel the Otx2 transcriptional network, we targeted the strongest Otx2-binding site in the Nanog promoter, finding that this site modulates the size of specific ESC-subtype compartments in cultured cells and promotes Nanog expression in vivo, predisposing ICM differentiation to epiblast. Otx2-mediated Nanog regulation thus contributes to the integrity of the ESC state and cell lineage specification in preimplantation development. PMID:27292645

  2. ZFP57 maintains the parent-of-origin-specific expression of the imprinted genes and differentially affects non-imprinted targets in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Riso, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Marco; Kukreja, Harpreet; Anvar, Zahra; Verde, Gaetano; Sparago, Angela; Acurzio, Basilia; Lad, Shraddha; Lonardo, Enza; Sankar, Aditya; Helin, Kristian; Feil, Robert; Fico, Annalisa; Angelini, Claudia; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Riccio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ZFP57 is necessary for maintaining repressive epigenetic modifications at Imprinting control regions (ICRs). In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), ZFP57 binds ICRs (ICRBS) and many other loci (non-ICRBS). To address the role of ZFP57 on all its target sites, we performed high-throughput and multi-locus analyses of inbred and hybrid mouse ESC lines carrying different gene knockouts. By using an allele-specific RNA-seq approach, we demonstrate that ZFP57 loss results in derepression of the imprinted allele of multiple genes in the imprinted clusters. We also find marked epigenetic differences between ICRBS and non-ICRBS suggesting that different cis-acting regulatory functions are repressed by ZFP57 at these two classes of target loci. Overall, these data demonstrate that ZFP57 is pivotal to maintain the allele-specific epigenetic modifications of ICRs that in turn are necessary for maintaining the imprinted expression over long distances. At non-ICRBS, ZFP57 inactivation results in acquisition of epigenetic features that are characteristic of poised enhancers, suggesting that another function of ZFP57 in early embryogenesis is to repress cis-acting regulatory elements whose activity is not yet required. PMID:27257070

  3. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  4. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  5. Human I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with KSHV LANA and affect its regulation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Shuichi; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2010-06-04

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein has been reported to interact with glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and to negatively regulate its activity, leading to stimulation of GSK-3{beta}-dependent {beta}-catenin degradation. We show here that the I-mfa domain proteins, HIC (human I-mfa domain-containing protein) and I-mfa (inhibitor of MyoD family a), interacted in vivo with LANA through their C-terminal I-mfa domains. This interaction affected the intracellular localization of HIC, inhibited the LANA-dependent transactivation of a {beta}-catenin-regulated reporter construct, and decreased the level of the LANA.GSK-3{beta} complex. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with LANA and negatively regulate LANA-mediated activation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription by inhibiting the formation of the LANA.GSK-3{beta} complex.

  6. Virus-Specific Read-Through Codon Preference Affects Infectivity of Chimeric Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Viruses Displaying a Dengue Virus Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Pak-Guan; Ooi, Aik-Seng; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2009-01-01

    A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was used to present a truncated dengue virus type 2 envelope (E) protein binding region from amino acids 379 to 423 (EB4). The EB4 gene was inserted at the terminal end of the CGMMV coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF). Read-through sequences of TMV or CGMMV, CAA-UAG-CAA-UUA, or AAA-UAG-CAA-UUA were, respectively, inserted in between the CP and the EB4 genes. The chimeric clones, pRT, pRG, and pCG+FSRTRE, were transcribed into full-length capped recombinant CGMMV transcripts. Only constructs with the wild-type CGMMV read-through sequence yielded infectious viruses following infection of host plant, muskmelon (Cucumis melo) leaves. The ratio of modified to unmodified CP for the read-through expression clone developed was also found to be approximately 1:1, higher than what has been previously reported. It was also observed that infectivity was not affected by differences in pI between the chimera and its wild counterpart. Analysis of recombinant viruses after 21-days-postinculation (dpi) revealed that deletions occurred resulting in partial reversions of the viral population to near wild type and suggesting that this would be the limiting harvest period for obtaining true to type recombinants with this construct. PMID:19325913

  7. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 specifically affects mitotic progression by regulating the basal level, distribution and stability of mitotic spindles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Yeon; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Do, Mihyang; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    RSK2, also known as RPS6KA3 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 3), is a downstream kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is important in regulating survival, transcription, growth and proliferation. However, its biological role in mitotic progression is not well understood. In this study, we examined the potential involvement of RSK2 in the regulation of mitotic progression. Interestingly, depletion of RSK2, but not RSK1, caused the accumulation of mitotic cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that mitotic duration, particularly the duration for metaphase-to-anaphase transition was prolonged in RSK2-depleted cells, suggesting activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Indeed, more BubR1 (Bub1-related kinase) was present on metaphase plate kinetochores in RSK2-depleted cells, and depletion of BubR1 abolished the mitotic accumulation caused by RSK2 depletion, confirming BubR1-dependent SAC activation. Along with the shortening of inter-kinetochore distance, these data suggested that weakening of the tension across sister kinetochores by RSK2 depletion led to the activation of SAC. To test this, we analyzed the RSK2 effects on the stability of kinetochore–microtubule interactions, and found that RSK2-depleted cells formed less kinetochore–microtubule fibers. Moreover, RSK2 depletion resulted in the decrease of basal level of microtubule as well as an irregular distribution of mitotic spindles, which might lead to observed several mitotic progression defects such as increase in unaligned chromosomes, defects in chromosome congression and a decrease in pole-to-pole distance in these cells. Taken together, our data reveal that RSK2 affects mitotic progression by regulating the distribution, basal level and the stability of mitotic spindles. PMID:27491410

  8. Deficient sucrose synthase activity in developing wood does not specifically affect cellulose biosynthesis, but causes an overall decrease in cell wall polymers.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Lorenz; Zhang, Bo; Roach, Melissa; Rende, Umut; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Burgert, Ingo; Niittylä, Totte; Sundberg, Björn

    2014-09-01

    The biosynthesis of wood in aspen (Populus) depends on the metabolism of sucrose, which is the main transported form of carbon from source tissues. The largest fraction of the wood biomass is cellulose, which is synthesized from UDP-glucose. Sucrose synthase (SUS) has been proposed previously to interact directly with cellulose synthase complexes and specifically supply UDP-glucose for cellulose biosynthesis. To investigate the role of SUS in wood biosynthesis, we characterized transgenic lines of hybrid aspen with strongly reduced SUS activity in developing wood. No dramatic growth phenotypes in glasshouse-grown trees were observed, but chemical fingerprinting with pyrolysis-GC/MS, together with micromechanical analysis, showed notable changes in chemistry and ultrastructure of the wood in the transgenic lines. Wet chemical analysis showed that the dry weight percentage composition of wood polymers was not changed significantly. However, a decrease in wood density was observed and, consequently, the content of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose was decreased per wood volume. The decrease in density was explained by a looser structure of fibre cell walls as shown by increased wall shrinkage on drying. The results show that SUS is not essential for cellulose biosynthesis, but plays a role in defining the total carbon incorporation to wood cell walls.

  9. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Onelli, E.; Ghiani, A.; Gentili, R.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Citterio, S.

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest’s and NMF Oro A’s exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A’s fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26709823

  10. A single miRNA-mRNA interaction affects the immune response in a context- and cell type-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li-Fan; Gasteiger, Georg; Yu, I-Shing; Chaudhry, Ashutosh; Hsin, Jing-Ping; Lu, Yuheng; Bos, Paula D.; Lin, Ling-Li; Zawislak, Carolyn L.; Cho, Sunglim; Sun, Joseph C.; Leslie, Christina S.; Lin, Shu-Wha; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary MicroRNA (miRNA)-dependent regulation of gene expression confers robustness to cellular phenotypes and controls responses to extracellular stimuli. Although a single miRNA can regulate expression of hundreds of target genes, it is unclear whether any of its distinct biological functions can be due to the regulation of a single target. To explore in vivo the function of a single miRNA-mRNA interaction, we mutated the 3′ UTR of a major miR-155 target SOCS1 to specifically disrupt its regulation by miR-155. We found that under physiologic conditions and during autoimmune inflammation or viral infection some immunological functions of miR-155 were fully or largely attributable to the regulation of SOCS1, whereas others could be accounted only partially or not at all by this interaction. Our data suggest that the role of a single miRNA-mRNA interaction is cell type- and biological context-dependent. PMID:26163372

  11. Up-regulation of 3'5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase in the porcine cumulus-oocyte complex affects steroidogenesis during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Maxime; Côté, Nancy; Gagnon, Marie-Claude; Richard, François J

    2008-11-01

    The 3'5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) pathway is known to influence ovarian functions, including steroidogenesis, ovulation, and granulosa cell proliferation. We show here that cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity increased in a gonadotropin-dependent manner more than 3-fold in the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) after 24 h in vitro maturation (IVM) and up to 5-fold after 48 h. Further characterization of this increase demonstrated that the activity was located primarily in cumulus cells, and was sensitive to sildenafil and zaprinast, two inhibitors specific to both type 5 and 6 PDEs. RT-PCR experiments showed that the mRNAs for cGMP-degrading PDEs 5A and 6C are present in the COC before and after 30 h IVM. Western blotting confirmed the presence of PDE 5A in the COC. Western blotting of PDE 6C revealed a significant up-regulation in the COC during IVM. Isolation and analysis of detergent-resistant membranes suggested that PDE 6C protein, along with half of the total sildenafil-sensitive cGMP-degradation activity, is associated with detergent-resistant membrane in the COC after 30 h IVM. Treatment of porcine COC with sildenafil during IVM caused a significant decrease in gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion. Together, these results constitute the first report exploring the contribution of cGMP-PDE activity in mammalian COC, supporting a functional clustering of the enzyme, and providing the first evidence of its role in steroidogenesis.

  12. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF) and Non Melting Flesh (NMF) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Onelli, E; Ghiani, A; Gentili, R; Serra, S; Musacchi, S; Citterio, S

    2015-01-01

    Melting (MF) and non melting flesh (NMF) peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26709823

  13. CNS-specific regulatory elements in brain-derived HIV-1 strains affect responses to latency-reversing agents with implications for cure strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gray, L R; Cowley, D; Welsh, C; Lu, H K; Brew, B J; Lewin, S R; Wesselingh, S L; Gorry, P R; Churchill, M J

    2016-01-01

    Latency-reversing agents (LRAs), including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are being investigated as a strategy to eliminate latency in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The effectiveness of LRAs in activating latent infection in HIV strains derived from the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. Here we show that CNS-derived HIV-1 strains possess polymorphisms within and surrounding the Sp transcription factor motifs in the long terminal repeat (LTR). These polymorphisms result in decreased ability of the transcription factor specificity protein 1 to bind CNS-derived LTRs, reducing the transcriptional activity of CNS-derived viruses. These mutations result in CNS-derived viruses being less responsive to activation by the HDACi panobinostat and romidepsin compared with lymphoid-derived viruses from the same subjects. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 strains residing in the CNS have unique transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, which impact the regulation of latency, the consideration of which is essential for the development of HIV-1 eradication strategies. PMID:26303660

  14. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  15. The Effect of Coffee and Quantity of Consumption on Specific Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: Coffee Consumption Does Not Affect Mortality.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether or not an association exists between the consumption of caffeinated coffee to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This study aimed to delineate this association using population representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Patients were included in the study if all the following criteria were met: (1) follow-up mortality data were available, (2) age of at least 45 years, and (3) reported amount of average coffee consumption. A total of 8608 patients were included, with patients stratified into the following groups of average daily coffee consumption: (1) no coffee consumption, (2) less than 1 cup, (3) 1 cup a day, (4) 2-3 cups, (5) 4-5 cups, (6) more than 6 cups a day. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values were calculated for univariate analysis to compare the prevalence of all-cause mortality, ischemia-related mortality, congestive heart failure-related mortality, and stroke-related mortality, using the no coffee consumption group as reference. These were then adjusted for confounding factors for a multivariate analysis. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between coffee consumption and mortality, although this became insignificant on multivariate analysis. Coffee consumption, thus, does not seem to impact all-cause mortality or specific cardiovascular mortality. These findings do differ from those of recently published studies. Coffee consumption of any quantity seems to be safe without any increased mortality risk. There may be some protective effects but additional data are needed to further delineate this.

  16. Chloroplast RH3 DEAD box RNA helicases in maize and Arabidopsis function in splicing of specific group II introns and affect chloroplast ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yukari; Galarneau, Erin; Watkins, Kenneth P; Barkan, Alice; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2012-07-01

    Chloroplasts in angiosperms contain at least seven nucleus-encoded members of the DEAD box RNA helicase family. Phylogenetic analysis shows that five of these plastid members (RH22, -39, -47, -50, and -58) form a single clade and that RH3 forms a clade with two mitochondrial RH proteins (PMH1 and -2) functioning in intron splicing. The function of chloroplast RH3 in maize (Zea mays; ZmRH3) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtRH3) was determined. ZmRH3 and AtRH3 are both under strong developmental control, and ZmRH3 abundance sharply peaked in the sink-source transition zone of developing maize leaves, coincident with the plastid biogenesis machinery. ZmRH3 coimmunoprecipitated with a specific set of plastid RNAs, including several group II introns, as well as pre23S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), but not 16S rRNA. Furthermore, ZmRH3 associated with 50S preribosome particles as well as nucleoids. AtRH3 null mutants are embryo lethal, whereas a weak allele (rh3-4) results in pale-green seedlings with defects in splicing of several group II introns and rRNA maturation as well as reduced levels of assembled ribosomes. These results provide strong evidence that RH3 functions in the splicing of group II introns and possibly also contributes to the assembly of the 50S ribosomal particle. Previously, we observed 5- to 10-fold up-regulation of AtRH3 in plastid Caseinolytic protease mutants. The results shown here indicate that AtRH3 up-regulation was not a direct consequence of reduced proteolysis but constituted a compensatory response at both RH3 transcript and protein levels to impaired chloroplast biogenesis; this response demonstrates that cross talk between the chloroplast and the nucleus is used to regulate RH3 levels.

  17. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Del Ponte, Emerson M; Spolti, Piérri; Ward, Todd J; Gomes, Larissa B; Nicolli, Camila P; Kuhnem, Paulo R; Silva, Cleiltan N; Tessmann, Dauri J

    2015-02-01

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (83%) of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) genotype, F. meridionale (12.8%) and F. asiaticum (0.4%) of the nivalenol (NIV) genotype, and F. cortaderiae (2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with F. meridionale and the NIV type being significantly (P<0.001) more prevalent in PR (>28%) than in RS (≤9%). Within RS, F. graminearum was overrepresented in fields below 600 m in elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (P<0.05). Species composition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy, and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P<0.001). Most strikingly, F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae of the NIV genotype accounted for the vast majority (>96%) of isolates from corn stubble, whereas F. graminearum with the 15-ADON genotype was dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which F. graminearum was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than F. meridionale from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of F. graminearum and F. meridionale isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and

  18. Escherichia coli Fis and DnaA proteins bind specifically to the nrd promoter region and affect expression of an nrd-lac fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, L B; Jacobson, B A; Fuchs, J A

    1994-01-01

    The Escherichia coli nrd operon contains the genes encoding the two subunits of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. The regulation of the nrd operon has been observed to be very complex. The specific binding of two proteins to the nrd regulatory region and expression of mutant nrd-lac fusions that do not bind these proteins are described. A partially purified protein from an E. coli cell extract was previously shown to bind to the promoter region and to regulate transcription of the nrd operon (C. K. Tuggle and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 172:1711-1718, 1990). We have purified this protein to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and identified it as the E. coli factor for inversion stimulation (Fis). Cu-phenanthroline footprinting experiments showed that Fis binds to a site centered 156 bp upstream of the start of nrd transcription. Mutants with deletion and site-directed mutations that do not bind Fis at this site have two- to threefold-lower expression of an nrd-lac fusion. The previously reported negative regulatory nature of this site (C. K. Tuggle and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 172:1711-1718, 1990) was found to be due to a change in polarity in the vectors used to construct promoter fusions. Two nine-base sequences with homology to the DnaA consensus binding sequence are located immediately upstream of the nrd putative -35 RNA polymerase binding site. Binding of DnaA to these sequences on DNA fragments containing the nrd promoter region was confirmed by in vitro Cu-phenanthroline footprinting. Footprinting experiments on fragments with each as well as both of the mutated 9-mers suggests cooperativity between the two sites in binding DnaA. Assay of in vivo expression from wild-type and DnaA box-mutated nrd promoter fragments fused to lacZ on single-copy plasmids indicates a positive effect of DnaA binding on expression of nrd. Images PMID:8288532

  19. Neuropsychiatric aspects of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2014-10-01

    Dementia affects approximately 6.5% of people over the age of 65. Whilst cognitive impairment is central to the dementia concept, neuropsychiatric symptoms are invariably present at some stage of the illness. Neuropsychiatric symptoms result in a number of negative outcomes for the individual and their caregivers and are associated with higher rates of institutionalization and mortality. A number of factors have been associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms including neurobiological changes, dementia type, and illness severity and duration. Specific patient, caregiver and environmental factors are also important. Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be broadly divided into four clusters: psychotic symptoms, mood/affective symptoms, apathy, and agitation/aggression. Neuropsychiatric symptoms tend to persist over time although differing symptom profiles exist at various stages of the illness. Assessment should take into account the presenting symptoms together with an appreciation of the myriad of likely underlying causes for the symptoms. A structured assessment/rating tool can be helpful. Management should focus on non-pharmacological measures initially with pharmacological approaches reserved for more troubling symptoms. Pharmacological approaches should target specific symptoms although the evidence-base for pharmacological management is quite modest. Any medication trial should include an adequate appreciation of the risk-benefit profile in individual patients and discussion of these with both the individual and their caregiver.

  20. Perceptual aspects of singing.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J

    1994-06-01

    The relations between acoustic and perceived characteristics of vowel sounds are demonstrated with respect to timbre, loudness, pitch, and expressive time patterns. The conditions for perceiving an ensemble of sine tones as one tone or several tones are reviewed. There are two aspects of timbre of voice sounds: vowel quality and voice quality. Although vowel quality depends mainly on the frequencies of the lowest two formants. In particular, the center frequency of the so-called singer's formant seems perceptually relevant. Vocal loudness, generally assumed to correspond closely to the sound pressure level, depends rather on the amplitude balance between the lower and the higher spectrum partials. The perceived pitch corresponds to the fundamental frequency, or for vibrato tones, the mean of this frequency. In rapid passages, such as coloratura singing, special patterns are used. Pitch and duration differences are categorically perceived in music. This means that small variations in tuning or duration do not affect the musical interval and the note value perceived. Categorical perception is used extensively in music performance for the purpose of musical expression because without violating the score, the singer may sharpen or flatten and lengthen or shorten the tones, thereby creating musical expression. PMID:8061767

  1. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction.

  2. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait--extraversion--has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual--both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction. PMID:26161562

  3. Comparing Happiness and Hypomania Risk: A Study of Extraversion and Neuroticism Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Gruber, June; Cunningham, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has long been considered a hallmark of subjective happiness. Yet, high levels of positive affect have also been linked with hypomania risk: a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics that constitute a dispositional risk for future episodes of hypomania and mania. At a personality level, two powerful predictors of affective experience are extraversion and neuroticism: extraversion has been linked to positive affect, and neuroticism to negative affect. As such, a single personality trait – extraversion – has been linked to both beneficial and harmful outcomes associated with positivity. It is clear that positive affect, in different forms, has divergent consequences for well-being, but previous research has struggled to articulate the nature of these differences. We suggest that the relationship between affect and well-being needs to be situated within the psychological context of the individual – both in terms of more specific forms of extraversion and neuroticism, but also in terms of interactions among personality aspects. Consistent with this idea, we found that two aspects of extraversion (enthusiasm and assertiveness) differentially predicted subjective happiness from hypomania risk and two aspects of neuroticism (volatility and withdrawal) interacted to predict hypomania risk: the highest levels of hypomania risk were associated with the combination of high volatility and low withdrawal. These findings underscore the importance of examining personality at the right level of resolution to understand well-being and dysfunction. PMID:26161562

  4. NUCLEAR PORE ANCHOR, the Arabidopsis Homolog of Tpr/Mlp1/Mlp2/Megator, Is Involved in mRNA Export and SUMO Homeostasis and Affects Diverse Aspects of Plant Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianfeng Morgan; Rose, Annkatrin; Muthuswamy, Sivaramakrishnan; Jeong, Sun Yong; Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Zhao, Qiao; Meier, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate Tpr and its yeast homologs Mlp1/Mlp2, long coiled-coil proteins of nuclear pore inner basket filaments, are involved in mRNA export, telomere organization, spindle pole assembly, and unspliced RNA retention. We identified Arabidopsis thaliana NUCLEAR PORE ANCHOR (NUA) encoding a 237-kD protein with similarity to Tpr. NUA is located at the inner surface of the nuclear envelope in interphase and in the vicinity of the spindle in prometaphase. Four T-DNA insertion lines were characterized, which comprise an allelic series of increasing severity for several correlating phenotypes, such as early flowering under short days and long days, increased abundance of SUMO conjugates, altered expression of several flowering regulators, and nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA. nua mutants phenocopy mutants of EARLY IN SHORT DAYS4 (ESD4), an Arabidopsis SUMO protease concentrated at the nuclear periphery. nua esd4 double mutants resemble nua and esd4 single mutants, suggesting that the two proteins act in the same pathway or complex, supported by yeast two-hybrid interaction. Our data indicate that NUA is a component of nuclear pore-associated steps of sumoylation and mRNA export in plants and that defects in these processes affect the signaling events of flowering time regulation and additional developmental processes. PMID:17513499

  5. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  6. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  7. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  8. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  9. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  10. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  11. Novel animal models of affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Redei, E E; Ahmadiyeh, N; Baum, A E; Sasso, D A; Slone, J L; Solberg, L C; Will, C C; Volenec, A

    2001-01-01

    Is there an appropriate animal model for human affective disorders? The traditional difficulties in accepting animal models for psychopathology stem from the argument that there is no evidence for concluding that what occurs in the brain of the animal is equivalent to what occurs in the brain of a human. However, if one models any or some core aspects of affective disorder, this model can become an invaluable tool in the analysis of the multitude of causes, genetic, environmental, or pharmacological, that can bring about symptoms homologous to those of patients with affective disorders. Animal models can also allow the study of the mechanisms of specific behaviors, their pathophysiology, and can aid in developing and predicting therapeutic responses to pharmacologic agents. Although animals exhibit complex and varied social and emotional behaviors for which well-validated and standardized measures exist, an understanding that a precise replica of human affective disorders cannot be expected in a single animal model is crucial. Instead, a good animal model of a human disorder should fulfill as many of the four main criteria as possible: (1) strong behavioral similarities, (2) common cause, (3) similar pathophysiology, and (4) common treatment. An animal model fulfilling any or most of these criteria can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of the specific aspect of the model that is homologous to the human disorder. A wide range of animal models of affective disorders, primarily depression, has been developed to date. They include models in which "depressive behavior" is the result of genetic selection or manipulation, environmental stressors during development or in adulthood, or pharmacologic treatments. The assessment of these animal models is based either on behavioral tests measuring traits that are homologous to symptoms of the human disorder they model, or behavioral tests responsive to appropriate pharmacologic treatments. The goal of this review is to focus

  12. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  13. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  14. Tularaemia: clinical aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Typically, human and animal infections are caused by F tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) strains mainly in Canada and USA, and F tularensis subspecies holarctica (type B) strains throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe. In the past, the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of tularaemia reported in the English medical literature were mainly those that had been reported in the USA, where the disease was first described. Tularaemia has markedly changed in the past decade, and a large number of studies have provided novel data for the disease characteristics in Europe. In this Review we aim to emphasise the specific and variable aspects of tularaemia in different European countries. In particular, two natural lifecycles of F tularensis have been described in this continent, although not fully characterised, which are associated with different modes of transmission, clinical features, and public health burdens of tularaemia.

  15. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  16. Aspects of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmann, Stephen

    1974-01-01

    Several aspects of language--code, relation of structure to meaning, creativity, capacity to influence thought--are discussed, as well as reasons for including foreign language study in school and university. (RM)

  17. Immunological Aspects of Bagassosis

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, C. E. D.; Holford-Strevens, Valerie

    1968-01-01

    Immunological investigations of 37 patients with bagassosis, 92 unaffected bagasse workers, and 150 non-exposed controls showed that precipitins against extracts of bagasse could be demonstrated just as frequently in the unaffected and the non-exposed as in the affected. However, there was a general tendency for the precipitin levels of patients with bagassosis to fall slightly with increasing time after recovery from the clinical episode. The presence of the precipitins so far demonstrated in the sera of bagasse workers therefore appears to be of no clinical significance. Inhalation tests with an extract of bagasse, in a group of 16 patients who had had bagassosis, produced late, systemic reactions in 15 similar to those described in farmer's lung and bird fancier's lung, so supporting the hypothesis that a similar type of hypersensitivity is the cause of bagassosis. Inhalation of extracts of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris also produced typical, late reactions in 12 out of 15 subjects, whereas extracts of Micropolyspora faeni failed to produce reactions in any of 16 subjects. The specific reactions to inhalation tests with Thermoactinomyces vulgaris were typical of a precipitin-mediated type of hypersensitivity reaction and support the view that this actinomycete may be important in the aetiology of bagassosis. PMID:4972748

  18. [Psychotherapeutic aspects in forensic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Schorsch, E

    1983-09-01

    Splitting up of psychiatry into a forensic and a psychotherapeutic branch is unjustified as far as the scope of these branches is concerned, and entails a disadvantage at the expense of the delinquents, since nobody feels he is therapeutically responsible. Therapeutic aspects in expertising are worked out, and the specific difficulties and conflicts between forensic and therapeutic problems are demonstrated. Anyone who believes that therapeutic identity cannot be reconciled with legislation concerned with culpability, suffers from the prejudice induced by a "blind spot" in his mental eye.

  19. Medical aspects of scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Suke, R

    1985-11-01

    Scuba divers may encounter dangerous levels of stress, due to increased ambient pressures and hostile environments. Divers therefore require a high level of mental and cardiorespiratory fitness. They must be informed of specific contraindications to diving. Family physicians with a basic knowledge of the medical aspects of scuba diving are in a very good position to examine and advise sports divers. Screening mainly involves an assessment of emotional stability and cardiorespiratory fitness, and an ear, nose and throat examination. Common problems suffered by scuba divers are discussed, as are temporary and permanent contraindications to diving.

  20. Medical Aspects of Scuba Diving

    PubMed Central

    Suke, Ralph

    1985-01-01

    Scuba divers may encounter dangerous levels of stress, due to increased ambient pressures and hostile environments. Divers therefore require a high level of mental and cardiorespiratory fitness. They must be informed of specific contraindications to diving. Family physicians with a basic knowledge of the medical aspects of scuba diving are in a very good position to examine and advise sports divers. Screening mainly involves an assessment of emotional stability and cardiorespiratory fitness, and an ear, nose and throat examination. Common problems suffered by scuba divers are discussed, as are temporary and permanent contraindications to diving. PMID:21274131

  1. The Position of His-Tag in Recombinant OspC and Application of Various Adjuvants Affects the Intensity and Quality of Specific Antibody Response after Immunization of Experimental Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Michal; Masek, Josef; Barkocziova, Lucia; Turanek Knotigova, Pavlina; Kulich, Pavel; Plockova, Jana; Lukac, Robert; Bartheldyova, Eliska; Koudelka, Stepan; Chaloupkova, Radka; Sebela, Marek; Zyka, Daniel; Droz, Ladislav; Effenberg, Roman; Ledvina, Miroslav; Miller, Andrew D.; Turanek, Jaroslav; Raska, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi-caused infection, if not recognized and appropriately treated by antibiotics, may lead to chronic complications, thus stressing the need for protective vaccine development. The immune protection is mediated by phagocytic cells and by Borrelia-specific complement-activating antibodies, associated with the Th1 immune response. Surface antigen OspC is involved in Borrelia spreading through the host body. Previously we reported that recombinant histidine tagged (His-tag) OspC (rOspC) could be attached onto liposome surfaces by metallochelation. Here we report that levels of OspC-specific antibodies vary substantially depending upon whether rOspC possesses an N' or C' terminal His-tag. This is the case in mice immunized: (a) with rOspC proteoliposomes containing adjuvants MPLA or non-pyrogenic MDP analogue MT06; (b) with free rOspC and Montanide PET GEL A; (c) with free rOspC and alum; or (d) with adjuvant-free rOspC. Stronger responses are noted with all N'-terminal His-tag rOspC formulations. OspC-specific Th1-type antibodies predominate post-immunization with rOspC proteoliposomes formulated with MPLA or MT06 adjuvants. Further analyses confirmed that the structural features of soluble N' and C' terminal His-tag rOspC and respective rOspC proteoliposomes are similar including their thermal stabilities at physiological temperatures. On the other hand, a change in the position of the rOspC His-tag from N' to C' terminal appears to affect substantially the immunogenicity of rOspC arguably due to steric hindrance of OspC epitopes by the C' terminal His-tag itself and not due to differences in overall conformations induced by changes in the His-tag position in rOspC variants. PMID:26848589

  2. The Position of His-Tag in Recombinant OspC and Application of Various Adjuvants Affects the Intensity and Quality of Specific Antibody Response after Immunization of Experimental Mice.

    PubMed

    Krupka, Michal; Masek, Josef; Barkocziova, Lucia; Turanek Knotigova, Pavlina; Kulich, Pavel; Plockova, Jana; Lukac, Robert; Bartheldyova, Eliska; Koudelka, Stepan; Chaloupkova, Radka; Sebela, Marek; Zyka, Daniel; Droz, Ladislav; Effenberg, Roman; Ledvina, Miroslav; Miller, Andrew D; Turanek, Jaroslav; Raska, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi-caused infection, if not recognized and appropriately treated by antibiotics, may lead to chronic complications, thus stressing the need for protective vaccine development. The immune protection is mediated by phagocytic cells and by Borrelia-specific complement-activating antibodies, associated with the Th1 immune response. Surface antigen OspC is involved in Borrelia spreading through the host body. Previously we reported that recombinant histidine tagged (His-tag) OspC (rOspC) could be attached onto liposome surfaces by metallochelation. Here we report that levels of OspC-specific antibodies vary substantially depending upon whether rOspC possesses an N' or C' terminal His-tag. This is the case in mice immunized: (a) with rOspC proteoliposomes containing adjuvants MPLA or non-pyrogenic MDP analogue MT06; (b) with free rOspC and Montanide PET GEL A; (c) with free rOspC and alum; or (d) with adjuvant-free rOspC. Stronger responses are noted with all N'-terminal His-tag rOspC formulations. OspC-specific Th1-type antibodies predominate post-immunization with rOspC proteoliposomes formulated with MPLA or MT06 adjuvants. Further analyses confirmed that the structural features of soluble N' and C' terminal His-tag rOspC and respective rOspC proteoliposomes are similar including their thermal stabilities at physiological temperatures. On the other hand, a change in the position of the rOspC His-tag from N' to C' terminal appears to affect substantially the immunogenicity of rOspC arguably due to steric hindrance of OspC epitopes by the C' terminal His-tag itself and not due to differences in overall conformations induced by changes in the His-tag position in rOspC variants.

  3. Trisomy 12 is seen within a specific subtype of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease affecting the peripheral blood/bone marrow and co-segregates with elevated expression of CD11a.

    PubMed

    Su'ut, L; O'Connor, S J; Richards, S J; Jones, R A; Roberts, B E; Davies, F E; Fegan, C D; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J

    1998-04-01

    In order to delineate the specific morphological and immunophenotypic features of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with trisomy 12, 172 sequential unselected cases of CD19+CD5+ B-cell disorders, primarily affecting the peripheral blood and bone marrow, were studied. Trisomy 12 was found in 24 cases (13.9%), with all cases morphologically classified as either CLL-PL or CLL-mixed by FAB criteria. Trisomy 12 was not found in any cases of typical CLL. Trisomy 12 cases demonstrated a significant higher expression of CD11a (P<0.0001) and CD20 (P<0.0006) when compared to cases with the equivalent morphology and immunophenotype, but without the chromosomal abnormality. Trisomy 12 cases also demonstrated a higher frequency of FMC7, CD38 expression and moderate to strong surface immunoglobulin staining. However, no correlation was detected between the percentages of trisomy 12 cells and cells expressing CD11a, CD38, FMC7 or sIg mean fluorescent intensity. Cells from trisomy 12 positive cases were sorted according to their CD11a expression using fluorescent activated cell sorting. There was a significant increase in the percentage of trisomy 12 cells within the CD11a+ sorted fraction compared to the unsorted population (P < 0.05), implying that trisomy 12 is associated with increased expression of CD11a. With the highly specific morphological and immunophenotypic features demonstrated by trisomy 12 cases in this study, it is highly likely that these cases constitute a specific group of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

  4. The Position of His-Tag in Recombinant OspC and Application of Various Adjuvants Affects the Intensity and Quality of Specific Antibody Response after Immunization of Experimental Mice.

    PubMed

    Krupka, Michal; Masek, Josef; Barkocziova, Lucia; Turanek Knotigova, Pavlina; Kulich, Pavel; Plockova, Jana; Lukac, Robert; Bartheldyova, Eliska; Koudelka, Stepan; Chaloupkova, Radka; Sebela, Marek; Zyka, Daniel; Droz, Ladislav; Effenberg, Roman; Ledvina, Miroslav; Miller, Andrew D; Turanek, Jaroslav; Raska, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi-caused infection, if not recognized and appropriately treated by antibiotics, may lead to chronic complications, thus stressing the need for protective vaccine development. The immune protection is mediated by phagocytic cells and by Borrelia-specific complement-activating antibodies, associated with the Th1 immune response. Surface antigen OspC is involved in Borrelia spreading through the host body. Previously we reported that recombinant histidine tagged (His-tag) OspC (rOspC) could be attached onto liposome surfaces by metallochelation. Here we report that levels of OspC-specific antibodies vary substantially depending upon whether rOspC possesses an N' or C' terminal His-tag. This is the case in mice immunized: (a) with rOspC proteoliposomes containing adjuvants MPLA or non-pyrogenic MDP analogue MT06; (b) with free rOspC and Montanide PET GEL A; (c) with free rOspC and alum; or (d) with adjuvant-free rOspC. Stronger responses are noted with all N'-terminal His-tag rOspC formulations. OspC-specific Th1-type antibodies predominate post-immunization with rOspC proteoliposomes formulated with MPLA or MT06 adjuvants. Further analyses confirmed that the structural features of soluble N' and C' terminal His-tag rOspC and respective rOspC proteoliposomes are similar including their thermal stabilities at physiological temperatures. On the other hand, a change in the position of the rOspC His-tag from N' to C' terminal appears to affect substantially the immunogenicity of rOspC arguably due to steric hindrance of OspC epitopes by the C' terminal His-tag itself and not due to differences in overall conformations induced by changes in the His-tag position in rOspC variants. PMID:26848589

  5. Psychopathological aspects of the toxic oil syndrome catastrophe.

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, J J; Soria, J; Cañas, F; Rodriguez-Gamazo, M

    1985-10-01

    In May 1981 a new disease caused by widespread food-poisoning (probably with adulterated rape-seed oil) appeared in Spain. More than 20000 people were affected, and about 350 patients have died. The clinical syndrome consisted of pulmonary, neuromuscular and systemic symptoms, which evolved to produce mild or severe physical disabilities. Although the disease is not primarily a psychiatric condition, more than 6000 TOS patients have been referred to a psychiatrist: these patients show a well-defined 'reactive disaster syndrome', vulnerability being associated with female sex, low income and class, and a personal history of 'nervous' disorders. The enormous public repercussions of the disease and the specific administrative measures it provoked are discussed and evaluated. This unique experience of a specific disaster can contribute to our knowledge of the psychological and psychiatric aspects of disasters in general; and it suggests that teams of psychologists and psychiatrists should play a significant role in managing the effects of major catastrophes. PMID:4075022

  6. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  7. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  8. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  9. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

  10. Specific sequences commonly found in the V3 domain of HIV-1 subtype C isolates affect the overall conformation of native Env and induce a neutralization-resistant phenotype independent of V1/V2 masking.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Aidy; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Lai, Zhong; Honnen, William; Zingman, Barry S; Sarlo, Julie; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Robinson, James E; Pinter, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Primary HIV-1 isolates are relatively resistant to neutralization by antibodies commonly induced after infection or vaccination. This is generally attributed to masking of sensitive epitopes by the V1/V2 domain and/or glycans situated at various positions in Env. Here we identified a novel masking effect mediated by subtype C-specific V3 sequences that contributes to the V1/V2-independent and glycan-independent neutralization resistance of chimeric and primary Envs to antibodies directed against multiple neutralization domains. Positions at several conserved charged and hydrophobic sites in the V3 crown and stem were also shown to affect neutralization phenotype. These results indicated that substitutions typically present in subtype C and related V3 sequences influence the overall conformation of native Env in a way that occludes multiple neutralization targets located both within and outside of the V3 domain, and may reflect an alternative mechanism for neutralization resistance that is particularly active in subtype C and related isolates.

  11. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  12. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  13. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  14. [Special aspects of breast cancer surgery in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Polgár, Csaba; Kovács, Eszter; Bartal, Alexandra; Rubovszky, Gábor; Gulyás, Gusztáv

    2014-06-15

    Due to the aging population of Western countries and the high-quality health care system, breast cancer in the elderly generally affects women of good or satisfactory performance status pursuing active lifestyle. Over the last decade, it became evident that, in contrast to previous dogmas, age alone cannot be the contraindication to standard oncological treatment, and adequate multidisciplinary therapy aiming full recovery rather than compromise treatment is required. A number of specific aspects needs to be taken into account regarding surgery, such as life expectancy, co-morbidities, individual mobility, mental and emotional status as well as family background, which may result in changes to the individual treatment plan. Objective evaluation of the above mentioned parameters necessitates a close co-operation of professions. Interestingly, the evidence-based protocols of modern oncology often originate from the generalizations of results from clinical trials representing younger population, due to the typical under representation of elderly patients in clinical studies. Clinical trials should be extended to elderly patients as well or should specifically aim this patient population. The authors of the present paper review the special oncological and reconstructive surgical aspects of breast cancer in the elderly, such as breast conserving surgery versus mastectomia, sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymphadenectomy or the omission of surgery in axillary staging, and questions regarding implant based and autologous reconstructive techniques.

  15. [Special aspects of breast cancer surgery in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Polgár, Csaba; Kovács, Eszter; Bartal, Alexandra; Rubovszky, Gábor; Gulyás, Gusztáv

    2014-06-15

    Due to the aging population of Western countries and the high-quality health care system, breast cancer in the elderly generally affects women of good or satisfactory performance status pursuing active lifestyle. Over the last decade, it became evident that, in contrast to previous dogmas, age alone cannot be the contraindication to standard oncological treatment, and adequate multidisciplinary therapy aiming full recovery rather than compromise treatment is required. A number of specific aspects needs to be taken into account regarding surgery, such as life expectancy, co-morbidities, individual mobility, mental and emotional status as well as family background, which may result in changes to the individual treatment plan. Objective evaluation of the above mentioned parameters necessitates a close co-operation of professions. Interestingly, the evidence-based protocols of modern oncology often originate from the generalizations of results from clinical trials representing younger population, due to the typical under representation of elderly patients in clinical studies. Clinical trials should be extended to elderly patients as well or should specifically aim this patient population. The authors of the present paper review the special oncological and reconstructive surgical aspects of breast cancer in the elderly, such as breast conserving surgery versus mastectomia, sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymphadenectomy or the omission of surgery in axillary staging, and questions regarding implant based and autologous reconstructive techniques. PMID:24918175

  16. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  18. Specific Aspects of Breast Cancer Therapy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, and its incidence increases with age. The average age at diagnosis is 61 years, and the majority of deaths occurs after the age of 65 years. Optimal approach to elderly women with breast cancer is still a major challenge. Elderly patients with cancer should have at least a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially treatable problems not always adequately evaluated by the oncologists. Therapeutic nihilism should be avoided and effective treatment provided, unless there are compelling reasons against it. Sharing the care for the patient with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail elderly patients. PMID:27807536

  19. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. PMID:27681649

  20. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells.

  1. Developmental Aspects of English Segment Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.

    The experiment reported here attempted to investigate the nature of both intrinsic, unlearned temporal parameters as well as learned, language-specific durational properties in the speech of young children. Developmental aspects of several temporal parameters were investigated in the speech of ten 2 1/2 to 3-year-old and ten 4 to 4 1/2-year-old…

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  3. [Modern psychosomatic aspects of dermatology].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Duran, V; Poljacki, M; Misić-Pavkov, G; Matović, L; Subotić, M; Golub, R

    1994-01-01

    Concerning their origin most diseases are multifactorial and that goes for skin diseases too. Emphasizing just one must not exclude further research and other aspects of etiopathogenetic mechanisms. It has been known for along time that psychological factors have a certain influence on the start, aggravation and maintenance on skin changes and that cosmetic defects of this kind disturb the psychological peace of the sick person and his capacity of establishing satisfactory social relations. Psychosomatic approach in dermatology cannot be reduced to investigation of specific etiology in the field of psyche without physical or social spheres. It unites all of them and in that way the old question what cause and what the consequence is has no importance, because there is no time or distance limit among them. They act simultaneously, holistically. PMID:7739438

  4. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  5. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  6. Theoretical aspects of immunity.

    PubMed

    Deem, Michael W; Hejazi, Pooya

    2010-01-01

    The immune system recognizes a myriad of invading pathogens and their toxic products. It does so with a finite repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors. We here describe theories that quantify the dynamics of the immune system. We describe how the immune system recognizes antigens by searching the large space of receptor molecules. We consider in some detail the theories that quantify the immune response to influenza and dengue fever. We review theoretical descriptions of the complementary evolution of pathogens that occurs in response to immune system pressure. Methods including bioinformatics, molecular simulation, random energy models, and quantum field theory contribute to a theoretical understanding of aspects of immunity.

  7. [The physiotherapic aspect of omeral epicondilitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Marenghi, P; Tella, G C

    1976-01-01

    The Authors describe history, etiopatogenesis, clinic, therapy of omeral epicondilitis, very frequent affection. Physiotherapic aspects are studied by different methods. The indications are different compared to clinical aspect, pain modality, relapse eventuality. They conclude with personal considerations based on what observed in Orthopedic Clinica of Parma University.

  8. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  9. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  10. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  11. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  12. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  13. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  14. Psychosurgery in the modern era: therapeutic and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Z H

    1992-01-01

    Brain operations for psychiatric illness were in the past the centre of public controversy. Fear of untoward side-effects and an exaggerated use of the procedure including treatment of societal aspects of the disease process caused a virtual cessation of psychosurgical operations. With the introduction of techniques that could accurately lesion specific areas in the brain, especially in the limbic system, psychosurgical procedures were revived. Psychiatric syndromes, such as obsessive-compulsive affective disorders, were shown to have benefited from such intervention, without giving rise to untoward side-effects. Given societal supervision it is appropriate to reconsider the use of psychosurgery in well-defined clinical entities of mental disease that do not respond to alternative therapy.

  15. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  16. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  17. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  18. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  19. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  20. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  1. Nutritional Aspects of Treatment in Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    SOLTANI, Danesh; GHAFFAR POUR, Majid; TAFAKHORI, Abbas; SARRAF, Payam; BITARAFAN, Sama

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by interruption of normal neuronal functions that is manifested by behavioral disorders, changing of awareness level, and presence of some sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms or signs. It is resulted from many different causes. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to manage epileptic attacks. Some of them change metabolism and absorption of many nutrients. Therefore, epileptic patients may be in higher risk of nutrient deficiency and its unwelcome effects. In the present paper, we intend to review the relationship between nutrition and epilepsy in two aspects. In one aspect we discuss the nutritional status in epileptic patients, the causes of nutritional deficiencies and the way of compensation of the nutrient deficiencies. It will guide these patients to have a healthy life. In another aspect we explain the role of some nutrients and specific diets in management of epileptic attacks. It can help to better control of epileptic attacks in these patients. PMID:27375750

  2. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  3. Chemical Aspects of Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfman, Murry

    1982-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease are treated/prevented by procedures utilizing chemical expertise. Procedures and suggestions on how they might be incorporated into the high school chemistry curriculum are described. Specific topics discussed include dental caries, fluoride, diet, tooth decay prevention, silver amalgan,…

  4. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  5. Applied aspects of chronoergohygiene.

    PubMed

    Gaffuri, E; Costa, G

    1986-01-01

    Chronoergohygiene defines a field of study set on optimizing the work timing compared to the desiderata of human physiology in order to improve the working conditions. Production systems follow their own laws with a timing resulting from economic, technological and natural factors; this timing could contrast with che chronological variables of the person 'involved'. Important aspects to be considered in this regard concern: a energy expense and nutrition, in relation to the mechanization and automation of the working tasks, sociocultural models, individual behaviors in eating habits; b. work performance, with particular reference to the modifications during the life-span and the rhythmic variations in the circadian period; c. toxicologic risks, considering problems of chronokinetics of the toxic agent and of 'chronoesthesia' of the body functions and apparatuses; d. work and social organization, with special reference to shift work, work pace and commuting. The research for a dynamic evaluation of the human-machine interaction in time and into forms of chronological compatibility between man and work organization should optimize industrial hygiene.

  6. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  7. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  8. Stability Characteristics of Low Reynolds Number, Low Aspect Ratio Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Matthew; Mohseni, Kamran

    2010-11-01

    The recent interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) has led to the development of many different aircraft; however, little progress has been made in understanding the physics of MAV flow. MAVs aerodynamics is affected by low Reynolds number flow and low aspect ratios. As a result nonlinear effects due to tip vortices are quite important. We have developed a new experimental setup for measuring stability derivatives in a small wind tunnel. Using a four degree of freedom actuation system, a model can be placed in the test section and maneuvered in such a way to isolate the flow components responsible for creating stability derivatives. Accurate measurements of the aerodynamic loading can then be used to compute these values. Initial testing was conducted primarily on a series of flat plates of different aspect ratios. In addition, the CU MAV was tested as a specific case study. Test results indicate that some of the cross coupled stability derivatives, ignored for larger aircrafts, are on the same order of magnitude as standard derivatives and thus can not be ignored in the derivation of the linear equations of motion for a micro aerial vehicle. As a result, a more general set of equations of motion are derived based upon experimentally obtained stability derivatives.

  9. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Serge; Liberzon, Israel; Morilak, David; Ressler, Kerry

    2011-09-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects.

  10. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Serge; Liberzon, Israel; Morilak, David; Ressler, Kerry

    2011-09-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  11. Perinatal aspects of haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Economou, Marina; Banov, Laura; Ljung, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    Haemophilia is an X-linked recessive genetic disease of haemostasis. Women carriers may present with a bleeding tendency similar to milder forms of the disease. Haemophilic newborns present risk factors and patterns of bleeding that are challenging. Identification of carriers and genetic counselling before conception is considered optimal to help decide on available conception options and during pregnancy to help minimise bleeding risks for both carrier mother and affected baby. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is attractive to many couples at risk of having a child with haemophilia and relevant technology is becoming more available although it has both practical and ethical limitations. Pregnancy in carriers should be managed by a multidisciplinary team in a comprehensive treatment centre. The optimal mode of delivery for carriers expecting a baby known to have or being at risk of haemophilia is an issue of great debate. The general consensus among authors is avoidance of instrumental delivery, foetal scalp electrodes and blood sampling in pregnancies at risk of carrying an affected foetus, as well as early recourse to Caesarean section as guided by obstetric indications. Intracranial haemorrhage, although infrequent, is one the most devastating types of bleeding in haemophilic newborns and can occur regardless of the mode of delivery or the severity of haemophilia. Early screening is proposed for all infants with severe or moderate haemophilia who have had traumatic delivery and/or have evidence of extracranial haemorrhage. Women with postpartum haemorrhage should have a bleeding work-up. PMID:24957104

  12. Tense-Aspect Processing in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ho Leung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a language processing perspective on the study of second language acquisition (SLA) of tense and aspect. Of special interest are the universal vis-a-vis language-specific dimensions of temporal and aspectual semantics involved. According to the Aspect Hypothesis (AH, e.g. Andersen & Shirai, 1994), the initial…

  13. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  14. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p < 0.01). When MMPI results are considered, female patients of this study could be described as egocentric, childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  15. Safety aspects related to unmanned platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses some safety aspects related to unmanned platforms. The discussion is based on a specific project, but the aspects are of general character and should be of interest for similar situations. Based on frame conditions for the project, an event analysis is performed. Results from the event analysis are used to define scenarios that in turn is the basis for specification of necessary emergency preparedness means and some operational conditions. It turned out that for this particular platform there are four different kinds of operational phases which require different levels of emergency preparedness means. The phases are: Unmanned phase, maintenance phase; drilling phase; well work-over phase. Differentiating the effort of safety systems among these four phases, gave rise to reduced cost--still satisfying the acceptance criteria defined.

  16. [Urogenital tuberculosis. Diagnostic aspects].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Hafiani, M; Debbagh, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1995-01-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis still represents a major urologic problem in the northern part of Africa, and it is a serious disease because its diagnosis is usually late. Furthermore, the affection is frequently bilateral, which may cause the renal failure. 86 cases of urogenital tuberculosis have been reviewed. Our patients were young adults (average age: 34 year old). Cystitis is the most frequent sign (74%), hematuria, lumbar pain, genital signs and nephrologic signs are not rare. Urine was negative in 46 patients, and amicrobial leucocyturia was present in 24 cases. Diagnosis relies on a range of signs, especially intravenous pyelography that has an important place. Endoscopic biopsy did confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis in 12 patients. Generally, definitive diagnosis was based on the histologic study of the operative specimen. PMID:8558041

  17. Investigation of Language and Motor skills in Serbian Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vukovic, Irena; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is usually defined as a developmental language disorder which does not result from a hearing loss, autism, neurological and emotional difficulties, severe social deprivation, low non-verbal abilities. Children affected with SLI typically have difficulties with the acquisition of different aspects of language and…

  18. Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC): theory and basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a versatile analytical tool for determining specific interactions between biomolecules and is particularly useful in the field of glycobiology. This article presents its basic aspects, merits, and theory. PMID:25117240

  19. Technical aspects of MR perfusion.

    PubMed

    Sourbron, Steven

    2010-12-01

    The most common methods for measuring perfusion with MRI are arterial spin labelling (ASL), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI), and T(1)-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). This review focuses on the latter approach, which is by far the most common in the body and produces measures of capillary permeability as well. The aim is to present a concise but complete overview of the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI data acquisition and analysis. For details the reader is referred to the references. The presentation of the topic is essentially generic and focuses on technical aspects that are common to all DCE-MRI measurements. For organ-specific problems and illustrations, we refer to the other papers in this issue. In Section 1 "Theory" the basic quantities are defined, and the physical mechanisms are presented that provide a relation between the hemodynamic parameters and the DCE-MRI signal. Section 2 "Data acquisition" discusses the issues involved in the design of an optimal measurement protocol. Section 3 "Data analysis" summarizes the steps that need to be taken to determine the hemodynamic parameters from the measured data. PMID:20363574

  20. Aspects Psychosociaux de la Toxicomanie Juvenile (Psychosocial Aspects of the Juvenile Addict).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Yolande; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the psychosocial aspects of drug addiction in youth, with specific reference to youth in Quebec, Canada. It notes trends in drug use and discusses three factors in drug usage: availability of the drug, the environment in which the drug use occurs, and the personality of the adolescent. (JDD)

  1. Review of biomedical aspects of CB masks and their relationship to military performance. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Muza, S.R.

    1986-11-01

    This review describes the most important factors affecting military work performance while wearing a CB mask: (1) the additional inspiratory and expiratory breathing resistance; (2) increased external dead space; (3) thermal stress of the mask and hood; (4) restriction of functional vision; (5) hindrance of speech transmission and reception; (6) weight, size, and pressure on the face by the CB mask; (7) claustrophobic reactions, and (8) sleep loss and lack of nutrient intake due to long-term wear. In assessing the biomedical aspects of these factors, rather than making comparisons between specific models of CB masks, the review addresses these factors as they apply to CB masks in general.

  2. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  3. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  4. Saving lives in road traffic—ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion

  5. Class II-restricted T cell responses in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. III. Failure of neuroantigen-specific immune tolerance to affect the clinical course of demyelination.

    PubMed

    Miller, S D; Gerety, S J; Kennedy, M K; Peterson, J D; Trotter, J L; Tuohy, V K; Waltenbaugh, C; Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1990-01-01

    Intracerebral inoculation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) into susceptible mouse strains produces a chronic demyelinating disease in which mononuclear cell-rich infiltrates in the central nervous system (CNS) are prominent. Current evidence strongly supports an immune-mediated basis for myelin breakdown, with an effector role proposed for TMEV-specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in which lymphokine-activated macrophages mediate bystander demyelination. The present study examined the possibility that concomitant or later-appearing neuroantigen-specific autoimmune T cell responses, such as those demonstrated in chronic-relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (R-EAE), may contribute to the demyelinating process following TMEV infection. T cell responses against intact, purified major myelin proteins (myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP], and against altered myelin constituents were readily demonstrable in SJL/J mice with R-EAE, but were not detectable in SJL/J mice with TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. TMEV-infected mice also did not display T cell responses against the peptide fragments of MBP(91-104) and PLP(139-151) recently shown to be encephalitogenic in SJL/J mice. In addition, induction of neuroantigen-specific tolerance to a heterogeneous mixture of CNS antigens, via the i.v. injection of syngeneic SJL/J splenocytes covalently coupled with mouse spinal cord homogenate, resulted in significant suppression of clinical and histologic signs of R-EAE and the accompanying MBP- and PLP-specific DTH responses. In contrast, neuroantigen-specific tolerance failed to alter the development of clinical and histologic signs of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease or the accompanying virus-specific DTH and humoral immune responses. These findings demonstrate that TMEV-induced demyelinating disease can occur in the apparent absence of neuroantigen-specific

  6. Psychological Aspects of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, R. Bruce

    1964-01-01

    Headache is considered as a non-specific syndrome illustrating the concept of pain as an emotion. Viewed in this way, its meaning looms larger than its site. Pain indicates dis-ease of the patient, sometimes with his body, but more often with his life. No pain is “imaginary”, nor can some pain be assigned to physiological and some to psychological pathways. Such a decision is often merely a judgmental one. Just as the “brain” cannot easily be separated from the “mind”, so to believe that some pain is “physical” and some “emotional” is a distortion. All painful syndromes are mixed and the problem is to decipher the meaning of the pain. Only rarely will headache respond to physical measures alone. PMID:14199822

  7. Historical aspects of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sims, A

    1988-01-01

    Although the syndromes of anxiety have only been recognized this century, the belief that the emotion of fearful apprehension could cause physical illness has a much longer history. James Vere wrote his book entitled "A physical and moral enquiry into the causes of that internal restlessness and disorder in man which has been the complaint of all ages" in 1778. The earliest accounts of phobia, as anxiety associated with specific circumstances have been ascribed to two cases from Hippocrates, whilst one of the earliest accounts in the English language may be that of William Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice describing a supposed phobia for cats. Robert Burton (1621) described various anxiety disorders in classical detail in his 'Anatomy of Melancholy'. PMID:3064064

  8. [Arteriosclerosis--selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and therapeutic objectives. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common medical problems. It affects adults as well as children. It leads to clinically overt cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the cause of premature deaths. During its course, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque takes place, along with local inflammations artery walls. Gradually growing plaque does not cause clinical symptoms until the stenosis does not exceed 70-80% of the coronary vessel diameter, causing a marked reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. The prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications requires an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk. In people without CVD symptoms, it is recommended to use SCORE risk card for Polish population, assessing the 10-year risk of cardiac death. A key element in combating atherosclerosis is to eliminate its risk factors by both implementing pro-health policies, as well as working with individual patients. An important objective is the proper control of blood pressure. It should not exceed 140/90 mmHg. A very important role is played by correct approach to patients with moderate or unusual cardiovascular risk. Despite knowing many facts about the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and its treatment, many issues still remain to be clarified. Finding methods to influence ongoing immune processes within arteries is of particular interest, which will soon make way to new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:25338337

  9. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  10. [Arteriosclerosis--selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and therapeutic objectives. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common medical problems. It affects adults as well as children. It leads to clinically overt cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the cause of premature deaths. During its course, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque takes place, along with local inflammations artery walls. Gradually growing plaque does not cause clinical symptoms until the stenosis does not exceed 70-80% of the coronary vessel diameter, causing a marked reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. The prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications requires an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk. In people without CVD symptoms, it is recommended to use SCORE risk card for Polish population, assessing the 10-year risk of cardiac death. A key element in combating atherosclerosis is to eliminate its risk factors by both implementing pro-health policies, as well as working with individual patients. An important objective is the proper control of blood pressure. It should not exceed 140/90 mmHg. A very important role is played by correct approach to patients with moderate or unusual cardiovascular risk. Despite knowing many facts about the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and its treatment, many issues still remain to be clarified. Finding methods to influence ongoing immune processes within arteries is of particular interest, which will soon make way to new therapeutic possibilities.

  11. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  12. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  13. Baseball-specific conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Bunker, Derek

    2009-09-01

    Baseball demands speed, power, and quickness. To perform at a high level, and avoid injuries that are common among baseball players, an evaluation of current trends in strength and conditioning practices is helpful. Based on the demands of the sport and the injury risks, qualified strength and conditioning professionals can develop effective baseball-specific conditioning programs. This commentary briefly covers historical aspects of baseball conditioning, recent injury trends, current practices among elite baseball professionals, and provides suggestions for future improvements in training.

  14. Clinical aspects of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrell, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Communication among physicians is an essential in order to combine our experiences for the elucidation and application of new knowledge and for the accurate and uniform application of established medical practice. This communication requires an adequate understanding of the culture of the patient and the social context of disease and indeed the culture of the physician. Malnutrition in Bangladesh means caloric insufficiency, and a program to lower cholesterol would be impertinent, while a program to enhance the nutrition of patients in Texas by an international effort to import more grain would be ludicrous. In the same vein a public health effort to combat alcoholic cirrhosis in Mecca would be as silly as a program to increase fiber in the diet of the Bantu. Clinical communication must acknowledge the culture of the issue at hand and the differences in the experiential base of the physicians. Not only do geography and culture affect the potential differences in the experiential bases, but the world utilizes very different traditions of education and science in training physicians. We are influenced by the diseases we treat, and learn to look for the expected at least as much as we are attentive to the unexpected. A physician in Siberia would be much more likely to recognize frostbite than one from Buenos Aires, and the Argentine doctor would much more likely consider Chaga's Disease to explain abdominal pain than a colleague in Zurich. Beyond these obvious issues in communication among physicians we must deal with the many languages and idioms used in the world. An overview of using Telemedicine SpaceBridge after the earthquake in the Republic of Armenia in 1988 is presented.

  15. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  16. Holistic aspects of children's ways of understanding in making sense of genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui-Ju

    The study examined the nature of how children make sense of phenomena in the area of genetics and inheritance. I proposed the phrase, way of understanding to capture a unified entity which children use to make sense of phenomena. The methodology was semi-structured probing interviews with six sixth grade students. Seven specific ways of understanding were discussed in the results section. Overall, the study described and discovered children's ways of understanding in terms of five aspects: cognitive aspects, affective aspects, social aspects, playfulness, and mode of awareness. Students' propositional knowledge, a holistic view of looking at how people resemble each other, syntactic knowledge, and an extension of rational explanations belonged to the cognitive aspects. Four categories of affective expressions were: an enjoyment of thinking and learning, a special feeling about the instructional activity, a deep personal involvement, and an anxiety in finding correct answers. Two types of social context were identified, one had somewhat of a connection to the science world, and the other did not have much of an scientific tie. The playfulness and the mode of awareness were two emerging aspects through the study. The playfulness represented the spontaneity, freedom, and sense of fun associated with the social interaction activity, such as the playfulness in expressing ideas to others. The modes of awareness included two types of metacognition, one was a conscious reflection on one's cognitive abilities, and the other was a continuous process of monitoring knowledge. In addition, the importance of considering language aspect in science learning was an emerging issue. Students' talking about genetics was embedded in the larger framework of social relationships and social institutions. Their social identify might influence the development of concepts, ways of talking and science learning. The study reflects the richness of children's sense-making processes

  17. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression.

  18. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  19. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  20. Implementation of perceptual aspects in a face recognition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenna, F.; Zappa, E.; Bovio, L.; Testa, R.; Gasparetto, M.; Rossi, G. B.

    2013-09-01

    Automatic face recognition is a biometric technique particularly appreciated in security applications. In fact face recognition presents the opportunity to operate at a low invasive level without the collaboration of the subjects under tests, with face images gathered either from surveillance systems or from specific cameras located in strategic points. The automatic recognition algorithms perform a measurement, on the face images, of a set of specific characteristics of the subject and provide a recognition decision based on the measurement results. Unfortunately several quantities may influence the measurement of the face geometry such as its orientation, the lighting conditions, the expression and so on, affecting the recognition rate. On the other hand human recognition of face is a very robust process far less influenced by the surrounding conditions. For this reason it may be interesting to insert perceptual aspects in an automatic facial-based recognition algorithm to improve its robustness. This paper presents a first study in this direction investigating the correlation between the results of a perception experiment and the facial geometry, estimated by means of the position of a set of repere points.

  1. Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Drug-induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a tissue-specific condition and is estimated to affect approximately one million North Americans. Lesions occur principally as side-effects from phenytoin, nifedipine, or ciclosporin therapy in approximately half of the people who take these agents. Due to new indications for these drugs, their use continues to grow. Here, we review the molecular and cellular characteristics of human gingival overgrowth lesions and highlight how they differ considerably as a function of the causative drug. Analyses of molecular signaling pathways in cultured human gingival fibroblasts have provided evidence for their unique aspects compared with fibroblasts from the lung and kidney. These findings provide insights into both the basis for tissue specificity and into possible therapeutic opportunities which are reviewed here. Although ciclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth lesions exhibit principally the presence of inflammation and little fibrosis, nifedipine- and especially phenytoin-induced lesions are highly fibrotic. The increased expression of markers of gingival fibrosis, particularly CCN2 [also known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)], markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and more recently periostin and members of the lysyl oxidase family of enzymes have been documented in phenytoin or nifedipine lesions. Some oral fibrotic conditions such as leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis, after subsequent additional genetic damage, can develop into oral cancer. Since many pathways are shared, the study of gingival fibrosis and comparisons with characteristics and molecular drivers of oral cancer would likely enhance understandings and functional roles of molecular drivers of these oral pathologies. PMID:25680368

  2. Biotechnology patents and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Terragni, F

    1993-01-01

    Should we set any limits on patenting? More specifically, must we set any limits on patenting in the field of biotechnology? There should be general agreement on the exclusion of humans from patentability. The European Parliament voted unanimously on an amendment to the Community Directive regarding patenting stating that the human body and its parts are not patentable as such. Patenting of humans indeed would be against fundamental human rights; against the shared principles of freedom, autonomy, and dignity of each single human being. The same reasons apply to requests to reject the "commercialization of the human body." However, much more difficult is reaching a consensus on what are the parts of humans that should not be marketed--organs, tissues, cells, genes, smaller DNA fragments? Probably there is no consensus on where to draw the line when we deal with parts of the human body. Nevertheless, an ethical component is very strong in raising opposition to patenting human DNA. Whatever our personal view on the issue, we cannot deny that ethical aspects must be considered in granting patents on human DNA. With reference to animals, the fears raised are that the patenting of transgenic animals could amplify the instrumental use (reification) and the neglect of their sentient nonobjectual nature: patenting could motivate, instead, the tendency to consider animals as the standard of things invented and as new consumer products. Moreover, animal patenting increases production and thus brings about the great suffering of animals. In regard to plants, the ethical implications of patenting have more to do with their socioeconomic effects, in particular on Third World countries, than for the organisms involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Regulatory aspects of clinical xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation attracted interest from regulatory authorities, particularly after the demonstration of pig-to-human transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (1996). This added to the risk of a product, resulting in a Guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration (2003). This addresses the full flow chart in product manufacturing, starting with the designated pathogen-free status of the source animal; and special aspects regarding the recipient like informed consent and monitoring for infectious pathogens. Also archiving of records from the donor and recipient, as well as storage of samples is described. The European Medicines Agency issued a Guideline on xenogeneic cell therapy products (2009). Cell-based medicinal products are subject to specific regulations and directives, which apply also to xenogeneic products: the xenotransplant guidances/guidelines are an addition to these regulations. Noteworthy, acellular products like heart valves and decellularized cornea are not considered a cell therapy product, but rather a medical device with its own regulation. WHO issued relevant documents, especially about safety, and the International Xenotransplantation Association published consensus documents, a.o., addressing preclinical efficacy requirements before entering clinical trials. This manuscript presents an overview of the regulatory framework, with special focus on cell therapy products necause these are expected to reach the market first (i.e., pancreatic islets, hepatocytes and cellularized cornea); major illustrations are from the European situation. Albeit being complex, the regulation of xenotransplant products does not form a block in product development, but rather supports the introduction of efficacious and safe products to meet the medical need.

  4. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators.

    PubMed

    Silari, M

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next, shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy, (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). PMID:11843087

  5. Microstructural aspects of spallation in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, A.K.; Frantz, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Compressive shock waves result in a specific kind of fracture called a spall. The metallurgical aspects of copper spalling and crack or void initiation sites, the effects of grain size and substructure, and the micromechanical aspects of growth and coalescence have not received the detailed attention that other deformation phenomena have received. The present work was stimulated by the observation that under identical shock loading conditions the spall strength of copper can vary between 0.4 to 2.4 GPa - an unusually wide range - merely as a result of changes in its microstructure. Examples of fracture morphology are presented and possible micromechanics of fracture resulting from different microstructures are discussed. Finally, the implications of these observations on modeling are presented.

  6. Specific Activation of A3, A2A and A1 Adenosine Receptors in CD73-Knockout Mice Affects B16F10 Melanoma Growth, Neovascularization, Angiogenesis and Macrophage Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Koszałka, Patrycja; Gołuńska, Monika; Urban, Aleksandra; Stasiłojć, Grzegorz; Stanisławowski, Marcin; Majewski, Marceli; Składanowski, Andrzej C.; Bigda, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase), a cell surface enzyme hydrolyzing AMP to adenosine, was lately demonstrated to play a direct role in tumor progression including regulation of tumor vascularization. It was also shown to stimulate tumor macrophage infiltration. Interstitial adenosine, accumulating in solid tumors due to CD73 enzymatic activity, is recognized as a main mediator regulating the production of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, but the engagement of specific adenosine receptors in tumor progression in vivo is still poorly researched. We have analyzed the role of high affinity adenosine receptors A1, A2A, and A3 in B16F10 melanoma progression using specific agonists (CCPA, CGS-21680 and IB-MECA, respectively). We limited endogenous extracellular adenosine background using CD73 knockout mice treated with CD73 chemical inhibitor, AOPCP (adenosine α,β-methylene 5’-diphosphate). Activation of any adenosine receptor significantly inhibited B16F10 melanoma growth but only at its early stage. At 14th day of growth, the decrease in tumor neovascularization and MAPK pathway activation induced by CD73 depletion was reversed by all agonists. Activation of A1AR primarily increased angiogenic activation measured by expression of VEGF-R2 on tumor blood vessels. However, mainly A3AR activation increased both the microvessel density and expression of pro-angiogenic factors. All agonists induced significant increase in macrophage tumor infiltration, with IB-MECA being most effective. This effect was accompanied by substantial changes in cytokines regulating macrophage polarization between pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic phenotype. Our results demonstrate an evidence that each of the analyzed receptors has a specific role in the stimulation of tumor angiogenesis and confirm significantly more multifaceted role of adenosine in its regulation than was already observed. They also reveal previously unexplored consequences to extracellular adenosine signaling depletion in

  7. A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: characterization of a novel gut-specific N-myristoylated annexin.

    PubMed

    Wice, B M; Gordon, J I

    1992-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is rapidly and perpetually renewed as the descendants of multipotent stem cells located in crypts undergo proliferation, differentiation, and eventual exfoliation during a very well organized migration along the crypt to villus axis. The mechanisms that establish and maintain this balance between proliferation and differentiation are largely unknown. We have utilized HT-29 cells, derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma, as a model system for identifying gene products that may regulate these processes. Proliferating HT-29 cells cultured in the absence of glucose (e.g., using inosine as the carbon source) have some of the characteristics of undifferentiated but committed crypt epithelial cells while postconfluent cells cultured in the absence of glucose resemble terminally differentiated enterocytes or goblet cells. A cDNA library, constructed from exponentially growing HT-29 cells maintained in inosine-containing media, was sequentially screened with a series of probes depleted of sequences encoding housekeeping functions and enriched for intestine-specific sequences that are expressed in proliferating committed, but not differentiated, epithelial cells. Of 100,000 recombinant phage surveyed, one was found whose cDNA was derived from an apparently gut-specific mRNA. It encodes a 316 residue, 35,463-D protein that is a new member of the annexin/lipocortin family. Other family members have been implicated in regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. RNA blot and in situ hybridization studies indicate that the gene encoding this new annexin exhibits region-specific expression along both axes of the human gut: (a) highest levels of mRNA are present in the jejunum with marked and progressive reductions occurring distally; (b) its mRNA appears in crypt-associated epithelial cells and increases in concentration as they exit the crypt. Villus-associated epithelial cells continue to transcribe this gene during their

  8. Hydrodynamics and electromyography: ergonomics aspects in aquatics.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P

    1985-03-01

    In a quadruple approach we have suggested the ergonomics links between fundamental hydrodynamics, applied dynamics of swimming, electromyographical aspects and specific training. Fundamental and applied hydrodynamics were investigated in a Dutch Marine Ship model test station allowing for the measurement of passive drag in different positions and of active (swimming) drag. It was found that drag in a prone position under the water surface was greater than at the water surface, but active drag while swimming reached twice the drag values of any passive drag condition. This indicates that body form has no influence on drag and propulsion. Since it is merely the technical execution of the swimming movement that will influence performance, telemetric EMG of the involved musculature has allowed a complete kinesiological picture of the front crawl movements to be made. This knowledge is basic for the study of specific and alternative training systems, such as specific dry land training.

  9. Serine 363 of a Hydrophobic Region of Archaeal Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermococcus kodakaraensis Affects CO2/O2 Substrate Specificity and Oxygen Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, Nathan E.; Tabita, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal ribulose 1, 5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is differentiated from other RubisCO enzymes and is classified as a form III enzyme, as opposed to the form I and form II RubisCOs typical of chemoautotrophic bacteria and prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. The form III enzyme from archaea is particularly interesting as several of these proteins exhibit unusual and reversible sensitivity to molecular oxygen, including the enzyme from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Previous studies with A. fulgidus RbcL2 had shown the importance of Met-295 in oxygen sensitivity and pointed towards the potential significance of another residue (Ser-363) found in a hydrophobic pocket that is conserved in all RubisCO proteins. In the current study, further structure/function studies have been performed focusing on Ser-363 of A. fulgidus RbcL2; various changes in this and other residues of the hydrophobic pocket point to and definitively establish the importance of Ser-363 with respect to interactions with oxygen. In addition, previous findings had indicated discrepant CO2/O2 specificity determinations of the Thermococcus kodakaraensis RubisCO, a close homolog of A. fulgidus RbcL2. It is shown here that the T. kodakaraensis enzyme exhibits a similar substrate specificity as the A. fulgidus enzyme and is also oxygen sensitive, with equivalent residues involved in oxygen interactions. PMID:26381513

  10. Serine 363 of a hydrophobic region of Archaeal ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Thermococcus kodakaraensis affects CO2/O2 substrate specificity and oxygen sensitivity

    DOE PAGES

    Kreel, Nathan E.; Tabita, F. Robert; Berg, Ivan

    2015-09-18

    Archaeal ribulose 1, 5-bisphospate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is differentiated from other RubisCO enzymes and is classified as a form III enzyme, as opposed to the form I and form II RubisCOs typical of chemoautotrophic bacteria and prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs. The form III enzyme from archaea is particularly interesting as several of these proteins exhibit unusual and reversible sensitivity to molecular oxygen, including the enzyme from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Previous studies with A. fulgidus RbcL2 had shown the importance of Met-295 in oxygen sensitivity and pointed towards the potential significance of another residue (Ser-363) found in a hydrophobic pocket that is conservedmore » in all RubisCO proteins. In the current study, further structure/function studies have been performed focusing on Ser-363 of A. fulgidus RbcL2; various changes in this and other residues of the hydrophobic pocket point to and definitively establish the importance of Ser-363 with respect to interactions with oxygen. In addition, previous findings had indicated discrepant CO2/O2 specificity determinations of the Thermococcus kodakaraensis RubisCO, a close homolog of A. fulgidus RbcL2. As a result, it is shown here that the T. kodakaraensis enzyme exhibits a similar substrate specificity as the A. fulgidus enzyme and is also oxygen sensitive, with equivalent residues involved in oxygen interactions.« less

  11. Colloidal aspects of texture perception.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Ton; van Aken, George A; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Hamer, Rob J

    2009-08-30

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake, mastication, swallowing of it and during the cleaning of the mouth after swallowing. Moreover, their perception is modulated by the interaction with other basic attributes, such as taste and aroma attributes (e.g. sourness and vanilla). To be able to link the composition and structure of food products to more complicated texture attributes, their initial physical/colloid chemical properties and the oral processing of these products must be well understood. Understanding of the processes in the mouth at colloidal length scales turned out to be essential to grasp the interplay between perception, oral physiology and food properties. In view of the huge differences in physical chemical properties between food products, it is practical to make a distinction between solid, semi-solid, and liquid food products. The latter ones are often liquid dispersions of emulsion droplets or particles in general. For liquid food products for instance flow behaviour and colloidal stability of dispersed particles play a main role in determining their textural properties. For most solid products stiffness and fracture behaviour in relation to water content are essential while for semi-solids a much larger range of mechanical properties will play a role. Examples of colloidal aspects of texture perception will be discussed for these three categories of products based on selected sensory attributes and/or relevant colloidal processes. For solid products some main factors determining crispness will be discussed. For crispiness of dry cellular solid products these are water content and the architecture of the product at mesoscopic length scales (20-1000 microm). In addition the distribution of

  12. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  13. International Aspects of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1974-01-01

    This paper is concerned with various aspects of the philosophy and training of school psychologists in several countries around the world and offers some thoughts about the possible implications of the different approaches. (Author)

  14. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  15. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  16. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  17. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  18. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  19. [Assessment of a Bullterrier bloodline in the temperament test of Lower Saxony--comparison with six dog breeds affected by breed specific legislation and a control group of Golden Retrievers].

    PubMed

    Ott, Stefanie; Schalke, Esther; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    2009-04-01

    The expertise on the interpretation of section 11b TierSchG implies a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour in some bloodlines of Bullterriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Pitbull type dogs. This study aimed at finding out whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bullterrier bloodline. Dogs of this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th 2000. The Bullterriers' test results towards humans and environment were compared to those of 415 dogs affected by the legislation (Mittmann, 2002) and those of 70 Golden Retrievers (Johann, 2004) in order to detect possible differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. Of 38 Bullterriers, ten showed no aggressive behaviour towards humans and the environment. 27 dogs displayed visual or acoustic threats at most. Only one dog reacted by "biting or attacking with preceding threatening behaviour". Thus, according to the test guidelines, 37 dogs (97.37%) reacted appropriately in all test situations. Only one dog (2.63%) displayed inadequate agressive behaviour. No indication for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bullterrier bloodline was found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found when comparing Bullterriers and dogs of the two others studies concerning inadequate or disturbed aggressive towards humans and the environment. On the contrary, throughout the entire study the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately.

  20. [Immunogenetic aspects of autism. Review].

    PubMed

    Pardo-Govea, Tatiana; Solís-Añez, Ernesto

    2009-09-01

    Autism is a generalized or pervasive developmental disorder that affects about five in ten thousand children worldwide (5/10.000). In Maracaibo the incidence is 1.1/1000, with a ratio of male/female, 4:1. The autistic disorder is defined entirely based on the impairment in three areas: 1) Impairment of social interaction, 2) Impairment in communication and 3) Stereotyped and repetitive behavior. Autism is a disorder with a large genetic component and a oligogenic inheritance model has been proposed. Quantitative and qualitative disturbances of certain components of the immune system in patients with autism have been used as endophenotype, one of the strategies used to identify candidate genes for susceptibility to autism. On the other hand the hypersensitivity to specific groups of foods such as casein and gluten has become clear, which has led to the postulation of immunogenetics theories in autism, which mainly involve genes of the histocompatibility major complex. Although it has not been confirmed that immunogenetics factors could be involved in the etiopathogenesis of autism, several studies have shown the influence of the complex Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) HLA DR4, DR13, DR11, A2 and others genes in the clinical status, risk and therapeutic response of some psychiatric disorders. The lack of literature demands a greater number of studies related to different ethnic groups and the participation of HLA, as well as the importance of this complex in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness. PMID:19961061

  1. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  2. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  3. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S

    2014-04-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase MoFe protein: chymotryptic proteolysis affects function by limited cleavage of the beta-chain and provides high-specific-activity MoFe protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, K; Lower, D J; Pau, R N

    1993-01-01

    Proteinase treatment with chymotrypsin has been used to probe the structure of native Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase MoFe protein (Kp1). Reaction with chymotrypsin did not bleach Kp1, suggesting that it did not destroy the metal centres, and the Mo and Fe contents of Kp1 were unchanged. High ratios of chymotrypsin to Kp1 (1:1 by mass) cleaved the beta-chain of Kp1 to give 44 and 14 kDa polypeptides, which N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed to be derived from cleavage at residue beta-Phe124. A mutant MoFe protein, Kp1Met-124, in which beta-Phe124 is replaced by methionine, was not cleaved by chymotrypsin. Under non-denaturing conditions, the 'nicked' beta-chain of the wild-type protein remained associated with the alpha-chain. The alpha-chain was not cleaved by the proteinase treatment. Fission of the wild-type beta-chain was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity, loss of intensity of the g = 3.7 e.p.r. signal derived from dithionite-reduced FeMoco and by changes in the visible spectrum. The e.p.r. spectra of potassium ferricyanide-oxidized native and digested Kp1 show differences in the signals between g = 1.6 and 2.0. After prolonged treatment, the final specific activity of Kp1 was about 25 +/- 5% of the initial activity. This corresponded to 25 +/- 5% of the beta-chain which was resistant to proteolytic action. Brief treatment of Kp1 with a lower concentration of chymotrypsin (chymotrypsin/Kp1 ratio = 1:10 by mass, for 10 min) preferentially cleaved high-molecular-mass polypeptides that routinely contaminate preparations of Kp1 prepared by standard procedures. Treatment with chymotrypsin followed by gel filtration to remove the proteinase and cleaved protein fragments can therefore be used to increase significantly the specific activity of Kp1 preparations and remove contaminating activities, such as the ATPase activity of myokinase. Images Figure 2 PMID:8385937

  5. Medical knowledge evolution query constraining aspects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a first analysis towards better understanding of the query constraining aspects of knowledge, as expressed in the most used public medical bibliographic database MEDLINE. Our results indicate, possibly not surprising, that new terms occur, but also that traditional terms are replaced by more specific ones or even go out of use as they become common knowledge. Hence, as knowledge evolve over time, search methods may benefit from becoming more sensitive to knowledge expression, to enable finding new, as well as older, relevant database contents.

  6. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. PMID:27346329

  7. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation.

  8. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    PubMed

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years.

  9. Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language

    PubMed Central

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed within a more general framework that deals with the role of information in biological systems. In this framework, symbols are seen as information-bearing entities that emerge under pressures of communicative needs and that serve as concrete constraints on development and communication. In an attempt to identify relevant dynamic aspects of such a system, one has to take into account events that happen on different time scales: evolutionary language change (i.e., a diachronic aspect), processes of communication (language use) and language acquisition. Acknowledging the role of dynamic processes in shaping and sustaining the structures of natural language calls for a change in methodology. In particular, a purely synchronic analysis of a system of symbols as “meaning-containing entities” is not sufficient to obtain answers to certain recurring problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language. A more encompassing research framework may be the one designed specifically for studying informationally based coupled dynamical systems (coordination dynamics) in which processes of self-organization take place over different time scales. PMID:19173014

  10. Community structure affects behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, C

    1991-06-01

    AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected.

  11. Naloxone treatment alters gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system in 'junk food' exposed offspring in a sex-specific manner but does not affect food preferences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gugusheff, J R; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-06-22

    We have previously reported that the opioid receptor blocker, naloxone, is less effective in reducing palatable food intake in offspring exposed to a maternal cafeteria diet during the perinatal period, implicating a desensitization of the central opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet and naloxone treatment on the development of the mesolimbic reward pathway and food choices in adulthood. We measured mRNA expression of key components of the reward pathway (mu-opioid receptor, proenkephalin, tyrosine hydroxylase, D1 and D2 receptors and the dopamine active transporter (DAT)) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the offspring of control and cafeteria fed (JF) dams at weaning and after a 10-day naloxone treatment post-weaning and determined food preferences in adulthood in the remaining offspring. Naloxone treatment decreased the expression of DAT by 8.2 fold in female control offspring but increased it by 4.3 fold in female offspring of JF dams relative to the saline-injected reference groups. Proenkephalin mRNA expression was higher in the NAc of female JF offspring compared to controls, independent of naloxone treatment (P<0.05). There was no effect of naloxone treatment on food preferences in adulthood in either control or JF offspring. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to a cafeteria diet alters the impact of opioid signaling blockade in the early post-weaning period on gene expression in the central reward pathway in a sex specific manner, but that these changes in gene expression do not appear to have any persistent impact on food preferences in adulthood.

  12. The Laforin-like dual-specificity phosphatase SEX4 from Arabidopsis hydrolyzes both C6- and C3-phosphate esters introduced by starch-related dikinases and thereby affects phase transition of alpha-glucans.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Mahdi; Fettke, Joerg; Kötting, Oliver; Zeeman, Samuel C; Steup, Martin

    2010-02-01

    The biochemical function of the Laforin-like dual-specific phosphatase AtSEX4 (EC 3.1.3.48) has been studied. Crystalline maltodextrins representing the A- or the B-type allomorph were prephosphorylated using recombinant glucan, water dikinase (StGWD) or the successive action of both plastidial dikinases (StGWD and AtPWD). AtSEX4 hydrolyzed carbon 6-phosphate esters from both the prephosphorylated A- and B-type allomorphs and the kinetic constants are similar. The phosphatase also acted on prelabeled carbon-3 esters from both crystalline maltodextrins. Similarly, native starch granules prelabeled in either the carbon-6 or carbon-3 position were also dephosphorylated by AtSEX4. The phosphatase did also hydrolyze phosphate esters of both prephosphorylated maltodextrins when the (phospho)glucans had been solubilized by heat treatment. Submillimolar concentrations of nonphosphorylated maltodextrins inhibited AtSEX4 provided they possessed a minimum of length and had been solubilized. As opposed to the soluble phosphomaltodextrins, the AtSEX4-mediated dephosphorylation of the insoluble substrates was incomplete and at least 50% of the phosphate esters were retained in the pelletable (phospho)glucans. The partial dephosphorylation of the insoluble glucans also strongly reduced the release of nonphosphorylated chains into solution. Presumably, this effect reflects fast structural changes that following dephosphorylation occur near the surface of the maltodextrin particles. A model is proposed defining distinct stages within the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation-dependent transition of alpha-glucans from the insoluble to the soluble state.

  13. The snowball effect: friendship moderates escalations in depressed affect among avoidant and excluded children.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, William M; Laursen, Brett; Hoza, Betsy

    2010-11-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study conducted with preadolescent boys and girls (N = 231 at Time 1 [T1]) was used to assess the hypotheses that aspects of social withdrawal would be predictors of a "snowball" cascade of depressed affect, and that friendship experiences would moderate these effects. Consistent with these hypotheses, multilevel modeling showed that measures of avoidance and exclusion at T1 were associated with concurrent levels of depressed affect and were antecedent to escalating trajectories of depressed affect over time. These accelerating growth curves fit a snowball cascade model. The analyses also showed the protective effects of friendship. Specifically, the snowball effect was limited to avoidant and excluded children who were friendless. Depressed affect did not increase among avoidant and excluded children who were friended.

  14. Misperception of aspect ratio in binocularly viewed surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Paul B; Goutcher, Ross; O'Kane, Lisa M; Scarfe, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The horizontal-vertical illusion, in which the vertical dimension is overestimated relative to the horizontal direction, has been explained in terms of the statistical relationship between the lengths of lines in the world, and the lengths of their projections onto the retina (Howe & Purves, 2002). The current study shows that this illusion affects the apparent aspect ratio of shapes, and investigates how it interacts with binocular cues to surface slant. One way in which statistical information could give rise to the horizontal-vertical illusion would be through prior assumptions about the distribution of slant. This prior would then be expected to interact with retinal cues to slant. We determined the aspect ratio of stereoscopically viewed ellipses that appeared circular. We show that observers' judgements of aspect ratio were affected by surface slant, but that the largest image vertical:horizontal aspect ratio that was considered to be a surface with a circular profile was always found for surfaces close to fronto-parallel. This is not consistent with a Bayesian model in which the horizontal-vertical illusion arises from a non-uniform prior probability distribution for slant. Rather, we suggest that assumptions about the slant of surfaces affect apparent aspect ratio in a manner that is more heuristic, and partially dissociated from apparent slant. PMID:22925917

  15. Registered Dietitians in School Nutrition Leadership: Motivational Aspects of Job Selection and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Linette J.; Arendt, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study examined motivational aspects related to selecting school nutrition leadership as a career by registered dietitians (RDs). Motivational aspects were defined as valued characteristics which influence individuals' desires for specific work environments. Aspects of job satisfaction were also explored. Methods: An…

  16. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders. PMID:23678348

  17. Cathepsins of lepidopteran insects: Aspects and prospects.

    PubMed

    Saikhedkar, Nidhi; Summanwar, Aarohi; Joshi, Rakesh; Giri, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    Molecular understanding of lepidopteran physiology has revealed that proteases consist of one of the central regulatory/reacting system for insect growth and survival. Among the various proteases, cathepsins are the most crucial cellular proteases, which play vital roles during insect development. In the present review, we have discussed various aspects of the lepidopteran insect cathepsins, emphasizing their roles in processes like development, growth, metamorphosis, apoptosis and immunity. Cathepsins are categorized into different types on the basis of their sequence diversification, leading to variation in structure and catalytic function. Cathepsins exhibit tissue and stage specific expression pattern which is fine-tuned by a delicate balance of expression, compartmentalization, zymogen activation, inhibition by protein inhibitors and degradation. The indispensability of cathepsins as cellular proteases in the above mentioned processes proposes them as novel targets for designing effective and specific insect controlling strategies.

  18. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  19. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another. PMID:27157109

  20. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  1. Games, Gaming, and Gamification: Some Aspects of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Unsupported claims have been made for the use of games in education and the gamification (game-like aspects, such as scores and point goals) of various learning elements. This brief article examines what may be the motivational basis of gaming and how it can affect students' behavior and ultimate success.

  2. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  3. Imaging aspects of the tumor stroma with therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Narunsky, Lian; Oren, Roni; Bochner, Filip; Neeman, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells rely on extensive support from the stroma in order to survive, proliferate and invade. The tumor stroma is thus an important potential target for anti-cancer therapy. Typical changes in the stroma include a shift from the quiescence promoting- antiangiogenic extracellular matrix to a provisional matrix that promotes invasion and angiogenesis. These changes in the extracellular matrix are induced by changes in the secretion of extracellular matrix proteins and glucose amino glycans, extravasation of plasma proteins from hyperpermeable vessels and release of matrix modifying enzymes resulting in cleavage and crosslinking of matrix macromolecules. These in turn alter the rigidity of the matrix and the exposure and release of cytokines. Changes in matrix rigidity and vessel permeability affect drug delivery and mediate resistance to cytotoxic therapy. These stroma changes are brought about not only by the cancer cells, but also through the action of many cell types that are recruited by tumors including immune cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Within the tumor, these normal host cells are activated resulting in loss of inhibitory and induction of cancer promoting activities. Key to the development of stroma targeted therapies, selective biomarkers were developed for specific imaging of key aspects of the tumor stroma. PMID:24134903

  4. [Autism in females: clinical, neurobiological and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, V L; Arberas, C L

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are more prevalent in males than in females, and the proportion can range from 1.4 to 1, depending on the samples that are analysed. The smaller difference has been related to those who also manifest an associated intellectual disability, and it is accepted that in those cases females are far more seriously affected. There is likely to be a subregister of females with autism spectrum disorder, especially in those who have high cognitive performance, that is possibly related with the assessment techniques that are used and even with the lack of suitable levels of arousal in girls. In general, females with autism have better early language development, better social skills and their playing can even develop in the expected way. Their interests can be similar to those of their peer group, although they usually vary in intensity and quality. It is accepted as a fact that the difference in the social skills becomes more apparent in adolescence. The extreme male brain theory, the female-specific protective factor, variants in brain plasticity (lower threshold in males with greater susceptibility) and genetic and epigenetic factors, among others, are put forward as possible hypotheses to justify this lower prevalence and the clinical variants in females. This work aims to analyse the clinical and developmental aspects, the variability of expression in females with respect to males, and some of the possible neurobiological and genetic bases that account for the higher prevalence and the differences in expression.

  5. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  6. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  7. Computational aspects of multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Computational aspects are addressed which impact the requirements for developing a next generation software system for flexible multibody dynamics simulation which include: criteria for selecting candidate formulation, pairing of formulations with appropriate solution procedures, need for concurrent algorithms to utilize computer hardware advances, and provisions for allowing open-ended yet modular analysis modules.

  8. Legal Aspects of Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    The legal aspects of pupil transportation are examined, including the liability of various factions for transportation decisions and the duty of school districts to provide adequate transportation. Discussed are court decisions dealing with such complex topics as transportation of special education students, transportation for purpose of…

  9. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  10. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  11. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  12. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rosevelt

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in June 1979, over 500 patients have been treated at the King/Drew Pain Center in Los Angeles. Based upon the treatment and observations of this patient group, this paper describes the psychologic aspects in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain, low back pain, phantom limb pain, chest pain, and arthritic pain. PMID:6864816

  13. Specific Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a recent case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which highlights the importance of having specific suspicions of misbehavior before conducting a strip search. The case involves an eighth-grade female student who was being strip-searched by a middle school assistant principal, a school nurse, and an administrative assistant…

  14. Affect, Albert Ellis, and Rational-Emotive Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, G. Barry

    1989-01-01

    Contends affect is integral component of Rational Emotive Therapy model. Reviews affective aspect of the model in terms of theoretical constructs and therapeutic techniques. Makes references to author-observed interactions of Albert Ellis and describes his life-style to permit inferences regarding the role of affect. Includes commentary by Ellis…

  15. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  16. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, by its very nature, will be associated with negative emotions and psychological distress. There are individual differences in personality, coping skills, behavioral adaptation, and social support that dramatically alter the psychological outcomes of patients with chronic pain. Patients that have an aspect of central pain amplification associated with mechanical or inflammatory pain and patients with fibromyalgia (FM) are likely to exhibit higher levels of psychological distress and illness behaviors. This manuscript will discuss several different constructs for the association between chronic pain, central pain amplification, and psychological distress. The first key question addresses mechanisms shared in common between chronic pain and mood disorders, including the individual factors that influence psychological comorbidity. Second, how pain affects mood and vice versa. Finally, the utility of cognitive behavioral approaches to the management of chronic pain symptoms will be discussed. PMID:26267008

  17. Genetic aspects of nutrition and toxicology: report of a workshop.

    PubMed

    Archer, M C; Clarkson, T W; Strain, J J

    2001-04-01

    The health and resilience of humans and animals is, in large part, determined by the quality and quantity of the diet. This, in turn, may influence an individual's capability to deal with stress including toxic insult. In addition, there may be specific components of the diet that modulate the toxicity of specific toxicants whether the latter are ingested as food or absorbed via other routes. Many examples attest to the importance of interactions between dietary components and toxicants after absorption in the body. Such interactions occur at every level of biological organization from the molecular to the whole organism. Some may be synergistic, others antagonistic. Some may involve direct chemical reaction between the nutrient molecule and the toxicant, others may occur by indirect action at the cellular or organ levels. All examples point to the importance of considering diet when measuring the response to toxic agents whether in animals or humans. In order to foster interaction between the sciences of nutrition and toxicology, The Heinz Institute of Nutritional Sciences as sponsoring a series of workshops. The first of these was held in June, 1999 at the University of Ulster to address evolutionary aspects of nutrition--toxicology (for report see Eur. J. Nutr, 39, 49-52, 2000). In June, 2000, a second workshop was held at the University of Toronto to address genetic aspects, and this is a brief summary of the proceedings. We are beginning to understand the molecular basis of the regulation of gene expression by dietary factors and how genetic changes can affect response to toxicants. Recent advances in technology and a detailed understanding of disease etiology has led to the ability to study molecular determinants of disease risk. The workshop provided a forum for nutritionists, toxicologists, molecular biologists, epidemiologists and others to discuss common interests and to merge their efforts towards an integrated approach to nutrition--toxicology via

  18. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    PubMed Central

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  19. Non-Disease Specific Risk Factors Affecting Hospital Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ron L.; And Others

    Extended hospital stay after medical treatment has been completed represents a major problem in health care. Space misuse can occur late in the hospitalization, often because planning is not initiated until discharge is imminent. This study sought to determine if variables assessed soon after hospital admission could be used to screen patients at…

  20. Mitochondrial haplotype divergences affect specific temperature sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J William O; Tanguay, Robert M; Blier, Pierre U

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature changes on the functional properties of mitochondria from two sets of D. simulans fly lines harboring the siII and siIII haplotypes in a common nuclear genetic background. We studied four introgressed isofemale lines possessing the mtDNA of siII and the nuclear background of siIII (siII-introgressed) and four lines possessing siIII mitochondria with its native nuclear genome (siIII-controls). We assessed the catalytic capacities of electron transport system (ETS) at four different temperatures (12, 18, 24 and 28 ºC). The impact of temperature on the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, the mitochondrial respiration (coupled and uncoupled respiration), cytochrome c oxidase activity, as well as the excess capacity of complex IV (COX) were evaluated in these two sets of flies. Our results showed that the temperature coefficient values (Q(10)) measured for mitochondrial respiration in the lower range of temperatures (12 to 18 ºC) showed a 2 to 3 fold increase in siII-introgressed when compared to siIII-controls. This result shows that the impact of temperature on mitochondrial function is different between the two mitotypes studied. The Q(10) results seem to be linked to the apparent COX excess capacity of 193% for siIII-controls that is inexistent for siII-introgressed at 12 ºC. One explanation for these results is that the mitochondria can compensate for the disruption of mito-nuclear interactions at 24 ºC but not at lower temperatures. An alternate explanation would be that siII haplotype confer divergent kinetic properties to the ETS that translate to different temperature sensitivities.

  1. Mitochondrial haplotype divergences affect specific temperature sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J William O; Tanguay, Robert M; Blier, Pierre U

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature changes on the functional properties of mitochondria from two sets of D. simulans fly lines harboring the siII and siIII haplotypes in a common nuclear genetic background. We studied four introgressed isofemale lines possessing the mtDNA of siII and the nuclear background of siIII (siII-introgressed) and four lines possessing siIII mitochondria with its native nuclear genome (siIII-controls). We assessed the catalytic capacities of electron transport system (ETS) at four different temperatures (12, 18, 24 and 28 ºC). The impact of temperature on the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, the mitochondrial respiration (coupled and uncoupled respiration), cytochrome c oxidase activity, as well as the excess capacity of complex IV (COX) were evaluated in these two sets of flies. Our results showed that the temperature coefficient values (Q(10)) measured for mitochondrial respiration in the lower range of temperatures (12 to 18 ºC) showed a 2 to 3 fold increase in siII-introgressed when compared to siIII-controls. This result shows that the impact of temperature on mitochondrial function is different between the two mitotypes studied. The Q(10) results seem to be linked to the apparent COX excess capacity of 193% for siIII-controls that is inexistent for siII-introgressed at 12 ºC. One explanation for these results is that the mitochondria can compensate for the disruption of mito-nuclear interactions at 24 ºC but not at lower temperatures. An alternate explanation would be that siII haplotype confer divergent kinetic properties to the ETS that translate to different temperature sensitivities. PMID:23054075

  2. Practical aspects of corrosion fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, H.S.

    1994-08-01

    Aspects important in corrosion have been introduced. They are: (a) ``Pourbaix Diagrams`` which consider thermodynamic stability of metals as a function of electrical potential and water pH; (b) the anodic interfacial reaction rates which depend on potential and accumulation of reaction products; (c) the prediction of polarization curves based on the kinetics and thermodynamics; and (d) localized corrosion models, as this form of corrosion is a major cause of corrosion failures.

  3. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  4. Precision digital solar aspect sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a digital solar aspect sensor with a resolution of approximately 14 arc-seconds is discussed. An interpolation technique was used to generate the fine angle measurements. The sensor and its mode of operation are described. The electronic and mechanical design of the sensor were completed, and two flight units, one for the OAO 4 and the other for determining the attitude of a spinning spacecraft, are being fabricated.

  5. Extreme Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    1997-11-01

    Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the extreme-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.

  6. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  7. [Journey to what is essentially invisible: pysochosocial aspects of disease].

    PubMed

    Turabián, J L; Pérez-Franco, B

    2014-03-01

    Physicians may be well equipped for the biological aspects of disease, but not for its psychosocial dimensions, an issue that has been absent in family medicine. The psychosocial aspects of the disease are the factors involved in how patients react to the disease, play a role in the expression of symptoms and disease, and have implications on the lives of patients. Moreover, the biological effects (specific) and psychosocial effects (non-specific) are not simply additive but interactive. Physicians should be aware of this hidden, essentially invisible patient psychosocial morbidity, and must incorporate bio-psychosocial interventions into routine medical care to be more effective. In addition, to consider these aspects in the context of care contributes to the distinctive elements of family medicine.

  8. How Coriolis meter design affects field performance

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, A.; Dudiak, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although many possibilities exist for the design of Coriolis flowmeters, a common set of fundamental physical principles affect practical meter design. Design criteria such as tube geometry, alloy section, operating frequencies, stress levels, and tubing wall thickness have varying impacts on meter performance. Additionally, field conditions such as changing temperature, pressure, pipeline stress and vibration affect measurement performance. The challenge created in Coriolis flow meter design is to maximize the sensitivity of the meter Coriolis forces, while minimizing the impact of outside environmental influences. Data are presented on the physical principles that affect Coriolis flowmeters, and how the various aspects of meter design influence field performance.

  9. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  10. Some design aspects of laser fusion rocket(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, H.; Shoyama, H.; Nagamine, Y.; Fusuki, T.; Kanda, Y.; Yoshimi, N.; Nakao, Y.

    1996-05-01

    A rocket powered by a laser-induced fusion microexplosion is an attractive spacecraft for manned exploration of the solar system because of its potential advantages of high specific impulse and of large specific power. We here discuss some design aspects of a laser fusion rocket. Included are discussion on thrust conversion efficiency, plasma instability in a magnetic nozzle and DT igniter/D{sup 3}He fuel target design. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  12. Process implementation aspects for biocatalytic hydrocarbon oxyfunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-09-30

    Oxidoreductases catalyze a large variety of regio-, stereo-, and chemoselective hydrocarbon oxyfunctionalizations, reactions, which are important in industrial organic synthesis but difficult to achieve by chemical means. This review summarizes process implementation aspects for the in vivo application of the especially versatile enzyme class of oxygenases, capable of specifically introducing oxygen from molecular oxygen into a large range of organic molecules. Critical issues such as reaching high enzyme activity and specificity, product degradation, cofactor recycling, reactant toxicity, and substrate and oxygen mass transfer can be overcome by biochemical process engineering and biocatalyst engineering. Both strategies provide a growing toolset to facilitate process implementation, optimization, and scale-up. Major advances were achieved via heterologous overexpression of oxygenase genes, directed evolution, metabolic engineering, and in situ product removal. Process examples from industry and academia show that the combined use of different concepts enables efficient oxygenase-based whole-cell catalysis of various commercially interesting reactions such as the biosynthesis of chiral compounds, the specific oxyfunctionalization of complex molecules, and also the synthesis of medium-priced chemicals. Better understanding of the cell metabolism and future developments in both biocatalyst and bioprocess engineering are expected to promote the implementation of many and various industrial biooxidation processes. PMID:15380656

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  14. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  15. Plasma Chemical Aspects Of Dust Formation In Hydrocarbon Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, J.; Kovacevic, E.; Stepanovic, O.; Stefanovic, I.; Winter, J.

    2008-09-07

    This contribution deals with some plasma chemical aspects of dust formation in hydrocarbon plasmas. The interplay between dust formation and plasma chemistry will be discussed by means of different experimental results. One specific example concerns the formation of benzene and the role of atomic hydrogen for plasma chemical processes and dust formation in hydrocarbon discharges.

  16. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  17. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress. PMID:24744049

  18. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  19. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  20. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.