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Sample records for affect sperm quality

  1. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice.

  2. Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-01-01

    As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874

  3. The quality of sperm preparation medium affects the motility, viability, and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali; Ghazali, Shahin; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Johansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The goal was to compare the effects of three different sperm preparation media on sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity of semen samples from normozoospermic men. METHODS: A total of 15 normozoospermic males were included in the study. The semen analysis (SA) was performed in accordance with the WHO guidelines (2010). After SA, each sample was divided into three aliquots, and swim-up was performed with three different sperm preparation media (Sperm Preparation Media, Origio, Denmark; Ham's F10, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany; and VitaSperm™, Innovative Biotech, Iran). Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. RESULTS: There were no significant differences, at any time intervals, in the total sperm motility between the different sperm preparation media. However, the rate of progressive motility was significantly higher in spermatozoa prepared using the media from Origio in comparison with VitaSperm™ (P = 0.03), whereas no significant difference was found against Ham's F10 medium. No significant differences in sperm viability were seen between the media products. However, 1 h after swim-up, the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation was lower in the medium from Origio versus VitaSperm™ (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that the quality of medium for preparation of semen samples from normozoospermic men significantly affects the performance of spermatozoa in assisted conception programs. PMID:28216914

  4. Sperm Competition, Sperm Numbers and Sperm Quality in Muroid Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An “overall sperm quality” parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and

  5. Cofilin is correlated with sperm quality and influences sperm fertilizing capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Chen, S M; Chen, X M; Lu, Y L; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-11-01

    Spermatozoa should undergo a series of biochemical modifications in female reproduction tract, which is collectively called sperm capacitation. The capacitated spermatozoa can bind to the egg zona pellucida, resulting in the occurrence of acrosome reaction which enabled spermatozoa penetrate into the egg. The formation of actin plays an important role in these processes. Actin polymerized during sperm capacitation, but the polymers dispersed before acrosome reaction. In this study, we take our focus on actin-binding protein, cofilin. Our results showed that the % and intensity of sperm expressing cofilin in normal sperm were significantly higher than in abnormal sperm, and the sperm expressing cofilin was correlated with sperm quality. Furthermore, treatment with anti-cofilin antibody increased the percentage of sperm capacitation and inhibited progesterone- or A23187- induced acrosome reaction in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of 100 ng/mL anti-cofilin antibodies markedly blocked the sperm penetration of zona-free hamster eggs. Besides, immunofluorescence results revealed that cofilin was colocalized with F-actin in the midpiece of spermatozoa; however, phospho-cofilin was expressed in the tail rather than in the midpiece of spermatozoa, which was not colocalized with F-actin in spermatozoa. Moreover, western blot revealed that phospho-cofilin increased in sperm capacitation, and the total cofilin and cofilin in insoluble fraction increased in acrosome reaction; immunofluorescence results showed that the amount of cofilin in acrosome increased in sperm capacitation. In conclusion, our study revealed that cofilin expression in human sperm is correlated with sperm quality and the alterations of cofilin and phospho-cofilin in fertilization affects sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and spermatozoa-oocyte fusion.

  6. Time within reproductive season, but not age or inbreeding coefficient, affects seminal and sperm quality in the whooping crane (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, M E; Converse, S J; Chandler, J N; Crosier, A L; Lynch, W; Wildt, D E; Keefer, C L; Songsasen, N

    2015-08-11

    All living whooping cranes (Grus americana) are descended from 16 or fewer birds that remained alive in the early 1940s, a bottleneck that puts the species at potential risk for inbreeding depression. Although AI is commonly used in the management of the captive population of this species, little is known about seminal traits or factors affecting sperm quality in the whooping crane. In the present study, semen samples were collected from 29 adult males (age 3-27 years) during the early (March), mid (April) and late (May) breeding season over 2 consecutive years. The effects of donor age, time within reproductive season and level of inbreeding on seminal characteristics were analysed using regression and information-theoretic model selection. Only time within reproductive season significantly affected seminal traits, with total numbers of spermatozoa and proportions of pleiomorphisms increasing across the season. We conclude that, even with a highly restricted number of founders, there is no discernible influence of inbreeding (at the levels described) on sperm output or quality. Furthermore, although there is variance in seminal quality, the whooping crane produces significant numbers of motile spermatozoa throughout the breeding season, similar to values reported for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida).

  7. Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit

    PubMed Central

    Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm

  8. Aspermy, Sperm Quality and Radiation in Chernobyl Birds

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, large amounts of radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Animals living in such contaminated areas are predicted to suffer fitness costs including reductions in the quality and quantity of gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied whether aspermy and sperm quality were affected by radioactive contamination by examining ejaculates from wild caught birds breeding in areas varying in background radiation level by more than three orders of magnitude around Chernobyl, Ukraine. The frequency of males with aspermy increased logarithmically with radiation level. While 18.4% of males from contaminated areas had no sperm that was only the case for 3.0% of males from uncontaminated control areas. Furthermore, there were negative relationships between sperm quality as reflected by reduced sperm velocity and motility, respectively, and radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that radioactive contamination around Chernobyl affects sperm production and quality. We are the first to report an interspecific difference in sperm quality in relation to radioactive contamination. PMID:24963711

  9. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  10. Sexual selection and the evolution of sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Lüpold, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success--fertilization--is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility.

  11. Epididymal contraction and sperm parameters are affected by clonidine.

    PubMed

    da Silva Júnior, E D; de Souza, B P; Vilela, V V; Rodrigues, J Q D; Nichi, M; de Agostini Losano, J D; Dalmazzo, A; Barnabe, V H; Jurkiewicz, A; Jurkiewicz, N H

    2014-11-01

    The use of clonidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenoceptors, is related to the fertility impairment. Thus, it has been described that changes in the epididymal function are related to the loss of fertility. Therefore, this study was sought to further evaluate the effects of clonidine in the rat distal cauda epididymis contractions and its consequence in the sperm parameters. The in vitro effects of clonidine in the isolated distal cauda epididymis were evaluated by pharmacological experiments. The consecutive contractile responses for clonidine in distal cauda epididymis showed desensitization. The noradrenaline-induced contractions were desensitized after in vitro clonidine pre-treatment (10(-5) M for 10 min). Clonidine was unable to alter the noradrenaline contractions if the in vitro pre-treatment was made in the presence of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), whereas prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) was ineffective. Moreover, the in vitro clonidine pre-treatment increased frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of distal cauda epididymis. In addition, to induce in vivo desensitization of α2-adrenoceptors, male Wistar rats were treated with crescent doses of clonidine and distal cauda of epididymis contraction and sperm parameters were analyzed. The in vivo treatment with clonidine diminished the potency of the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists and augmented the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of distal cauda epididymis. This treatment also altered the sperm transit time in epididymis, epididymal sperm reserves, sperm lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes activity. The results suggest that clonidine was able to affect the sperm quantity and quality by decreasing the transit time related to the increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in epididymis, although the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists were desensitized.

  12. Changes of sperm quality and hormone receptors in the rat testis after exposure to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Nudmamud-Thanoi, Sutisa; Sueudom, Wanvipa; Tangsrisakda, Nareelak; Thanoi, Samur

    2016-10-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is known to damage neurons and induce psychosis. It can also induce apoptosis in seminiferous tubules and affect sperm quality. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of a rat model of METH addiction on sperm quality and expression of progesterone receptors (PR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in the testis. Sperm quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm morphology and sperm concentration were examined. Protein and gene expressions PR, ERα and ERβ were studied using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The percentages of normal sperm motility and normal sperm morphology were significantly decreased in animals receiving METH, especially in escalating dose (ED METH) and escalating dose-binge (ED-binge METH) groups when compared with control. In addition, sperm concentrations in ED METH and ED-binge METH groups were numerically decreased. PR, ERα and ERβ immunoreactive cells were significantly decreased in spermatogonia, spermatogenic cells and especially in Sertoli cells in all METH-treated groups. Furthermore, messenger RNA expression of PR, ERα and ERβ were also significantly decreased in all METH-treated animals. These results indicate that METH can induce abnormal sperm quality. These changes of sperm quality may relate to the reduction of PR, ERα and ERβ expressions in male germ cells and Sertoli cells which are essential for spermatogenesis and development of sperm.

  13. Egg and sperm quality in fish.

    PubMed

    Bobe, Julien; Labbé, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Fish egg quality can be defined as the ability of the egg to be fertilized and subsequently develop into a normal embryo. Similarly, sperm quality can be defined as its ability to successfully fertilize an egg and subsequently allow the development of a normal embryo. In the wild or under aquaculture conditions, the quality of fish gametes can be highly variable and is under the influence of a significant number of external factors or broodstock management practices. For these reasons, the topic of gamete quality has received increasing attention. Despite the significant efforts made towards a better understanding of the factors involved in the control of gamete quality, the picture is far from being complete and the control of gamete quality remains an issue in the aquaculture industry. Some of the factors responsible for the observed variability of gamete quality remain largely unknown or poorly understood. In addition very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of egg and sperm quality. In the present review, the molecular and cellular characteristics of fish gametes are presented with a special interest for the mechanisms that could participate in the regulation of gamete quality. Then, after defining egg and sperm quality, and how can it can be accurately estimated or predicted, we provide an overview of the main factors that can impact gamete quality in teleosts.

  14. Sperm quality and oxidative status as affected by homogenization of liquid-stored boar semen diluted in short- and long-term extenders.

    PubMed

    Menegat, Mariana B; Mellagi, Ana Paula G; Bortolin, Rafael C; Menezes, Tila A; Vargas, Amanda R; Bernardi, Mari Lourdes; Wentz, Ivo; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bortolozzo, Fernando P

    2017-04-01

    Homogenization of diluted boar semen during storage has for a long time been regarded as beneficial. Recent studies indicated an adverse effect of homogenization on sperm quality for yet unknown reasons. This study aimed to verify the effect of homogenization on sperm parameters and to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress. Twenty-one normospermic ejaculates (21 boars) were diluted with Androstar(®) Plus (AND) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Semen doses were submitted to no-homogenization (NoHom) or twice-a-day manual homogenization (2xHom) during storage at 17°C for 168h. NoHom and 2xHom were similar (P>0.05) for both short- and long-term extenders with respect to motility and kinematics parameters (CASA system), membrane viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species, sulfhydryl content, and total radical-trapping antioxidant potential. 2xHom reduced sperm motility and motion kinematics (VCL, VSL, VAP, BCF, and ALH) following the thermoresistance test and presented with a slight increase in pH along the storage (P=0.05) as compared to NoHom. Furthermore, 2xHom semen doses presented with a constant SOD and GSH-Px activity during storage whereas enzymatic activity increased for NoHom at the end of the storage. These findings confirm that homogenization of semen doses is detrimental to sperm quality. Moreover, it is shown that the effect of homogenization is unlikely to be primarily related to oxidative stress. Homogenization is not recommended for storage of liquid boar semen for up to 168h in both short- and long-term extenders.

  15. The post-thaw irradiation of avian spermatozoa with He-Ne laser differently affects chicken, pheasant and turkey sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Passarella, S; Cerolini, S; Zaniboni, L; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Rosato, M P

    2013-11-30

    The effects of post-thaw Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on mobility and functional integrity of frozen/thawed chicken, pheasant and turkey spermatozoa were investigated. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity was also determined as a measure of the effect of irradiation on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Semen samples from each species were collected, processed and frozen according to the pellet procedure. After thawing, each semen sample was divided into two subsamples: the first one was the control; the second one was irradiated with a single mode continuous He-Ne laser wave (wavelength 632.8 nm; 6 mW; 3.96 J/cm(2)). Then the samples were assessed for sperm mobility (Accudenz(®) swim-down test), viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), osmotic-resistance (HOS test) and COX activity. The irradiation was effective P<0.05 increasing sperm motility in the turkey semen (0.228 ± 0.01 compared with 0.294 ± 0.02). The irradiation also caused an increase (P<0.05) of the COX activity in pheasant (+135 ± 4%) and turkey (+116 ± 4%) sperm, without affecting viability and osmotic-resistance. The COX was positively correlated (P<0.05) with the viability of chicken sperm, however no significant interactions were found between mobility and COX activity in the three avian species. Due to the difference in energetic metabolism among avian species used in this study, the He-Ne laser irradiation has a differential action on bio-stimulation of turkey, chicken and pheasant spermatozoa. The present results are the first to elucidate the possibility for restoration of motility of cryopreserved avian spermatozoa by bio-stimulation provided via He-Ne laser irradiation.

  16. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  17. Similarities and differences between the sperm quality index and sperm mobility index of broiler breeder semen.

    PubMed

    Dumpala, P R; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2006-12-01

    The sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm mobility index (SMI) both predict sperm motility. Previous research was conducted comparing the SMI with the SQI; however, semen was diluted improperly for the SQI (40-fold). For an accurate comparison, semen must be diluted 10-fold for the SQI. Therefore, the overall objective of this study, utilizing 4 experiments, was to examine the relationship of the SQI with the SMI when: 1) active, heat-inactivated, and boiled sperm were incubated and analyzed over 60 min, 2) motile and immotile sperm were combined, 3) dead sperm (boiled or frozen) and live sperm were combined, and 4) sperm were rendered immotile by adding Zn. In experiment 1, the SQI was stable throughout incubation for active sperm and zero for heat-inactivated and boiled sperm. The SMI from active sperm steadily increased over incubation. However, the SMI from heat-inactivated sperm increased drastically resulting in values higher than active sperm after 35 min of incubation. The SMI from active sperm was higher than boiled sperm throughout incubation. For experiment 2, a cubic increase in the SQI occurred as active sperm increased from 0 to 100%. However, there was no difference in SMI readings until samples contained 80% active sperm. In experiment 3, for both boiled and frozen sperm, as the percentage of viable sperm increased, there was a logarithmic increase in the SQI. The SMI values were similar for 0 and 100% viable sperm when using boiled sperm, and all SMI readings were similar to 0% viable for frozen sperm. For experiment 4, both the SQI and SMI values from semen incubated with Zn were lower than that of saline. The SQI from sperm incubated in saline was higher than that of Zn throughout incubation, yet there were no differences in SMI values after 90 min of incubation. In conclusion, both the SQI and SMI of sperm decrease in response to Zn. However, it appears that immotile and dead sperm are capable of increasing SMI values but not SQI values.

  18. Decreasing sperm quality: a global problem?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carlsen and coworkers (1992) reviewed 61 heterogeneous observational studies on semen quality published between 1938 and 1990. This review indicates that mean sperm density decreased significantly between 1940 and 1990. An extended meta-analysis with 101 studies confirmed a decline in sperm density for the period from 1934 to 1996 (2000). The key message of the meta-analyses is that sperm counts have decreased globally by about 50% over the past decades. This assessment has been questioned. Discussion A major methodological problem of the meta-analysis is the use of data collected in different countries, at different times, on different populations and with different methods of semen analysis. Furthermore, the results of studies concerning semen analysis are frequently biased e.g. by selection criteria of volunteers. In most studies on human semen characteristics the populations under study are insufficiently defined and the study participants are not a representative population sample. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased in Caucasian men worldwide. The investigation of common risk factors for male reproductive disorders requires well designed epidemiological studies and the collection of individual data. Summary Former meta-analyses of sperm count data show a global downward trend. This conclusion should be interpreted with caution. The included studies are of great heterogeneity due to geographical and/or ethnical variation, different study designs and different methodological standards. Population-based prospective studies are needed to investigate secular trends in male reproductive disorders. PMID:20085639

  19. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... decide whether a couple should use in vitro fertilization (IVF) to attempt a pregnancy. It is best ... genetic material. Once the sperm enters the egg, fertilization has a good chance of taking place. However, ...

  20. Tales of the Tail and Sperm Head Aches Changing concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head, neck and tail

    PubMed Central

    Chemes, Héctor E; Alvarez Sedo, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an update on the variable prognostic significance of different sperm pathologies in patients with severe male factor infertility due to morphology and motility disorders. Severe asthenozoospermia is one of the leading causes of male infertility as spermatozoa cannot reach the oocyte and/or penetrate normally. Identifying structural causes of sperm immotility was of great concern before the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), because immotility was the limiting factor in the treatment of these patients. In these cases, in vitro methods are used to identify live spermatozoa or stimulate sperm motility to avoid selection of non-viable cells. With these advances, fertilization and pregnancy results have improved dramatically. The identification of genetic phenotypes in asthenozoospermia is important to adequately inform patients of treatment outcomes and risks. The one sperm characteristic that seriously affects fertility prognosis is teratozoospermia, primarily sperm head and neck anomalies. Defects of chromatin condensation and acrosomal hypoplasia are the two most common abnormalities in severe teratozoospermia. The introduction of microscopic methods to select spermatozoa and the development of new ones to evaluate sperm quality before ICSI will assure that ultrastructural identification of sperm pathologies will not only be of academic interest, but will also be an essential tool to inform treatment choice. Herein, we review the differential roles played by sperm components in normal fertilization and early embryo development and explore how assisted reproductive technologies have modified our concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head, neck, mid-piece and tail. PMID:22198630

  1. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

  2. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  3. Sperm dilution ratio affects post-thaw motility rate and velocity of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Leal, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms and, thus, a necessity of more accurate investigations in all steps of this process. In this study, the effects of sperm dilution ratio on post-thaw sperm quality of Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated. Sperm was diluted in a standard freezing medium (glucose and methyl glycol) at four different ratios (sperm to final volume = 1:5, 1:10, 1:50 or 1:100), frozen in a nitrogen vapour vessel at -170°C and then stored in liquid nitrogen vessel at -196°C. Post-thaw motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; average path = VAP; straight line = VSL) were determined using a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA) at 10 and 40 s post-activation. The highest motility rates were observed when sperm was frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (76%) and 1:10 (75%). The highest VCL (225 μm/s) and VAP (203 μm/s) were observed at a ratio of 1:10, while VSL was similar among samples frozen at 1:5, 1:10 and 1:50 (97-124 μm/s). When those parameters were evaluated again 30 s later, motility decreased significantly in samples frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (57%) and 1:10 (61%), while velocities decreased significantly in all samples regardless of dilution ratio (75-85 μm/s of VCL, 38-53 μm/s of VAP and 25-39 μm/s of VSL). P. lineatus sperm should be frozen at a ratio of 1:10, where both the number of loaded sperm per straw and the post-thaw quality are maximized.

  4. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  5. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kumiko; Uchiyama, Kyoko; Kinukawa, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was determined. Individual differences in semen were detected using the sperm TUNEL index in these bulls (P < 0.01). The sperm TUNEL index of cryopreserved semen obtained from test-mated Japanese Black (n = 30, including two bulls with a conception rate lower than 10%) and Holstein (n = 34) bulls were analyzed. The average sperm TUNEL index and conception rate resulting from artificial insemination (AI) were 4.7% and 55.7% for Japanese Black, and 4.9% and 39.5% for Holstein, respectively. A weak negative correlation between sperm TUNEL index and conception rate was observed in Holstein bulls (P < 0.05). Semen samples from six bulls with more than 10% sperm TUNEL index were studied, and these samples showed low sperm viability. However, semen resulting in a very low conception rate did not have a high sperm TUNEL index. Although it would be difficult to predict a low conception rate resulting from AI using the sperm TUNEL index alone, the index can be used as an additional parameter to provide a more comprehensive description of semen quality.

  6. The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig; Luben, Thomas J.; Sacks, Jason D.; Olshan, Andrew; Jeffay, Susan; Strader, Lillian; Perreault, Sally D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Objectives We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on sperm quality. Methods We reexamined a previous cohort study of water disinfection by-products to evaluate sperm quality in 228 presumed fertile men with different air pollution profiles. Outcomes included sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate (count), and morphology, as well as DNA integrity and chromatin maturity. Exposures to O3 and PM2.5 were evaluated for the 90–day period before sampling. We used multivariable linear regression, which included different levels of adjustment (i.e., without and with season and temperature) to assess the relationship between exposure to air pollutants during key periods of sperm development and adverse sperm outcomes. Results Sperm concentration and count were not associated with exposure to PM2.5, but there was evidence of an association (but not statistically significant) with O3 concentration and decreased sperm concentration and count. Additionally, a significant increase in the percentage of sperm cells with cytoplasmic drop [β = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21–5.06] and abnormal head (β = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.03–0.92) was associated with PM2.5 concentration in the base model. However, these associations, along with all other sperm outcomes, were not significantly associated with either pollutant after controlling for season and temperature. Overall, although we found both protective and adverse effects, there was generally no consistent pattern of increased abnormal sperm quality with elevated exposure to O3 or PM2.5. Conclusions Exposures to O3 or PM2.5 at levels below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards were not associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm outcomes in this cohort of fertile men. However, some results suggested effects on sperm

  7. A strategy for improvement of postthaw quality of bison sperm.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S A; Lessard, C; Anzar, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to improve the postthaw quality of bison semen using zwitterion (ZI)-based extenders, glycerol addition at a lower temperature (4 °C), adding reduced glutathione (GSH) in extender, or treating bison sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) before freezing. Postthaw sperm motility and structural characteristics were analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer and flow cytometer respectively, at 0 and 3 hours postthaw incubation at 37 °C. In experiment 1, each ejaculate (N = 11) was diluted in Triladyl extender (control) or in ZI extenders (Tes-Tris or HEPES-Tris). In addition, glycerol in semen was added either at 37 °C or 4 °C before cryopreservation. Extenders had no significant effect on postthaw sperm motilities at 0 hour. However, sperm velocity parameters were higher (P < 0.05) in ZI extenders than in Triladyl. Sperm population with intact plasma membrane (IPM) and acrosomes (IACR) were higher in Triladyl than in ZI extenders (P < 0.05). Postthaw sperm total and progressive motilities, average path velocity, straight-line velocity, IPM, and IPM-IACR did not improve with the addition of glycerol at 4 °C. In experiment 2, semen was diluted (50 × 10(6) sperm per mL) in Triladyl extender containing 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mM GSH (an antioxidant) at 37 °C. Postthaw sperm motility and structural characteristics at 0 hour and percentage declined after 3 hour incubation, but did not differ because of GSH in the extender (P > 0.05). In experiment 3, fresh bison sperm (100 × 10(6) sperm in 1 mL) were pretreated with 0, 1, 2, or 3 mg/mL of CLC at 22 °C for 15 minutes and diluted to 50 × 10(6) sperm per mL in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender before cryopreservation. The CLC pretreated sperm had higher (P < 0.05) postthaw total and progressive motilities, IPM, and IACR at 0 hour and less percentage of decline in these characteristics after 3 hour postthaw incubation. In conclusion, zwitterion extenders (Tes

  8. Effects of Enterobacter cloacae on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Bussalleu, Eva; Garcia-Bonavila, Estela; Bonet, Sergi; Yeste, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of fresh and extended boar sperm often occurs in farms and artificial insemination (AI) centres during semen collection, processing and storage. The presence of bacteria produces detrimental effects on boar sperm quality, which may cause economic losses in reproductive centres. The present study has evaluated for the first time how the presence of Enterobacter cloacae affects the preservation of boar spermatozoa in liquid storage at 15-17 °C for an 11-day period. With this purpose, extended semen samples from seven healthy post-pubertal boars were artificially contaminated with different sperm:bacterium ratios (2:1; 1:1; 1:5 and 1:10) of E. cloacae. The 1:0 ratio (non-inoculated) served as a negative control. The most infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10) significantly damaged sperm motility and membrane integrity, increased sperm agglutination, and decreased the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa. In contrast, the negative impact that the lowest bacterial concentration (2:1) had on boar sperm quality was clearly lower. In addition, other parameters such as pH were also more affected at the highest infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10), despite no damage being observed on sperm morphology. In conclusion, the present work shows that damage inflicted by the presence of E. cloacae in boar sperm during liquid storage at 15-17 °C compromises the longevity and fertilising ability of seminal doses when bacterial concentration is higher than a 1:1 ratio. Further research is warranted to address by which mechanism E. cloacae impairs boar sperm quality.

  9. Effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2014-11-30

    Bacteriospermia in boar ejaculates is a frequent finding that compromises the sperm quality and, consequently, causes economic losses in swine industry. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality over a storing period of 11 days at 15-17 ° C. Ten commercial seminal doses coming from post-pubertal and healthy boars were artificially inoculated with different infective concentrations of P. aeruginosa, ranging from 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(4)cfu/mL. Negative controls were non-inoculated doses. Sperm quality, assessed as sperm motility (CASA), sperm viability, acrosome integrity and pH, as well as the bacterial growth, were checked after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days of storage at 15-17 ° C. Results obtained showed significant decreases in the percentages of total and progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity in the greatest infective concentrations (2 × 10(7) and 2 × 10(8)cfu/mL), when compared to the negative control. In contrast, there was no effect on seminal pH throughout the experiment. Results indicate the presence of P. aeruginosa in boar semen, apart from being a potential source for the spread of infectious diseases and harmful impact on sows, negatively affects the longevity and fertilizing ability of boar sperm when present in high concentrations. Thus, P. aeruginosa causes deleterious effects on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 15-17 ° C, thus strict hygienic measures must be implemented in boar studs to minimize bacterial concentration of semen doses.

  10. Transrectal microwave thermotherapy causing a short-time influence on sperm quality in Chinese chronic nonbacterial prostatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Xin; Wang, Han-Zhang; Zhai, Zheng-Xing; Ma, Bao-Liang; Li, Qin-Fang; Xiao, Nan; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2016-08-19

    Chronic prostatitis can affect the sperm's quality. Previous studies have shown that transrectal microwave thermotherapy (TRMT) results in symptomatic relief in patients with chronic prostatitis, but the effects on sperm have not been carefully investigated. This study evaluates the impact of TRMT on the relief or decrease of symptoms and quality of sperm when used to treat patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study. TRMT treatment was administered over 5 days, 1 h per day. Semen examination was carried out pretreatment and immediately at the conclusion of the 5-day treatment. Also, it was repeated 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. The treatment's symptom relief efficacy was evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). After the treatment, the overall NIH-CPSI scores were lower compared to those of pretreatment. In addition, the white blood cells and lecithin in expressed prostatic secretion were normal after the treatment. The sperm count was decreased by 23.8% 3 months after the treatment, sperm motility was reduced by 10.3% immediately after treatment, and sperm deformity was increased by 17.2%. The sperm volume and PH were not affected. However, the sperm quality recovered after treatment and the malformation rate was also lower at 6 months after treatment. TRMT is a favorable and safe treatment option for patients with nonbacterial chronic prostatitis. It could relieve the patient's symptoms and impact on sperm quality in the short-term.

  11. Organophosphorous pesticide exposures and sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Melissa J.; Venners, Scott A.; Chen, Xing; Liu, Xue; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Barr, Dana Boyd; Xu, Xiping

    2010-01-01

    Many Americans are exposed to low levels of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. In is unclear whether these exposures impact sperm production. We investigated whether there was an association between urinary OP insecticide metabolites and sperm concentration and motility in newly married men from a rural area of eastern People’s Republic of China. Ninety-four cases and 95 controls were included based on their median residual value of sperm concentration and motility after adjusting for relevant covariates. Their urine was analyzed for six dialkylphosphate (DAP) compounds. After adjustment for demographic and exposure variables, the odds of being a case were greater (Odds Ratio=1.30, 95% Confidence Interval 1.02-1.65) in men with higher urinary concentrations of dimethylphosphate (DMP) compared to men with lower levels. No significant differences between cases and controls were found among the other DAP concentrations. DMP exposure and sperm concentration and motility should be explored further in environmental exposure studies. PMID:20850521

  12. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production. PMID:27441055

  13. Is sperm motility maturation affected by static magnetic fields?

    PubMed Central

    Tablado, L; Pérez-Sánchez, F; Soler, C

    1996-01-01

    Kinematic parameters were evaluated in mouse epididymal extracts to monitor maturation of sperm movement in animals exposed to static magnetic fields using the Sperm-Class Analyzer computerized image analysis system. For this purpose, animals were exposed to a field of 0.7 T generated by a permanent magnet over 10 or 35 days for either 1 or 24 hr/day. The values of the motion endpoints were similar in animals used as controls and in those exposed to the nonionizing radiation, whatever the period of exposure or daily dosage. Changes in motility were observed in all groups: the percentage of total motile and progressive motile spermatozoa increased during passage through the epididymis, with major changes between the caput and corpus epididymides, and the pattern of swimming changed clearly towards more rapid and straighter trajectories. The processes of initiation of sperm motility and maturation of displacement patterns were not then affected by magnetic treatment. Moreover, it appears that sperm production is unaffected because no changes were observed in testicular or epididymal weights after exposure to static magnetic fields. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8959411

  14. Sperm quality evaluation in Solea senegalensis during the reproductive season at cellular level.

    PubMed

    Beirão, J; Soares, F; Herráez, M P; Dinis, M T; Cabrita, E

    2009-12-01

    Sperm quality seems to be one of the reasons for the reproduction constraints faced by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) aquaculturists. Previous studies in this species indicated that the sperm quality of individuals kept in culture varies throughout the year and that different sperm subpopulations can be identified in ejaculates according to the motility pattern of spermatozoa. Aiming to better understand factors affecting sole sperm quality in captivity, sperm of 11 males was assessed during the reproductive season using different parameters: motility characteristics using CASA analysis; cell plasma membrane resistance to seawater hyperosmolarity; DNA fragmentation with single-cell gel electrophoresis; and early apoptosis, labeled with Annexin-V FITC. Computer-assisted sperm analyses motility data were treated using multivariate analysis to identify the presence of different spermatozoa subpopulations according to their motility pattern. Four distinct sperm subpopulations were obtained: Subpop1, which includes fast linear spermatozoa; Subpop2, made up of fast nonlinear spermatozoa; Subpop3, which includes slow linear spermatozoa; and Subpop4, which contains slow nonlinear spermatozoa. The sperm subpopulation structure varied with time after activation and with male. Low cell resistance to the seawater hyperosmotic conditions was noticed. The Annexin-V assay allowed the identification of an apoptotic population ranging from 6% to 20%. A high percentage of cells (64.1%) showed a DNA fragmentation level below 30%, but these values varied significantly between males. DNA fragmentation appears to be related to cell membrane resistance to hyperosmotic conditions faced by the cells when in contact with seawater. This condition seems to modulate the composition of the motile sperm population and performance after activation. This phenomenon could be related to the spermatozoa maturation process.

  15. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica A; Galloway, Tamara S; Mondal, Debapriya; Esteves, Sandro C; Mathews, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from these devices could potentially affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving, and there are unexplained declines in semen quality reported in several countries. Given the ubiquity of mobile phone use, the potential role of this environmental exposure needs to be clarified. A systematic review was therefore conducted, followed by meta-analysis using random effects models, to determine whether exposure to RF-EMR emitted from mobile phones affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinic and research centres. The sperm quality outcome measures were motility, viability and concentration, which are the parameters most frequently used in clinical settings to assess fertility. We used ten studies in the meta-analysis, including 1492 samples. Exposure to mobile phones was associated with reduced sperm motility (mean difference -8.1% (95% CI -13.1, -3.2)) and viability (mean difference -9.1% (95% CI -18.4, 0.2)), but the effects on concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies. We conclude that pooled results from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Further study is required to determine the full clinical implications for both sub-fertile men and the general population.

  16. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  17. The effects on boar sperm quality of dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differ among porcine breeds.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Barrera, Xavier; Coll, David; Bonet, Sergi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to shed light on the relationship between boar sperm quality and dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has been reported inconsistently in the literature. With this aim, such effects were evaluated and compared among three different porcine breeds: Duroc, Large-White, and Pietrain. Animals were randomly separated into two groups and fed either with a control diet or with a diet supplemented with omega-3. Sperm quality of these boar (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) was assessed every week for a 26-week period. Supplementing boar's diet with omega-3 did not affect ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm viability, and acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity. In contrast, supplemented diet positively affected both sperm morphology in Large-White and Pietrain breeds and the osmotic resistance of Pietrain spermatozoa. No effects were seen for the same sperm parameters in Duroc breed. These breed-differences in boar fed with the supplemented diet could explain the contradictions in literature and might be related with differences in the composition of plasma membrane among breeds reported by other authors. Because no harmful effects were observed in the three evaluated breeds, but positive effects in Large-White and Pietrain boar, we can conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be added to boar's diet at the levels used in this study to improve their sperm quality. More research is, however, needed to determine how these fatty acids differently affect the morphology and the osmotic resistance of the spermatozoa in these breeds.

  18. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-03-23

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function.

  19. 3,3 diindolylmethane leads to apoptosis, decreases sperm quality, affects blood estradiol 17 β and testosterone, oestrogen (α and β) and androgen receptor levels in the reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Aksu, E H; Akman, O; Ömür, A D; Karakuş, E; Can, I; Kandemir, F M; Dorman, E; Uçar, Ö

    2016-12-01

    3,3 Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a major digestive product of indole-3 carbinol, obtained from Brassica family vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and Brussels sprouts. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DIM on sperm parameters, histological structures of testicular tissues, blood testosterone (T) and estradiol 17-β (E2) in male rats. Thirty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I: referred as Control group, received corn oil only; Group II: as DIM-10, rats received 10 mg kg(-1) DIM; Group III: as DIM-50, rats received 50 mg kg(-1) DIM; Group IV: as DIM-100, received 100 mg kg(-1) DIM during 53 days. Spermatological parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of testes and serum T and E2 levels were assayed. Histopathological examinations of tests were done. DIM caused an increase in MDA levels. It decreased motility and live sperm rates and increased degeneration of testicular tissues. While DIM-10 did not affect abnormal sperm rate, higher concentrations increased the abnormalities. Sperm density was higher in DIM-10 groups when compared to both other groups. Only DIM-50 had an anti-androgenic effect among all groups. Only, DIM-10 showed anti-estrogenic activity as compared to higher DIM groups. In conclusion, DIM (i) had side effect on some sperm characteristics, (ii) increased the MDA levels and (iii) led to histological degeneration of testicular tissues and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Influence of anaesthetic drugs on the epididymal sperm quality in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, E; Pérez-Marín, C C; Millán, Y; Agüera, E

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of different anaesthetic agents commonly used in cats on the fresh and frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. Seventeen male domestic cats were castrated using pentobarbital, ketamine HCl or isoflurane. Sperm samples were recovered from epididymides and evaluated before and after freezing, determining the vigor, motility, morphology, acrosome status, sperm viability and functional membrane integrity. Fresh epididymal sperm was influenced by the drugs used, noting that motility features, i.e. vigor (p≤0.05) and progressive motility (p≤0.05), were higher for the inhalation anaesthetic while the others did not showed statistical differences. In frozen-thawed sperm samples, cats treated with barbiturics showed lower values for acrosome status (p≤0.05) and integrity and functionality of membrane (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01, respectively) than in the others groups. Results suggested that drugs used for castration in cats could affect the sperm quality and this should be considered when implementing sperm cryopreservation in the feline.

  1. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  2. Lessons learned from a sperm morphology quality control programme.

    PubMed

    Franken, D R; Kruger, T F

    2006-12-01

    Although sperm morphology is the sperm parameter that is consistently correlated with in vitro and in vivo fertilisation, its value is often challenged due to discrepancies in reports. As sperm morphology is subjectively evaluated, the outcome of the report is entirely based on the experience and technical skill of the laboratory technician responsible for semen analyses. The study aimed to record the value of quarterly monitoring and refresher courses on morphology reading skills of technicians over a period of 40 months. Nineteen individuals from 12 different andrology laboratories were enrolled to a sperm morphology quality control programme after initial training sessions. Five of the 19 participants attended annual refresher courses. Two limits of error, namely +/- 0.5 SD and +/- 0.2 SD scores, were used to record technician deviation from the reference laboratory. Fifteen of the 19 individuals (78%) consistently reported sperm morphology readings that were within the +/- 0.5 SD limits of error. Furthermore, five of the participants, who attended annual refresher training courses, consistently reported results that were within the +/- 0.2 SD limits of error. For the first time, it has been illustrated that excellent sperm morphology reading skills can be achieved and maintained by initial training sessions, followed up with a continuous external quality control programme and annual refresher courses.

  3. Fertilisation is not a new beginning: sperm environment affects offspring developmental success.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Hannah; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-08-15

    For organisms with complex life histories, the direction and magnitude of phenotypic links among life-history stages can have important ecological and evolutionary effects. While the phenotypic links between mothers and offspring, as well as between larvae and adults, are well recognised, the links between sperm phenotype and offspring phenotype have been less well explored. Here, we used a split-clutch/split-ejaculate design to examine whether the environment that sperm experience affects the subsequent performance of larvae in the broadcast spawning marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa. The environment that sperm experienced affected the developmental success of larvae sired by these sperm; larvae sired by sperm that experienced low salinities had poorer developmental success than larvae sired by sperm that experienced a normal salinity. When we explored the interactive effects of the sperm environment and the larval environment with an orthogonal design, we found an interaction; when sperm and larvae experienced the same environment, performance was generally higher than when the sperm and larval environments differed. These effects could be due to selection on specific sperm phenotypes, phenotypic modification of the sperm or both. Together, our results challenge the traditional notion that sperm are merely transporters of genetic material; instead, significant covariance between sperm and offspring phenotypes exists. Our study adds to a growing list that demonstrates that fertilisation does have a homogenising effect on the phenotype of the zygote, and that events before fertilisation during the gamete phase can carry through to affect performance in later life-history stages.

  4. Effects of maternal age on embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes using testicular sperm with intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Won; Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Chun Kyu; Seo, Ju Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal age on fertilization, embryo quality, and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia. Methods A total of 416 ICSI cycles using testicular spermatozoa from partners with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n=301) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA, n=115) were analyzed. Female patients were divided into the following age groups: 27 to 31 years, 32 to 36 years, and 37 to 41 years. The rates of fertilization, high-quality embryos, clinical pregnancy, and delivery were compared across maternal age groups between the OA and NOA groups. Results The rates of fertilization and high-quality embryos were not significantly different among the maternal age groups. Similarly, the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates were not significantly different. The fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group than in the NOA group (p<0.05). Age-group analysis revealed that the fertilization and high-quality embryo rates were significantly different between the OA and NOA groups in patients aged 27 to 31 years old, but not for the other age groups. Although the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates differed between the OA and NOA groups across all age groups, significant differences were not observed. Conclusion In couples using testicular sperm from male partners with azoospermia, pregnancy and delivery outcomes were not affected by maternal age. However, women older than 37 years using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia should be advised of the increased incidence of pregnancy failure. PMID:28090461

  5. Low lead environmental exposure alters semen quality and sperm chromatin condensation in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Cebrián, Mariano E; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated environmental-lead (Pb) effects on semen quality and sperm chromatin, considering Pb in seminal fluid (PbSF), spermatozoa (PbSpz), and blood (PbB) as exposure biomarkers in urban men (9.3 microg/dL PbB). Several individuals (44%) showed decreases in sperm quality; sperm concentration, motility, morphology and viability associated negatively with PbSpz, whereas semen volume associated negatively with PbSF. Multiple linear regression estimated PbSF and PbSpz thresholds for alterations in semen quality. Forty-eight percent of samples showed high values of nuclear chromatin condensation (NCD) positively associated with PbSF and zinc in spermatozoa (ZnSpz). ZnSpz values were higher than in fertile men. These results suggest that Pb may affect sperm chromatin by altering sperm Zn availability. PbB was not associated with semen quality or NCD, suggesting that Pb in semen compartments assesses better the amount of Pb in the reproductive tract; therefore, these are better biomarkers to evaluate toxicity at low Pb-exposure levels.

  6. Sperm cryopreservation update: Cryodamage, markers, and factors affecting the sperm freezability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the most efficient method for long-term preservation of mammalian sperm. However, freeze-thawing procedures may strongly impair the sperm function and survival and thus decrease the reproductive performance. In addition, the sperm resilience to withstand cryopreservation, also known as freezability, presents a high individual variability. The present work summarizes the principles of cryoinjury and the relevance of permeating and nonpermeating cryoprotective agents. Descriptions about sperm cryodamage are mainly focused on boar sperm, but reference to other mammalian species is also made when relevant. Main cryoinjuries not only regard to sperm motility and membrane integrity, but also to the degradation effect exerted by freeze-thawing on other important components for sperm fertilizing ability, such as mRNAs. After delving into the main differences between good and poor freezability boar ejaculates, those protein markers predicting the sperm ability to sustain cryopreservation are also mentioned. Moreover, factors that may influence sperm freezability, such as season, diet, breed, or ejaculate fractions are discussed, together with the effects of different additives, like seminal plasma and antioxidants. After briefly referring to the effects of long-term sperm preservation in frozen state and the reproductive performance of frozen-thawed boar sperm, this work speculates with new research horizons on the preservation of boar sperm, such as vitrification and freeze-drying.

  7. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your ... as a laptop, might enhance sperm quality. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things ...

  8. Secular variations in sperm quality: fact or science fiction?

    PubMed

    Multigner, Luc; Oliva, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    The debate concerning the possible degradation in human sperm quality began in the 1970s, was revived at the beginning of the 1990s and has continued to mobilize the scientific community ever since. After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992) showing a decline in human semen quality over the last 50 years, several groups investigated the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who had provided semen at the same center for 10 to 20 years. A significant decrease in sperm concentration was reported in some studies, but not in others. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of reports suggesting that physical and chemical factors introduced and spread by human activity in the environment may have contributed to sperm decline. At the end of the 20th century the debate on declining semen quality is not closed. The lack of certainty and the serious consequences that such a decline would have on the fertility of human populations make this an important public health issue at the start of the 21st century. For this reason, intensive research should be developed in both fundamental and epidemiological domains, particularly in South America, where industrial and agricultural pollution pose a serious threat to the population.

  9. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa.

  10. Sperm competition affects male behaviour and sperm output in the rainbow darter

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow darters, Etheostoma caeruleum, are promiscuous fish with moderate rates of group spawning (between one and five males may simultaneously mate with one female). In this study, I examined male sperm output and male willingness to spawn under different levels of sperm competition intensity. One male and one female were allowed to spawn in an aquarium where they had visual and olfactory access to one of four treatments: four males, one male, zero males, or one female. Theory predicts that males should reduce sperm output when there are more than the average number of males at a group spawning (four-male treatment) and should increase sperm output when there are fewer than average males at a group spawning (one-male treatment). Mean sperm output did not differ among treatments. However, males released more sperm when spawning in the presence of competing males (four-male and one-male treatments pooled) than when spawning in the absence of competing males (zero-male and one-female treatments pooled). Males were also most likely to forego spawning opportunities when sperm competition intensity was high. Furthermore, male willingness to spawn was size dependent. Large males were more likely to forego spawning opportunities under high sperm competition intensity. Large males may be better off waiting for future spawning opportunities when there is a lower potential for sperm competition intensity.

  11. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  12. Effects of toxic work environments on sperm quality and ascorbic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )

    1990-02-26

    Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.

  13. Effect of semen preparation technique and its incubation on sperm quality in the Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Aboulmaouahib, S; Madkour, A; Kaarouch, I; Saadani, B; Sefrioui, O; Louanjli, N; Copin, H; Cadi, R; Benkhalifa, M

    2016-09-05

    In in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm preparation as critical part and influencing the sperm quality is especially dependent on the chosen technique itself and incubation parameters including temperature and CO2. In this study, we compared firstly density-gradient centrifugation technique (DGC) to the adapted DGC using the sperm pellet of 80% fraction (DGC/80P) in order to improve the sperm yield. Secondly, this study led to evaluate different sperm incubation conditions based on temperature effect (room temperature (RT = 23°C) versus 35°C) and in the other hand, with or without 5% CO2 during 24 hrs. Based on evaluating sperm conventional parameters and the DNA damage using TUNEL assay, our result showed that DGC/80P increased sperm quality compared to DGC with 25% of improvement. For temperature incubation effect after 24 hrs, 35°C increased the DNA damage and decreased the sperm quality while RT could improve sperm motility by 38%. Moreover, the sperm incubation with 5% CO2 after 24 hrs realised a negative impact on sperm parameters and its DNA damage. Indeed, for current IVF practice, a good sperm quality can be maintained for several hours at room temperature, while the sperm preparation is processed using the DGC/80P without CO2.

  14. Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness. PMID:24101978

  15. Heat stress but not inbreeding affects offensive sperm competitiveness in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Lieshout, Emile; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-09-01

    Environmental and genetic stress have well-known detrimental effects on ejaculate quality, but their concomitant effect on male fitness remains poorly understood. We used competitive fertilization assays to expose the effects of stress on offensive sperm competitive ability in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where ejaculates make up more than 5% of male body mass. To examine the effects of environmental and genetic stress, males derived from outcrosses or sib matings were heat shocked at 50°C for 50 min during the pupal stage, while their siblings were maintained at a standard rearing temperature of 28°C. Heat-shocked males achieved only half the offensive paternity success of their siblings. While this population exhibited inbreeding depression in body size, sperm competitiveness was unaffected by inbreeding, nor did the effect of heat shock stress on sperm competitiveness depend on inbreeding status. In contrast, pupal emergence success was increased by 34% among heat-stressed individuals, regardless of their inbreeding status. Heat-shocked males' ejaculate size was 19% reduced, but they exhibited 25% increased mating duration in single mating trials. Our results highlight both the importance of stress in postcopulatory sexual selection, and the variability among stressors in affecting male fitness.

  16. Computer-assisted sperm analysis of fresh epididymal cat spermatozoa and the impact of cool storage (4 degrees C) on sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Filliers, M; Rijsselaere, T; Bossaert, P; De Causmaecker, V; Dewulf, J; Pope, C E; Van Soom, A

    2008-12-01

    Epididymal cat sperm is commonly used for in vitro fertilization. Because of the high variability in preparation protocols and methods of evaluation, sperm quality may vary considerably between experiments and laboratories. The aims of the present study were (1) to describe an epididymal sperm preparation protocol to produce clean, highly motile samples using density gradient centrifugation, (2) to provide reference values of computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) parameters of fresh epididymal cat sperm after density gradient centrifugation and (3) to investigate the effect of cool storage on various spermatozoa characteristics. After slicing the epididymides, viable and motile sperm cells were isolated using Percoll centrifugation. Sperm motility parameters were subsequently assessed using CASA in experiment 1. In experiment 2, fresh (day 0) sperm samples were evaluated for motility parameters (HTR) and stained for assessment of acrosomal status (FITC-PSA), morphology (eosin/nigrosin (E/N)), membrane integrity (E/N and SYBR((R))14-PI) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL). After addition of a Tris-glucose-citrate diluent containing 20% egg yolk, samples were cooled to 4 degrees C and reassessed on d1, d3, d5, d7 and d10. Cool storage impaired most motility and velocity parameters: MOT, PMOT, VAP, VSL, VCL, BCF, RAPID and the percentage of normal spermatozoa showed a decrease over time (P<0.05) as compared to fresh samples. In contrast, STR, ALH, membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and the percentage of acrosome intact spermatozoa were not affected by cool storage. However, the influence of cool storage of cat spermatozoa on subsequent in vitro embryo development and quality after IVF requires further investigation.

  17. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Yin; Huang, Yan; Du, Qing-Yun; Yao, Gui-Dong; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3%) had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m-0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B]) in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  18. Sperm DNA quality evaluated by comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay in stallions after unilateral orchiectomy.

    PubMed

    Serafini, R; Varner, D D; Bissett, W; Blanchard, T L; Teague, S R; Love, C C

    2015-09-15

    Unilateral orchiectomy (UO) may interfere with thermoregulation of the remaining testis caused by inflammation surrounding the incision site, thus altering normal spermatogenesis and consequently sperm quality. Two measures of sperm DNA quality (neutral comet assay and the sperm chromatin structure assay [SCSA]) were compared before UO (0 days) and at 14, 30, and 60 days after UO to determine whether sperm DNA changed after a mild testis stress (i.e., UO). The percent DNA in the comet tail was higher at 14 and 60 days compared to 0 days (P < 0.05) after UO. All other comet tail measures (i.e., length, moment, migration) were higher at all time periods after UO compared to 0 days (P < 0.05). Two SCSA measures (mean-αt, mode-αt) increased at 14 days after UO (P < 0.05), whereas two measures (SD-αt and COMP-αt) did not change. This study identified a decrease in sperm DNA quality using both the neutral comet assay and the SCSA, which was not identified using traditional measures of sperm quality.

  19. Potential effect of smoking on semen quality through DNA damage and the downregulation of Chk1 in sperm

    PubMed Central

    CUI, XIANGRONG; JING, XUAN; WU, XUEQING; WANG, ZHENQIANG; LI, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that smoking is associated with decreased male fertility via altering the quality of semen. However, the mechanism by which cigarette smoking affects semen quality remains to be fully elucidated. Heavy smoking-induced DNA damage has been reported to correlate with abnormal spermatozoa and male infertility. It has been reported that, in response to DNA damage, activation of the checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) facilitates S and G2 checkpoint arrest. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of Chk1 in sperm cells of smoking and non-smoking men, and to further examine the correlation between DNA fragmentation rates and the expression levels of Chk1 with smoking. The present study was performed on a cohort of 841 smoking men and 287 non-smoking men. In the investigation, sperm concentration, motility, viability, seminal plasma zinc concentration, acrosin activity and sperm DNA fragmentation were examined. The gene and protein expression levels of Chk1 were detected using reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. It was observed that the progressive motility of the sperm was significantly decreased in the moderate and heavy smoking groups, whereas no significant changes were observed in the mild smoking group. The sperm in the medium-term smoking group had significantly decreased progressive motility, and the semen concentration, sperm count and progressive motility vitality were markedly decreased in the long-term smoking group. Compared with the non-smoking group, the abnormal head rates in the heavy smoking group and long-term smoking group were significantly increased. The sperm viability and seminal plasma zinc concentration were markedly increased in the smoking group. Increased DNA fragmentation rates were found in the smoking group. The expression of Chk1 was significantly decreased in the smoking group, compared with the non-smoking group. Progressive

  20. Beneficial effect of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate treatment on the Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, P; Tipkantha, W; Siriaroonrat, B; Comizzoli, P; Chatdarong, K

    2016-11-22

    The Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) population, included in CITES Appendix I, has been declining for decades. Proper gamete preservation condition is critical for breeding programme management using artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The present study aimed at investigating the impact of post-thawing treatment of leopard semen with extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATPe) on sperm quality (including morphological traits and ability to fertilize an oocyte). Semen from six adult male leopards was collected by electroejaculation (one ejaculation per cat). After the evaluation of the fresh sample quality, the semen was cryopreserved (10 × 10(6) cells per straw; two straws per cat). After thawing, the sperm sample from the first straw of each cat was divided into three aliquots: control (no ATPe), supplemented with 1.0 or 2.5 mM ATPe that were evaluated for sperm quality at 10, 30 min and 3 hr post-thawing. The sperm sample from the second straw, supplemented with 0, 1.0 or 2.5 mM ATPe for 30 min, was assessed for IVF with domestic cat oocytes. Sperm quality (all metrics) was negatively affected by the cryopreservation process (p ≤ .05). However, the percentage of sperm motility, level of progressive motility and percentage of plasma membrane integrity did not differ (p > .05) among post-thawing groups. The sperm mitochondrial membrane potential was enhanced (p ≤ .05) by ATPe treatment (1.0 and 2.5 mM; 10 min to 3 hr of incubation). Furthermore, incubation of ATPe (1.0 and 2.5 mM) for 30 min could promote sperm velocity patterns (curvilinear velocity; VCL and straight line velocity; VSL) (p ≤ .05). The percentage of pronuclear formation and cleaved embryos was increased (p ≤ .05) after 1.0 ATPe treatment (49.8 ± 2.8; 45.9 ± 1.5) compared to 0 mM (41.4 ± 3.3; 38.9 ± 0.5) whereas the number of sperm binding/oocyte did not significantly differ among groups. In summary, we suggest that ATPe

  1. The relationship between sperm quality in cool-shipped semen and embryo recovery rate in horses.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Noble, J K; Standridge, S A; Bearden, C T; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D; Cavinder, C A

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the quality of cool-shipped stallion semen and fertility has not been adequately described. This study evaluated sperm quality of cool-shipped semen from 459 ejaculates (N = 130 stallions) that were used for insemination of 196 embryo donor mares (n = 496 estrous cycles). Embryo recovery rate (ERR; %) increased, as all sperm measures (e.g., motility, viability, DNA quality, morphology, concentration, and total number) increased. Threshold values are reported for each sperm quality measure (e.g., total sperm motility ≥ 65%) that separate two ERR groups (e.g., average: ∼50% ERR; high: ∼65% ERR).

  2. Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the affecting factors in disturbance process of spermatogenesis is chemotherapeutic-induced oxidative stress resulted from cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment which leads to diminished sperm quality via interference in spermatogenesis process. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) in reducing the CP-induced side effects on reproductive system. Materials and Methods: 24 mature male mice were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and were undergone therapy for 35 days. Control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day, IP). CP group were injected CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) as well as CP. In the end of the treatment period, the mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Then, the epididymis was incubated with CO2 in a human tubal fluid medium (1 ml) for half an hour in order to float sperm. Then, the number, motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin staining), DNA breakage (acridine orange staining), nucleus maturity, and sperm morphology (aniline blue staining) were analyzed. Results: The average (15.87±1.28), motility (35.77±2.75), viability (40±3.03), nucleus maturity (36±2.79) and sperm morphology (61.75±0.85) were decreased significantly in CP group in comparison with control and EP groups, whereas EP caused significant increase of these parameters. Also, the percentage of DNA damage was increased significantly in CP group (41.75±3.75) in comparison with control (2±0.71) and EP groups (22.5±4.13). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed ameliorating effects of EP on sperm quality of CP treated animals. PMID:26221128

  3. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (P<0.05). However, from the three monosaccharides tested, glucose provided the best sperm quality after freezing-thawing. With respect to the disaccharides studied, samples frozen with the extender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (P<0.05) in the samples cryopreserved with the trehalose extender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition.

  4. A quality assurance initiative for commercial-scale production in high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm.

    PubMed

    Hu, E; Liao, T W; Tiersch, T R

    2013-10-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: (1) the main production quality characteristics; (2) the process features for quality assurance; (3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; (4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and (5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable.

  5. Acute BRSV infection in young AI bulls: effect on sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Alm, K; Koskinen, E; Vahtiala, S; Andersson, M

    2009-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is an important part of the calf pneumonia complex, occasionally affecting even adult cattle. However, the pathogenicity of BRSV in animals older than 6 months is often neglected. Finland is free of many contagious diseases in farm animals, and this gives a good opportunity to study the effects of specific pathogens on bovine reproduction. This report describes the deteriorating effects of BRSV epizootics on sperm morphology and fertility of young dairy bulls (n = 79) at a bull station. More than half of the young bulls had a clinical respiratory disease caused by BRSV during their quarantine when they were 6 months old. Four of seven subsequent quarantine groups were affected. Six months later, when these seropositive bulls (n = 54) came into semen production, they had poorer sperm morphology, and the proportion of normal spermatozoa was 74.1% in BRSV-seropositive animals compared with 81.2% in seronegative bulls (n = 25) (p = 0.035). Field fertility was also slightly affected, the 60-day non-return rates were 75.2% and 76.8% for BRSV seropositive and seronegative bulls respectively (p = 0.014). Potential reasons for lowered sperm quality are discussed here.

  6. Sperm quality assessments for endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen Texanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Eilts, Bruce E.; Guitreau, Amy M.; Figiel, Chester R.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) and computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (CASA) methods were developed and validated for use with endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus collected (n=64) during the 2006 spawning season. Sperm motility could be activated within osmolality ranges noted during milt collections (here 167–343 mOsm/kg). We hypothesized that sperm quality of milt collected into isoosmotic (302 mOsm/kg) or hyperosmotic (500 mOsm/kg) Hanks' balanced salt solution would not differ. Pre-freeze viabilities were similar between osmolalities (79%±6 (S.E.M.) and 76%±7); however, post-thaw values were greater in hyperosmotic buffer (27%±3 and 12%±2; P=0.0065), as was mitochondrial membrane potential (33%±4 and 13%±2; P=0.0048). Visual estimates of pre-freeze motility correlated with total (r=0.7589; range 23–82%) and progressive motility (r=0.7449) by CASA and were associated with greater viability (r=0.5985; Pr=-0.83; P=0.0116) and mitochondrial function (r=-0.91; P=0.0016). By FCM-based assessments of DNA integrity, whereby increased fluorochrome binding indicated more fragmentation, higher levels were negatively correlated with count (r=-0.77; Pr=-0.66; P=0.0004). Fragmentation was higher in isotonic buffer (P=0.0234). To increase reproductive capacity of natural populations, the strategy and protocols developed can serve as a template for use with other imperiled fish species, biomonitoring, and genome banking.

  7. Insulin affects sperm capacity in pig through nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Saveria; Giordano, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Rago, Vittoria; Carpino, Amalia

    2013-11-01

    Insulin (Ins) has recently been demonstrated to have the ability to induce the capacitation process in pig spermatozoa. In various mammalian species, capacitation has been linked to the nitric oxide (NO) signalling; therefore, this study investigated NO production in Ins-treated pig spermatozoa by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. For the same samples, sperm capacitation was evaluated by chlortetracycline staining, protein tyrosine phosphorylation pattern and acrosomal status. A significant increase of the intrasperm NO level and the activation of three capacitation indices were detected in response to Ins treatment. Conversely, sperm preincubation with an NO synthase inhibitor (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) or with the anti-Ins receptor β (IRβ) antibody reversed all of the Ins-related effects. These results suggest that Ins has the capacity to enhance intracellular NO concentrations in pig spermatozoa and indicate a possible NO implication upon Ins promotion of capacitation.

  8. Maternal exposure to butyl paraben impairs testicular structure and sperm quality on male rats.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Marina T; Sanabria, Marciana; Leite, Gabriel A A; Borges, Cibele S; Cucielo, Maira S; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Foster, W G; Kempinas, W G

    2017-04-01

    Parabens are hormonally active chemicals widely used as preservatives in foods and are frequently detected in human fluids and tissues. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternal butyl paraben (BP) exposure on male sexual development. Pregnant Wistar rats received corn oil (control group), or BP at doses of 10, 100, or 200 mg/kg, subcutaneously, from gestational day 12 until postnatal day 21. Our results demonstrated that developmental BP exposure significantly increased the number of adult Leydig cells and the circulating concentrations of testosterone and attenuated FSH and LH concentrations at 200 mg/kg. BP exposure adversely affected spermatogenesis kinetics at doses of 10 and 200 mg/kg and provoked a decrease in the immunostaining of EsR1 and AR at 200 mg/kg. The sperm motility was impaired at the 10 mg/kg dose, and sperm head abnormalities were increased in all BP dose groups. We suggest that BP impairs testicular structure and function in the rat, affecting sperm quality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1273-1289, 2017.

  9. Addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins to the thawing extender: effects on boar sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Tomás, C; Gómez-Fernández, J; Gómez-Izquierdo, E; Mocé, E; de Mercado, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect that the addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) to the thawing extender has on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Pooled semen (n = 5) from three boars was used for the experiments. The semen was cryopreserved with an egg-yolk-based extender, it was diluted after thawing in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) supplemented with different concentrations of CLC (0, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/500 × 10(6) sperm), and these samples were incubated at 37°C for 150 min. The following parameters of sperm quality were evaluated 30 and 150 min after incubation: sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM; %), sperm with normal acrosomal ridge (NAR; %), total motile sperm (TMS; %), progressively motile sperm (PMS; %) and kinetic parameters. Both SIPM and NAR increased (p < 0.05) when the thawing extender was supplemented with 12.5, 25 and 50 mg CLC/500 × 10(6) sperm. Nevertheless, motility decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of CLC exceeded 12.5 mg CLC/500 × 10(6) sperm. In conclusion, our results suggest that the supplementation of thawing extenders with CLC improves sperm viability and reduces acrosome damage after freezing/thawing.

  10. Factors affecting sperm recovery rates and survival after centrifugation of equine semen.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M S; Lyle, S K; Eilts, B E; Eljarrah, A H; Paccamonti, D L

    2012-11-01

    Conventional centrifugation protocols result in important sperm losses during removal of the supernatant. In this study, the effect of centrifugation force (400 or 900 × g), duration (5 or 10 min), and column height (20 or 40 mL; Experiment 1); sperm concentration (25, 50, and 100 × 10(6)/mL; Experiment 2), and centrifugation medium (EZ-Mixin CST [Animal Reproduction Systems, Chino, CA, USA], INRA96 [IMV Technologies, Maple Grove, MN, USA], or VMDZ [Partnar Animal Health, Port Huron, MI, USA]; Experiment 3) on sperm recovery and survival after centrifugation and cooling and storage were evaluated. Overall, sperm survival was not affected by the combination of centrifugation protocol and cooling. Total sperm yield was highest after centrifugation for 10 min at 400 × g in 20-mL columns (95.6 ± 5%, mean ± SD) or 900 × g in 20-mL (99.2 ± 0.8%) or 40-mL (91.4 ± 4.5%) columns, and at 900 × g for 5 min in 20-mL columns (93.8 ± 8.9%; P < 0.0001). Total (TMY) and progressively motile sperm yield followed a similar pattern (P < 0.0001). Sperm yields were not significantly different among samples centrifuged at various sperm concentrations. However, centrifugation at 100 × 10(6)/mL resulted in significantly lower total sperm yield (83.8 ± 10.7%) and TMY (81.7 ± 6.8%) compared with noncentrifuged semen. Centrifugation in VMDZ resulted in significantly lower TMY (69.3 ± 22.6%), progressively motile sperm yield (63.5 ± 18.2%), viable yield (60.9 ± 36.5%), and survival of progressively motile sperm after cooling (21 ± 10.8%) compared with noncentrifuged semen. In conclusion, centrifuging volumes of ≤ 20 mL minimized sperm losses with conventional protocols. With 40-mL columns, it may be recommended to increase the centrifugal force to 900 × g for 10 min and dilute the semen to a sperm concentration of 25 to 50 × 10(6)/mL in a milk- or fractionated milk-based medium. The semen extender VMDZ did not seem well suited for centrifugation of equine semen.

  11. Sperm Competition in Humans: Mate Guarding Behavior Negatively Correlates with Ejaculate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans. PMID:25250582

  12. Temperature management during semen processing: Impact on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Henning, H; Rüdiger, K; Wallner, U; Waberski, D

    2013-12-01

    Freshly collected boar spermatozoa are sensitive to a fast reduction in temperature because of lipid phase transition and phase separation processes. Temperature management during semen processing may determine the quality of stored samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of isothermic and hypothermic semen processing protocols on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory study, ejaculates (n = 12) were first diluted (1:1) with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) at 32 °C, then processed either with isothermic (32 °C) or hypothermic (21 °C) BTS, stored at 17 °C, and assessed on days 1, 3, and 6. Temperature curves showed that 150 minutes after the first dilution, semen doses of both groups reached the same temperature. Two-step hypothermic processing resulted in lower sperm motility on days 1 and 6 (P < 0.05). Concomitantly, hypothermally processed samples contained less membrane intact sperm on days 3 and 6 (P < 0.05). Using AndroStar Plus extender instead of BTS reduced the negative effect of hypothermic processing. In the field study, 15 semen samples from each of 23 European artificial insemination studs were evaluated as part of an external quality control program. Semen quality based on motility, membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, and a thermoresistance test was higher for stations using one-step isothermic dilutions (n = 7) compared with artificial insemination centers using two-step hypothermic protocols (n = 16). Both studies show that chilling injury associated with hypothermic dilution results in lower quality of stored boar semen compared with isothermic dilution and that the type of semen extender affects the outcomes.

  13. Absence of effects on the rat sperm quality after subacute exposure to low doses of fungicide prochloraz.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Marciana; Pessin, Alessandra; Zanutto, Mirella Rossitto; Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; Guerra, Marina Trevizan; Banzato, Thais Petrochelli; Borges, Cibele dos Santos; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2015-01-01

    Prochloraz (PCZ) is a fungicide and androgen-receptor antagonist used worldwide in horticulture and agriculture. Pre- and perinatal exposure to this pesticide during sexual differentiation is deleterious for male offspring. Since data on the effects of PCZ on epididymal functions are scarce, and because sperm maturation occurs in this organ, the present investigation aimed to determine whether low PCZ doses administered to rats during the phase of sperm transit through the epididymis might affect the morphophysiology of this organ and sperm quality. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 different groups: 0 (control, vehicle) or 10, 15, or 30 mg/kg bw/d PCZ diluted in corn oil administered orally for 4 consecutive days. Morphofunctional parameters of the male reproductive tract, hormone concentrations, sperm evaluations, and fertility and histopathologic analysis of testis and epididymis were assessed. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and control groups in relation to all evaluated parameters. Data demonstrated show that PCZ exposure for a brief 4-d exposure and low doses did not produce reproductive toxicity or compromise sperm quality in adult rats.

  14. Evaluation of semen quality in patients with malignancies referred for sperm banking before cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, N; Sadeghi, M; Hosseini Jadda, S H; Ranjbar, F; Kamali, K; Akhondi, M A

    2011-10-01

    Different cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to azoospermia and even sterility for an unknown period. Whether the type of cancer could affect semen quality or not is under debate. In this study, we have reviewed semen parameters of men with cancer who deposited their sperm samples at the Avicenna Research Institute tissue bank before undergoing cytotoxic treatment. This descriptive retrospective study examined 73 cases referred to sperm bank, because of malignancy, prior to initiation of cancer treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The data recorded were age, marital status, reproductive history, semen analysis reports and cancer history of the patients. Semen samples were analysed according to recommendations of the World Health Organization (1999) before freezing. Results of the analysis showed that 71.2% (52) of patients had oligozoospermia, 93.2% (68) teratozoospermia and 86.3% (63) asthenozoospermia. Different groups of cancer patients did not show any differences in oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. Impaired spermatogenesis even prior to cancer treatment indicates the importance of fertility preservation. As the majority of patients had suitable specimens for freezing and assisted reproduction, sperm banking is recommended to be performed promptly and before any treatment, especially surgery.

  15. Influence of temperature and sperm preparation on the quality of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Annelies; Klerkx, Elke; Huyser, Carin; Bosmans, Eugene; Campo, Rudi; Ombelet, Willem

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term (24h) in-vitro sperm incubation at room temperature (RT; 23°C) versus testis temperature (35°C) on various sperm-quality parameters. Semen samples (n=41) were prepared both by density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) and the swim-up technique in order to compare the influence of sperm preparation on sperm quality after incubation. Progressive motility and morphology were significantly higher after incubation at RT compared with 35°C (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). The proportions of acrosome-reacted, apoptotic and dead spermatozoa were significantly lower in samples incubated for 24h at RT compared with 35°C (P<0.001, P=0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). The number of motile, morphologically normal, non-acrosome-reacted and nonapoptotic spermatozoa recovered after sperm preparation was significantly higher in DGC compared with swim-up samples (P<0.001). However, spermatozoa prepared by swim-up showed better survival after incubation compared with DGC-prepared spermatozoa, especially when incubated at 35°C. In conclusion, this study indicates a significantly better and longer preservation of sperm quality when incubation is performed at RT. These findings may convince laboratories to change the routinely used sperm storage conditions in order to maximize the quality of the prepared sperm sample.

  16. The use of complimentary assays to evaluate the enrichment of human sperm quality in asthenoteratozoospermic and teratozoospermic samples processed with Annexin-V magnetic activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Delbes, G; Herrero, M B; Troeung, E-T; Chan, P T K

    2013-09-01

    Sperm chromatin integrity may affect the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Developing a clinically reliable strategy to enrich sperm samples with high chromatin quality spermatozoa prior to sperm banking or use in ART would thus be advantageous. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the sperm chromatin quality in men with different categories of semen parameters; and (ii) evaluate the extents of Annexin-V magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) technology coupled with differential density gradient centrifugation (DGC) in improving sperm chromatin quality. Three categories of men from couples attending a university-based fertility clinic were recruited based on their semen parameters: normozoospermic (n = 13), asthenoteratozoospermic (n = 17) and teratozoospermic (n = 12). For each patient, spermatozoa in semen samples were processed first by DGC to enrich the motility and further by MACS to remove spermatozoa showing apoptotic features. The yield and enrichment of sperm quality was evaluated at each step with conventional semen parameters in conjunction with a combination of five complementary assays, to assess sperm maturity, chromatin structure, compaction and DNA integrity (Hyaluronic Binding Assay, SCSA, chromomycine A3 staining and TUNEL and COMET assays). Our results demonstrated that, compared with normozoospermic samples, raw asthenoteratozoospermic and teratozoospermic samples had a higher proportion of spermatozoa containing DNA breaks, but only asthenoteratozoospermic exhibited altered chromatin structure and decreased binding to hyaluronic acid. Interestingly, the DGC appeared to select for more mature spermatozoa with high DNA compaction. More importantly, in all categories of semen samples, Annexin-V MACS allows enrichment of spermatozoa with good chromatin quality as measured by the TUNEL and SCSA. Because effective treatment modalities to improve sperm DNA damage are limited, our results suggest a potential clinical

  17. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P < 0.05) was not maintained to 40 weeks of age in their letrozole-treated littermates. Reducing endogenous estrogen production neonatally or prepuberally had no detectable adverse effect on libido or sperm fertilizing capacity.

  18. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p < .05) in the CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p < .05). Progressive motility tended to be increased in the CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  19. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μM) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μM) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  20. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μ M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μ M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm.

  1. Hexavalent chromium affects sperm motility by influencing protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Linqing; Wang, Lirui; Fu, Jieli; Li, Yuhua; Zhao, Na; Li, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium reportedly induces reproductive toxicity and further inhibits male fertility in mammals. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which hexavalent chromium affects motility signaling in boar spermatozoa in vitro. The results indicated that Cr(VI) decreased sperm motility, protein phosphorylation, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and metabolic enzyme activity starting at 4μmol/mL following incubation for 1.5h. Notably, all parameters were potently inhibited by 10μmol/mL Cr, while supplementation with the dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) prevented the inhibition of protein phosphorylation. Interestingly, high concentrations of Cr (>10μmol/mL) increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of some high-molecular-weight proteins in the principle piece but decreased that in the middle piece associated with an extreme reduction of sperm motility. These results suggest that chromium affects boar sperm motility by impairing tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of sperm by blocking the cAMP/PKA pathway in boar sperm in vitro.

  2. Effects of Lifestyle Exposure and Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality Parameters of Fertile Men.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spermatogenesis is vulnerable to disruption. Some sperm quality studies have reported unfavorable trends in male reproductive health indicators, and lifestyle exposures (LE) and excess body adiposity have been among the factors implicated. LE (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumpt...

  3. Sperm-mediated gene transfer-treated spermatozoa maintain good quality parameters and in vitro fertilization ability in swine.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M L; Zannoni, A; De Cecco, M; Fantinati, P; Bernardini, C; Galeati, G; Spinaci, M; Giovannoni, R; Lavitrano, M; Seren, E; Forni, M

    2009-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for producing multitransgenic animals is required for medical and veterinary applications. Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is an effective method for introducing multiple genes into pigs (Sus, Sus scrofa). The major benefits of this technique are the high efficiency, low cost, and ease of use compared with that of other methods: Sperm-mediated gene transfer does not require embryo handling or expensive equipment. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SMGT treatment and exogenous DNA uptake on sperm quality. Even after a coincubation with a 20-fold larger amount (100 microg/mL) of DNA than usual (5 microg/mL), sperm quality parameters were not significantly affected, confirming the hypothesis that the SMGT protocol itself or the amount of bound DNA do not compromise the possibility of an extended employment of SMGT. More importantly, we found that semen used for in vitro fertilization 24h after DNA uptake gave good cleavage (60% vs. 58%, treated vs. control) and developmental rates definitely positive (41% vs. 48%, treated vs. control). These good results are connected to a competitive efficiency of transformation (62%) due to the numerous improvements in SMGT technique. We demonstrate that SMGT-treated spermatozoa retain good quality and fertilization potential for at least 24h, expanding the possibility to apply transgenesis in field conditions in swine, where the greatest hurdles are fertilization timing and plain procedure.

  4. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant effects of crocin on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the anti-neoplastic drugs. Despite its numerous clinical applications, it has devastating effects on the testicles and declines the sperm quality in treated patients. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of crocin in improving the toxicity induced by CP in reproductive system. In this study, 24 male adult mice (6 to 8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups, control group received normal saline (0.1 mL, IP, daily), the CP group received CP (15 mg kg-1, IP, weekly) and the CP + crocin group received CP along with crocin (200 mg kg-1, IP, daily). After 35 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed. The samples of epididymis in human tubal fluid medium incubated for 30 min in 5% CO2 for flotation of sperm. Sperm were obtained from caudal epididymis using dissecting method. Then, the parameters of sperm quality including sperm count, motility, viability, DNA damage, nuclear maturation, and sperm morphology were evaluated. In CP group, the sperm count, motility, viability, nuclear maturation and sperm morphology were significantly decreased compared to control group (p < 0.05) and in the CP + crocin group all of these parameters significantly increased compared to CP group (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm with DNA damage in the CP group significantly increased compared to other groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that the crocin was able to suppress free radicals and enhance the quality of sperm in CP treated animals. PMID:25568721

  6. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    PubMed

    Ebisch, I M W; Pierik, F H; DE Jong, F H; Thomas, C M G; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males participated in a 26-week intervention study consisting of a daily treatment with folic acid (5 mg/day) and zinc sulphate (66 mg/day), or placebo. Pre- and post-intervention semen parameters, serum folate, zinc, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and inhibin B concentrations were measured. The results indicated that intervention treatment significantly increased sperm concentration in subfertile males. Other semen and endocrine parameters were not affected by intervention treatment. At baseline, positive correlations were found between serum zinc and sperm concentration, motility and inhibin B. Serum zinc and FSH were inversely correlated. As (already) well known from previous research, inhibin B positively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and morphology, and was inversely correlated with FSH. The latter was positively correlated with testosterone. In addition, testosterone and inhibin B were inversely correlated. After intervention, the correlations with zinc disappeared. We conclude that the increase in sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention is not the result of alterations in FSH, testosterone or inhibin B concentrations. Although zinc and folate have several effects on spermatogenesis, the underlying mechanisms involved are not clear.

  7. Combined effect of permeant and non-permeant cryoprotectants on the quality of frozen/thawed chicken sperm.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Fabio; Madeddu, Manuela; Sayed, Ahmad Abdel; Zaniboni, Luisa; Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Cerolini, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined effect of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and two non-permeating cryoprotective agents, trehalose and sucrose, on the quality of post-thaw chicken semen. Adult Lohmann roosters (n = 27) were used. Semen was processed according to the following treatments: Lake pre-freezing extender +6% DMA (LPF, control treatment), LPF + 0.1 M trehalose (LPF-T treatment), LPF + 0.1 M sucrose (LPF-S treatment) and LPF + 0.1 M trehalose + 0.1 M sucrose (LPF-TS treatment). Semen was loaded into straws and frozen in nitrogen vapour. Sperm quality (viability, mobility and kinetic parameters) was assessed immediately after thawing (T0) and at 5 (T5), 10 (T10) and 15 min (T15) thereafter. The different cryodiluent combinations significantly affected the kinetic parameters. The presence of trehalose, alone or with sucrose, combined with DMA improved the quality of motion in cryopreserved sperm in comparison to DMA alone (LPF) and DMA with sucrose (LPF-S). In particular, the highest values in linearity (LIN) and wobble (WOB) were measured in the treatment LPF-T. The treatments significantly affected the recovery rate of progressive motile sperm that presented the best value soon after thawing in the LPF-T treatment; moreover, the presence of trehalose, alone (LPF-T) or with sucrose (LPF-TS), significantly improved the recovery rate of progressive motile sperm also at T5 and T10 compared to LPF and LPF-S. The present results show a positive synergic action of DMA and trehalose on motile function of thawed chicken sperm.

  8. Daily exposure to summer temperatures affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M

    2015-08-01

    High temperatures have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a daily constant temperature of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high temperatures (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high temperatures are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high temperatures, especially by altering female reproduction.

  9. Use of antioxidants reduce lipid peroxidation and improve quality of crossbred ram sperm during its cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Banday, Mohamad Naiem; Lone, Farooz Ahmad; Rasool, Fabiha; Rashid, Muzamil; Shikari, Arif

    2017-02-01

    Ram sperm are subjected to extreme oxidative stress during their preservation at -196 °C resulting in reduced quality at post thaw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidants taurine, quercetin and reduced glutathione on the post thaw quality of crossbred ram sperm. A total of twenty four ejaculates from six crossbred rams were collected and extended with tris-based extender with no antioxidant (Control), with taurine (40 mM), quercetin (5 μg/ml) and reduced glutathione (5 mM). The post thaw sperm quality was determined by percent sperm motility, live sperm count, intact acrosome and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) reacted spermatozoa and lipid peroxidation was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) level both in seminal plasma and sperm cell. At post thaw, percent sperm motility and live sperm count were significantly (p < 0.05) higher for taurine than control and reduced glutathione but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from quercetin. The percent HOST reacted spermatozoa were significantly higher for taurine than control, quercetin and reduced glutathione. Seminal plasma MDA level was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for taurine than control and non-significantly lower than quercetin and reduced glutathione. However, spermatic MDA level did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the control and antioxidants. In conclusion, taurine at 40 mM reduced lipid peroxidation and improved post thaw sperm quality of cryopreserved crossbred ram semen. Further, transportation time of semen samples in an ice chest at 4-5 °C may be included as a part of equilibration period, when collection shed and frozen semen unit are located at a distance.

  10. Comparative Study in Laboratory Rats to Validate Sperm Quality Methods and Endpoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. A.; Briggs, G. B.; Alexander, W. K.; Still, K. R.; Grasman, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The Naval Health Research Center, Detachment (Toxicology) performs toxicity studies in laboratory animals to characterize the risk of exposure to chemicals of Navy interest. Research was conducted at the Toxicology Detachment at WPAFB, OH in collaboration with Wright State University, Department of Biological Sciences for the validation of new bioassay methods for evaluating reproductive toxicity. The Hamilton Thorne sperm analyzer was used to evaluate sperm damage produced by exposure to a known testicular toxic agent, methoxyacetic acid and by inhalation exposure to JP-8 and JP-5 in laboratory rats. Sperm quality parameters were evaluated (sperm concentration, motility, and morphology) to provide evidence of sperm damage. The Hamilton Thorne sperm analyzer utilizes a DNA specific fluorescent stain (similar to flow cytometry) and digitized optical computer analysis to detect sperm cell damage. The computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) is a more rapid, robust, predictive and sensitive method for characterizing reproductive toxicity. The results presented in this poster report validation information showing exposure to methoxyacetic acid causes reproductive toxicity and inhalation exposure to JP-8 and JP-5 had no significant effects. The CASA method detects early changes that result in reproductive deficits and these data will be used in a continuing program to characterize the toxicity of chemicals, and combinations of chemicals, of military interest to formulate permissible exposure limits.

  11. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  12. Use of Androcoll-S after thawing improves the quality of electroejaculated and epididymal sperm samples from red deer.

    PubMed

    Anel-López, L; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Morrell, J M

    2015-07-01

    Single Layer Centrifugation is a useful technique to select sperm with good quality. The use of selection methods such as Androcoll could become an important tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to improve other artificial reproductive techniques such as sperm sex sorting, in vitro fertilization or AI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Single Layer Centrifugation with Androcoll-S on the sperm quality of red deer sperm samples of two different origins, electroejaculated samples and epididymal samples obtained post-mortem, after thawing and after an incubation for 2h at 37°C. Sperm motility, viability, membrane permeability, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal status and DNA fragmentation were determined for all samples. The samples selected by Androcoll-S showed an improvement in sperm kinematics compared to unselected samples after thawing and after incubation. The same effect was observed in parameters such as viability, mitochondrial activity or acrosomal status which were improved after the selection. In contrast, no difference was found in DNA fragmentation between selected and unselected samples within the same sperm type. We conclude that sperm selection by SLC with Androcoll-S after thawing for red deer sperm of both types is a suitable technique that allows sperm quality in both types of sperm samples to be improved, thereby improving other assisted reproductive techniques. Further studies (IVF and in vivo fertilization) are required to determine whether this improvement can increase fertility, as has been shown for other species.

  13. Screening targeted testis-specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis-specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis-specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia-associated genes, resulting in 348 testis-specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  14. Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

  15. Cryopreservation of Iberian pig spermatozoa. Comparison of different freezing extenders based on post-thaw sperm quality.

    PubMed

    De Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Ana; Gómez, Emilio; Sanz, Elena

    2010-03-01

    characteristics. It can be suggested that in the Iberian pig, the beneficial effects of Orvus ES Paste during the freezing process of spermatozoa is time dependent. The analysis of different sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function, determined that the extenders studied in the present experiment affected the quality of frozen-thawed semen in Iberian boar.

  16. A Study of the Antioxidant Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acids on Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Khairul; Das, Srijit; Othman, Abas Mazni; Majid, Norzaiti Abdul; Rahman, Mohd Padzil Abdul

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assisted reproductive techniques are useful in helping infertile couples achieve successful conception. Initial studies have shown that sperm cryopreservation, one step in assisted reproduction, causes a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to, among other things, free radical activities. The aim of the present study was to minimize this oxidative attack by adding an antioxidant into the sperm microenvironment. Alpha lipoic acids were selected for this purpose for their efficient free radical scavenging properties and solubility in lipid and aqueous phases. METHODS For this investigation, semen from six Boer bucks was pooled. Seminal analysis of the baseline prior to incubation of samples with different concentrations of Alpha lipoic acids (0.00625, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mmol/ml) was performed, and post-seminal analysis was conducted after a one-hour incubation. The comet assay was used to observe the effect of Alpha lipoic acids on sperm DNA integrity. Statistical analysis using an unpaired t-test with a significance level of p<0.05 was then performed. RESULTS Our results indicate that the sperm motility rate was improved after incubation with Alpha lipoic acids at a concentration of 0.02 mmol/ml. This concentration was also capable of reducing DNA damage. CONCLUSION In conclusion, Alpha lipoic acids renders cryoprotection to sperm, thereby improving sperm quality. PMID:18719769

  17. Post-thaw survival of ram spermatozoa and fertility after insemination as affected by prefreezing sperm concentration and extender composition.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, A G; Colonna, M A; Bellitti, A

    2001-03-15

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of prefreezing sperm concentration using two extenders on post-thaw survival and acrosomal status of ram spermatozoa (Experiment 1) and fertility after intrauterine insemination with differing doses of semen (Experiment 2). In autumn (Northern hemisphere), semen was collected by artificial vagina from 8 adult Leccese rams and ejaculates of good quality semen were pooled. Two extender systems for cryopreservation were considered, one based on milk-lactose egg yolk (Milk-LY) and the other based on tris-fructose egg yolk (Tris-FY). Experiment 1 (2 x 6 factorial scheme) examined the in vitro characteristics of spermatozoa in relation to the Milk-LY and Tris-FY extenders and six prefreezing sperm concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 500 and 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). Experiment 2 (2 x 4 factorial) evaluated the influence of the Milk-LY vs Tris-FY extenders and four doses (20, 40, 80 and 160 x 10(6) spermatozoa/0.25 mL) corresponding to prefreezing spermatozoa concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL, on fertility of ewes inseminated in uterus by laparoscope. Prefreezing sperm concentration influenced (P < 0.01) freezability of spermatozoa and affected negatively all the in vitro parameters at 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL. Overall, Milk-LY tended to ensure higher viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa after thawing at the intermediate sperm densities (range 100 to 500 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). At 500 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL concentration corresponded the best condition for survival of spermatozoa (71.2%), acrosome integrity (71.5%) and acrosomal loss (6.0%). At the lowest sperm concentration (50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL), Tris-FY resulted in a higher survival rate than Milk-LY (61.3%, P < 0.05) and lower acrosomal loss (9.7%, P < 0.05). Milk-LY supported spermatozoa motility better than Tris-FY after incubation at sperm concentration between 50 and 400 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL (0.05 > P < 0

  18. Colloid single-layer centrifugation improves post-thaw donkey (Equus asinus) sperm quality and is related to ejaculate freezability.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, I; Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Urbano, M; Hidalgo, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether colloid single-layer centrifugation (SLC) improves post-thaw donkey sperm quality and if this potential enhancement is related to ejaculate freezability. Semen from Andalusian donkeys was frozen following a standard protocol. SLC was performed on frozen-thawed semen and post-thaw sperm parameters were compared with uncentrifuged samples. Sperm quality was estimated by integrating in a single value sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), morphology and viability (evaluated under brightfield or fluorescence microscopy). Sperm freezability was calculated as the relationship between sperm quality obtained before freezing and after thawing. Ejaculates were classified into low, medium and high freezability groups using the 25th and 75th percentiles as thresholds. All sperm parameters were significantly (P<0.01) higher in SLC-selected samples in comparison to uncentrifuged frozen-thawed semen and several kinematic parameters were even higher than those obtained in fresh semen. The increment of sperm parameters after SLC selection was correlated with ejaculate freezability, obtaining the highest values after SLC in semen samples with low freezability. We concluded that, based on the sperm-quality parameters evaluated, SLC can be a suitable procedure to improve post-thaw sperm quality of cryopreserved donkey semen, in particular for those ejaculates with low freezability.

  19. Does sperm DNA fragmentation affect the developmental potential and the incidence of apoptosis following blastomere biopsy?

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Tahereh; Salehi, Mohammad; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Fadaei-Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Dehghani-Mohammadabadi, Maryam; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Common methods employed in assisted reproduction technology (ART) include intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with an unspecified level of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SDF on human preimplantation embryo development and the incidence of apoptosis following a single blastomere biopsy. Using sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) to assess SDF, a total of 20 processed semen samples were categorized into two groups; group I: SDF ≤30% and group II: SDF >30%. After ICSI, fertilization, cleavage, and embryo quality score were assessed. A single blastomere was biopsied from day 3 embryos and development was monitored on day 4. The frequency of apoptosis in biopsied embryos was assayed by TUNEL and the level of BCL-2, BAX, hsa-mir-15a, and hsa-mir-16-1 were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). SCD was found to be negatively correlated with sperm motility and normal form spermatozoa (p < 0.05). The rate of fertilization, cleavage, and embryo quality score were not significantly different between the two groups (all p > 0.05). SDF >30% had no negative effect on potential development and did not increase the proportion of apoptotic cells and the level of apoptosis-related genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in group II vs. group I (p > 0.05). It appears that at the levels assessed paternal genome damage had little if any negative effect on preimplantaton embryo development and apoptosis following single blastomere biopsy. This may reflect the selection of morphologically normal sperm for ICSI and the repair capacity of the oocyte.

  20. Single layer centrifugation (SLC) improves sperm quality of cryopreserved Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Morrell, J M; Johannisson, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Alvaro-García, P J; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Soler, A J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sperm selection by means of single layer centrifugation (SLC) on sperm quality after cryopreservation, either when SLC is used before freezing or after thawing, using Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen collected by electroejaculation (EE). Ejaculates from six bucks were collected by EE and divided into two aliquots. One of them (unselected) was diluted with Biladyl(®) by the two-step method and frozen over nitrogen vapor. The other aliquot was selected by the SLC technique and subsequently frozen in the same way as the unselected samples (SLC before freezing). In a further treatment, two unselected straws were thawed and SLC was carried out (SLC after thawing). At thawing, sperm motility of all samples ((i) unselected; (ii) selected before freezing and (iii) selected after thawing) was evaluated by CASA. In addition, integrity of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and DNA fragmentation index were assessed by flow cytometry. Most of the sperm parameters were improved (P≤0.001) in samples selected by SLC after thawing in relation to unselected or selected by SLC before freezing. The percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa was greater (86%) for sperm samples selected after thawing compared with unselected (58%) or selected before freezing (54%). Moreover, percentages of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP) were also greater for sperm samples selected after thawing compared to sperm samples unselected or selected before freezing (spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane: 80% vs. 32% vs. 12%; spermatozoa with hMMP: 54% vs. 1% vs. 15%; respectively). Therefore, sperm quality after cryopreservation is improved in Blanca-Celtibérica buck ejaculates collected by EE when a sperm selection technique such as SLC is carried out after thawing.

  1. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  2. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  3. Sperm quality and selected biochemical parameters of seminal fluid in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Wąchocka, A; Brodzki, P; Wrona, Z; Piech, T; Wawron, W; Chałabis-Mazurek, A

    2015-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs is most commonly associated with age and increasing concentrations of dihydrotesterone, a hormone that stimulates growth and secretion of the prostatic epithelial cells. During this process, the biochemical composition of prostatic secretion changes, which can affect the quality of semen and limit the ability of the sperm to contribute to fertilization. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine possible correlation between BPH and biological quality of semen. The study was performed in 11 sexually mature dogs of various breeds. Animals were divided into two groups: healthy dogs (Group I; n = 5; mean age 4.32; SEM = 1.28) and dogs with BPH (Group II n = 6; mean age 6.16; SEM = 0.65). Semen and prostate secretions were collected and evaluated in this study. Standard semen examinations were conducted in the ejaculates collected; moreover, the extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation was determined. The selected biochemical parameters were determined in the prostate secretion. According to the examination results, there were no significant differences in standard semen parameters between the two groups of dogs. Nevertheless, morphological tests of semen in dogs with BPH demonstrated elevated percentages of primary defects in spermatozoa. A significant increase (P = 0.01) in DNA defragmentation of sperm was found in dogs with BPH. Moreover, changes in the biochemical composition of prostate secretion were demonstrated. In dogs with BPH, pH of prostate secretions was greater (P = 0.03), concentrations of cholesterol increased while concentrations of Zn and Cu decreased. The study findings reveal that BPH does not change semen quality in dogs.

  4. Sperm quality and its relationship to natural and assisted conception: British Fertility Society guidelines for practice.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Mathew; Lewis, Sheena; Morroll, David

    2013-09-01

    Reports on the influence of semen parameters on natural or assisted pregnancy are contradictory, suggesting that the many confounding variables which contribute to outcome have not been taken into account. However, it is possible to derive some consensus for both natural and assisted conception by focussing on studies which use WHO-recommended semen analysis on relatively large populations, applying appropriate statistics and accounting for 'female factors'. The concentration of progressively motile sperm has consistently been shown to be the most predictive factor with regard to outcome. Around 64% of studies suggest that a reasonable chance of success with artificial insemination requires at least 5 × 10⁶ motile sperm and this is supported by the WHO's revised reference range for natural conception. Sperm morphology remains controversial, with a lack of standardisation across centres, the adoption of ever-stricter scoring criteria and changing reference values. Antisperm antibodies do not appear to influence outcome independently of sperm motility and agglutination. Sperm DNA damage appears to be related to sperm quality, embryo development and pregnancy loss, yet there remains no consensus on the best testing procedures, clinical reference values and how patients with an adverse result should be managed. In conclusion, laboratories should continue to focus on reducing the uncertainty and improving the quality of their basic semen analysis.

  5. The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Gorpinchenko, Igor; Nikitin, Oleg; Shulyak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is impossible to imagine a modern socially–active man who does not use mobile devices and/or computers with Wi–Fi function. The effect of mobile phone radiation on male fertility is the subject of recent interest and investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct in vitro influence of mobile phone radiation on sperm DNA fragmentation and motility parameters in healthy subjects with normozoospermia. Material and methods 32 healthy men with normal semen parameters were selected for the study. Each sperm sample was divided into two equal portions (A and B). Portions A of all involved men were placed for 5 hours in a thermostat, and portions B were placed into a second thermostat for the same period of time, where a mobile phone in standby/talk mode was placed. After 5 hours of incubation the sperm samples from both thermostats were re–evaluated regarding basic motility parameters. The presence of DNA fragmentation in both A and B portions of each sample was determined each hour using a standard sperm chromatin dispersion test. Results The number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group, influenced by electromagnetic radiation, is statistically lower than the number of spermatozoa with progressive movement in the group under no effect of the mobile phone. The number of non–progressive movement spermatozoa was significantly higher in the group, which was influenced by cell phone radiation. The DNA fragmentation was also significantly higher in this group. Conclusions A correlation exists between mobile phone radiation exposure, DNA–fragmentation level and decreased sperm motility. PMID:24982785

  6. Boar spermatozoa and prostaglandin F2alpha. Quality of boar sperm after the addition of prostaglandin F2alpha to the short-term extender over cooling time.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-10-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) has been used to improve reproductive performance in swine. The goal of the present work was to determine how the addition of PGF2alpha affects boar sperm quality. Eleven different treatments were evaluated: eight with only PGF2alpha (0.625, 1.25, 2.50, 5, 10, 12.50, 25 and 50mg PGF2alpha/100ml) and three binary treatments (0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA), 1.25mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml HA, 0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+7.5microM caffeine (Caf)). All these substances were added to 16 ejaculates from 16 healthy and sexually mature boars (n=16), and each ejaculate was considered as a replicate. Our study also assessed the effects of these 11 treatments over different periods of preservation. Sperm quality was tested immediately after the addition of treatments (time 0), and after 1, 3, 6 and 10 days of cooling at 15 degrees C. To evaluate sperm quality, five parameters were analysed: (1) sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity (using a multiple fluorochrome-staining test), (2) sperm motility, (3) sperm morphology and (4) agglutination (using a computer assisted system) and (5) osmotic resistance (using the ORT). Parametric (analysis of variance for repeated measures) and non-parametric tests (Friedman test) were used as statistical analyses. Treatments with PGF2alpha concentrations higher than 12.5mg/100ml were cytotoxic while the others did not damage boar spermatozoa. Thus, the other treatments may be used to produce profitable effects without adverse effects. Moreover, the addition of PGF2alpha at 5mg/100ml to sperm diluted in BTS may maintain sperm viability and motility better after 6 days of cooling, because significant differences were observed (P<0.05) compared with control at the same time.

  7. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P < 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P < 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after thawing did not change during the study period in ALA group, but decreased in PA group (P < 0.006). After 3h of incubation LPO increased in the ALA group (P < 0.02), while LPO did not differ between phases within groups. In conclusion, feeding of neither saturated nor polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls.

  8. Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Richard G.; Byers, Andrew S.; Sumner, Rebecca N.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Zhang, Zulin; Freeman, Sarah L.; Moxon, Rachel; Richardson, Holly M.; Green, Martin; Craigon, Jim; England, Gary C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse temporal trends in human semen quality and cryptorchidism in infants have been associated with exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) during development. Here we report that a population of breeding dogs exhibit a 26 year (1988–2014) decline in sperm quality and a concurrent increased incidence of cryptorchidism in male offspring (1995–2014). A decline in the number of males born relative to the number of females was also observed. ECs, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated bisphenol 153 (PCB153), were detected in adult dog testes and commercial dog foods at concentrations reported to perturb reproductive function in other species. Testicular concentrations of DEHP and PCB153 perturbed sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in vitro but did not affect LH stimulated testosterone secretion from adult testis explants. The direct effects of chemicals on sperm may therefore contribute to the decline in canine semen quality that parallels that reported in the human. PMID:27503122

  9. Sperm quality differences between the rainy and dry seasons in captive black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Leonor; Parra, Gerardo Cerezo; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Pérez-Bolaños, Stephanella C; Díaz Sánchez, Vicente; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2002-05-01

    The present work provides an assessment of sperm measures (concentration, motility, viability, etc.) of three black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) during the rainy and dry seasons in Mexico City, as well as an evaluation of the between-subjects variability of sperm quality. Twenty samples obtained by rectal electroejaculation and digested with trypsin were evaluated. The results showed that during the dry season (n = 9) the semen samples were of better quality than those obtained during the rainy season (n = 11). The individual animals showed differences in sperm concentration, although there were no differences in sperm quality.

  10. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  11. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching.

    PubMed

    Long, Julie A; Purdy, Phillip H; Zuidberg, Kees; Hiemstra, Sipke-Joost; Velleman, Sandra G; Woelders, Henri

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw function of sperm from five turkey lines: one commercial line and four research (RBC1; E; RBC2; F) lines from Ohio State University (OSU). The model for cryopreservation was set up as a 2×2×2×5 design for cryoprotectant (glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA)), cryopreservation medium (Lake or ASG), method of dilution (fixed dilution volume versus fixed sperm concentration) and turkey line, respectively. The final cryoprotectant concentrations were 11% glycerol or 6% DMA. Thawed sperm were evaluated for plasma membrane integrity and quality, motility, acrosome integrity and, after artificial insemination, for egg fertility and hatchability. Commercial turkey hens were used for all fertility trials, regardless of semen source. Turkey sperm frozen with glycerol exhibited higher membrane integrity and membrane quality upon thawing than turkey sperm frozen with DMA although no differences in total motility, and only minimal differences in progressive motility, were detected among the eight cryopreservation treatments. Within line, fertility was affected by cryoprotectant, medium and dilution method, where the overall highest percentages of fertile, viable embryos (Day 7) occurred for the DMA/ASG/fixed sperm concentration method, while high percentages (15.8-31.5%) of fertile, non-viable embryos (Day 1-6) were observed for multiple cryopreservation methods, including two glycerol treatments. From a single insemination, the duration of true and viable fertility in all lines was 10-13 weeks and 9-10 weeks, respectively. The duration of hatchability was 4-6 weeks after insemination for four of the turkey lines. The highest percentage of viable embryos was observed for the commercial

  12. The quality of cryopreserved sperm collected from feline caudal epididymides stored at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, Mari; Kaihara, Aya; Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2011-10-01

    On the assumption that animals of wild feline species died in the field, caudal epididymal sperm were cryopreserved following storage of the feline epididymides at 20°C for 0-24 hr, and their qualities were observed. Compared to the qualities at 0 hr, no significant differences were noted following 12 hr of storage at 20°C. On comparison of the qualities between caudal sperm cryopreserved after 24 hr storage at 4°C and after 12 hr at 20°C followed by 12 hr storage at 4°C, no significant differences were noted. These findings suggest that the cryopreserved sperm collected from epididymides of dead animals might be useful for artificial insemination if cryopreservation was performed within 12 hr exposure to ambient temperature.

  13. Boar sperm quality in lines of pigs selected for either ovulation rate or uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Purdy, P H; Spiller, S F; Welsh, C S; Blackburn, H D

    2012-08-01

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to conserve the unique germplasm for the future and to characterize sperm quality as a correlated response to the selection criterion imposed compared with an unselected control line (CO). Boars representing genetic diversity available in all 3 lines were produced in 2 farrowing seasons. Season 1 was born in September 2005 and was sampled for semen characteristics in October 2006. Season 2 was born in March 2006 and was sampled for semen characteristics in February and March 2007. Each boar (n = 60) was collected twice. The sperm-rich fraction was obtained, and volume and concentration of sperm cells were measured to estimate total sperm production. Each ejaculate was extended 1:3 (vol/vol) with Androhep Plus (Minitube, Verona, WI) and was packed for shipping to the National Animal Germplasm Program laboratory for processing into frozen straws. Semen quality was measured by computer-assisted semen analysis at 3 semen processing points: fresh (FR), 24 h after extender added (E), and postthaw (PT). A mixed model ANOVA was applied to the data. Fixed effects of farrowing season, line, and 2-way interactions were fitted. The random effect of boar (n = 60) within farrowing season and line was used to test line differences. Sperm concentration was not different (P = 0.18) among the lines (0.594 × 10(9), 0.691 × 10(9), and 0.676 × 10(9) cells/mL for CO, OR, and UC lines, respectively). However, significance (P = 0.04) was detected for the volume of the sperm-rich fraction, greatest for OR (86.4 mL), intermediate for UC (75.5 mL), and least for CO (70.2 mL). Line differences were thus detected (P = 0.02) for total sperm production per ejaculate, greatest for OR (54.9 × 10(9)), intermediate for UC (48.7 × 10(9)), and least for CO (40.5 × 10(9)). A larger percentage of progressively motile sperm and

  14. Boar sperm quality in lines of pigs selected for either ovulation rate or uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Purdy, P H; Spiller, S F; Welsh, C S; Blackburn, H D

    2012-02-10

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to conserve the unique germplasm for the future and to characterize sperm quality as a correlated response to the selection criterion imposed compared to an unselected control line (CO). Boars representing genetic diversity available in all 3 lines were produced in 2 farrowing seasons. Season 1 was born in September 2005 and sampled for semen characteristics in October 2006. Season 2 was born in March 2006 and sampled for semen characteristics in February and March 2007. Each boar (n = 60) was collected twice. The sperm-rich fraction was obtained and volume and concentration of sperm cells were measured to estimate total sperm production. Each ejaculate was extended 1:3 vol/vol with Androhep Plus (Minitube, Verona, WI) and packed for shipping to the National Animal Germplasm Program laboratory for processing into frozen straws. Semen quality was measured by computer-assisted semen analysis at 3 semen processing points: fresh (FR), 24 h after extender added (E), and post-thaw (PT). A mixed model analysis of variance was applied to the data. Fixed effects of farrowing season, line and 2-way interactions were fitted. Random effect of boar (n = 60) within farrowing season and line was used to test line differences. Sperm concentration was not different (P = 0.18) among the lines (0.594 × 10(9), 0.691 × 10(9), and 0.676 × 10(9) cells/mL) for CO, OR, and UC lines, respectively. However, significance (P = 0.04) was detected for volume of the sperm-rich fraction, greatest for OR (86.4 mL), intermediate for UC (75.5 mL), and least for CO (70.2 mL). Line differences were thus detected (P = 0.02) for total sperm production per ejaculate, greatest for OR (54.9 × 10(9)), intermediate for UC (48.7 × 10(9)), and least for CO (40.5 × 10(9)). A larger percentage of progressively motile sperm and greater

  15. Effect of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate on cryopreserved epididymal cat sperm intracellular ATP concentration, sperm quality, and in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, Paweena; Arya, Nlin; Comizzoli, Pierre; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2015-09-15

    Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is essential for supporting sperm function in the fertilization process. During cryopreservation, damage of sperm mitochondrial membrane usually leads to compromised production of intracellular ATP. Recently, extracellular ATP (ATPe) was introduced as a potent activator of sperm motility and fertilizing ability. This study aimed to evaluate (1) levels of intracellular ATP in frozen-thawed epididymal cat sperm after incubation with ATPe and (2) effects of ATPe on epididymal cat sperm parameters after freezing and thawing. Eighteen male cats were included. For each replicate, epididymal sperm from two cats were pooled to one sample (N = 9). Each pooled sample was cryopreserved with the Tris-egg yolk extender into three straws. After thawing, the first and second straws were incubated with 0-, 1.0-, or 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes and evaluated for sperm quality at 10 minutes, 1, 3, and 6 hours after thawing and fertilizing ability. The third straw was evaluated for intracellular ATP concentration in control and with 2.5-mM ATPe treatment. Higher concentration of intracellular sperm ATP was observed in the samples treated with 2.5-mM ATPe compared to the controls (0.339 ± 0.06 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm vs. 0.002 ± 0.003 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm, P ≤ 0.05). In addition, incubation with 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes promoted sperm motility (56.7 ± 5.0 vs. 53.3 ± 4.4%, P ≤ 0.05) and progressive motility (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P ≤ 0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (36.4 ± 5.5 vs. 28.7 ± 4.8%, P ≤ 0.05), and blastocyst rate (36.1 ± 7.0 and 28.8 ± 7.4%, P ≤ 0.05) compared with the controls. In contrast, ATPe remarkably interfered acrosome integrity after 6 hours of postthawed incubation. In sum, the present finding that optimal incubation time of postthaw epididymal cat sperm under proper ATPe condition might constitute a rationale for the studies on other endangered wild felids regarding sperm quality and embryo

  16. Effects of Roundup formulations on biochemical biomarkers and male sperm quality of the livebearing Jenynsia multidentata.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jessica Andrea Albañil; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Corcini, Carine Dahl; da Silva, Janaina Camacho; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; Caldas, Sergiane; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Martins, Camila De Martinez Gaspar

    2017-06-01

    Roundup(®) formulations are the most consumed glyphosate-based herbicides in the world. When applied, they may reach water bodies and exert toxicity toward non-target species. This study evaluated and compared the effects of different variations of Roundup on biochemical biomarkers as oxidative parameters and Acethylchorinesterase (AChE) activity, and sperm quality of the livebearing Jenynsia multidentata. Fish were acutely (96 h) exposed to Roundup Original(®) (RO), Roundup Transorb(®) (RT) and Roundup WG(®) (RWG) at 0.0, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg L(-1) of nominal glyphosate. The highest mortality (60%) was observed for fish exposed to RT at the highest concentration tested and at 0.5 mg L(-1) non-mortality was observed, so this concentration was chosen for the experiments. Fish exposed to RO and RT (24 and 96 h) presented a state of oxidative imbalance, which caused lipid peroxidation (LPO) in their livers. Oxidative stress was more severe in RO treatment, which may be resulted in the highest hepathosomatic index at 96 h. However, fish exposed to RT presented a marked inhibition of AChE activity from membrane cells of muscle and brain tissues. Sperm quality was investigated in livebearing exposed (24 and 96 h) to the three formulations. Spermatozoa motility and concentration were affected by all formulations. Overall, Roundup formulations are harmful to the fish J. multidentata at 0.5 mg L(-1) of glyphosate; however, mechanisms and potential of toxicity are different between formulations. The J. multidentata also represents a sensitive species and a good regional bio-monitor.

  17. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    PubMed

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  18. Association between air pollution and sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zibing; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Meixia; Lan, Lan; Qiao, Zhijiao; Cui, Yan; An, Jinghuan; Wang, Nan; Fan, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been clearly linked to adverse reproductive outcome and fecundation index, but its effects on male semen quality are still uncertain. In this study, we reviewed information from ten studies to get the qualitative evidence of the influence of the ambient air pollution on sperm quality and collected data from six of the ten studies to conduct meta-analysis. The original studies classified participants into different exposure levels and the highest and lowest expose levels were chosen as high expose and low expose groups, respectively. The random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis with the weight mean difference (WMD) as the measure indicator. The WMDs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) of sperm volume, sperm count, semen concentration, sperm progressive motility, total motility, and normal morphology were 0.09 (-0.04, 0.23), 0.46 (-4.47, 5.39), -8.21 (-20.38, 3.96), -7.76 (-16.26, 0.74), -7.61 (-16.97, 1.74) and -3.40 (-7.42, 0.62), respectively. In conclusion, although the differences are not statistically significant between the two groups, the overall trends and evidence from this review indicate the chronic exposure to ambient pollutants at high level may alter men sperm quality.

  19. Effects of different concentrations of enterotoxigenic and verotoxigenic E. coli on boar sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Bussalleu, E; Yeste, M; Sepúlveda, L; Torner, E; Pinart, E; Bonet, S

    2011-09-01

    The presence of bacteria in boar semen causes economic losses in artificial insemination (AI) centers, as a consequence of alterations on boar sperm quality. For this reason, the effects of different concentrations of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) on boar sperm quality were determined in this study, by conducting two experiments. The first one consisted of assessing these effects on boar sperm quality after incubating the inoculated doses at 37°C for a 96-h period, whereas the second inoculated doses were stored at 15°C during 11 days. In both experiments, the infective concentrations ranged from 10(8)cfu mL(-1) to 10(2)cfu mL(-1); the negative control being a non-inoculated dose. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, we checked by PCR for the presence of bacteria in all tubes. Sperm quality (sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm morphology) was assessed at 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h after inoculations in the first experiment (37°C), and after 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days in the second (15°C). Whereas no changes were observed in sperm morphology in both experiments, the percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa dramatically diminished after 24h of incubation at 37°C, the effect being more detrimental at the highest infective concentration of microbes. Moreover, a significant decrease in the percentage of viable spermatozoa in the tube inoculated with the highest concentration (10(8)cfu mL(-1)) was detected after 24h of incubating contaminated doses at 37°C. After 48h of incubation, the presence of infective concentrations of ETEC and VTEC from 10(8)cfu mL(-1) to 10(3)cfu mL(-1) resulted in a significant diminution in the percentage of viable spermatozoa. These results suggest that ETEC and VTEC PCR analyses should be done in doses destined for AI to minimize the use of doses with diminished sperm quality due to the presence of bacteria and to avoid the potential spread of infective diseases.

  20. Upregulation of uncoupling protein Ucp2 through acute cold exposure increases post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongfa; Kang, Ning; Gong, Hongmei; Luo, Yan; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Ji, Xiaoping; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in sperm damage during cryopreservation. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling has been shown to reduce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus mitigate oxidative stress. Uncoupling protein (Ucp2) regulates mitochondrial uncoupling and can be induced by temperature fluctuation. In the present study, we explored a novel approach of acute cold exposure on Ucp2 activation and its association with oxidative damage and post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish. Our study revealed that acute cold exposure of zebrafish at 18 °C for 24 h led to significant increase of ucp2 mRNA and Ucp2 protein in zebrafish fresh sperm as well as thawed sperm after cryopreservation. Although cold exposure had no effect on fresh sperm quality except for decreasing lipid peroxidation, sperm collected from cold-exposed zebrafish exhibited higher resistance to cryodamage, which was demonstrated by increased post-thaw motility, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased ATP production, and ultimately increased fertilization success. However, except for reduced lipid peroxidation, we did not observe any significant ROS reduction associated with increased Ucp2 activation in cold-exposed group, suggesting mechanisms other than mitochondrial uncoupling could have contributed to cold exposure associated benefits in post-thaw sperm survival. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that acute cold exposure prior to sperm cryopreservation is beneficial for post-thaw sperm survival in zebrafish, and this novel approach may be used to improve post-thaw sperm quality for other aquatic species.

  1. Improvement of post-thawed sperm quality and fertility of Arian rooster by oral administration of d-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mahdi; Zhandi, Mahdi; Kohram, Hamid; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of d-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) on post-thawed sperm quality, fertility and hatchability outcomes in male broiler breeders. Twenty 55-week-old roosters were selected and equally split into four groups (n = 5 rooster/group). Different daily D-Asp doses including 0 (D-0), 100 (D-100), 200 (D-200) or 300 (D-300) mg/kg BW were capsulated and individually administered for 12 weeks to roosters in each group. Semen samples were weekly collected from 7th to 12th week of experiment. Sperm quality from 7th to 11th week was evaluated in both fresh (total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality) and post-thawed (total and forward motility, plasma membrane functionality, apoptosis status and mitochondrial activity) conditions. Also, collected semen samples on the 12th week were frozen and artificially inseminated to evaluate fertility and hatchability. The results from fresh condition showed that total and forward motility and plasma membrane functionality were significantly higher in D-200 compared to other groups. Also, interaction effect of time and treatment was not significant for all assessed parameters in fresh condition. In post-thawed condition, D-200 showed significantly higher total and forward motility, fertility and hatchability compared to other groups. The higher value for plasma membrane functionality and mitochondrial activity was observed in D-200 compared to D-0 and D300 groups. However, the percentage of live, early apoptotic and dead spermatozoa were not significantly affected by applied treatment in the current study. No significant difference for time and treat interaction effect was observed for all assessed parameters except forward motility. In conclusion, it seems that D-Asp administration could improve fresh and post-thawed sperm quality and post-thawed sperm fertility in male broiler breeders.

  2. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area.

    PubMed

    Reglero, Manuel M; Taggart, Mark A; Castellanos, Pilar; Mateo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa.

  3. Impairments in aromatase expression, reproductive behavior, and sperm quality of male fish exposed to 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Guyón, Noelia F; Roggio, María A; Amé, María V; Hued, Andrea C; Valdés, María E; Giojalas, Laura C; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María A

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence shows that environmental estrogen can reach levels that are high enough to exert adverse reproductive effects on wild fish populations. The authors report different parameters of male reproductive behavior, brain, and gonadal aromatase expression, as well as sperm quality in an internally fertilizing fish species (Jenynsia multidentata, Jenyns) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E(2) ). Adult males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 250 ng/L E(2) over 28 d. The authors' findings demonstrate that E(2) exposure resulted in a very clear increase in brain aromatase transcript abundance at all assayed concentrations compared with control; however, no effects on gonadal aromatase expression were observed. Behavioral measures revealed increased sexual activity at 50 ng/L but not 100 or 250 ng/L E(2) . In contrast to the molecular and behavioral responses, the condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and sperm quality were unaltered by E(2) exposure. The results from the present work suggest that E(2) affects some aspects of the reproductive biology of J. multidentata. These modifications in the reproductive biology caused by exposure to E(2) could potentially lead to long-term effects at population levels that may not always be immediately evident. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the combined effect of E(2) on aromatase expression, sexual behavior, and sperm parameters in fish.

  4. S-allyl cysteine ameliorates the quality of sperm and provides protection from age-related sperm dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15–75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress. PMID:25411519

  5. Effect of organic selenium in the diet on sperm quality of boars.

    PubMed

    López, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van Soom, A; Leroy, J L M R; De Clercq, J B P; Bols, P E J; Maes, D

    2010-12-01

    The effect of a diet supplemented with organic selenium (Se) on sperm production and quality of boars was investigated. Sixty mature boars from a commercial artificial insemination centre were randomly allocated at Day (D) 0 into Group A and B. Group A received the regular ration supplemented with inorganic Se (0.4 mg/kg feed as Na(2) SeO(3)) whereas Group B was switched to the same diet but with organic Se (0.4 mg/kg fed as Se-yeast). The sperm was investigated during 4 months (D0, D30, D60, D75, D90, D105 and D120). Sperm concentration and motility were objectively measured using a photometer and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) respectively. Morphology of the sperm was assessed using eosin-nigrosin staining and the resistance to induction of oxidative stress (production of malonaldehyde, MDA) through thiobarbituric acid reagent species analysis. Additionally, the Se concentration in sperm and blood plasma were measured. Repeated measures analysis of variance (anova) from D60 to 120 (spermatogenesis of approximately 2 months) or anova at D120 (Se concentrations) were used for statistical analysis. The total number of ejaculated sperm was not significantly different between both groups, but boars of Group B had a significantly higher sperm concentration (434.6 vs 514.1 × 10(6) sperm/ml; p < 0.05). Small differences (p < 0.05) were observed between both groups for some CASA parameters, namely straight line velocity (μm/s) (Group A: 48.3, Group B: 45.1), straightness (%) (Group A: 65.6, Group B: 62.2) and linearity (%) (Group A: 32.2, Group B: 29.3). The sperm of Group B showed more oxidative stress (4.1 vs 4.9 μmol MDA/l; p < 0.05) compared with those of Group A. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the other parameters. Under the present study conditions, changing from inorganic Se to organic Se in the diet of boars increased sperm concentration but reduced some motility parameters and resistance to

  6. Boar sperm quality in lines of pigs selected for either ovulation rate or uterine capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to conserve the unique germplasm for the future and to characterize sperm quality as a correlated response to the selection cr...

  7. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    PubMed

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  8. The osmotic tolerance of boar spermatozoa and its usefulness as sperm quality parameter.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Briz, Mailo; Pinart, Elisabeth; Sancho, Sílvia; Bussalleu, Eva; Bonet, Sergi

    2010-06-01

    Predicting the fertility outcome of ejaculates is very important in the field of porcine reproduction. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of different osmotic treatments on boar spermatozoa and to correlate them with fertility and prolificacy, assessed as non-return rates within 60 days (NRR(60d)) of the first inseminations, and litter size (LS), respectively. Sperm samples (n=100) from one hundred healthy Piétrain boars were used to assess 48 treatments combining different osmolalities (ranged between 100 and 4000 mOsm kg(-1)), different compounds used to prepare anisotonic solutions, and two different modalities: return and non-return to isotonic conditions. Sperm quality was evaluated before and after applying the treatments on the basis of analyses of sperm viability, motility, morphology and percentages of acrosome-intact spermatozoa. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test, linear regression analyses (Pearson correlation and multiple regression) and Jackknife cross-validation. Although three conventional parameters: sperm viability, sperm morphology and the percentages of acrosome-intact spermatozoa were significantly correlated with NRR(60d) and with LS, their respective osmotic tolerance parameters (defined for each parameter and treatment regarding with negative control) presented a higher Pearson coefficient with both fertility and prolificacy in three treatments (150 mOsm kg(-1) with non-return to isotonic conditions, 200 mOsm kg(-1) with return and 500 mOsm kg(-1) using sodium citrate and non-return to isotonic conditions). We conclude that osmotic resistance in sperm viability, sperm morphology and acrosome-intactness in the treatments mentioned above could be assessed along with classical parameters to better predict the fertilising ability of a given ejaculate.

  9. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    PubMed

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  10. Sperm motility parameters to evaluate the seminal quality of Boa constrictor occidentalis, a threatened snake species.

    PubMed

    Tourmente, M; Cardozo, G A; Guidobaldi, H A; Giojalas, L C; Bertona, M; Chiaraviglio, M

    2007-02-01

    Semen quality analysis constitutes a powerful tool to evaluate the fertility potential of males in threatened species. The Argentine boa constrictor or lampalagua (Boa constrictor occidentalis) is a threatened snake species and has been included in Appendix I of CITES. The objective of this work is to characterize the sperm of B. c. occidentalis on the bases of dynamic parameters to improve this species conservation. Dynamic parameters were measured in sperm samples using videomicroscopy and image analysis software. The sperm population showed a high degree of heterogeneity in velocity parameter values and 95% of the cells showed a linear pattern of movement. Studies in other species indicate that the number of motile spermatozoa and their movement speed is directly correlated with fertilization success. This work will help to establish basic parameter values for the evaluation of the reproductive potential of populations of B. c. occidentalis and to resolve questions referred to its reproductive strategies.

  11. Accessing the fertilizing potential of cryopreserved sperm by its ability to maintain quality in a glycerol-free medium.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B A; Acosta, V C; Jeyendran, R S

    1999-01-01

    Cryopreserved sperm is less fertile than fresh sperm; probably due to dependence of sperm to glycerol, a common cryoprotective agent. Few data suggest any correlations between standard semen analysis and fertility. To develop a reliable assay, the authors hypothesized that sperm that withstand the physiochemical stress induced by glycerol during cryopreservation may have higher fertility potential. They analyzed 55 cryopreserved semen samples for sperm concentration, percent motility and progressive motility after allowing thawed sperm to migrate into medium containing either 0 or 12% glycerol for 3 h. The smaller the difference in sperm quality between the two media, the higher the fertility potential of the spermatozoa. There was significant negative correlation between the difference in both percent sperm motility and percent progressive sperm motility in the two media and in vitro fertilization outcome. There was a significantly higher number of ejaculates fertilized oocytes at a rate of > or = 80% when the difference was 20% or less. This easy to use, inexpensive test may be an effective means to evaluate the potential performance of cryopreserved sperm to be utilized in assisted reproductive technologies.

  12. Selenoprotein P in seminal fluid is a novel biomarker of sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Marten; Gralla, Oliver; Behrends, Thomas; Scharpf, Marcus; Endermann, Tobias; Rijntjes, Eddy; Pietschmann, Nicole; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-01-17

    Hepatically-derived selenoprotein P (SePP) transports selenium (Se) via blood to other tissues including the testes. Male Sepp-knockout mice are infertile. SePP-mediated Se transport to Sertoli cells is needed for supporting biosynthesis of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) in spermatozoa. GPX4 becomes a structural component of sperm midpiece during sperm maturation, and its expression correlates to semen quality. We tested whether SePP is also present in seminal plasma, potentially correlating to fertility parameters. Semen quality was assessed by sperm density, morphology and motility. SePP was measured by an immunoluminometric assay, and trace elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. SePP levels were considerably lower in seminal plasma as compared to serum (0.4±0.1 mg/l vs. 3.5±1.0 mg/l); Se concentrations showed a similar but less pronounced difference (48.9±20.7 μg/l vs. 106.7±17.3 μg/l). Se and Zn correlated positively in seminal fluid but not in serum. Seminal plasma SePP concentrations were independent of serum SePP concentrations, but correlated positively to sperm density and fraction of vital sperm. SePP concentrations in seminal plasma of vasectomized men were similar to controls indicating that accessory sex glands are a testes-independent source of SePP. This notion was corroborated by histochemical analyses localizing SePP in epithelial cells of seminal vesicles. We conclude that SePP is not only involved in Se transport to testes supporting GPX4 biosynthesis but it also becomes secreted into seminal plasma, likely important to protect sperm during storage, genital tract passage and final journey.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (P<0.05). Sperm motility parameters, morphologically normal sperm, and acrosome integrity in T2 boars were greater than those in T1 boars (P<0.05) during the experiment. Free amino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (P<0.05). Furthermore, sows inseminated with semen collected from T2 boars gave birth to more live piglets than those inseminated with semen collected from T1 boars (P=0.04). In conclusion, supplementation of boar diet with amino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  14. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0 mg/kg/day BPA) and positive control with E2 at the dose of 100 μg/kg/day. The sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate were analyzed byCASA system, and the sperm abnormality rate was analyzed by improved Papanicolaou stained. The protein expression levels of Src/p-Src, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB/p-CREB were detected by Western bolt. The results showed that the body weight gain, testes weight, testis coefficient, sperm density, sperm activity, sperm survival rate and protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB decreased, but the sperm abnormality rate increased with increasing BPA concentrations. There were positive correlations between sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate with protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB, and negative correlations between sperm abnormality rate with the protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB. Results from the structural equation model demonstrated that BPA retained a significant negative effect to p-ERK, whereas p-ERK retained a significant positive effect to sperm quality and acted as the mediate variable. This study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 protein kinase on reproductive toxicity of BPA. The adverse effects of BPA on adult male sperm quality may be through the induction of the disruption of ERK signal pathway. However, additional

  15. A diet supplemented with L-carnitine improves the sperm quality of Piétrain but not of Duroc and Large White boars when photoperiod and temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Bussalleu, E; Bonet, S

    2010-03-15

    It has been reported that a diet supplemented with L-carnitine can improve sperm quality in some mammalian species. Against this background, the current study seeks to determine the effects of feeding L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)) on boar semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) in three different porcine breeds (Sus domesticus) (Piétrain, Duroc, and Large White) exposed to natural environmental changes in temperature and photoperiod over a 20-wk period (February to July 2007). One hundred twenty boars (40 per breed) were randomly separated into two groups (60 boars each): the first (20 boars per breed) was fed a control diet and the second (also 20 males per breed) the same diet supplemented with L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)). Whereas the L-carnitine supplement did not affect ejaculate volume, concentration, motility, viability, or the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa, it did improve sperm morphology in Piétrain boars by reducing the percentage of immature spermatozoa when the temperature and the photoperiod increased. Conversely, no effect on sperm morphology from supplementing feed with L-carnitine was observed in both Duroc and Large White breeds. We can therefore conclude that the addition of L-carnitine to the diet of males may maintain the level of normal sperm morphology in Piétrain boars when a drop in sperm quality occurs (due to increases in photoperiod and temperature), without affecting the other sperm quality parameters.

  16. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5).

  17. Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.

    PubMed

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Forniés, Asunción; Herrera, Marcelino; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20β-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20β-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis.

  18. Preliminary Report on the Safety of a New Herbal Formula and Its Effect on Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Mee Ran; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Bae, Woong Jin; Kim, Seol; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Male infertility is a serious problem, and its prevalence has been increasing. Therefore, we investigated the safety of a new herbal formula and its effects on sperm quality. Materials and Methods An in vitro cytotoxicity test in TM3 Leydig cells was performed to evaluate cell viability after administration of five types of herbs separately and of a new herbal formula containing these five. An in vivo test in male mice was performed to evaluate the influence of the new herbal formula on the reproductive organs and sperm quality. After the 8- and 28-day oral administration of the new herbal formula, the weights of the reproductive organs were measured and the sperm count and motility were evaluated. Results In the in vitro cytotoxicity test, less than 80% cell viability at concentrations of 500 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L of Rubus coreanus Miquel and Cuscuta chinensis Lam was observed. However, more than 80% cell viability was observed at all the tested concentrations of the new herbal formula. After the 8- and 28-day oral administration, there were no considerable changes in body weight. The weights of the testes, epididymis, and seminal vesicles after the 8- and 28-day oral administration were similar to those of the control. The sperm count and activity were significantly improved compared with those of the control group at 8 and 28 days after 100, 200, and 400 mg of oral administration. Conclusions The safety of the new formula and its positive effect on the sperm quality were observed after the oral administration of the formula. PMID:24459660

  19. The BMI of men and not sperm parameters impact on embryo quality and the IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Anifandis, G; Dafopoulos, K; Messini, C I; Polyzos, N; Messinis, I E

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that increased body mass index (BMI) of men influences fecundity but it is not clear if it impacts on sperm parameters. Whether or not BMI of men influence sperm parameters and subsequently in vitro fertilization (IVF) result remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was primarily to investigate the relationship between the BMI of men and sperm parameters (volume, concentration and motility) and whether or not it impacts on embryo quality and IVF outcome. Secondly, to investigate the impact of BMI of both men and women, in combination with their age, on IVF result. Three hundred and one couples were categorized according to their BMI. Group 1 (n = 64, both men and women had BMI l ≤ 25 kg/m(2) ), group 2 (n = 79, both men and women had BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ), group 3 (n = 142, men had BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and their wives had BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) ) and group 4 (n = 16, men had BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) and their wives had BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ). Overall (n = 301) BMI and age of men did not correlate with sperm parameters. Group 1 and group 4, regardless of the BMI of their women, demonstrated the highest quality of embryos and consequently the highest percentage of pregnancy. Furthermore, the score of the combination of both BMI and age of both men and women resulted in a threshold level of less than 800 with a relative high per cent of pregnancy. BMI of men does not correlate with sperm parameters, but influences the quality of produced embryos in such a way that impacts on pregnancy rate.

  20. Sperm quality and fertility of boar seminal doses after 2 days of storage: does the type of extender really matter?

    PubMed

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Reixach, Josep; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The present approach was designed to evaluate the extender effects on sperm quality and fertility of short-term refrigerated seminal doses from Landrace boars lodged in husbandry-controlled conditions. For this purpose, we analyzed the sperm quality of seminal doses diluted in short-term (Beltsville Thawing Solution) and extra-long-term (Duragen) extenders from Days 0 to 2 of storage at 17 °C during an 8-month period. Pregnancy rates and litter size were evaluated from double inseminations within an interval of 12 hours (36 and 48 hours of refrigeration) of multiparous females using seminal doses diluted in each extender type. Sperm quality was assessed from the analyses of sperm motility and kinetics, sperm viability, expressed as plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium levels, and acrosin activity. Results indicated significant differences between the extenders in the sperm quality of seminal doses. Therefore, the seminal doses diluted in Duragen had higher percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and membrane-intact spermatozoa than those diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution throughout all the experimental months. Nevertheless, despite these differences in preserving the sperm quality, pregnancy rates (>90%) and litter sizes (>10 piglets born per litter) were similar between the extenders. Our results had great relevance from a practical point of view because they reported lack of an extender effect on the reproductive performance of seminal doses during short-tem storage.

  1. Developmental temperature affects the expression of ejaculatory traits and the outcome of sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, R; Deeming, D C; Eady, P E

    2014-09-01

    The outcome of post-copulatory sexual selection is determined by a complex set of interactions between the primary reproductive traits of two or more males and their interactions with the reproductive traits of the female. Recently, a number of studies have shown the primary reproductive traits of both males and females express phenotypic plasticity in response to the thermal environment experienced during ontogeny. However, how plasticity in these traits affects the dynamics of sperm competition remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate plasticity in testes size, sperm size and sperm number in response to developmental temperature in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Males reared at the highest temperature eclosed at the smallest body size and had the smallest absolute and relative testes size. Males reared at both the high- and low-temperature extremes produced both fewer and smaller sperm than males reared at intermediate temperatures. In the absence of sperm competition, developmental temperature had no effect on male fertility. However, under conditions of sperm competition, males reared at either temperature extreme were less competitive in terms of sperm offence (P(2)), whereas those reared at the lowest temperature were less competitive in terms of sperm defence (P(1)). This suggests the developmental pathways that regulate the phenotypic expression of these ejaculatory traits are subject to both natural and sexual selection: natural selection in the pre-ejaculatory environment and sexual selection in the post-ejaculatory environment. In nature, thermal heterogeneity during development is commonplace. Therefore, we suggest the interplay between ecology and development represents an important, yet hitherto underestimated component of male fitness via post-copulatory sexual selection.

  2. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-Wamwiza, L; Milla, S; Pierrard, M-A; Rurangwa, E; Mandiki, S N M; Van Look, K J W; Kestemont, P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM and maize meal (diet 1); 25% FM mixed with crude sunflower oil cake (SFOC) and bean meal (BM) (diet 2); 12.5% FM mixed with sunflower oil cake, BM and ground nut oil cake (GOC) (diet 3) and 0% FM mixed with de-hulled sunflower oil cake (SFOCD), BM and ground nut oil cake (diet 4). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm quality, plasma sex steroids (11-keto testosterone [11-KT]; testosterone [T]; estradiol-17beta [E2]) were evaluated on 10 to 24 fish fed on each diet. Sperm quality was assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Total replacement of fish meal by plant products markedly increased sperm volume, spermatocrit, spermatozoa integrity, and sperm motility. Fish fed diet 3 (12.5% fish meal) provided intermediate results on sperm quality whereas the lowest values were obtained in fish fed diets 1 and 2. In fish fed 0% fish meal (diet 4), androgen levels were higher and estrogen levels were lower than in fish fed fish meal diets. Based on dietary lipid and fatty acid analyses, these results suggest a positive impact of short chain n-6 fatty acids on androgen synthesis and sperm quality. In conclusion, a combination of ground nut oil cake, bean meal and sunflower oil cake (preferably when the sunflower is dehulled) in African catfish diet improves the sperm quality.

  3. Aquaporins 7 and 11 in boar spermatozoa: detection, localisation and relationship with sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Vilagran, Ingrid; Morató, Roser; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane water channels that allow transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Although water permeability is known to play a critical role in mammalian cells, including spermatozoa, little is known about their localisation in boar spermatozoa. Two aquaporins, AQP7 and AQP11, in boar spermatozoa were identified by western blotting and localised through immunocytochemistry analyses. Western blot results showed that boar spermatozoa expressed AQP7 (25kDa) and AQP11 (50kDa). Immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that AQP7 was localised in the connecting piece of boar spermatozoa, while AQP11 was found in the head and mid-piece and diffuse labelling was also seen along the tail. Despite differences in AQP7 and AQP11 content between boar ejaculates, these differences were not found to be correlated with sperm quality in the case of AQP7. Conversely, AQP11 content showed a significant correlation (P<0.05) with sperm membrane integrity and fluidity and sperm motility. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa express AQP7 and AQP11, and the amounts of AQP11 but not those of AQP7 are correlated with sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  4. Broiler breeder semen quality as affected by trace minerals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barber, S J; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that trace elements, such as Se, Mn, and Zn, can alter reproductive functions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sperm quality index (SQI) and sperm viability as affected by various levels and sources of Se, Mn, and Zn when added in vitro to broiler breeder semen. In vitro treatments consisted of the following sources and levels of minerals: Control, no minerals added to sperm; seleno L-methionine, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; sodium selenite, 4 levels ranging from 8.78 to 7,896 microg/L; MnSO4, 8 levels ranging from 6,500 to 65,000 mg/L; Zn 180 (Zinpro Corporation), 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L; and ZnSO4, 4 levels ranging from 0.65 to 650 mg/L. The addition of 7,896 microg of sodium selenite/L to semen was detrimental to sperm motility. Also, MnSO4 adversely affected SQI and sperm viability at concentrations of 6,500 mg/L and greater. Sperm viability was decreased when 650 mg/L of Zn 180 was added to semen. Sperm motility was depressed by exposure to Zn 180 at 650 mg/L and ZnSO4 at 65 and 650 mg/L. Our results suggest that these trace minerals must act at the reproductive tissue level during spermatogenesis to improve semen quality. Direct in vitro application of these elements to semen appears to be detrimental to spermatozoa.

  5. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  6. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Burger, D; Dolivo, G; Marti, E; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C

    2015-05-22

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies.

  7. Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2013-01-01

    Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

  8. Alfa-lipoic acid protects testosterone secretion pathway and sperm quality against 4-tert-octylphenol induced reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Othman, Azza I; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Koriem, Khaled M; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2012-07-01

    The protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) (50 mg/kg bw) against 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) (50 mg/kg bw) induced reproductive toxicity in male rats was studied. LA was injected 1h prior to OP administration three times a week. OP caused significant increase in oxidative stress in hypothalamus and epididymal sperm, disturbed hormonal levels in serum, decreased sperm quality, increased DNA fragmentation and loss of 35 and 95 kDa proteins in sperm, as well as elevated proliferating index in testis. LA protected against oxidative stress through promoting the levels of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in hypothalamus and sperm. In addition, LA prevented the decrease in testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and inhibited the elevations in sex-hormone-binding globulin levels and showed normal sperm quality. LA modulated proliferation of germ cell, protected against DNA fragmentation and maintained membrane protein organization in the sperm. In conclusion, LA normalized oxidative stress and protected testosterone synthesis pathway across hypothalamus-testicular axis and sperm quality indicating its defensive influence against OP-induced oxidative reproductive dysfunction in male rats.

  9. Antioxidant effect of crocin on bovine sperm quality and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sapanidou, V; Taitzoglou, I; Tsakmakidis, Ι; Kourtzelis, I; Fletouris, D; Theodoridis, A; Zervos, I; Tsantarliotou, M

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production above critical levels affects the genetic and functional integrity of spermatozoa by causing oxidative stress. Spermatozoa are susceptible to oxidative stress in terms of motility and fertilization capacity. Crocin (crocetin di-gentiobiose ester), a main constituent of Crocus Sativus L. (saffron), is known for its antioxidant activity by scavenging ROS, especially superoxide anion. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of crocin on the quality characteristics of spermatozoa and fertilization rate. Frozen-thawed and washed spermatozoa from four different bulls were incubated with three different concentrations of crocin (0.5, 1, and 2 mM), for 120 and 240 minutes, in the presence of a negative control, and were evaluated in terms of motility, viability, acrosomal status, DNA fragmentation index, intracellular ROS, and lipid peroxidation. The most potent concentration of crocin (1 mM) was also added in the fertilization medium to test its impact on fertilization outcome. The results indicate that the incubation of spermatozoa with 1 mM of crocin resulted in a statistically significant lower production of ROS, lower lipid peroxidation and in better maintenance of motility, viability, and acrosomal integrity, with a very small number of fragmented cells, compared to the control and the other treated groups (P < 0.05). Crocin concentration of 1 mM resulted in a significant increase of blastocyst rate, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). These data indicate that crocin (1 mM) improves bovine sperm quality and its fertilization capability, directly and/or indirectly, by modulating ROS concentration.

  10. Influence of different methods of collection from the canine epididymides on post-thaw caudal epididymal sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    HORI, Tatsuya; ATAGO, Tetsuya; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Canine epididymal sperm was collected from the cauda epididymis using 2 different methods (flushing and mincing) to compare the qualities (the percentage of progressively motile, viable, morphologically abnormal, immature and intact acrosomes) before and after freezing and thawing. No significant difference was noted in the quality of the cauda epididymal sperm immediately after collection and after freezing-thawing between the collection methods, although the mean levels of sperm quality with the flushing method were slightly better than that of the mincing method. The flushing method is simple and free of blood contamination, although the vas deferens was too small to be perfused in only 1 dog, and our results suggest that the flushing method is preferable to the mincing method for collecting sperm from the canine cauda epididymis. PMID:25649723

  11. The Association Between Calcium, Magnesium, and Ratio of Calcium/Magnesium in Seminal Plasma and Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Miao, Maohua; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Kanglian; Wu, Bin; Dai, Qi; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationships between calcium, magnesium, and calcium/magnesium ratio in semen plasma and sperm quality. It was a cross-sectional study based on a program aiming at promoting the reproductive health in less-developed areas. A total of 515 men aged between 18 and 55 years provided semen specimens at family planning clinics in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations in semen plasma were measured with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sperm quality, including sperm motility and concentration, was evaluated by using a computer-assisted sperm analysis method. The medians of seminal plasma calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were 9.61, 4.41, and 2.23 mmol/l, respectively. Calcium concentration and calcium/magnesium ratio were negatively associated with sperm concentrations (β = -0.47, P = 0.0123 for calcium; β = -0.25, P = 0.0393 for calcium/magnesium ratio) after adjusting for zinc and other covariates. In stratified analyses, the association between calcium and sperm concentrations only persisted among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of ≤2.5 (β = -0.71, P = 0.0268). In the same stratum, magnesium was associated with increased sperm concentration (β = 0.73, P = 0.0386). Among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of >2.5, neither calcium nor magnesium was associated with sperm concentration. In conclusion, total calcium and magnesium concentrations were associated with sperm concentration among subjects with a lower calcium/magnesium ratio. The calcium and magnesium ratio had a modifying effect on the associations of calcium and magnesium with sperm concentration.

  12. The Effects of Different Doses of Ketamine on Quality of Normal Ejaculated Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Absalan, Forouzan; Ghannadi, Alireza; Zabihi, Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Background Ketamine, an injectable anesthetic in human and animal medicine, is also a recreational drug used by young adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ketamine on membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and sperm parameters in humans. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted on 40 males with normal semen samples over one month (August 2012). Subjects were randomly allocated to four groups (Control and case I, II and III) whose semen samples were adjusted to different concentrations of ketamine (1, 3, 5 µL) for one hour. Sperm analysis was performed for routine parameters, motility and morphology. Evaluation of membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation was done by eosin-Y staining and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Total sperm motility in all case groups were significantly lower compared with the control group. In case group III, progressive motility showed significant difference with case group II. After addition of ketamine, sperm had evidence of coiled tails in all case groups compared to the control group however this observation was not significant. Evaluation of membrane integrity showed the rate of necrospermia increased in all case groups. However, ketamine only significantly affected membrane integrity in case group III. SCD staining showed that in the control group nucleoids with medium halos (63.44 ± 1.2) were significantly different compared to the case groups I (15.44 ± 0.45), II (9.05±1.16) and III (10.55 ± 1.14), respectively. Between case groups, nucleoids with large and medium halos showed significant differences in case groups II and III compared with case group I. Nucleoids with medium halos were significantly different between case groups II and III. Conclusion Ketamine, through its effect on membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation, decreased sperm viability

  13. Sperm motility patterns in Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) semen: effects of body weight, age, and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Ortiz, I; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2013-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify sperm subpopulations with specific motion characteristics in fresh Andalusian donkey ejaculates; (2) evaluate the effects of individual donkey and ejaculates within the same donkey on the distribution of the subpopulations found; and (3) explore the relationship between the age and the body weight of donkey donors, the sperm quality parameters, and the sperm subpopulations structure. Sixty ejaculates from 12 Andalusian donkeys (five ejaculates per donkey), ranging in age from 4 to 15 years, were collected. Immediately after collection, sperm characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, objective sperm motility, and sperm morphology) were assessed. Donkeys were evaluated for body weight. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were established between the body weight of the donkeys and the pH (r = -0.52), sperm motility (percentage of motile spermatozoa: r = -0.31; percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa: r = -0.34), and total sperm abnormalities (r = 0.38). The correlations of the age with the measures of semen quality were low and not significant (P > 0.05). A multivariate clustering procedure separated 65,342 motile spermatozoa into four subpopulations: subpopulation 1, consisting of slow and nonprogressive spermatozoa (15.4%), subpopulation 2, consisting of moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa (35.9%), subpopulation 3, consisting of highly active but nonprogressive spermatozoa (18.5%), and subpopulation 4, consisting of highly active and progressive spermatozoa (30.2%). The distribution of these subpopulations varied significantly (P < 0.05) according to several parameters such as the individual donkey, the ejaculate of the same donkey, the total motility, and the overall sperm concentration. Our results show the existence of four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations in Andalusian donkey ejaculates, and suggest a high heterogeneity in the ejaculate structure in donkey. The relationship between the

  14. Ubiquitination of prohibitin in mammalian sperm mitochondria: possible roles in the regulation of mitochondrial inheritance and sperm quality control.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Winston E; Ramalho-Santos, João; Sutovsky, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Ubiquitination of the sperm mitochondria during spermatogenesis has been implicated in the targeted degradation of paternal mitochondria after fertilization, a mechanism proposed to promote the predominantly maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in humans and animals. The identity of ubiquitinated substrates in the sperm mitochondria is not known. In the present study, we show that prohibitin, a highly conserved, 30- to 32-kDa mitochondrial membrane protein, occurs in a number of unexpected isoforms, ranging from 64 to greater than 185 kDa in the mammalian sperm mitochondria, which are the ubiquitinated substrates. These bands bind antiubiquitin antibodies, displaying a pattern consistent with polyubiquitinated "ladders." Immunoprecipitation of sperm extracts with antiprohibitin antibodies followed by probing of the resultant immunocomplexes with antiubiquitin yields a banding pattern identical to that observed by antiprohibitin Western blot analysis. In fact, the presumably nonubiquitinated 30-kDa prohibitin band shows no antiubiquitin immunoreactivity. We demonstrate that ubiquitination of prohibitin occurs in testicular spermatids and spermatozoa. Ubiquitinated prohibitin molecules also accumulate in the defective fractions of ejaculated spermatozoa, which are thought to undergo surface ubiquitination during epididymal passage. In such sperm fractions, ubiquitin also coprecipitates with tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, presumably contributed by the axonemes of defective, ubiquitinated spermatozoa. The results of the present study suggest that prohibitin is one of the ubiquitinated substrates that makes the sperm mitochondria recognizable by the egg's ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolytic machinery after fertilization and most likely facilitates the marking of defective spermatozoa in the epididymis for degradation.

  15. Effect of inbreeding depression on bull sperm quality and field fertility.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Jesús; Cid, Rosa Morales; Molina, Antonio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ariza, Julia; Moreno-Millán, Miguel; Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián

    2015-12-18

    The present study investigated the effect of inbreeding depression on sperm quality using automated and objective methods and subsequent effects on beef bull field fertility. Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) values and field fertility data were determined using a dataset of AI bulls belonging to the Spanish Retinta Breeders Association (Asociación Nacional de Criadores de Ganado Vacuno Selecto de Raza Retinta (ANCRE)). Animals were clustered in two groups according to the F values as follows: (1) a high inbreeding group (HI; F ≥ 13.5%, mean 16.3); and (2) a non-inbreeding group (NI; F = 0%). In total, 17 different assessments were performed in both experimental groups, including evaluation of sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status, sperm plasma membrane integrity and function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), 10 kinetic parameters and the structure of sperm subpopulations. Sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status and osmotic tolerance were similar in both groups. Three velocity parameters (curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity and average path velocity) and the amplitude of lateral head displacement were higher in HI (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis of kinematic parameters revealed three different sperm subpopulations (sP1, sP2 and sP3), with the proportion of the sP1 population (highly active but non-progressive spermatozoa) being significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HI group. Field fertility was assessed using two calving record datasets. In a smaller database including only bulls evaluated in the present study, there was a significant increase in the calving interval of cows sired with HI bulls. Conversely, in an extended genetic analysis of the ANCRE database, inbreeding only explained a small part of the variation in calving interval, and the results of regression analysis were not significant among bulls. The findings of the present study suggest that high inbreeding levels have a moderate effect on bull semen quality, with an increased

  16. Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality - does it warrant attention?

    PubMed

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Sheinfeld, Yulia; Grach, Bronislava; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-09-01

    Male infertility constitutes 30-40% of all infertility cases. Some studies have shown a continuous decline in semen quality since the beginning of the 20th century. One postulated contributing factor is radio frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones. This study investigates an association between characteristics of cell phone usage and semen quality. Questionnaires accessing demographic data and characteristics of cell phone usage were completed by 106 men referred for semen analysis. Results were analysed according to WHO 2010 criteria. Talking for ≥1 h/day and during device charging were associated with higher rates of abnormal semen concentration (60.9% versus 35.7%, P < 0.04 and 66.7% versus 35.6%, P < 0.02, respectively). Among men who reported holding their phones ≤50 cm from the groin, a non-significantly higher rate of abnormal sperm concentration was found (47.1% versus 11.1%). Multivariate analysis revealed that talking while charging the device and smoking were risk factors for abnormal sperm concentration (OR = 4.13 [95% CI 1.28-13.3], P < 0.018 and OR = 3.04 [95% CI 1.14-8.13], P < 0.027, respectively). Our findings suggest that certain aspects of cell phone usage may bear adverse effects on sperm concentration. Investigation using large-scale studies is thus needed.

  17. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  18. The effect of heracleum persicum (Golpar) oil and alcoholic extracts on sperm parameters and chromatin quality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Taghizabet, Neda; Mangoli, Esmat; Anbari, Fatemeh; Masoodi, Seyed Ali; Talebi, Ali Reza; Mazrooei, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the significance and the effects of plant-derived drugs on laboratory animal’s fertility was recognized. There was antioxidant activity reported from Heracleum persicum (Golpar). Objective: Current study aims to study the antioxidant effect of Golpar extracts on sperm parameters and chromatin quality in mice. Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult male mice were divided to 3 groups (10 wk old, 35 gr weight): group1 received hydro alcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg, ip), group 2 received oil extract (200 mg/kg, ip) and group 3 serving as the sham control group that received sterile water. Finally, left cauda epididymis of each animal was dissected and sperm analysis was done accordingly. To asses sperm chromatin and DNA quality, we used aniline blue (AB), toluidine blue (TB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and acridine orange (AO) staining. Results: Progressive and non-progressive sperm motility were significantly increased in group 1 in comparison with group 3 (p=0.032). There was an increasing trend in progressive sperm motility and decreasing trend in non-progressive sperm motility in group 2 in comparison with group 3, but the differences were not significant (p=0.221 and p=0.144, respectively). According to the sperm chromatin quality, the results of TB and AO tests revealed significant differences (p=0.004, p=0.000, respectively) between those groups and showed that the extracts of Golpar cause DNA damage, but no differences can be observed between them in AB and CMA3 staining (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that Heracleum persicum extracts may improve sperm motility. Also, it has harmful effects on sperm chromatin condensation and DNA integrity in mice. PMID:27525319

  19. Effects of bovine serum albumin on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-G; Yan, G-J; Hong, J-Y; Su, Z-Z; Yang, G-S; Li, Q-W; Hu, J-H

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/l) of BSA, and sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analysed. The results showed that Modena supplemented with 3, 4 and 5 g/l BSA could improve boar sperm motility, effective survival time and plasma membrane integrity (p < 0.05), decrease MDA content (p < 0.05), while no statistical difference was observed for sperm acrosome integrity and T-AOC activity among these three groups (p > 0.05). The semen sample diluted with Modena containing 4 g/l BSA could achieve optimum effect, and sperm survival time was 7.5 days. After 7 days preservation, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were 54%, 49% and 78%, respectively. T-AOC activity and MDA content were 1.03 U/ml and 17.5 nmol/ml, respectively. In conclusion, Modena supplemented with BSA reduced the oxidative stress and improved the sperm quality of boar semen during liquid storage at 17°C, and 4 g/l BSA was the optimum concentration. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacities of BSA in liquid preserved boar semen.

  20. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  1. Effects of cryopreservation on semen quality and the expression of sperm membrane hexose transporters in the spermatozoa of Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Sancho, S; Casas, I; Ekwall, H; Saravia, F; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Flores, E; Pinart, E; Briz, M; Garcia-Gil, N; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Yeste, M; Bonet, S

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cooling, freezing and thawing on the plasma membrane integrity, kinetics and expression of two sugar transporters glucose transporter-3 and -5 (GLUT-3 and GLUT-5) in spermatozoa from Iberian boars. Semen samples were collected twice weekly from eight young, fertile Iberian boars of the 'Entrepelado' and 'Lampiño' breeds. The samples were suspended in a commercial extender and refrigerated to 17 degrees C for transport to the laboratory (step A), where they were further extended with a lactose-egg yolk-based extender and chilled to 5 degrees C (step B) prior to freezing in the presence of glycerol (3%). Spermatozoa were assessed for plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility at each of the steps, including post-thaw (step C). Aliquots were also prepared for immunocytochemical localisation of the sugar transporters (fixed and thin smears for transmission and scanning electron microscopy levels respectively) and for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and subsequent western blotting, using the same antibodies (rabbit anti-GLUT-3 and anti-GLUT-5 polyclonal antibodies). The results showed lower percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa at step C in both breeds, while the percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly lower only in the 'Entrepelado' breed. The results obtained from electron microscopy clearly showed that Iberian boar spermatozoa expressed the hexose transporters, GLUT-3 and GLUT-5. The pattern of expression, in terms of location and concentration, was characteristic in each case but, in the case of isoform GLUT-5, it remained constant during the different steps of freezing-thawing protocol. These results indicate that cryopreservation affects the status of sperm cells of Iberian boars by altering the distribution of some membrane receptors and decreasing the percentage values of parameters linked to sperm quality.

  2. Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles.

    PubMed

    Clément, C; Kneubühler, J; Urwyler, A; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2010-07-15

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers), is an Andean crop that grows between 3,800 and 4,500 m a.s.l. The persistent interest in this plant is based on its assumed effects on fertility of male mammals due to the prevalence of certain, partially specific, secondary compounds. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of maca supplementation on quality and quantity of semen, mating behavior, and clinical status of peripubertal breeding bulls. The experiment followed a cross-over design lasting for 23 wk with 3 wk of adaptation and baseline measurements, and 2 x 10 wk of treatment feeding thus covering two times the complete 8-wk spermatogenic cycle. Seventy-eight 55 wk to 84 wk old breeding bulls received either no maca (control) or maca (233 mg dried hypocotyls/kg body weight/day) for 10 wk followed by 10 wk without maca (maca early) or maca only in the last 10 wk (maca late). Measurements were always made in the last 2 wk of each period. Apart from standard analyses, ejaculates were analyzed by flow cytometry. Data was evaluated by analysis of variance considering the repeated measurement structure of the data. Significant treatment by measurement period indicated direct or carry-over effects of maca. Maca supplementation had no direct effect on body weight, testes circumference, rectal temperature, mating behavior, and ejaculate volume. However, supplementing maca in the first 10 wk period increased the number of sperms in the second 10 wk period, i.e., when the animals no longer received maca. The DNA fragmentation index and the visually assessed motility of the sperms of bulls, that initially showed a borderline sperm quality, were significantly improved with early maca supplementation, while no such effect was observed in the two other groups. No effects occurred in the proportion of intact sperm plasma membranes or acrosomes or both. In conclusion, maca supplementation seems to improve sperm quantity and quality of bulls to a certain degree, while mating

  3. Gadolinium, a mechano-sensitive channel blocker, inhibits osmosis-initiated motility of sea- and freshwater fish sperm, but does not affect human or ascidian sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Krasznai, Zoltán; Morisawa, Masaaki; Krasznai, Zoárd Tibor; Morisawa, Sachiko; Inaba, Kazuo; Bazsáné, Zsuzsa Kassai; Rubovszky, Bálint; Bodnár, Béla; Borsos, Antal; Márián, Teréz

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hypo-osmotic or hyperosmotic environment triggers the initiation of fish sperm motility. In this article, we report that calcium and potassium channel blockers do not influence motility of puffer fish sperm but calmodulin antagonists reversibly decrease it, suggesting that calmodulin-Ca(2+) interactions are prerequisite for the initiation of sperm motility in this species. Gadolinium (a stretch activated ion channel blocker) decreased the motility of puffer fish sperm from 92 +/- 3% to 6 +/- 3% and that of carp sperm from 91 +/- 7% to 3.5 +/- 4.3% in a dose-dependent manner (10-40 micro M). The effect of gadolinium was reversible, suggesting that stretch activated ion channels participate in the initiation of sperm motility of the two species. Gadolinium inhibits changes in the isoelectric point of certain proteins of puffer fish sperm, which occur when sperm motility is initiated in a hypertonic solution. Anisotropy measurements showed that hypo-osmotic treatment, which initiates carp sperm motility, increased membrane fluidity. When hypo-osmotic treatment was given in the presence of gadolinium, the sperm membrane remained as rigid as in quiescent cells, while motility was blocked. By contrast, gadolinium did not influence the motility parameters of Ciona or human sperm. Based on these lines of evidence, we suggest that conformational changes of mechanosensitive membrane proteins are involved in osmolality-dependent but not osmolality-independent sperm.

  4. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40; p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations. PMID:26804707

  5. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40 p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  6. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-25

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg's test: intercept = 0.40; p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31-2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09-1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.34-2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  7. Reduced glutathione addition improves both the kinematics and physiological quality of post-thawed red deer sperm.

    PubMed

    Anel-López, L; Garcia-Alvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Ramón, M; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J

    2015-11-01

    The potential protective effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) and trolox (TRX), an analogue of vitamin E, supplementation during in vitro culture (2h, 39°C) of electroejaculated frozen/thawed red deer sperm was investigated. Cryopreserved sperm were thawed and incubated with no additive (Control) and 1mM or 5mM of each antioxidant to find out whether these supplementations can maintain the sperm quality, considering the use of thawed samples for in vitro techniques such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm sex sorting or refreezing. The effect of GSH on sperm motility was positive compared to TRX which was negative (P<0.001). After 2h of incubation at 39°C, use of GSH improved motility while TRX supplementation reduced sperm motility compared with Control samples without antioxidant. Use of TRX at both concentrations (1 and 5mM; TRX1 and TRX5) resulted in lesser percentages of apoptotic sperm (12.4±1.1% and 11.7±0.9%) than GSH1, GSH5 (15.2±1% and 14.6±1.1%) and Control samples (16.9±1.2%) (P<0.001). Use of GSH at both concentrations (1 and 5mM) resulted in greater mitochondrial activity as compared with findings for the Control, TRX1 and TRX5 groups. Results of this study indicate that GSH is a suitable supplement for electroejaculated red deer sperm. It would be necessary to conduct fertility trials (in vivo and in vitro), to assess whether GSH supplementation of thawed red deer sperm could improve fertility rates.

  8. Sperm competition differentially affects swimming velocity and size of spermatozoa from closely related muroid rodents: head first.

    PubMed

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Varea Sánchez, María; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Luque-Larena, Juan José; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-12-01

    Sperm competition favours an increase in sperm swimming velocity that maximises the chances that sperm will reach the ova before rival sperm and fertilise. Comparative studies have shown that the increase in sperm swimming speed is associated with an increase in total sperm size. However, it is not known which are the first evolutionary steps that lead to increases in sperm swimming velocity. Using a group of closely related muroid rodents that differ in levels of sperm competition, we here test the hypothesis that subtle changes in sperm design may represent early evolutionary changes that could make sperm swim faster. Our findings show that as sperm competition increases so does sperm swimming speed. Sperm swimming velocity is associated with the size of all sperm components. However, levels of sperm competition are only related to an increase in sperm head area. Such increase is a consequence of an increase in the length of the sperm head, and also of the presence of an apical hook in some of the species studied. These findings suggest that the presence of a hook may modify the sperm head in such a way that would help sperm swim faster and may also be advantageous if sperm with larger heads are better able to attach to the epithelial cells lining the lower isthmus of the oviduct where sperm remain quiescent before the final race to reach the site of fertilisation.

  9. Effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşi, S; Sönmez, M; Çiftçi, M; Güvenç, M

    2013-08-01

    Cinnamon and its contents have multifactorial properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. Male infertility is one of the major health problems in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term cinnamon bark oil (CBO) ingestion on testicular antioxidant values, apoptotic germ cell and sperm quality of adult rats. Twelve male healthy Wistar rats were divided into two groups, each group containing six rats. While olive oil was given to control group, 100 mg kg(-1)  CBO was administered to the other group by gavage daily for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities, and testicular apoptosis via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method were examined. A significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and marked increases in reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were observed in rats treated with CBO compared with the control group. CBO consumption provided a significant increase in weights of testes and epididymides, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and diameter of seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. However, CBO consumption tended to decrease the abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic germ cell count, but it did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that CBO has improvement effect on testicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and sperm quality, and its consumption may be useful for asthenozoospermic men.

  10. RNA interference of the period gene affects the rhythm of sperm release in moths.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Joanna; Bebas, Piotr; Gvakharia, Barbara O; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2009-02-01

    The period (per) gene is 1 of the core elements of the circadian clock mechanism in animals from insects to mammals. In clock cells of Drosophila melanogaster, per mRNA and PER protein oscillate in daily cycles. Consistent with the molecular clock model, PER moves to cell nuclei and acts as a repressor of positive clock elements. Homologs of per are known in many insects; however, specific roles of per in generating output rhythms are not known for most species. The aim of this article was to determine whether per is functionally involved in the circadian rhythm of sperm release in the moth, Spodoptera littoralis. In this species, as in other moths, rhythmic release of sperm bundles from the testis into the upper vas deferens occurs only in the evening, and this rhythm continues in the isolated reproductive system. S. littoralis was used to investigate the expression of per mRNA and protein in the 2 types of cells involved in sperm release: the cyst cells surrounding sperm bundles in the testes, and the barrier cells separating testicular follicles from the vas deferens. In cyst cells, PER showed a nuclear rhythm in light/dark (LD) cycles but was constitutively cytoplasmic in constant darkness (DD). In barrier cells, nuclear cycling of PER was observed in both LD and DD. To determine the role of PER in rhythmic sperm release in moths, testes-sperm duct complexes were treated in vitro with double-stranded fragments of per mRNA (dsRNA). This treatment significantly lowered per mRNA and protein in cyst cells and barrier cells and caused a delay of sperm release. These data demonstrate that a molecular oscillator involving the period gene plays an essential role in the regulation of rhythmic sperm release in this species.

  11. Helium-neon laser irradiation of cryopreserved ram sperm enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP levels improving semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Di Iorio, M; Bailey, J L; Manchisi, A; Passarella, S

    2016-08-01

    This study examines whether and how helium-neon laser irradiation (at fluences of 3.96-9 J/cm(2)) of cryopreserved ram sperm helps improve semen quality. Pools (n = 7) of cryopreserved ram sperm were divided into four aliquots and subjected to the treatments: no irradiation (control) or irradiation with three different energy doses. After treatment, the thawed sperm samples were compared in terms of viability, mass and progressive sperm motility, osmotic resistance, as well as DNA and acrosome integrity. In response to irradiation at 6.12 J/cm(2), mass sperm motility, progressive motility and viability increased (P < 0.05), with no significant changes observed in the other investigated properties. In parallel, an increase (P < 0.05) in ATP content was detected in the 6.12 J/cm(2)-irradiated semen samples. Because mitochondria are the main cell photoreceptors with a major role played by cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the COX reaction was monitored using cytochrome c as a substrate in both control and irradiated samples. Laser treatment resulted in a general increase in COX affinity for its substrate as well as an increase in COX activity (Vmax values), the highest activity obtained for sperm samples irradiated at 6.12 J/cm(2) (P < 0.05). Interestingly, in these irradiated sperm samples, COX activity and ATP contents were positively correlated, and, more importantly, they also showed positive correlation with motility, suggesting that the improved sperm quality observed was related to mitochondria-laser light interactions.

  12. Selenium in blood, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa of stallions and its relationship to sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Bertelsmann, H; Keppler, S; Höltershinken, M; Bollwein, H; Behne, D; Alber, D; Bukalis, G; Kyriakopoulos, A; Sieme, H

    2010-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium is indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Until now, little data existed regarding the relationship between selenium and sperm quality in the stallion. Selenium, or selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, was determined in red blood cells, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa, and the percentages of spermatozoa with progressive motility (PMS), intact membranes (PMI), altered (positive) acrosomal status (PAS) and detectable DNA damage, determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay, were evaluated in 41 healthy stallions (three samples each). The pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (PRC) served as an estimation of fertility. An adverse effect on stallion fertility caused by low dietary selenium intake was excluded, as all stallions had sufficient selenium levels in their blood. Interestingly, no significant correlations (P > 0.05) between the selenium level in blood and the selenium level in seminal plasma or spermatozoa were found, suggesting that the selenium level in blood is no indicator of an adequate selenium supply for spermatogenesis. The selenium level in spermatozoa (nmol billion(-1)) was correlated with PMI, PMS and PAS (r = 0.40, r = 0.31 and r = -0.42, respectively; P sperm quality and fertility in the stallion.

  13. Quality of human spermatozoa: relationship between high-magnification sperm morphology and DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Maettner, R; Sterzik, K; Isachenko, V; Strehler, E; Rahimi, G; Alabart, J L; Sánchez, R; Mallmann, P; Isachenko, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work is to establish the relationship between the morphology of Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI)-selected spermatozoa and their DNA integrity. The 45 ejaculates were randomly distributed into three treatment groups: normozoospermic, oligoasthenozoospermic and oligoasthenotheratozoospermic samples. The evaluation of DNA integrity was performed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. It was established that DNA integrity of spermatozoa is strongly dependent on ejaculate quality (P < 0.05). The count of spermatozoa with nonfragmented DNA in normozoospermic samples was high and independent from IMSI-morphological classes (Class 1 versus Class 3, respectively) (P > 0.1). With decreased ejaculate quality, the percentage of spermatozoa with nonfragmented DNA decreased significantly (P < 0.05) independent from morphological class. Nevertheless, the rate of IMSI-selected spermatozoa with fragmented DNA within of Class 1 in normozoospermic (Group 1), in oligoasthenozoospermic (Group 2) and in oligoasthenotheratozoospermic (Group 3) samples was 21.1%, 31.8% and 54.1%, respectively. In conclusion, there is a direct relationship between morphological parameters of spermatozoa and their DNA integrity. However, the IMSI technique alone is not enough for the selection of spermatozoa with intact nuclei.

  14. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×10(9) sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation.

  15. Progesterone through progesterone receptors affects survival and metabolism of pig sperm.

    PubMed

    De Amicis, F; Santoro, M; Guido, C; Sisci, D; Bruno, R; Carpino, A; Aquila, S

    2012-11-01

    Progesterone receptors (PR) through interaction with the specific ligand progesterone (PRG), play a central coordinate role in different reproductive events. In this study conventional PR were identified in boar spermatozoa by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence techniques indicate that PR are located at sperm acrosomal region, suggesting a possible role in the oocyte fertilization events. Treatment with 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) enhanced viability and induced cholesterol efflux, serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, p-Bcl2, p-Akt that are known hallmarks of capacitation in sperm. The analysis of the triglyceride contents, lipase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, as well as the G6PDH activity, was conducted so as to address whether there was an increase in energy expenditure via 17-OHP through the PR. Taken together these results, particularly the 17-OHP action on boar sperm lipid and glucose metabolism, give emphasis to the role of PR in sperm physiology within the oviductal environment. Moreover the present study highlights, the effect of PRG via PR on boar sperm survival, renewing the role of this hormone in male reproduction as candidate for boar fertility. Thus the present research contributes to further elucidating the role of progesterone on the physiological regulation of the most relevant spermatozoa functions for a successful fertilization.

  16. Sperm DNA integrity testing: big halo is a good predictor of embryo quality and pregnancy after conventional IVF.

    PubMed

    Tandara, M; Bajić, A; Tandara, L; Bilić-Zulle, L; Šunj, M; Kozina, V; Goluža, T; Jukić, M

    2014-09-01

    Sperm DNA integrity is a sperm functional parameter of male fertility evaluation. Two parameters of sperm DNA integrity were observed: DNA damage expressed as DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and percentage of the DNA undamaged spermatozoa expressed as big halo. Halosperm test was used for sperm DNA integrity determination. The aim of this study was to evaluate which DNA integrity parameter is better as an embryo quality and pregnancy prognostic parameter after the conventional IVF. We evaluated two embryo groups (positive and negative group) according to the 3rd day cumulative embryo score. Big halo and DFI, as we expected, showed good correlation (r = -0.69; p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses show that DFI and big halo are significant (p < 0.001) as prognostic parameters of embryo quality. ROC curves comparison of DFI and big halo revealed the AUC value for big halo to be significantly higher (DFI AUC = 0.71 vs. big halo AUC = 0.83; p = 0.025) than for DFI. Big halo was found to be the only independent predictor of embryo quality. Sperm DNA integrity both parameters are good prognostic parameters of embryo quality after the conventional IVF where big halo seems to be better. ROC analyses show DFI and big halo as significant prognostic parameters for achieved pregnancy (AUC ± SE for DFI was 0.67 ± 0.06 and 0.75 ± 0.06 for big halo). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the correlation between sperm DNA undamaged rate expressed as big halo parameter and semen characteristics as well as the influence on fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy in conventional IVF.

  17. Data on the positive synergic action of dimethylacetamide and trehalose on quality of cryopreserved chicken sperm.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Fabio; Madeddu, Manuela; Sayed, Ahmad Abdel; Zaniboni, Luisa; Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Cerolini, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Combined effect of permeant and non-permeant cryoprotectants on the quality of frozen/thawed chicken sperm"(Mosca et. al., 2016) [1]. The combined effect of the permeant cryoprotectants agent dimethylacetamide and the non-permeant cryoprotectants agent trehalose on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen was assessed. In particular, the quantitative dimethylacetamide/trehalose ratio was investigated freezing semen samples according to the following treatments: trehalose 0.1 M+0% dimethylacetamide (DMA-0), trehalose 0.1 M+3% dimethylacetamide (DMA-3), trehalose 0.1 M+6% dimethylacetamide (DMA-6).

  18. Caffeine, dibutyryl cyclic-AMP and heparin affect the chemotactic and phagocytotic activities of neutrophils for boar sperm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, J-C; Yamaguchi, S; Kondo, Y; Funahashi, H

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to examine the effects of caffeine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and heparin on the chemotaxis and/or phagocytosis of PMNs for porcine sperm. The chemotactic activity of PMNs, determined in a blind well chamber, increased (P < 0.05) when fresh serum was added to the medium (control containing BSA, 1109.5 cells/mm(2) vs serum, 1226.3 cells/mm(2)), regardless of the presence of sperm (control, 1121.1 cells/mm(2) vs serum, 1245.8 cells/mm(2)), whereas heat-inactivated serum did not affect activity (without sperm, 1099.4 cells/mm(2) and with sperm, 1132.6 cells/mm(2)). Regardless of live and dead sperm and of the origin of PMNs (boars vs sows), the phagocytotic activity of PMNs, as determined by co-culture of PMNs with sperm for 60 min, increased (P < 0.05) in the presence of fresh serum containing active complement (46.7 and 43.0%, respectively), but stimulation was decreased (P < 0.05) when 1 mM or higher concentrations of caffeine was added to the medium (from 40.7 to 20.8-31.6%). The origin of PMNs (sows vs boars) did not significantly affect phagocytotic activity. The percentage of PMNs that phagocytized polystyrene latex beads decreased when 2 mM caffeine was added to the medium containing porcine serum (from 43.7 to 21.5%). Serum-stimulated chemotactic activity of PMNs (1089.9 cells/mm(2)) was also reduced (P < 0.05) with 2 mM caffeine (942.5 cells/mm(2)). Furthermore, dibutyryl cAMP at ≥ 0.1 mM or heparin at ≥ 100 μg/mL decreased phagocytotic activity, in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Supplementation of PMNs with heparin at 100 or 500 μg/mL decreased (P < 0.05) chemotactic activity in the presence of serum (from 1137.1 cells/mm(2) to 1008.8-1026.3 cells/mm(2)). We inferred that opsonization in the presence of active complement stimulated phagocytotic and chemotactic activities of PMNs, whereas supplementation with caffeine and dibutyryl cAMP (which could be associated with the intracellular cAMP level of PMNs) or adding heparin

  19. Dynamic changes in the sperm quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis under continuous thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Boni, Raffaele; Gallo, Alessandra; Montanino, Melania; Macina, Alberto; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    Global warming is an increasingly serious problem underlying ecological change in marine flora and fauna. Mytilus galloprovincialis is an intertidal species that colonizes coasts in moderate and warm climates, and can thus withstand extreme climatic conditions; however, it successfully reproduces only within a certain temperature range. The effects of prolonged exposure to 28 °C, a temperature unsuitable for breeding activity, on sperm quality were evaluated in this study. Such heat stress induced the following: a significant reduction in concentration; a biphasic pattern of motility and mitochondrial membrane potential that first increased, and then collapsed; a decrease in the intracellular calcium concentration; a rapid increase in lipid peroxidation that was normalized after the third week of heat stress; an increase in DNA fragmentation after the third week of heat stress; and atypical morphology (i.e., sperm with a globular head, asymmetrical tail, and acrosome loss). Currently, these elevated-temperature conditions are achieved along the Mediterranean coast during the late summer, when the reproductive activity of M. galloprovincialis is suspended after massive spawning in the spring. The increasing global temperature, however, may shift their breeding season, thus significantly impacting marine ecosystems and mussel production.

  20. Effect of Myoinositol and Antioxidants on Sperm Quality in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minutolo, Elisa; Lippa, Assunta; Iaconianni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the effects of a dietary supplement in patients affected by reduced sperm motility (asthenospermic males) with metabolic syndrome. The product tested was Andrositol®, which contains myoinositol (MI) as principal compound, in association with other molecules, and the parameters evaluated were semen characteristics as well as hormone and metabolic profiles. The inclusion criteria were subjects aged over 18 years, with asthenospermia and metabolic syndrome. The exclusion criteria were presence of cryptorchidism, varicocele, and prostatitis. For this study, 45 males who had such features were enrolled. Their selection was made according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (5th Edition) for the Evaluation of Human Semen. Hormone and metabolic profiles and semen parameters were assessed at the beginning of the study and after three months of treatment with Andrositol. The differences between the values before and after the supplementation were found statistically significant. Andrositol normalized the metabolic profile of these patients, improving their insulin sensitivity. Moreover, testosterone levels were increased and the semen characteristics, such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, highly improved. In conclusion, the association of MI with other molecules (micronutrients and vitamins) could be an effective therapy for metabolic disorders, as well as hormonal and spermatic changes responsible for male infertility. PMID:27752262

  1. Cryopreservation of European catfish Silurus glanis sperm: sperm motility, viability, and hatching success of embryos.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elaborate cryopreservation methods for ex situ conservation of European catfish. The success of sperm cryopreservation was evaluated by post-thaw sperm motility and velocity, percentage of live spermatozoa and fertility (hatching rates) using frozen/thawed sperm. The best hatching rates of 82-86% were obtained with sperm stored for 5 h before freezing in immobilizing solution and frozen with Me2SO in concentrations of 8, 10, and 12%, or with a mixture of 5% Me2SO and 5% propandiole. These results did not significantly differ from the fresh sperm control sample. The percentage of live spermatozoa in frozen/thawed sperm did not correlate with hatching rate or motility of spermatozoa, but was negatively correlated with velocity of spermatozoa (r=-0.47, P=0.05). The percentage motility in frozen/thawed sperm ranged from 8 to 62%, when sperm was stored in immobilizing solution 5h before freezing. The average value in the fresh sperm (control) was 96%. The frozen/thawed sperm motility rate significantly correlated with the hatching rate (r=0.76, P=0.0002), but not with the percentage of live spermatozoa (r=0.16, P=0.52) or the sperm velocity (r=0.07, P=0.79). The velocity of frozen/thawed spermatozoa ranged from 37 to 85 microm/s, whereby methanol concentrations of 7.5 and 10% resulted in highest velocities. Freezing sperm volumes of 1-4 ml did not affect the quality of frozen/thawed sperm.

  2. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; ul Husna, Asma; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5 mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm.

  3. Time within reproductive season, but not age or inbreeding coefficient, influences seminal and sperm quality in the whooping crane (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.E.; Converse, Sarah; Chandler, Jane N.; Crosier, A. L.; Lynch, W.; Wildt, D.E.; Keefer, C. L.; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2015-01-01

    All living whooping cranes (Grus americana) are descended from 16 or fewer birds that remained alive in the early 1940s, a bottleneck that puts the species at potential risk for inbreeding depression. Although AI is commonly used in the management of the captive population of this species, little is known about seminal traits or factors affecting sperm quality in the whooping crane. In the present study, semen samples were collected from 29 adult males (age 3–27 years) during the early (March), mid (April) and late (May) breeding season over 2 consecutive years. The effects of donor age, time within reproductive season and level of inbreeding on seminal characteristics were analysed using regression and information–theoretic model selection. Only time within reproductive season significantly affected seminal traits, with total numbers of spermatozoa and proportions of pleiomorphisms increasing across the season. We conclude that, even with a highly restricted number of founders, there is no discernible influence of inbreeding (at the levels described) on sperm output or quality. Furthermore, although there is variance in seminal quality, the whooping crane produces significant numbers of motile spermatozoa throughout the breeding season, similar to values reported for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida).

  4. Combined Effect of Trolox and EDTA on Frozen-Thawed Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Keshtgar, Sara; Iravanpour, Farideh; Gharesi-Fard, Behrooz; Kazerooni, Marjaneh

    2016-01-01

    The freezing and thawing process not only is associated with serious damage to sperm such as damage to the plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane but also changes the membrane permeability to some ions including calcium. Also, the generation of oxygen free radicals is increased during the freezing-thawing process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of the effects of Trolox as an antioxidant and edetic acid (EDTA) as a calcium chelator on frozen-thawed (FT) sperm and compare these effects with those on fresh sperm. This study was done on these men of 25 healthy men, who referred to Shiraz Infertility Centerbetween2012 and2013. Normal samples were transferred to the ReproductivePhysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz. The samples were divided into two groups randomly: fresh and FT sperm groups. Each group was divided into five subgroups: control group, the solvent group (0.1%dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]), Trolox group (200μM), EDTA group (1.1mM), and Trolox+EDTA group. The percentages of motility, viability, and acrosome-reacted sperm were tested. The percentages of motility and viability in the FT sperm were lower than those in the fresh sperm. The progressive motility of the FT sperm was improved nonsignificantly with Trolox+EDTA. However, the effect of Trolox+EDTA on the progressive motility of the FT sperm was much more than that on the fresh sperm. The fewest acrosome-reacted sperm were observed in the EDTA-containingFT sperm. Antioxidant supplementation or omission of extracellular calcium may partly improve motility and also reduce acrosomal damage in FT sperm. PMID:27217608

  5. What affects fertility of sexed bull semen more, low sperm dosage or the sorting process?

    PubMed

    Frijters, A C J; Mullaart, E; Roelofs, R M G; van Hoorne, R P; Moreno, J F; Moreno, O; Merton, J S

    2009-01-01

    Until now it has been unclear to what extent the reduced fertility with sexed semen in the dairy industry is caused by too few sperm per AI dose, or by the effect of flow cytometric sorting, which is the established procedure for sexing semen. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of low sperm numbers per dose with and without sorting on non-return rates after 56 days (NRR 56); in addition, we evaluated the effects of bulls, in order to further optimize use of sexed semen. Based on results of using sexed semen from seven Holstein bulls, an overall numerical decline of 13.6% in NRR 56 was observed (P<0.05). About two-thirds of this decline (8.6%) was due to the low dose (P<0.05), and a third (5.0%) due to the process of sorting (P<0.05). The effect of low dosage and sorting differed among bulls. We observed a sex ratio of 91.6% females for sexed semen from the first 131 calves born. Currently the best way to increase fertility of sexed semen is by closely monitoring fertility so that the highest fertility bulls are used, and by improving farm animal management. However, to make substantial progress, more in depth studies are needed on the sexing technology, especially on aspects such as sorting procedures and sperm dosage.

  6. Effect of single layer centrifugation using Androcoll-E-Large on the sperm quality parameters of cooled-stored donkey semen doses.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, I; Dorado, J; Ramírez, L; Morrell, J M; Acha, D; Urbano, M; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single layer centrifugation (SLC) using Androcoll-E-Large on donkey sperm quality parameters after 24 h of cool-storage. Ejaculates were collected from Andalusian donkeys and then cooled at 5°C. SLC was carried out after 24 h of cool-storage using Androcoll-E-Large. In the first experiment, all sperm parameters assessed (total and progressive sperm motility, viability, sperm morphology and sperm kinematics VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, WOB, ALH and BCF) were statistically compared between semen samples processed or not with Androcoll-E-Large. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between SLC-selected and unselected semen samples for all parameters assessed, obtaining better results after SLC. In the second experiment, semen samples were classified in two groups according to their sperm progressive motility (PM) before SLC. Then, the increments obtained in semen quality parameters after SLC were compared between groups. No significant differences were found between groups, indicating that SLC improved the sperm quality parameters of entire set of semen samples processed with independence to their original PM. In conclusion, SLC with Androcoll-E-Large can be used in donkeys, increasing the sperm quality of cooled-stored donkey semen doses after 24 h of cool storage.

  7. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  8. Improvement of the post-thaw qualities of Okinawan native Agu pig sperm frozen in an extender supplemented with antiapoptotic PTD-FNK protein.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Kazuki; Oshiro, Ryuko; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Ashizawa, Koji; Ohta, Shigeo; Tatemoto, Hideki

    2012-10-15

    The technical establishment of boar sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for effective breeding of the scarce Okinawan native Agu pig. The objective was to determine whether an artificial anticell death protein (PTD-FNK protein) was capable of improving the quality of cryopreserved Agu sperm. Ejaculated Agu sperm frozen in an extender supplemented with 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 nm PTD-FNK protein was thawed, and mitochondrial integrity and other sperm characteristics were evaluated. Treatment with 300 nm PTD-FNK protein had the most beneficial effect (P < 0.05) on mitochondrial integrity (45-59%) and sperm motility (56-67%) after freezing-thawing. In particular, the proportion of post-thaw sperm with activated caspase-9 and -3 but not caspase-8 was markedly reduced among sperm frozen in the presence of PTD-FNK protein (P < 0.05), implying protection against apoptotic-cell death in response to mitochondrial damage. There were high levels of intracellular ATP (9.4-10.5 nmol/10(8) sperm) in post-thaw sperm treated with PTD-FNK protein, and the inhibitory effect of PTD-FNK protein on activation of caspases influenced the increase in the number of sperm with intact DNA (36-53%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the addition of PTD-FNK protein to the freezing extender strongly preserved the ability of the sperm to penetrate to mature oocytes in all individuals (60-80%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with PTD-FNK protein in the freezing extender effectively improved post-thaw qualities of fragile Agu sperm through prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to apoptotic-cell death during cryopreservation.

  9. Room temperature storage of mouse epididymal spermatozoa: exploration of factors affecting sperm survival.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Aki

    2004-05-01

    To explore optimal conditions for in vitro sperm survival, we examined the effects of several media used for murine egg culture and in vitro fertilization (IVF; including M16, M2, PB1, TYH, and CZB) on motility of murine spermatozoa stored at 22 degrees C under paraffin oil. Of media tested, M2 medium, that had been adjusted to pH 7.2 by adding N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), was found to be the best. Addition of various concentrations of HEPES to TYH did not improve sperm survival, suggesting that HEPES (and probably neutral pH) do not enhance survival of murine sperm. Since M16 has higher amounts of bicarbonate than M2 (25 mM versus 4.15 mM), four variations of M16 media containing 4.15, 8.30, 16.60, or 33.20 mM bicarbonate were prepared and tested. The modified M16 media with 4.15-16.60 mM bicarbonate yielded good sperm survival (comparable to M2 medium), while relatively high concentrations of bicarbonate (ranging from 16.60 to 33.20 mM) were deleterious to isolated sperm, suggesting the need for a minimum level of residual bicarbonate. However, the mechanism by which the lifespan of spermatozoa is extended remains unknown. The in vitro fertilizing abilities of spermatozoa left in M2 medium for 1, 3, and 5 days at 22 degrees C were 52.5, 21.8, and 7.0%, respectively, when the cleavage rate to the two-cell stage was examined. Transfer of two-cell embryos produced in vitro with spermatozoa stored for 1, 3, and 5 days at 22 degrees C resulted in production of fetuses with efficiencies of 42.5, 23.4, and 12.5%, respectively, which were lower than that of embryos derived from in vitro fertilization with fresh spermatozoa (68.1%). In conclusion, spermatozoa kept in M2 medium for up to 5 days at 22 degrees C can fertilize oocytes.

  10. Ameliorating Effect of Ginseng on Epididymo-Orchitis Inducing Alterations in Sperm Quality and Spermatogenic Cells Apoptosis following Infection by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Mehdi; Jani, Soghra; Kazemi, Mahsa; Zeighami, Habib; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mazloomi, Sahar; Shokri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Objective Epididymo-orchitis (EO) potentially results in reduced fertility in up to 60% of affected patients. The anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and its ability to act as an immunoenhancer in parallel with the beneficial effects of this ancient herbal medicine on the reproductive systems of animals and humans led us to evaluate its protective effects against acute EO. Materials and Methods This animal experimental study was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Zanjan, Iran during 2013-2015. We divided 50 Wistar rats into five following groups (n=10 per group): i. Control-intact animals, ii. Vehicle-phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injection into the vas deferens, iii. KRG-an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of KRG, iv. EO-an injection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain M39 into the vas defer- ens, and v. EO/ KRG-injections of both UPEC strain M39 and KRG. The treatment lasted seven days. We then evaluated sperm parameters, number of germ cell layers, Johnson’s criteria, germ cell apoptosis, body weight and relative sex organs weight. Results Acute EO increased the relative weight of prostate and seminal vesicles (P≤0.05). It also reduced sperm quality such as total motility, sperm concentration (P≤0.01), and the percentage of normal sperm (P≤0.001). Moreover, acute EO decreased Miller’s (P≤0.05) and Johnsen’s scores and increased apoptotic indexes of spermatogenic cells (P≤0.001). KRG treatment decreased prostate weight gain (P≤0.05) and improved the percentage of sperm with normal morphology, total motility (P≤0.01), and progressive motility (P≤0.05). The apoptotic indexes of spermatogenic cells reduced (P≤0.001), whereas both Johnsen’s (P≤0.01) and Miller’s criteria increased in the KRG-treated EO testis (P≤0.05). Conclusion Consequently, KRG ameliorated the devastating effects of EO on the sperm retrieved from either

  11. Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens: the impact of spermatogenesis quality on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in 108 men.

    PubMed

    Llabador, M A; Pagin, A; Lefebvre-Maunoury, C; Marcelli, F; Leroy-Martin, B; Rigot, J M; Mitchell, V

    2015-05-01

    In azoospermic men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), it is not known whether the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) depend on the quality of testicular spermatogenesis (as determined histopathologically). We retrospectively studied the impact of spermatogenesis quality on ICSI outcomes in 108 azoospermic men with CBAVD consulting in a university hospital's department of andrology and reproductive biology. As part of an ICSI program, sperm samples were obtained from the epididymis [by microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA); n = 47] or the testis [by testicular sperm extraction (TESE); n = 14] or both (MESA + TESE, n = 47). In the TESE group (i.e., TESE-only and MESA + TESE), spermatogenesis was normal in 21 of the 108 men (19.4%) and hypospermatogenesis occurred in 33 (30.5%). The fertilization rate was significantly lower in the hypospermatogenic group than in the normospermatogenesis group (65.6 and 72.9%, respectively; p = 0.02); this was also true for the embryo cleavage rate (88.6 and 92.1%, respectively; p = 0.007), and the proportion of embryos with fewer than 30% of enucleate fragments (79.5 and 86.9%, respectively; p = 0.02). Our study results showed that impaired spermatogenesis had a negative impact on certain early-stage biological outcomes of ICSI. In CBAVD, male factors are likely to exert a harmful effect on the early stages of embryo development.

  12. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  13. Effects of increased paternal age on sperm quality, reproductive outcome and associated epigenetic risks to offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok; Rohra, Vikram K; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Turki, Rola F

    2015-04-19

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in average paternal age when the first child is conceived, either due to increased life expectancy, widespread use of contraception, late marriages and other factors. While the effect of maternal ageing on fertilization and reproduction is well known and several studies have shown that women over 35 years have a higher risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. The effect of paternal age on semen quality and reproductive function is controversial for several reasons. First, there is no universal definition for advanced paternal ageing. Secondly, the literature is full of studies with conflicting results, especially for the most common parameters tested. Advancing paternal age also has been associated with increased risk of genetic disease. Our exhaustive literature review has demonstrated negative effects on sperm quality and testicular functions with increasing paternal age. Epigenetics changes, DNA mutations along with chromosomal aneuploidies have been associated with increasing paternal age. In addition to increased risk of male infertility, paternal age has also been demonstrated to impact reproductive and fertility outcomes including a decrease in IVF/ICSI success rate and increasing rate of preterm birth. Increasing paternal age has shown to increase the incidence of different types of disorders like autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and childhood leukemia in the progeny. It is thereby essential to educate the infertile couples on the disturbing links between increased paternal age and rising disorders in their offspring, to better counsel them during their reproductive years.

  14. Can Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In quiescent environments (microgravity, capillary tubes, gels) formation of a depletion zone is to be expected, due either to limited sedimentation, density driven convection or a combination of both. The formation of a depletion zone can: Modify solution supersaturation near crystal; Give rise to impurity partitioning. It is conjectured that both supersaturation and impurity partitioning affect protein crystal quality and size. Further detailed investigations on various proteins are needed to assess above hypothesis.

  15. Sperm whales ability to avoid approaching vessels is affected by sound reception in stratified waters.

    PubMed

    Gannier, A; Marty, G

    2015-06-15

    Collision with vessels is a major cause of whale mortality in the Mediterranean Sea. The effect of non-spherical sound propagation effects on received levels (RL) was investigated for the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Relevant dive patterns were considered in each case and the RL were compared for two periods using a ray tracing software, the winter conditions and the summer stratified situation. RL were plotted as a function of time in a simulated collision case for two vessel speeds representative of a conventional merchant ship (15knots) and a fast-ferry (37knots). In almost all simulated cases, RL featured a brutal 23-31dB re 1μPa rise from below 100dB while the vessel approached the whale at close range. Summer situations were worse because this transition occurred at closer ranges, resulting in acoustic warning times of less than 30s in the fast ferry case. These results suggested that sperm whales could not be able to achieve an escape manoeuvre in a critical situation such as a fast vessel approaching under stratified waters conditions.

  16. Site of intrauterine artificial insemination in the bitch does not affect sperm distribution within the uterus.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, F B; Malm, C; Henry, M; Gheller, V A; Serakides, R; Neves, M M; Macedo, S P; Figueiredo, M S; Andrade, M E J; Chaves, M S; Silva, M X; Rezende, C M F; Melo, E G

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa within the uterine lumen and oviducts following intrauterine laparoscopic deposition at two sites. Twelve bitches of unknown reproductive history were randomly distributed into two groups. Semen (3 ml containing 300 × 10(6) frozen-thawed spermatozoa) was infused at the uterine body (UB group) or at the cranial tip of the left uterine horn. A 22-G catheter was used to access the uterine lumen. Sperm cell distribution was evaluated after ovariohysterectomy performed 3 h after artificial insemination (AI). There was no difference between groups in mean time to perform AI. Spermatozoa were detected in all uterine segments, including the tip of both horns, but none was detected in the oviduct. The 22-G catheter facilitated deposition of semen in the uterine lumen, particularly at the UB site. Sperm cell distribution occurred evenly along both horns, independent of the site of semen deposition.

  17. Effect of extender and amino acid supplementation on sperm quality of cooled-preserved Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available liquid stallion semen extenders for the preservation of Andalusian donkey semen at 5°C for up to 72h, and to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition on sperm quality of cooled donkey semen. In addition, this study investigated the effect of seasons on semen characteristics of Andalusian jackasses. Throughout a year, 50 ejaculates were collected from ten adult donkeys and a complete semen evaluation was performed immediately after collection. In Experiment 1, semen samples (n=32) were pooled, divided into two aliquots, and cooled in either Gent(®) A or INRA 96(®). In Experiment 2, pooled semen samples (n=9) were cooled in Gent A(®) supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60mM for each glutamine, proline, or taurine. Fresh semen and chilled samples were assessed for sperm motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Sperm motility variables were greater (P<0.05) in Gent(®) A than in INRA 96(®). The presence of glutamine, proline, or taurine in Gent(®) A improved (P<0.001) the motility of Andalusian donkey spermatozoa. Differences (P<0.05) in some sperm variables were observed among seasons. In conclusion, Gent(®) A maintained sperm motility characteristics after 72h of cold storage to a greater extent than INRA 96(®). Moreover, motility was greater when Gent(®) A supplemented at different concentrations of amino acids than Gent(®) A with no supplementation. An effect of seasons on the semen quality of the Andalusian donkey was demonstrated.

  18. Protein expression pattern of PAWP in bull spermatozoa is associated with sperm quality and fertility following artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chelsey E; Krieger, Kari Beth; Sutovsky, Miriam; Xu, Wei; Vargovič, Peter; Didion, Bradley A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hennessy, Madison E; Verstegen, John; Oko, Richard; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Post-acrosomal WW-domain binding protein (PAWP) is a signaling molecule located in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS) of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized that the proper integration of PAWP in the sperm PAS is reflective of bull-sperm quality and fertility. Cryopreserved semen samples from 298 sires of acceptable, but varied, fertility used in artificial insemination services were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for PAWP protein. In normal spermatozoa, PAWP fluorescence formed a regular band around the proximal PAS. Anomalies of PAWP labeling in defective spermatozoa were reflected in flow cytometry by varied intensities of PAWP-induced fluorescence. Distinct sperm phenotypes were also identified, including morphologically normal and some defective spermatozoa with moderate levels of PAWP; grossly defective spermatozoa with low/no PAWP; and defective spermatozoa with high PAWP. Analysis by ImageStream flow cytometry confirmed the prevalence of abnormal sperm phenotypes in the spermatozoa with abnormal PAWP content. Live/dead staining and video recording showed that some abnormal spermatozoa are viable and capable of progressive motility. Conventional flow-cytometric measurements of PAWP correlated significantly with semen quality and fertility parameters that reflect the sires' artificial insemination fertility, including secondary sperm morphology, conception rate, non-return rate, and residual value. A multiplex, flow-cytometric test detecting PAWP, aggresomes (ubiquitinated protein aggregates), and acrosomal integrity (peanut-agglutinin-lectin labeling) had a predictive value for conception rate, as demonstrated by step-wise regression analysis. We conclude that PAWP correlates with semen/fertility parameters used in the cattle artificial insemination industry, making PAWP a potential biomarker of bull fertility.

  19. Dietary n-3 PUFAs improve fresh and post-thaw semen quality in Holstein bulls via alteration of sperm fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Khoshvaght, Ali; Towhidi, Armin; Zare-shahneh, Ahmad; Noruozi, Mohammad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Davachi, Navid Dadashpour; Karimi, Reza

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil-supplemented diet on fresh and post-thaw semen quality and sperm lipid composition in bulls. Bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6). Six bulls were used as the control group and six received the fish oil (1.2% dry matter of total diet) for 11 weeks. Semen was individually collected from each bull and frozen biweekly. Semen volume, sperm concentration, viability, progressive motility, and fatty acid profile of sperm were measured in 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th week of experiment. Viability, progressive motility, and fatty acid profile of post-thaw sperm were also measured in 3rd, 5th, 9th, and 11th week of experiment. Data were analyzed with using Proc GLM or MIXED (for repeated measurement data) in SAS program. The fish oil-supplemented diet increased the semen volume and sperm concentration. The fish oil-supplemented diet also altered the viability, progressive motility, and fatty acid profile of fresh and post-thaw sperm. In conclusion, feeding a fish oil-enriched diet via alteration of fatty acid profile of sperm lipid could improve in vitro quality of fresh and post-thaw sperm in Holstein bulls.

  20. Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

  1. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spermatozoa motility is the critical parameter to affect the treatment outcomes during assisted reproductive technologies (ART), but its reproductive capability remains a little informed in condition of severe male factor infertility. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the effects of reduced sperm motility on the embryological and clinical outcomes in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment of severe oligozoospermia. Patients and Methods 966 cycles (812 couples) of severe oligozoospermia diagnosed by spermatozoa count ≤ 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa ≤ 2 × 106/mL were divided into four groups in according to the number of motile spermatozoa in one ejaculate on the day of oocyte retrieval (Group B—E). The control (Group A) was 188 cycles of moderate oligozoospermia with spermatozoa count > 5 × 106/mL and motile spermatozoa > 2 × 106/mL. All female partners were younger than 35 years of age. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes (the rates of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo) and clinical outcomes (the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth). Quality of embryo transfer (ET) was divided into three classes as continuous factor to test the effects of embryo quality on clinical outcomes. Results The reduction in the number of motile sperm in four groups of severe oligozoospermia gave rise to comparable inability of the fertilization (p < 0.001) and a decreased rate of good-quality embryo at Day 3 (p < 0.001) by compared to the control. The cleavage rate of the derived zygotes was similar to the control. ET classes significantly affected the clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). Class I ET gave rise to similar rates of clinical outcomes between five groups, but Class II and Class III ET retarded the rates of pregnancy, implantation and live birth and this particularly occurred in Group C, D and E. The rate of early miscarriage was not comparably different between groups

  2. The effect of Eurycoma longifolia on sperm quality of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit-Lam; Low, Bin-Seng; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Das, Prashanta K

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a standardized methanol extract of E. longifolia Jack containing the major quassinoid constituents of 13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (1), eurycomanone (2), 13alpha,21-dihydroeurycomanone (3) and eurycomanol (4) on the epididymal spermatozoa profile of normal and Andrographis paniculata induced infertile rats. The standardized MeOH extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the EtOAc fraction (70 mg/kg), and standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg co-administered with the EtOAc fraction of A. paniculata at 70 mg/kg were each given orally to male Sprague-Dawley albino rats for 48 consecutive days. The spermatozoa count, morphology, motility, plasma testosterone level and Leydig cell count of the animals were statistically analyzed by ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey HSD test. The results showed that the sperm count of rats given the standardized MeOH extract alone at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were increased by 78.9, 94.3 and 99.2%, respectively when compared with that of control (p < 0.01). The low count, poor motility and abnormal morphology of the spermatozoa induced by the A. paniculata fraction were significantly reversed by the standardized MeOH extract of E. longifolia (p < 0.001). The plasma testosterone level of the rats treated with the standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg was significantly increased (p < 0.01) when compared with that of the control and infertile animals. The spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells appeared normal. Testosterone level was significantly higher in the testes (p < 0.01) than in the plasma after 30 days of oral treatment with the standardized MeOH extract. Interestingly, eurycomanone (2) alone was detected in the rat testis homogenates by HPLC-UV and confirmed by LC/MS, and may have contributed towards the improvement of sperm quality. Thus, the plant may potentially be suitable for the management of male infertility.

  3. Effect of daily semen centrifugation and resuspension on the longevity of equine sperm quality following cooled storage.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D; Brinsko, S P; Voge, J; Bliss, S; Sudderth, K; Teague, S; LaCaze, K

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether cooled semen quality could be maintained for a longer interval by conducting daily centrifugation of extended semen, with resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender. Semen treatments included SP10NC and SP50NC which contained 10 and 50% seminal plasma, respectively, were not centrifuged (NC), and were stored at 4 to 7 °C for 96 h. Treatments SP10C and SP50C contained 10 and 50% seminal plasma, respectively, but were centrifuged (C) after 24, 48, and 72 h of cooled storage, with daily resuspension in fresh extender containing 10% seminal plasma. Percent total sperm motility (TMOT) and progressively motile (PMOT) was reduced (P < 0.05) in the SP50NC treatment after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of storage, and TMOT did not differ (P > 0.05) in the SP10C, SP50C, SP10NC groups after the same storage periods. The % COMP-(αt) did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments at any time period. Percent membrane intact sperm (SMI) was reduced in SP50NC, as compared to SP10C at 48, 72, and 96 h (P < 0.05). Daily centrifugation and resuspension of sperm exposed to 50% seminal plasma for the first 24 h (SP50C) yielded similar TMOT, PMOT, VCL, SMI, % COMP-(αt) (P > 0.05) to Groups SP10NC and SP10C after 96 h of storage. Daily centrifugation and resuspension of cool-stored equine semen in fresh extender may be a method to increase sperm longevity.

  4. Association study and expression analysis of porcine ESR1 as a candidate gene for boar fertility and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Asep; Kaewmala, Kanokwan; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Tesfaye, Dawit; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl

    2011-10-01

    Male fertility is impaired through the lack of ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor 1) but little is known about the ESR1 roles in boar spermatogenesis and fertility. Therefore, this research was aimed at investigating the association with sperm quality and boar fertility traits in a total of 300 boars both from purebred Pietrain and Pietrain × Hampshire crosses. A SNP in coding region of ESR1g.672C>T in exon 1 was associated with sperm motility (P<0.05) and plasma droplet rate (P<0.01) while the polymorphism in non-coding region of ESR1g.35756T>C in inton 1 was associated with non-return rate (P<0.05). Furthermore, to analyse the mRNA and protein expression of ESR1 in boar reproductive tissues, a total of six boars were divided into two groups [Group I (G-I) and Group II (G-II)], where G-I had relatively better sperm quality. ESR1 expression was higher in tissues collected from G-I boars than those of collected from G-II boars, and the difference in mRNA expression was significant (P<0.01) in head of epididymis. The ESR1 protein expression results from western blot coincided with the results of qRT-PCR. The ESR1 protein localization observed a strong staining in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cell in the testis, in the epithelial cells in head and tail of epididymis, in smooth muscle in tail of epididymis, and in the post acrosomal region and tail of the spermatozoa. These results will improve the understanding of the functions of the ESR1 in spermatogenesis within the reproductive tract and will shed light on ESR1 as a candidate in the selection of boar with good sperm quality and fertility.

  5. Bacterial contamination of ram semen, antibiotic sensitivities, and effects on sperm quality during storage at 15°C.

    PubMed

    Yániz, Jesús Luis; Marco-Aguado, María Angeles; Mateos, José Angel; Santolaria, Pilar

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination of ejaculated semen samples in fertile rams and its consequences on sperm quality during storage. In experiment 1, 68 ejaculates from 36 rams were divided into two aliquots, one of which was used for bacterial culture, while the other one was diluted, stored at 15°C and assessed for plasma membrane integrity and motility at 0, 24 and 48h after dilution. From the 68 ejaculates, 66 were positive for aerobic bacteria, including 20 species of bacteria from 14 genera. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, and Staphylococcus aureus species. These 5 bacteria were present in 97% of all contaminated samples. All contaminant bacteria were found to be sensitive to gentamicin and to ceftiofur, with variable percentages of resistance to the other antibiotics evaluated. In samples with total enterobacteria count lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, higher proportions of motile and progressive sperm and higher velocities of spermatozoa were observed at different times during storage. In experiment 2, pure cultures of the most frequently isolated bacteria were individually added to fresh semen samples of low contamination and tested for their effects on sperm quality during storage at 15°C. Semen with E. coli showed a drastic reduction in motility, velocity and viability during storage. This reduction was also significant, but less drastic, in semen with E. cloacae and P. mirabilis, whereas it was partial and less pronounced in the other groups (S. epidermidis and S. aureus). In conclusion, the contamination of ram semen with enterobacterial species reduced sperm quality during storage at 15°C, and the antibiotics gentamicin and ceftiofur showed the higher antimicrobial activities.

  6. Improved quality of sex-sorted sperm: a prerequisite for wider commercial application.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Moench-Tegeder, G; Taylor, U; Johnson, L A

    2009-01-01

    To date the only successful method to sort sperm into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations is the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology. Fertility results continue to be variable even though the technology has been used in a commercial setting for nearly a decade. This is at least partly due to the reduced lifespan of sperm after sorting and freezing. Several technical and biological factors are responsible for this problem. Furthermore, to meet economic demands, only 10-15% of the number of sperm (compared to unsexed semen) are loaded in each straw, further limiting the chances for fertilization. A new protocol for preservation of bull sperm, utilizing Sexcess shows promise in extending the lifespan of sorted bull sperm. Motility and acrosome integrity are significantly increased using Sexcess. Conception rates achieved with heifers for those bulls tested with Sexcess and using a standard AI regime give results that do not differ from results achieved using regular AI. In addition to the improvements of the sorting technology itself, we recommend a thorough pre-selection of bulls. A reliable prediction method to determine whether a bull is suitable for a sex-sorting program still does not exist. Such a test is needed, especially for "custom sorting" programs. Currently, test sorts are the only means of obtaining information about the sorting efficiency of semen from a particular bull.

  7. Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Keskes-Ammar, L; Feki-Chakroun, N; Rebai, T; Sahnoun, Z; Ghozzi, H; Hammami, S; Zghal, K; Fki, H; Damak, J; Bahloul, A

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported beneficial effects of antioxidant drugs on semen quality, but there is no well-defined therapeutical protocol in male infertility. This study aimed to test the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on lipid peroxidation and on sperm parameters. The study included 54 voluntary and infertile men who produced semen samples for spermiogram and for spectrophotometric measurement of a lipid peroxidation marker, the malondialdehyde (MDA), and produced blood samples for high-performance liquid chromatography assessment of serum vitamin E level. The trial was randomized and open. Twenty-eight men were supplemented daily by vitamin E (400 mg) and selenium (225 microg), during 3 months. The remaining 26 patients received vitamin B (4,5 g/day) for the same duration. Only 20 patients achieved their treatment and returned for control analysis. MDA concentrations in sperm were much less than in seminal plasma and motility and viability were inversely correlated with semen MDA levels. In contrast to vitamin B supplementation, vitamin E and selenium supplementation produced a significant decrease in MDA concentrations and an improvement of sperm motility. The results confirm the protective and beneficial effects of vitamin E and selenium on semen quality and advocate their use in male infertility treatment.

  8. Evaluation of sperm quality snakes Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Varela, A S; Cardoso, T F; Silva, E F; Loebmann, D; Corcini, C D

    2017-01-12

    Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860), is a species widely distributed in the Pampa Domain, occurring in Rio Grande do Sul, Argentina and Uruguay, mainlyin the pampa region. In the coastal region of southern Brazil this is serpent is considered one of the most abundant. The purpose of the present study is to describe the techniques of sperm evaluation in vitro for E. poecilogyrus sublineatus in the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After laparatomy the efferent vases were collected and the semen was diluted in 1ml Beltsville Thawing Solution. The characteristics of motility, membrane integrity, mitochondria, acrosome, DNA, cell viability and cellular functionality were evaluated. Fluorescent probes were used for the evaluation of sperm structure in epifluorescence microscope. With the techniques described, it was possible to identify intact and injured cells, enabling the determination of cell characteristics for the spring season (October and November). It was observed in the analyses that 80% of sperm cells were mobile and that 84.1 ± 8.0% of sperm membranes were intact. The standards found were of 48 ± 13.8% of intact acrosome, 73.6 ± 6.0 of perfect DNA and of 91.8 ± 4.0 of functional mitochondria. Thus, these values from the sperm analysis can be used as standards for the species Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus.

  9. [Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients.

  10. Comparative evidence for the evolution of sperm swimming speed by sperm competition and female sperm storage duration in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Kleven, Oddmund; Fossøy, Frode; Laskemoen, Terje; Robertson, Raleigh J; Rudolfsen, Geir; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2009-09-01

    Sperm swimming speed is an important determinant of male fertility and sperm competitiveness. Despite its fundamental biological importance, the underlying evolutionary processes affecting this male reproductive trait are poorly understood. Using a comparative approach in a phylogenetic framework, we tested the predictions that sperm swim faster with (1) increased risk of sperm competition, (2) shorter duration of female sperm storage, and (3) increased sperm length. We recorded sperm swimming speed in 42 North American and European free-living passerine bird species, representing 35 genera and 16 families. We found that sperm swimming speed was positively related to the frequency of extrapair paternity (a proxy for the risk of sperm competition) and negatively associated with clutch size (a proxy for the duration of female sperm storage). Sperm swimming speed was unrelated to sperm length, although sperm length also increased with the frequency of extrapair paternity. These results suggest that sperm swimming speed and sperm length are not closely associated traits and evolve independently in response to sperm competition in passerine birds. Our findings emphasize the significance of both sperm competition and female sperm storage duration as evolutionary forces driving sperm swimming speed.

  11. Evaluation of human sperm chromatin status after selection using a modified Diff-Quik stain indicates embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tavares, R S; Silva, A F; Lourenço, B; Almeida-Santos, T; Sousa, A P; Ramalho-Santos, J

    2013-11-01

    Sperm chromatin/DNA damage can be measured by a variety of assays. However, it has been reported that these tests may lose prognostic value in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) cycles when assessed in post-prepared samples, possibly due to the normalizing effect promoted by sperm preparation procedures. We have recently implemented a modified version of the Diff-Quik staining assay that allows for the evaluation of human sperm chromatin status in native samples, together with standard sperm morphology assessment. However, the value of this parameter in terms of predicting in vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes after sperm selection is unknown. In this study, data from 138 couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments showed that sperm chromatin integrity was significantly improved after density gradient centrifugation and swim up (p < 0.001), but no correlations were found with fertilization or embryo development rates (p > 0.05). However, sperm samples presenting lower percentages of damaged chromatin were associated with better quality (Grade I) embryos in both ART procedures (p < 0.05) and clinical pregnancy among IVF couples (p < 0.05). Furthermore, regression analysis confirmed the clinical value of Diff-Quik staining in predicting IVF (but not ICSI) clinical pregnancy (OR: 0.927, 95% CI: 0.871-0.985, p = 0.015), and a threshold value of 34.25% for this parameter was established. The proportion of IVF couples achieving a clinical pregnancy was reduced 1.9-fold when the percentage of abnormal dark staining was ≥34.25% (p = 0.05). In conclusion, the Diff-Quik staining assay provides useful information regarding ART success, particularly in IVF cycles, where some degree of 'natural' sperm selection may occur; but not in ICSI, where sperm selection is operator dependent. This quick and low-cost assay is suggested as an alternative method to detect

  12. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  13. Factors affecting the quality of cryoprecipitate

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Rajeswari; Marwaha, Neelam; Jain, Ashish; Ahluwalia, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many variables affect the quality of cryoprecipitate (CRYO). We investigated the effect of freezing techniques and ABO blood groups on the quality of CRYO with respect to factor VIII: C and fibrinogen levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six whole blood units each collected from in-house (Group I) and blood donation camps outside the hospital premises (Group II) were processed for CRYO preparation. Within each group, half the number of plasma units was frozen using blast freezer and another half using the conventional freezer. The CRYOs from blood groups A, B, and O were equally distributed, i.e. 32 within each of the Groups I and II. The fibrinogen and factor VIII: C levels in CRYO were analyzed using single-stage clotting assay. RESULTS: In Group I, the mean ± standard deviation percentage recovery of factor VIII levels in CRYO prepared using the conventional freezer and blast freezer were 58.5% ±16.2% and 66.7% ±16.4%, respectively, and in Group II, it was 55.3% ±17.6% and 70.4% ±13.4%, respectively. Recovery of factor VIII was higher in CRYO prepared using blast freezer than that of CRYO prepared using conventional freezer (P < 0.000). In Group II, CRYOs prepared using blast freezer had higher percent recovery of fibrinogen than that of Group I. In both the groups, the mean factor VIII levels in blood group A were higher than that of factor VIII levels in the blood group O CRYO. CONCLUSION: The factor VIII recovery in CRYO improves significantly with higher baseline factor VIII: C levels, blood group A donor, and rapid freezing using blast freezer. Rapid freezing also increases the fibrinogen yield. PMID:28316438

  14. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands’ sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P < 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P < 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P < 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P < 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes. PMID:25652630

  15. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands' sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  16. Effect of semen collection method (artificial vagina vs. electroejaculation), extender and centrifugation on post-thaw sperm quality of Blanca-Celtibérica buck ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; del Olmo, E; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Bisbal, A; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Soler, A J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of semen collection method (artificial vagina compared to electroejaculation), season in which the semen was collected (breeding season compared to non-breeding season), freezing extender (Biladyl(®), Andromed(®) and skim milk based extender) and pre-treatment procedure (washing compared to non-washing) on post-thaw semen quality in buck. Ejaculates from seven bucks of the Blanca-Celtibérica breed were collected by artificial vagina and electroejaculation during the breeding (July to December) and non-breeding season (January to June). Samples were split in two aliquots and one of them was washed. Three freezing extenders were evaluated on washing and non-washing sperm samples. Ejaculates collected by artificial vagina had a greater sperm quality after thawing, with greater values (P≤0.05) for SM (sperm motility), NAR (acrosome intact), YO-PRO-1-/PI- (intact spermatozoa), and Mitotracker+/YO-PRO-1- (spermatozoa with active mitochondria) and lower % DFI (DNA fragmentation index). Thawed sperm samples which were collected during the breeding season had greater values (P≤0.05) for NAR, intact spermatozoa and spermatozoa with active mitochondria, than those semen samples obtained during the non-breeding season. Semen freezing with Biladyl(®) and Andromed(®) resulted in a greater sperm quality (P≤0.05) after thawing in relation to milk-based extender. Washing procedure had no effect on sperm parameters assessed at thawing. Results from the present study suggest that the success of semen cryopreservation in Blanca-Celtibérica goat depends on semen collection method and season, as well as on the extender used. Thus, the post-thaw sperm quality will be greater (P≤0.05) when samples are collected by artificial vagina during the breeding season and when Biladyl(®) or Andromed(®) are used as freezing extenders.

  17. Ameliorating effects of fennel and cumin extracts on sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis by inducing weight loss and reducing leptin concentration in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Nejatbakhsh, R; Riyahi, S; Farrokhi, A; Rostamkhani, S; Mahmazi, S; Yazdinezhad, A; Kazemi, M; Shokri, S

    2016-11-30

    This study was established a model of obesity to estimate the impact of fennel and cumin as anti-obesity extracts on body weight, body mass index (BMI), food consumption, leptin concentration, sperm quality and testis architecture to determine the reversibility of reproductive function of obese animals. Male rats were randomly assigned to either a normal or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Then, we divided 56 adult rats into seven groups: control (CO); obesity (OB); fennel 100 and 200 mg/kg; cumin 50 and 100 mg/kg; and fennel 100 mg/kg plus cumin 50 mg/kg. From weeks 9-16, the animals treated extracts by gavages daily. We analysed leptin concentration, sperm quality and apoptosis of testis along with evaluating changes in body weight. Body weight of animals increased 25% at week 8. However, body weight, BMI, leptin concentration and apoptosis indices of OB rats increased at the end of study. However, the relative sperm parameters decreased. Nevertheless, fennel and cumin treatment improved sperm quality, and spermatogenic cells apoptosis following weight loss. Concomitant with weight loss, leptin concentration and food consumption decreased. In conclusion, fennel and cumin as supplements may ameliorate sperm quality of obese animals following weight loss and reduction in leptin concentration.

  18. Effects of MboII and BspMI polymorphisms in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene on sperm quality in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Na; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Li-Guo

    2011-06-01

    The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) plays an essential physiological role in reproductive function, which triggers the synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of polymorphisms of GnRHR gene on the quality of fresh and frozen semen in Holstein bulls. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect G286A and T340C transitions determining MboII and BspMI polymorphisms, respectively, in the exon I of bovine GnRHR gene and evaluated its associations with sperm quality traits in 131 Holstein bulls. In polymorphic locus 286, bulls with the GA genotype had significantly higher sperm motility in frozen semen (FMOT) than GG genotype (P < 0.01). In polymorphic locus 340, bulls with heterozygote CT genotype had significantly higher sperm motility (MOT), semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), and lower abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR) than homozygote TT genotype (P < 0.05). Bulls contained one A allele or C allele had a favorable, positive effect on sperm quality traits. These results indicate that GnRHR gene can be a potential marker for improving sperm quality traits, and imply that bulls with GA or CT genotype should be selected in breeding program.

  19. Sperm allocation in relation to female size in a semelparous salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Masaki; Kitayama, Takenori; Kawabata, Yuuki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Kojima, Takahito; Pitcher, Trevor E.

    2016-01-01

    To maximize reproductive success, males have to adaptively tailor their sperm expenditure in relation to the quality of potential mates because they require time to replenish their sperm supply for subsequent mating opportunities. Therefore, in mating contexts where males must choose among females in a short period of time, as is the case with semelparous species (which die after one intensely competitive short duration breeding season), selection on sperm allocation can be expected to be a powerful selective agent that shapes the male reproductive success. We quantitatively investigated sperm allocation patterns in chum salmon in relation to perceived female quality by developing a novel method for determining the amount of sperm allocated per ejaculate during spawning bouts. We examined the relationship between sperm expenditure and the body size of paired females (a proxy of egg number and egg quality) in the absence of male–male competition in an experimental channel. The estimated amount of sperm released per spawning event was positively correlated with the size of paired females. However, the number of spawning events a female participated in, which reduces the number of eggs she spawns in each subsequent bout, did not affect this relationship. These results provide support for predictions arising from the sperm allocation hypothesis, male salmon do economize their sperm expenditure in accordance with paired female body size as predicted for their first spawning event, but males overestimate or are unable to assess the quality of females beyond size and provide more sperm than they should in theory when paired with a female that spawned previously. Overall, the observed sperm allocation pattern in chum salmon appears to be adapted to maximize reproductive success assuming female size is an honest indicator of quality, although temporal changes in a female's quality during a reproductive season should be considered when examining sperm allocation strategies

  20. Low Sperm Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... unknown, it might be related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation. Varicoceles result in reduced quality of the ... can be permanently reduced. Overheating the testicles. Elevated temperatures impair sperm production and function. Although studies are ...

  1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

  2. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozkosem, Burak; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old), adult (8-month-old), and old (20-month-old) Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice. PMID:25796034

  3. Recovery effect of pre-germinated brown rice on the alteration of sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor expression in rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Roboon, J; Nudmamud-Thanoi, S; Thanoi, S

    2017-02-01

    Depression and antidepressant drugs induce adverse effects in male reproduction. Therefore, it is important to investigate alternative treatment for depression without adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor (AR) expression in rat model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups including control (distilled water only), depression induced by forced swimming test (FST), FST + fluoxetine (antidepressant drug), FST + GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) (standard) and FST + PGBR. When compared with the control, sperm motility showed a significant decrease in FST + fluoxetine group. Sperm morphology also decreased significantly in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups. The morphological changes of seminiferous tubules showed significant increases in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups, while AR expression showed significant decreases in depression, FST + fluoxetine and FST + GABA groups. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in all sperm quality parameters, testicular structure and AR expression in FST + PGBR group. These findings reflect the recovery effects of PGBR treatment on sperm quality, morphological changes of seminiferous tubules and AR expression in stress-induced rats. Therefore, PGBR may potentially develop for the treatment for depression without adverse effect on male reproduction.

  4. A comparative study of Sephadex, glass wool and Percoll separation techniques on sperm quality and IVF results for cryopreserved bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Lee; Kim, Sue-Hee; Ji, Dong-Beom; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of spermatozoa separation techniques on sperm quality and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) results for cryopreserved bovine semen. Sephadex, glass wool and Percoll gradient separation techniques were used for sperm separation and sperm motility, morphology and membrane integrity were evaluated before and after separation. Also, cleavage and blastocyst developmental rate were investigated after IVF with sperm recovered by each separation technique. The motility of samples obtained by the three separation techniques were greater compared to the control samples (p < 0.05). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma-membrane integrity, identified by 6-carboxyfluoresceindiacetate/ propidium iodide fluorescent staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, was highest in the glass wool filtration samples (p < 0.05). The cleavage and blastocyst rate of total oocytes produced from glass wool filtration samples were also higher than the control and Sephadex filtration samples (p < 0.05), but were not significantly different from Percoll separation samples. However, a significantly greater number of cleaved embryos produced by glass wool filtration developed to blastocyst stage than those produced by Percoll separation (p < 0.05). These results indicate that spermatozoa with good quality can be achieved by these three separation techniques and can be used for bovine IVF. In particular, it suggests that glass wool filtration would be the most effective method of the three for improving sperm quality and embryo production for cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa.

  5. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  6. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  7. Enhanced early-life nutrition of Holstein bulls increases sperm production potential without decreasing postpubertal semen quality.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced early-life nutrition (∼130% of required energy and protein) increased testes size and weight (∼20-25%) and reduced age at puberty (∼1 month) in beef and dairy bulls, compared with those fed 70% of dietary requirements. The objective was to determine effects of early-life (2-31 weeks) nutritional modulation on feed costs, predicted number of harvestable sperm and doses of semen, and semen quality. Calves (∼1 week old) were randomly allocated into three groups that were fed 4, 6, or 8 L/day of milk (low [n = 8], medium [n = 9], and high groups [n = 9], respectively) from ages 2 to 8 weeks. Thereafter, they were weaned, transitioned onto barley silage-based diets, to receive ∼70, 100, or 130% of recommended amounts of energy and protein (feed costs were ∼CDN$280 more per bull to feed high versus low diets from 2 to 31 weeks). After 31 weeks, all bulls were fed a medium diet. Semen was collected, by electroejaculation, from 51 to 73 weeks, extended, chilled, and cryopreserved. Bulls fed high nutrition were numerically younger (P = 0.45) at sexual maturity (sperm with ≥30% progressive motility, ≥70% morphologically normal, and ≤20% abnormal heads), first acceptable post-chill sperm motility (>50%; P = 0.66) and first acceptable post-thaw motility (>25% progressive; P = 0.25) than bulls in the low-nutrition group. Semen from three bulls per group was used for in vitro fertilization (total of 1249 bovine oocytes); there were no significant differences among groups in fertilization percentage (mean ± SEM of 68.0 ± 8.7, 77.1 ± 3.5, and 68.7 ± 4.5% for low, medium, and high, respectively) or blastocyst yield (31.5 ± 5.6, 41.4 ± 4.9, and 33.7 ± 4.6%). On the basis of analysis of 2D gels of sperm proteins, 380 spots were identified on the fused master gel, but no spots were differentially expressed across groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in semen quality or sperm function among bulls fed

  8. Comparison of semen variables, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins in two male layer breeder lines.

    PubMed

    M, Shanmugam; T R, Kannaki; A, Vinoth

    2016-09-01

    Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines.

  9. Effect of chocolate and Propolfenol on rabbit spermatogenesis and sperm quality following bacterial lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    PubMed

    Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Biagi, Marco; Cardinali, Raffaella; Mazzi, Lucia; Brecchia, Gabriele; Maranesi, Margherita; Manca, Daniela; Castellini, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of chocolate and propolis-enriched diets on rabbit spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and ultrastructure following bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. The LPS-Propolfenol(®) group received propolis (500 mg/kg/day) in their diet for 15 days, while the LPS-chocolate group was fed 70% cacao chocolate (1 g/1 kg/day) for the same period. Following the diet treatments, rabbits in the LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate groups, and an LPS group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 μg/kg LPS, and the control group received only saline. Kinematic sperm traits were evaluated with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and ultrastructural characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Testicular and epididymal tissues were observed by light microscopy and TEM and multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect and quantify toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene expression. The values of the analyzed semen parameters of rabbits treated with LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate did not show any variations compared with the control group, but they were lower in rabbits treated only with LPS. Alterations observed in the testicular tissue of LPS treated-rabbits were not detected in specimens from the LPS-chocolate and LPS-Propolfenol(®) groups, which showed normal spermatogenesis. The TLR-4 mRNA expression was similar in controls, in LPS treated, and in LPS-chocolate groups, but it was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in LPS-Propolfenol(®) rabbits. In conclusion, a chocolate and propolis-enriched diet showed a protective effect on the spermatogenetic process of buck rabbits following LPS treatment.

  10. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  11. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  12. The effects of different levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase in modified Beltsville extender on rooster post-thawed sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Amini, Mahmood Reza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Nabi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative damage of sperm by means of reactive oxygen species generated by the cellular components of semen is one of the main reasons for decreased sperm motility and fertility during the freeze-thawing process. This study was conducted to determine the influence of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) on rooster sperm motility, viability and MDA level after freezing and thawing. Semen samples from 10 sexually-mature Ross 308 breeder roosters were collected and pooled, divided into nine equal parts and diluted with modified Beltsville extender containing no antioxidants (control), or supplemented with 50, 100, 200 and 300 μg/mL CAT, or 50, 100, 200 and 300 U/mL SOD. After thawing, sperm motility and motion parameters were assessed using a CASA system. Sperm viability and MDA level were assessed by eosin-nigrosin and MDA test, respectively. The results of this experiment showed that the extender supplemented with 100 and 200 μg CAT, and 50 U SOD had the highest sperm motility (P<0.05) in sperm motility. Also, addition 100, 200 and 300 μg CAT, and 50 U SOD can improve significantly viability after freeze-thaw. Extender supplemented with 100 μg CAT had significantly lower MDA level compared to control and 300 μg CAT. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that addition of CAT (100 μg/mL) and SOD (50 U/mL) independently have beneficial effect on quality of post-thawed rooster semen.

  13. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with

  14. Characteristics of stallion epididymal spermatozoa at collection and effect of two refrigeration protocols on the quality of the frozen/thawed sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, T; Lopes, G; Ferreira, P; Leal, I; Rocha, A

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is a useful tool to preserve genetic material of valuable stallions after emergency castration or unexpected death. For that, testicles and epididymides are generally sent refrigerated to the laboratory. Collection of epididymal spermatozoa is a simple procedure that reduces the volume of the material to be shipped, and may improve the quality of the chilled epididymal sperm cells. In the present study we compared the characteristics of frozen/thawed epididymal spermatozoa after refrigeration of the epididymis or after direct refrigeration of the extended epididymal sperm cells. Ejaculated sperm samples were obtained from 10 healthy stallions with at least 15 days of sexual rest, before routine orchiectomies. Spermatozoa were recovered from the epididymal tail immediately after castration (EPI), after refrigeration of the epididymis for 24h at 4°C (EPI R) and recovered from epididymal tail immediately after castration and stored for 24h at 4°C (EPI RR). Total motility, straight-line velocity, percentage of rapid cells, viability and morphological defects were similar (p>0.05) among different treatments, and post-thaw viability was higher (p<0.05) in EPI than in the ejaculated sperm. The similarity of post-thaw parameters led us to conclude that immediate collection and refrigeration of the epididymal sperm cells or refrigeration of the whole epididymis are equally efficient as a means of transporting material for 24h before cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa.

  15. Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM.

  16. Sperm competition and the evolution of precopulatory weapons: Testis size and amplexus position, but not arm strength, affect fertilization success in a chorusing frog.

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Thyer, Evan M; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-02-01

    Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth. Here, we focused on the factors affecting postcopulatory fertilization success during group spawning, using paternity data from natural choruses. Competitive fertilization success depended on the time spent amplexed and amplexus position. Relative testes size but not arm girth, contributed to fertilization success, but the effect of testes size depended on amplexus position. Our findings offer within species empirical support for recent sperm competition models that incorporate precopulatory male-male competition, and show why an understanding of the evolution of animal weapons requires a consideration of both pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection.

  17. Mind wandering, sleep quality, affect and chronotype: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Du, Feng; Song, Nan; Zhang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270) were completed with Chinese adults aged 18-50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative). Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which may be important in

  18. Toxicants and human sperm chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Delbès, Geraldine; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The integrity of the paternal genome is essential as the spermatozoon can bring genetic damage into the oocyte at fertilization and contribute to the development of abnormal pregnancy outcome. During the past two decades, many assays have been developed to measure sperm DNA strand breaks, chromatin structure and compaction and assess the proteins associated with the DNA, as well as epigenetic modifications. Using these assays, it has been shown that exposure to physical agents or chemicals, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants, can affect the integrity of sperm chromatin, inducing structural, genetic and/or epigenetic abnormalities. The mechanisms by which such damage is triggered are still largely unresolved and the susceptibility of each individual will depend on their genetic background, lifestyle and exposure to various insults. Depending on the nature of the chemicals, they may directly target the DNA, induce an oxidative stress, or modify the epigenetic elements. The significance of measuring the sperm chromatin integrity comes from the fact that this end-point correlates well with the low IVF and ICSI outcomes, and idiopathic infertility. Nevertheless, it is hard to establish a direct link between the paternal sperm chromatin integrity and the health of the future generations. Thus, it seems essential to undertake studies that will resolve the impact of chemical and environmental factors on chromatin structure and epigenetic components of human spermatozoa and to elucidate what sperm nuclear end-points are predictors of the quality of progeny outcome.

  19. Effect of storage of domestic cat (Felis catus) epididymides at 5 degrees C on sperm quality and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gañán, N; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2009-12-01

    Postmortem sperm recovery from the epididymides may constitute a powerful tool for the conservation of valuable genetic material. The domestic cat (Felis catus) is a good model for wild felids and, using this model, we have explored the effect of epididymides storage time on sperm motility and percentage of intact acrosomes upon sperm recovery and after cryopreservation. We also examined the effect of time of sperm equilibration with glycerol before freezing on sperm motility and the percentage of intact acrosomes. Motility varied between sperm recovered from epididymides that were stored for different times. Significant differences were seen in the sperm motility index (SMI) before freezing (55.91+/-2.02, 48.21+/-1.47, and 43.03+/-1.32) and after thawing (51.81+/-3.02, 41.90+/-2.14, and 42.35+/-1.95) of sperm recovered from epididymides stored for 0, 48, or 72 h, respectively. The percentage of intact acrosomes did not vary significantly with storage time (average 60.33+/-1.38% before and 52.50+/-1.91% after freezing, respectively). The percentage of normal sperm after different storage times did not differ (average 19.22+/-1.25% normal sperm after recovery). When epididymides were stored for 72 h, time of sperm equilibration with glycerol (30 vs. 120 min) resulted in significant differences in both motility (SMI=39.17+/-2.76 and 45.00+/-2.65, respectively) and the percentage of intact acrosomes (45.76+/-4.91% and 60.67+/-3.64%, respectively) after thawing. In conclusion, best results are achieved when sperm are recovered from epididymides within 24h of cool storage and when they are equilibrated with glycerol during 120 min before freezing. The current results should be useful in the further development of techniques for the rescue and cryostorage of epididymal spermatozoa of endangered felids.

  20. Absence of beneficial effects on rabbit sperm cell cryopreservation by several antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Piles, M; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-02-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species associated with cryopreservation could be responsible for mammalian sperm damage and the limitable value of stored semen in artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess several antioxidant agents supplemented in a commercial freezing extender (Gent B®) in order to improve post-thaw rabbit sperm quality. Ejaculates of 26 New Zealand White rabbit bucks were collected, evaluated and frozen using a conventional protocol. Antioxidant agents were tested at different concentrations: bovine serum albumin (BSA; 5, 30 or 60 mg/ml), retinol (RO; 50, 100 or 200 μM) and retinyl (RI; 0.282 or 2.82 μg/ml). Per cent viability, morphological abnormalities and intact acrosomes were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Motility and progressivity were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In general, all sperm quality parameters were negatively affected by the cryopreservation process, the largest effect seen was for total motility. The addition of antioxidant agents did not improve thaw sperm quality. Furthermore, for RI groups a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters was recorded. In conclusion, rabbit sperm quality is negatively affected by the cryopreservation process. To our knowledge this report is the first using these antioxidants to supplement rabbit freezing extender. BSA and RO at concentrations used in the study did not improve sperm quality parameters after thawing, whereas RI supplementation appeared to be toxic. More studies are required to find the appropriate antioxidants necessary and their most effective concentrations to improve rabbit post-thaw sperm quality.

  1. In vivo oxidative stress alters thiol redox status of peroxiredoxin 1 and 6 and impairs rat sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yannan; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity is a major culprit of male infertility. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are major antioxidant enzymes of mammalian spermatozoa and are thiol oxidized and inactivated by ROS in a dose-dependent manner. Their deficiency and/or inactivation have been associated with men infertility. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress, generated by the in vivo tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BHP) treatment on rat epididymal spermatozoa during their maturation process. Adult Sprague-Dawley males were treated with μmoles tert-BHP/kg or saline (control) per day intraperitoneal for 15 days. Lipid peroxidation (2-thibarbituric acid reactive substances assay), total amount and thiol oxidation of PRDXs along with the total amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD), motility and DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine) were determined in epididymal spermatozoa. Total amount of PRDXs and catalase and thiol oxidation of PRDXs were determined in caput and cauda epididymis. While animals were not affected by treatment, their epididymal spermatozoa have decreased motility, increased levels of DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation along with increased PRDXs (and not SOD) amounts. Moreover, sperm PRDXs were highly thiol oxidized. There was a differential regulation in the expression of PRDX1 and PRDX6 in the epididymis that suggests a segment-specific role for PRDXs. In conclusion, PRDXs are increased in epididymal spermatozoa in an attempt to fight against the oxidative stress generated by tert-BHP in the epididymis. These findings highlight the role of PRDXs in the protection of sperm function and DNA integrity during epididymal maturation. PMID:26823067

  2. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  3. Validation of the sperm quality analyzer and the hypo-osmotic swelling test for frozen-thawed ram and minke whale (Balaenoptera bonarensis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yutaka; Togawa, Morihiko; Abe, Norihito; Takano, Yuuki; Asada, Masatsugu; Okada, Aki; Iida, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-02-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the validation of the sperm quality analyzer (SQA) and the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test with standard sperm analysis methods in frozen-thawed ram and minke whale spermatozoa. In rams, highly significant correlations were observed in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.01) and sperm concentration (P<0.01) between the standard and SQA methods. But, the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa did not significantly correlate between the standard and SQA methods. The percentages of swollen spermatozoa at 15 minutes by the HOS test were significantly correlated with the motility by the standard (P<0.05) and by the SQA (P<0.05) methods. For minke whale spermatozoa, the SVI (sperm viability index) values by the standard method were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the sperm motility index (SMI) values by SQA. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was also significantly correlated (P<0.01) with the motility measured by SQA. Using different hypo-osmotic solutions and incubation times, the HOS test with 25, 100 and 150 mOsM did not show significant variations. Motility observed by the standard method and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa were significantly correlated (P<0.05). These results indicate that the SQA and HOS test can be utilized to assess the post-thawing motility of ram and minke whale spermatozoa, and that the SQA and HOS test values are significantly correlated in ram spermatozoa. However, sperm concentration and morphologically normal spermatozoa are not assessed accurately by SQA in minke whales.

  4. Sperm characteristics and androgens in Acipenser ruthenus after induction of spermiation by carp pituitary extract or GnRHa implants.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Hatef, Azadeh; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Gela, David; Papadaki, Maria; Rodina, Marek; Kašpar, Vojtech; Pšenička, Martin; Podhorec, Peter; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-12-01

    Spermiation and changes in androgen (testosterone, T and 11-ketotestosterone, 11-KT) levels were studied in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) treated with GnRH agonist implants (DAla(6)-Pro(9)-LHRHa) at 25 and 75 μg kg(-1) b.w. and compared with those males treated with 4 mg kg(-1) b.w. of carp pituitary extract (CPE) and 3 pellets of Ovopel kg(-1) b.w., which contains DAla(6)-Pro(9)NEt-mGnRH and metoclopramide. Sperm quality (sperm mass, spermatozoa concentration and sperm motility and velocity) was evaluated 24, 48 and 72 h after hormonal treatments. Males did not release sperm in the control group injected with physiological solution, while sperm could not be collected 7 days after treatments in all hormonally treated groups. Spermiation rates were 100 % in the CPE and Ovopel groups and 25-50 % in the GnRHa-treated groups. Sperm production was significantly lower in the GnRHa-treated groups than in the CPE and Ovopel groups and decreased 72 h after hormonal treatment. Sperm motility and velocity were higher in the Ovopel and GnRHa (75 μg) groups compared to the CPE and GnRHa (25 μg) groups and decreased 72 h after hormonal treatment. Androgens were only affected in spermiating males and changed in the Ovopel and GnRHa (75 μg) after hormonal treatment. Significant correlations were observed between sperm production, sperm motility and sperm velocity, but not androgens. The present study suggests involvement of dopamine in sturgeon spawning. Additionally, better sperm quality observed in the Ovopel group and particularly sperm motility in the GnRHa (75 μg) suggests enhancement of sperm quality in sturgeon treated with GnRHa. Therefore, further study is needed to induce fully spermiation using GnRHa implants in combination with a dopamine inhibitor.

  5. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  6. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages.

  7. Sperm in poor quality semen from bulls during heat stress have a lower affinity for binding hydrogen-3 heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Ax, R.L.; Gilbert, G.R.; Shook, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Binding assays with (/sup 3/H) heparin were performed using spermatozoa collected prior to, during, and following summer heat stress to dairy bulls. Ejaculates collected in August 1983 after a period of ambient temperatures exceeding 29.4/sup 0/C exhibited a high frequency of abnormal sperm, and motility was reduced in some samples. Sperm in samples collected during heat stress possessed dissociation constants for binding (/sup 3/H) heparin ranging from 134.5 to 163.2 nmol. In contrast, sperm in semen collected prior to and after heat stress had significantly lower dissociation constants (higher affinity) for (/sup 3/H)heparin, 12.9 to 56.4 nmol. The number of binding sites for (/sup 3/H) heparin on sperm did not change among collection periods. It was concluded that the binding affinity for (/sup 3/H) heparin may reflect membrane integrity of bull sperm.

  8. Selenium supplementation does not affect testicular selenium status or semen quality in North American men.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Alkan, Zeynep; Wong, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is essential for sperm function and male fertility, but high Se intake has been associated with impaired semen quality. We reported previously a decrease in sperm motility in men fed high-Se foods, but we could not rule out the influence of other environmental and dietary factors. We now report on a randomized, controlled study on the potential adverse effects of Se supplementation on semen quality in 42 free-living men administered Se (300 microg/d) as high-Se yeast for 48 weeks. Semen analysis was performed 4 times before treatment began, then twice each week during treatment at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, and then after treatment at 72 and 96 weeks. Blood samples were collected 3 times before treatment and at each subsequent visit. Se concentration increased 61% in blood plasma and 49% in seminal plasma. However, Se supplementation had no effect on sperm Se, serum androgen concentrations, or sperm count, motility, progressive velocity, or morphology. We observed progressive decreases in serum luteinizing hormone, semen volume, and sperm Se in both the high-Se and placebo groups. Moreover, sperm straight-line velocity and percent normal morphology increased in Se-treated and placebo-treated participants. The lack of an increase in sperm Se suggests that testicular Se stores were unaffected, even though the participants' dietary Se intake was tripled and their total body Se approximately doubled by supplementation. These results are consistent with animal studies showing the Se status of testes to be unresponsive to dietary Se intake.

  9. Dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation in the swine: ejaculate and temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Llano, B; López-Fernández, C; García-Casado, P; Arroyo, F; Gosalbez, A; Sala, R; Gosálvez, J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation was examined in 16 boar ejaculates using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and a two-tail comet assay. The net sperm rich fraction was preserved at two different temperatures (Trial 1: 15 degrees C, n=10; Trial 2: 37 degrees C, n=6) and sub-samples were taken every day until a sperm motility of zero. Significant differences in the dynamics of DNA fragmentation were observed among the different ejaculates and also according to the storage temperature. After analyzing the dynamic response of the sperm DNA damage, when the sperm samples are incubated at 15 or 37 degrees C, each ejaculate could be classified and a considerable variation among individuals for an increase in DNA damage was observed. Thus, while in some ejaculates no rise in DNA fragmentation was observed, in others, the sperm DNA fragmentation process was triggered during the initial days of the experiment. In general, sperm incubation at 37 degrees C diminished sperm DNA quality. The two-tail comet assay indicated that at time zero existing DNA damage mainly consisted of double stranded DNA breakage. During storage, DNA damage affected one of the DNA strands until a second wave of DNA damage, in which there was both single and double stranded DNA damage.

  10. Sperm studies in anesthesiologists

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Brodsky, J.; Gordon, l.; Moore, D.H., II; Watchmaker, G.; Cohen, E.N.

    1981-11-01

    Semen samples were collected from 46 anesthesiologists each of whom had worked a minimum of one year in hospital operating rooms ventilated with modern gas-scavenging devices. Samples collected from 26 beginning residents in anesthesiology served as controls. Concentrations of sperm and percentage of sperm having abnormal head shapes were determined for each sample. No significant differences were found between anesthesiologists and beginning residents. Limiting the analyses to men having no confounding factors (varicocele, recent illness, medications, heavy smoking, frequent sauna use) did not change the results. The sperm concentration and morphology in 13 men did not change signficantly after one year of exposure to anesthetic gases. However, the group of men who had one or more confounding factors (excluding exposure to anesthetic gases) showed significantly higher percentages of sperm abnormalities than did the group of men without such factors. These results suggest that limited exposure to anesthetic gases does not significantly affect sperm production as judged by changes in sperm concentration and morphology. These data are reassuring, but since the hospitals surveyed used modern gas-scavenging devices, men who are occupationally exposed to anesthetic gases without this protection should be studied for fuller assessment of the possible human spermatotoxic effects.

  11. Sperm chromatin structure assay results after swim-up are related only to embryo quality but not to fertilization and pregnancy rates following IVF.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Hong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Yi-Juan; Feng, Yun

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) results after swim-up are related to fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 223 couples undergoing IVF in our hospital from October 2008 to September 2009 were included in this study. Data on the IVF process and sperm chromatin structure assay results were collected. Fertilization rate, embryo quality and IVF success rates of different DNA fragmentation index (DFI) subgroups and high DNA stainability (HDS) subgroups were compared. There were no significant differences in fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy or delivery rates between the DFI and HDS subgroups. However, the group with abnormal DFI had a lower good embryo rate. So, we concluded that the SCSA variables, either DFI or HDS after swim-up preparation, were not valuable in predicting fertilization failure or pregnancy rate, but an abnormal DFI meant a lower good embryo rate following IVF.

  12. Effect of semen extender supplementation with cysteine on postthaw sperm quality, DNA damage, and fertilizing ability in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Öğretmen, Fatih; İnanan, Burak Evren; Kutluyer, Filiz; Kayim, Murathan

    2015-06-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of cysteine on postthaw sperm motility, duration of sperm motility, DNA damage, and fertility in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sperm collected from 10 individuals was cryopreserved in extenders containing different cysteine concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mM). Semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the semen was aspirated into 0.25-mL straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapor, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay after cryopreservation. Our results indicated that an increase in the concentration of cysteine caused a significant increase in the motility rate and duration of sperm in the common carp (C carpio; P < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of cysteine, the best concentration of cysteine was 20 mM. Higher postthaw motility (76.00 ± 1.00%) and fertilization (97.00 ± 1.73%) rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 20 mM. Supplementation of the extender with cysteine was increased the fertilization and hatching rate and decreased DNA damage. Consequently, cysteine affected the motility, fertilization, and DNA damage positively, and extenders could be supplemented with cysteine.

  13. Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Acephate on Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Dhanushka, M. A. Thamali

    2017-01-01

    Extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) could alter semen quality and sperm DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis. Acephate is a highly toxic extensively used OP and, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of acephate on human semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. Sperm collected from healthy males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL of acephate and incubated for 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. Subsequently, sperm motility, vitality, functional integrity of plasma membrane, sperm capacitation, and DNA damage were examined. Result showed a significant decline of the motility at 100 μg/mL after 3 h and with 200 μg/mL after 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. Viability was significantly reduced at 200 μg/mL after 2 h and 3 h. Functional integrity was significantly affected at 100 μg/mL after 3h and in 200 μg/mL dose after 2 h and 3h. Similarly, sperm capacitation was significantly affected at 200 μg/mL after 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h and at 100 μg/mL at 3 h. DNA damage was significantly increased only in 200 μg/mL dose after 3 h. The study suggests that exposure to acephate may result in alterations of sperm structure and function thus contributing towards deteriorating in human semen quality triggering infertility. PMID:28392800

  14. Male age and strain affect ejaculate quality in the Mexican fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Cruz, Mariana; Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolas; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Reyes-Hernández, Martha; Alvarado, Mayvi; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2017-02-19

    Aging in all organisms is inevitable. Male age can have profound effects on mating success and female reproduction, yet relatively little is known on the effects of male age on different components of the ejaculate. Furthermore, in mass-reared insects used for the Sterile Insect Technique, there are often behavioral differences between mass-reared and wild males, while differences in the ejaculate have been less studied. The ejaculate in insects is composed mainly of sperm and accessory gland proteins. Here, we studied how male age and strain affected (i) protein quantity of testes and accessory glands, (ii) the biological activity of accessory gland products injected into females, (iii) sperm viability and (iv) sperm quantity stored by females in wild and mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). We found lower protein content in testes of old wild males and lower sperm viability in females mated with old wild males. Females stored more sperm when mated to young wild males than with young mass-reared males. Accessory gland injections of old or young males did not inhibit female remating. Knowledge of how male age affects different ejaculate components will aid our understanding on investment of the ejaculate and possible post-copulatory consequences on female behaviour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Vacuoles in sperm head are not associated with head morphology, DNA damage and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Adriana; Boni, Raffaele; Leo, Rita; Nacchia, Giuseppina; Liguori, Francesca; Casale, Sofia; Bonassisa, Paolo; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study of 873 men enrolled for assisted reproduction techniques, relationships between sperm quality parameters, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), DNA damage and live birth rate were evaluated. The presence of vacuoles in the sperm heads was detected by MSOME. Either chromatin decondensation or DNA fragmentation was used to study DNA damage. Results show that age significantly affected some of the examined parameters. In particular, sperm concentration was positively correlated (R = 0.088; P = 0.01) and chromatin decondensation was negatively correlated (R = -0.102; P = 0.003) with age. Furthermore, live birth rate was significantly lower in men aged 40 years or older (P < 0.02) compared with the younger age groups. The presence of sperm head vacuoles was not associated with head morphology, main sperm quality parameters, DNA fragmentation and live birth rate. Considering sperm heads in relation to the shape (normal/abnormal) and vacuoles (presence/absence), no significant variations in the occurrence of vacuoles in either normal or abnormal heads were found. These data suggest that vacuoles are physiological features that do not alter sperm functionality, and it seems that MSOME is not necessary for increasing the success of assisted reproduction techniques.

  16. No evidence for sperm priming responses under varying sperm competition risk or intensity in guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2009-07-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should tailor their investment in ejaculates according to the number of rival males competing to fertilize a female’s eggs. Research spanning several taxa supports this prediction by showing that males are often sensitive to the level of sperm competition and adjust their investment in sperm numbers accordingly. More recent work has revealed that males may also tailor the quality of sperm according to the number of males competing for fertilization. Here I test for both effects in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in an experiment that simultaneously evaluates the risk and intensity models of sperm competition. The experiment determined whether male guppies adjust the number (stripped ejaculate size) and quality (sperm velocity and viability) of sperm that are primed over a 3-day period according to experimental changes in the perceived level of sperm competition. A total of 136 focal males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm and assayed for these sperm traits before being allocated at random to one of four treatments simulating different levels of sperm competition risk and intensity. During the 3-day treatment phase, focal males had visual and olfactory access to a sexually receptive (initially virgin) female maintained with different numbers of stimulus males to simulate variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Following this, males were assayed again for the sperm traits. Contrary to predictions, there was no significant change in any of the measured variables among treatments, although qualitatively the patterns for sperm velocity and viability did conform to expectation. The lack of any trend for the number of sperm primed was unequivocal and future work examining the effects of sperm competition on sperm production should focus on whether males differentially allocate sperm numbers among matings that differ in the level of sperm competition.

  17. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcomes with Freshly Ejaculated Sperms and Testicular or Epididymal Sperm Extraction in Patients with Idiopathic Cryptozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Ketabchi, Ali Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptozoospermia (CO) is a situation in which spermatozoa cannot be observed in a fresh semen sample unless an extended centrifugation and microscopic search are performed. CO patients are suggested to use only intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as infertility treatment. But still there is debate about the choice of sperm source in cryptozoospermic men candidate for ICSI. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate fertility outcomes in men with idiopathic cryptozoospermia who were treated using ICSI with freshly ejaculated sperm and testis sperm extraction (TESE) or percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). Methods In this prospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, 83 out of 92 couples with cryptozoospermia undergoing their first ICSI cycle were recruited. These patients were randomly allocated to two groups: group one (n = 42) who produced freshly ejaculated sperm and, group two (n = 41) who produced a sample by TESE or PESA. The groups were analyzed and compared in terms of fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, implantation rate, and clinical pregnancy rate. Results There was a significant difference in fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation rate, and pregnancy rates between the group of surgically extracted sperm and those of naturally ejaculated sperm using conventional ICSI (P < 0.05). Conclusions Sperm quality extracted by percutaneous PESA and TESE procedures increases fertility outcomes compared to naturally ejaculated sperm in men with idiopathic CO. More specifically, embryo quality, which is most relevant to fertility outcome, improved when surgically extracted sperm was used for ICSI. PMID:27896242

  18. Boar sperm thawing practices: the number of straws does matter.

    PubMed

    Casas, I; Torner, E; Yeste, M; Bonet, S

    2012-04-15

    The number of straws thawed has been largely neglected in reports of boar sperm cryopreservation. Whereas previous studies confirm the effect of sperm concentration on function and survival of thawed boar spermatozoa, it is still unknown whether, for a same concentration, total number of sperm in the thawing solution affects its mechanics. The present trial sought to define good boar sperm thawing practices by checking if a minimal number of straws as well as the percentage of air volume in the thawing tube should be stated or not to decrease variability from one trial to another. In a first assay, three tubes with different numbers of thawed straws were compared in terms of motility and membrane integrity: control (C, four straws), T1.1 (two straws), and T1.2 (one straw). In a second parallel assay, the sperm motility was evaluated when one straw was thawed in a tube containing 86.67% of air volume (T2.1), and when the tube contained < 1% air volume (T2.2). In all treatments the final concentration of sperm in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) was 1:3 (v:v) and quality parameters were assessed 4 h after thawing. Results showed the number of straws does affect motility parameters but not the membrane integrity, whereas less air volume in the tube nonsignificantly minimizes data deviation among replicates. In conclusion, it is recommended the use of four straws at 1:3 (v:v) to maintain motility records in boar sperm thawing practices as well as to be provided with vials that fit the sperm volume.

  19. Adult exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Patricia; Romano, Renata M; Kizys, Marina M L; Oliveira, Kelen C; Kasamatsu, Teresa; Giannocco, Gisele; Chiamolera, Maria I; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Romano, Marco A

    2015-03-02

    Reproductive physiology involves complex biological processes that can be disrupted by exposure to environmental contaminants. The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on spermatogenesis and sperm quality is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity of BPA at dosages considered to be safe (5 or 25mg BPA/kg/day). We assessed multiple sperm parameters, the relative expression of genes involved in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and the serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH. BPA exposure reduced sperm production, reserves and transit time. Significant damage to the acrosomes and the plasma membrane with reduced mitochondrial activity and increased levels of defective spermatozoa may have compromised sperm function and caused faster movement through the epididymis. BPA exposure reduced the serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and FSH and increased the concentration of estradiol. The relative gene expression revealed an increase in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr), luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb), follicle stimulating hormone beta (Fshb), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2) and androgen receptor (Ar) transcripts in the pituitary and a reduction in estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) transcripts in the hypothalamus. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that adult male exposure to BPA caused a reduction in sperm production and specific functional parameters. The corresponding pattern of gene expression is indicative of an attempt by the pituitary to reestablish normal levels of LH, FSH and testosterone serum concentrations. In conclusion, these data suggest that at dosages previously considered nontoxic to reproductive function, BPA compromises the spermatozoa and disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  20. Seasonal changes of testis volume and sperm quality in adult fallow deer (Dama dama) and their relationship to the antler cycle.

    PubMed

    Gosch, B; Fischer, K

    1989-01-01

    Four adult male fallow deer were investigated for 1-4 consecutive years to study the relationships between annual changes in testis volume, sperm quality and antler status. Testicular volume started to increase in July/August, peaked just before the rut, declined until December to 50% of maximum, persisted at this level up to February/March and reached minimal volume after antler casting in late April. There was no apparent age effect on the seasonality of testis size fluctuations. Velvet shedding and antler casting occurred at about 80% and 25%, respectively, of maximal testis volume. Spermatozoa had the same general appearance as those of related ruminants. Viable spermatozoa appeared between August and early May which corresponds almost exactly to the time when fallow deer are in hard antler. From September to March sperm quality would fulfil artificial insemination standards for cattle semen. In June and the first half of July 14 out of 15 ejaculates were devoid of any sperm cells. There were no indications of a secondary seasonal peak in values monitored.

  1. Effect of sex-sorting and cryopreservation on the post-thaw sperm quality of Iberian red deer spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Anel-López, L; García-Álvarez, O; Parrilla, I; Del Olmo, D; Maroto-Morales, A; Fernandez-Santos, M R; Ortiz, J A; Soler, A J; Martínez, E M; Vazquez, J M; Garde, J J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of sex-sorting and cryopreservation on post-thaw characteristics and fertility of red deer (Cervus elaphus) sperm for the first time. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 10 mature stags during the breeding season, and each ejaculate split into four experimental groups: Bulk sorted spermatozoa, sorted but not sexed (BSS); sorted high purity X-spermatozoa (XSS); sorted high purity Y-spermatozoa (YSS); and, control non-sorted spermatozoa (NS). Following, all samples were frozen over liquid nitrogen. Two straws per stag and sample type were analyzed immediately post-thaw and following a 2-h incubation period at 37 °C. Post-thaw total motility (TM) as assessed by CASA was not different (P < 0.05) among NS, BSS and YSS sperm. For XSS, post-thaw TM was lower (39%, P < 0.05) than that for NS (54%) or BSS (50%), but similar (P > 0.05) to that of YSS (47%) sperm. The percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa as assessed by PI/YO-PRO-1 and flow cytometry analysis, was higher (17%, P ≤ 0.05) for XSS sperm than NS (12%), BSS (13%) and YSS (14%) sperm. Following incubation there were no differences (P > 0.05) in TM or percent apoptosis among treatments. Post-thaw chromatin stability calculated as the DNA fragmentation index (%DFI) was similar among treatments; following incubation %DFI increased in all except YSS, which displayed the lowest value (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination of synchronized hinds yielded 44, 52 and 62% delivery rates for YSS, NS and standard frozen-thawed sperm, respectively (P < 0.05). Notably, 93 and 55% of fawns born were males for the YSS and NS spermatozoa, respectively (P < 0.05). In summary, Y-sorted sperm displayed acceptable post-thaw sperm evaluation parameters and the expected offspring sex ratio. More studies are needed to understand the source of sperm damage that may compromise the fertility of Y-sorted red deer sperm.

  2. Sperm count and sperm motility decrease in old rats.

    PubMed

    Lucio, Rosa Angélica; Tlachi-López, José L; Eguibar, Jose R; Ågmo, Anders

    2013-02-17

    Sexual behavior declines with age in male rats. The rate and magnitude of this decline may depend on the amount of prior sexual experience and a number of other, unidentified factors. Age-dependent changes in the characteristics of ejaculate quality in rats have not been described earlier, and the relationship between such changes and modifications of sexual behavior is likewise unknown. We have recently developed a technique for the detailed analysis of parameters of ejaculate in rats, and this technique was used for the determination of semen and seminal plug characteristics in rats of different ages. Sexually experienced Wistar rats were tested for sex behavior at the ages of 3, 12 and 24 months. Semen was obtained from the female partner immediately after ejaculation at these tests. Between tests, the males were offered the opportunity to copulate once every 3-4 weeks. The behavioral data showed that the latency to ejaculation was increased only at 24 months. Concerning the characteristics of semen, there was a substantial increase in the proportion of immobile spermatozoa and motility of those moving was much reduced, both at 12 and 24 months of age. There was no relationship between parameters of sexual behavior and those of the ejaculate. Likewise, the size of the seminal plug did not affect the amount of intrauterine spermatozoa. The reduced sperm number together with the increased sperm immobility diminishes the ejaculate quality of old males, which could influence fertility.

  3. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design: Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting:…

  4. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  5. Sperm Motility in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of plants and animals reproduce sexually by releasing motile sperm that seek out a conspecific egg, for example in the reproductive tract for mammals or in the water column for externally fertilizing organisms. Sperm are aided in their quest by chemical cues, but must also contend with hydrodynamic forces, resulting from laminar flows in reproductive tracts or turbulence in aquatic habitats. To understand how velocity gradients affect motility, we subjected swimming sperm to a range of highly-controlled straining flows using a cross-flow microfluidic device. The motion of the cell body and flagellum were captured through high-speed video microscopy. The effects of flow on swimming are twofold. For moderate velocity gradients, flow simply advects and reorients cells, quenching their ability to cross streamlines. For high velocity gradients, fluid stresses hinder the internal bending of the flagellum, directly inhibiting motility. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Sperm number, which compares the external viscous stresses with the internal elastic stresses. Ultimately, unraveling the role of flow in sperm motility will lead to a better understanding of population dynamics among aquatic organisms and infertility problems in humans.

  6. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on sperm capacitation and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have reported the detrimental effects that bacteriospermia causes on boar sperm quality, but little is known about its effects on IVC. Considering that, the present study sought to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different indicators of capacitation status (sperm viability, membrane lipid disorder, sperm motility kinematics, and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa) after IVC. Flow cytometry and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed that the presence of P aeruginosa in boar sperm samples, mostly at concentrations greater than 10(6) CFU/mL, is associated with a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the percentages of both sperm membrane integrity and sperm with low membrane lipid disorder, and also with a reduction in sperm motility kinetic parameters when compared with results obtained from the control sample, which presented the typical motility pattern of capacitated-like boar spermatozoa. Moreover, Western blot results also showed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the levels of tyrosine, serine, and threonine protein phosphorylation because of bacterial contamination, the decrease in phosphotyrosine levels of p32, a well-known marker of IVC achievement in boar sperm, being the most relevant. Indeed, after 3 hours of IVC, phosphotyrosine levels of p32 in the control sample were 3.13 ± 0.81, whereas in the tubes with 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/mL were 1.05 ± 0.20 and 0.36 ± 0.07, respectively. Therefore, the present study provides novel data regarding the effects of bacterial contamination on boar sperm, suggesting that the presence of P aeruginosa affects the fertilizing ability of boar sperm by altering its ability to accomplish IVC.

  7. A comparative study on the effects of different cryoprotectants on the quality of canine sperm during vitrification process

    PubMed Central

    Nouri Gharajelar, Sahar; Sadrkhanloo, Rajab Ali; Onsori, Masoud; Saberivand, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation has the capacity to extend spermatozoa’s lifespan and viability. In addition, the semen samples can be collected, preserved and stored or sent to distant locations and still be used long after the death of the semen donor. In this study for the vitrification of dog sperm (fresh and swum-up sperm), different cryopreservation mediums on the basis of glycerol, milk and egg yolk were used. Then, all of the samples were vitrified in the liquid nitrogen and thawed at least 48 hr later for re-examination of sperm parameters. The sperm parameters before and after cryopreservation in all groups were compared. It was found that during vitrification process, spermatozoa were damaged by the mechanical blows in centrifugation during swim-up processing, so they had less resistance than fresh semen. The examination of different cryoprotectants revealed that milk has better effects on the cryopreservation of semen than glycerol and egg yolk. With the comparison of the effects of glycerol and egg yolk as cryoprotectants, it was found that glycerol had better effects than egg yolk on the cryopreservation of the semen. In conclusion, milk might be used as a cryoprotectant instead of glycerol for canine sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27872720

  8. An acute exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide alters aromatase levels in testis and sperm nuclear quality.

    PubMed

    Cassault-Meyer, Estelle; Gress, Steeve; Séralini, Gilles-Éric; Galeraud-Denis, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Roundup is the major pesticide used in agriculture worldwide; it is a glyphosate-based herbicide. Its molecular effects are studied following an acute exposure (0.5%) of fifteen 60-day-old male rats during an 8-day period. Endocrine (aromatase, estrogen and androgen receptors, Gper1 in testicular and sperm mRNAs) and testicular functions (organ weights, sperm parameters and expression of the blood-testis barrier markers) were monitored at days 68, 87, and 122 after treatment, spermiogenesis and spermatogenesis. The major disruption is an increase of aromatase mRNA levels at least by 50% in treated rats at all times, as well as the aromatase protein. We have also shown a similar increase of Gper1 expression at day 122 and a light modification of BTB markers. A rise of abnormal sperm morphology and a decrease of the expression of protamine 1 and histone 1 testicular in epididymal sperm are observed despite a normal sperm concentration and motility.

  9. Sperm competition and maternal effects differentially influence testis and sperm size in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Hosken, D J; Vasudev, R; Tregenza, T; Eady, P E

    2009-05-01

    The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length.

  10. Effect of the holding time at 15 °C prior to cryopreservation, the thawing rate and the post-thaw incubation temperature on the boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Cristina; Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-01-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the holding time at 15 °C prior to cryopreservation (2, 4 and 8h), thawing rate (37 °C for 20s or 70 °C for 8s) and post-thaw incubation temperature (15 °C or 37 °C) on the post-thaw boar sperm quality. These are important time periods in the freezing-thawing process which have been less studied. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions from three healthy boars were collected once a week for five consecutive weeks and were cryopreserved with the lactose-egg yolk extender (LEY). Sperm quality was determined by assessing the motility, the acrosome status, and the sperm plasma membrane integrity at 30, 150 and 240 min of incubation. The results show that with the holding time at 15 °C prior to cryopreservation there was not a clear effect until at least 24h of holding time. The thawing rate and the post-thaw incubation temperature, however, had a marked effect on sperm quality. When the samples were thawed at 70 °C for 8s, the sperm viability, motility and some kinetic variables (VCL, VSL, VAP and ALH) were greater than with results observed when the samples were thawed at 37 °C for 20s. In addition after thawing the sperm samples incubated at 15 °C had a sustained sperm quality for longer, up to 4h post-thawing.

  11. Assessment of semen quality, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous IVF in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Gañán, Natalia; González, Raquel; Garde, J Julián; Martínez, Fernando; Vargas, Astrid; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2009-01-01

    Semen traits and factors affecting sperm cryopreservation were assessed in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), a species regarded as the most endangered felid in the world. For cryopreservation, semen was washed, resuspended in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or a Tris-based diluent (Biladyl), both with 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol, loaded into straws, cooled to 5 degrees C using an automated programmable system and frozen on nitrogen vapour. Heterologous IVF of in vitro-matured domestic cat oocytes was used to test the fertilising ability of cryopreserved spermatozoa. Electroejaculates from five males were obtained. Characterisation of the electroejaculates revealed mean (+/- s.e.m.) values of 3.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(6) total spermatozoa, 73.6 +/- 4.6% motile spermatozoa, 23.7 +/- 4.0% morphologically normal spermatozoa and 40.7 +/- 2.3% spermatozoa with intact acrosomes. After thawing a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa was seen in TEST than in Biladyl (34.0 +/- 6.2% v. 7.5 +/- 4.8%, respectively; P < 0.05); however, there were no differences in the percentage of intact acrosomes between the two diluents. Iberian lynx spermatozoa fertilised domestic cat oocytes in vitro, with higher fertilisation rates observed for spermatozoa cryopreserved in TEST than in Biladyl, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (20.5 +/- 4.5% v. 11.5 +/- 6.8%, respectively). There were positive significant relations between the fertilisation rates and both the percentage of normal spermatozoa and the percentage of spermatozoa with an intact acrosome before cryopreservation (P = 0.04). This first report of the collection and cryopreservation of Iberian lynx semen and analysis of fertilising ability is an important step in the development of assisted reproductive techniques for this critically endangered felid species.

  12. Characteristics of high-quality Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) ejaculates and in vitro sperm quality after prolonged chilled storage and directional freezing.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Saiers, R L; Robeck, T R

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro quality of spermatozoa from one elephant (Elephas maximus) was examined after chilled storage and directional freezing (DF). High-quality, non-contaminated ejaculates (77.6±6.0% progressive motility, 3.9±1.5 µg creatinine mL(-1) raw semen, 2.7±0.6% detached heads) were cryopreserved after 0 (0hStor), 12 (12hStor) and 24 h (24hStor) of chilled storage. At 0 h and 6h post-thawing, total motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and normal morphology were similar (P>0.05) across treatments. In contrast, progressive motility, rapid velocity and several kinematic parameters were lower (P<0.05) for 24Stor compared with 0hStor at 0 h post-thaw. By 6 h post-thaw, amplitude of lateral head displacement and velocity parameters (average pathway, straight-line and curvilinear velocity) were lower (P<0.05) for 24hStor compared with 0hStor and 12hStor. DNA integrity was high and remained unchanged (P>0.05) across all groups and processing stages (1.6±0.6% of cells contained fragmented DNA). Results indicate that DF after up to 12 h of chilled storage results in a post-thaw sperm population of acceptable quality for artificial insemination. These findings have implications for the cryopreservation of sex-sorted spermatozoa, which typically undergo more than 12 h of chilled storage prior to sorting and preservation.

  13. 60-Day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality: hormonal imbalance and oxidative stress as potential routes for reproductive dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline S; Torres, João Guilherme D; Peçanha, Franck M; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Vassallo, Dalton V; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J; Wiggers, Giulia A

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. While good deals of research have been conducted on the toxic effects of mercury, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic mercury exposure at low levels on male reproductive system of rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days with saline (i.m., Control) and HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 µg/kg/day). We analyzed sperm parameters, hormonal levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. Mercury treatment decreased daily sperm production, count and motility and increased head and tail morphologic abnormalities. Moreover, mercury treatment decreased luteinizing hormone levels, increased lipid peroxidation on testis and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) on reproductive organs. Our data demonstrate that 60-day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality and promotes hormonal imbalance. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved on male reproductive toxicity by mercury.

  14. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  15. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  16. Sperm wars and the evolution of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2012-11-01

    Females frequently mate with several males, whose sperm then compete to fertilize available ova. Sperm competition represents a potent selective force that is expected to shape male expenditure on the ejaculate. Here, we review empirical data that illustrate the evolutionary consequences of sperm competition. Sperm competition favors the evolution of increased testes size and sperm production. In some species, males appear capable of adjusting the number of sperm ejaculated, depending on the perceived levels of sperm competition. Selection is also expected to act on sperm form and function, although the evidence for this remains equivocal. Comparative studies suggest that sperm length and swimming speed may increase in response to selection from sperm competition. However, the mechanisms driving this pattern remain unclear. Evidence that sperm length influences sperm swimming speed is mixed and fertilization trials performed across a broad range of species demonstrate inconsistent relationships between sperm form and function. This ambiguity may in part reflect the important role that seminal fluid proteins (sfps) play in affecting sperm function. There is good evidence that sfps are subject to selection from sperm competition, and recent work is pointing to an ability of males to adjust their seminal fluid chemistry in response to sperm competition from rival males. We argue that future research must consider sperm and seminal fluid components of the ejaculate as a functional unity. Research at the genomic level will identify the genes that ultimately control male fertility.

  17. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  18. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  19. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    greater in samples incubated during 30 minutes with vaginal mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than in the other three groups (P = 0.0005). The functionality and the viability of ram sperm is negatively affected by the cervical mucus of ewes pretreated with progestagen-impregnated IS used in estrous synchronization treatments. This may partially explain the decrease in conception rate obtained with treatments with IS.

  20. Diet-induced obesity in rats leads to a decrease in sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is rapidly becoming a worldwide epidemic that affects children and adults. Some studies have shown a relationship between obesity and infertility, but until now it remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diet-induced obesity on male reproductive parameters. Methods In a first experiment, male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or standard chow (SD) for 15, 30 or 45 weeks, after which they were evaluated by adiposity index, serum leptin levels, reproductive organ weights and sperm counts. In a second experiment, rats received HFD or SD only for 15 weeks, long enough to cause obesity. Sexual hormones and sexual behavior were evaluated in these animals, as well as fertility after natural mating. Another group of rats was submitted to motility analysis and fertility evaluation after in utero insemination. Results After 15, 30 or 45 weeks, HFD-fed animals presented significant increases in obesity index and serum leptin levels. Reproductive organ weights and sperm counts in the testis and epididymis were similar between the two groups at all timepoints studied. Sexual behavior was not altered by the diet regimen, and HFD fertility after natural mating was also similar to SD-fed animals. Intergroup testosterone levels were also comparable, but estradiol levels were increased in HFD rats. Furthermore, sperm quality was reduced in HFD animals as evidenced by their decreased percentage of sperm with progressive movement. This altered motility parameter was followed by a trend toward reduction in fertility potential after artificial in utero insemination. Conclusions The results reported herein showed that obesity can affect sperm quality, by reducing sperm motility, without affecting other sperm parameters. The low sperm quality caused a slight reduction in fertility potential, showing that obesity may lead to impairment in male fertility. PMID:21396114

  1. An environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture impairs sperm function and embryo development in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Céline; Guillemette, Christine; Paradis, René; Sirard, Marc-André; Ayotte, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of an environmentally relevant mixture of more than 15 organochlorines on the development of pig oocytes and sperm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Oocytes were cocultured with sperm in IVF medium containing increasing concentrations of an organochlorine mixture, similar to that found in women of highly exposed populations. Exposure to the organochlorine mixture diminished oocyte penetration rates and polyspermy in a linear manner. The mixture did not affect rates of cleavage nor development to multicell embryos. However, rates of development to the blastocyst stage were lower at the highest concentration at which oocyte penetration was observed. The same experiment was performed using oocytes that were preexposed during in vitro maturation. This greater exposure to the mixture also reduced penetration in a dose-response manner and affected polyspermy. Frozen-thawed pig sperm were also cultured in IVF medium containing the same organochlorine concentrations. Sperm motility parameters were immediately reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the organochlorines, followed by diminished viability 2 h later. From these results, it appears that reduced sperm quality would account for decreases in fertilization, polyspermy, and blastocyst formation. These results suggest that exposing porcine oocytes and sperm to an environmentally pertinent organochlorine mixture in vitro disrupts the oocyte block to polyspermy, sperm fertility, and further embryonic development, and supports recent concerns that such pollutants harm reproductive health in humans and other species.

  2. Perspectives on cryopreservation, quality control, and artificial insemination of frozen-thawed boar sperm in a national repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) is a repository for agricultural germplasm (sperm, eggs, embryos, blood, tissue, DNA) that has been collected, cryopreserved, and cataloged for the purpose of creating a living compilation of genetic resources. The repository is multipurpose and can be u...

  3. Possible mechanism underlying the effect of Heshouwuyin, a tonifying kidney herb, on sperm quality in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herb mixtures are used as alternatives to hormone therapy in China for the treatment of partial androgen deficiency in aging men. However, the compositions of these herb mixtures are complex and their mechanisms are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the control of testosterone secretion and sperm function. Methods Aged Wistar rats were administered with Heshouwuyin. A Shouwu pill group and young group were used as controls. Results Morphology, chemiluminescence, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and western blot showed that the epididymal sperm of naturally aged rats had intact plasma membranes. They also had abnormal mitochondrial function and DNA integrity, a significant decline in serum testosterone levels, and significant pathological changes in the structure of testicular tissues. Heshouwuyin significantly improved sperm function and serum testosterone levels, and improved testicular morphology. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days and the Shouwu pill group. Conclusion Heshouwuyin exerts an important role in controlling testosterone secretion and sperm function. PMID:25034094

  4. Chronic environmental exposure to lead affects semen quality in a Mexican men population

    PubMed Central

    Morán-Martínez, Javier; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; A. Heredia-Rojas, José; Bassol-Mayagoitia, Susana; Denys Betancourt-Martínez, Nadia; M. Cerda-Flores, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is affected by several factors. Lead is one of the heavy metals more bioavailable than usually modifies the sperm quality in humans. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the role of lead in semen quality in environmentally exposed men. Materials and Methods: Semen and blood samples were obtained from two groups: the exposed group (EG=20) and the non-exposed group (NEG=27). Two semen aliquots were used, one to evaluate spermatic quality and the other for lead determination. Blood (PbB) and semen lead (PbS) determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The PbB concentration was significantly greater in the EG, 10.10±0.97 µgdL-1 than in the NEG, 6.42±0.38 µgdL-1 (p<0.01), as well as the PbS concentration, with 3.28±0.35 and 1.76±0.14µgdL-1 in the EG and NEG respectively (p=0.043). A significant correlation between PbS and PbB concentration in the EG was found (r=0.573, p=0.038). Overall, the spermatic quality was lower in the EG than in the NEG. Specifically, there were significant differences in the spermatic concentration [EG=43.98±6.26 and NEG=68.78±8.51X106 cellmL-1 (p<0.01)], motility [EG=49±7 and NEG=67±4% (p=0.029)], viability [EG=36.32±3.59 and NEG=72.12±1.91% (p<0.01)] and abnormal morphology [EG=67±18 and NEG=32±12% (p<0.01)]. In the immature germ cells (IGC) concentration differences were found only for A cells (EG=8.1±1.1x100 and NEG=3.2±1.9X100 spermatozoa) (p<0.01) and for Sab cells (EG=3.4±2.2x100 and NEG=1.1±1.0X100 spermatozoa) (p=0.041). Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic environmental exposure to low levels of lead adversely affect the spermatic quality. PMID:24639755

  5. Poor sleep quality affects spatial orientation in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Valera, Silvana; Guadagni, Veronica; Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Ferrara, Michele; Campbell, Tavis; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is well known to have a significant impact on learning and memory. Specifically, studies adopting an experimentally induced sleep loss protocol in healthy individuals have provided evidence that the consolidation of spatial memories, as acquired through navigating and orienteering in spatial surroundings, is negatively affected by total sleep loss. Here, we used both objective and subjective measures to characterize individuals' quality of sleep, and grouped participants into either a poor (insomnia-like) or normal (control) sleep quality group. We asked participants to solve a wayfinding task in a virtual environment, and scored their performance by measuring the time spent to reach a target location and the number of wayfinding errors made while navigating. We found that participants with poor sleep quality were slower and more error-prone than controls in solving the task. These findings provide novel evidence that pre-existing sleep deficiencies in otherwise healthy individuals affects negatively the ability to learn novel routes, and suggest that sleep quality should be accounted for among healthy individuals performing experimental spatial orientation tasks in virtual environments.

  6. Patterns of sperm damage in Chernobyl passerine birds suggest a trade-off between sperm length and integrity.

    PubMed

    Hermosell, Ignacio G; Laskemoen, Terje; Rowe, Melissah; Møller, Anders P; Mousseau, Timothy A; Albrecht, Tomás; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2013-10-23

    Interspecific variation in sperm size is enigmatic, but generally assumed to reflect species-specific trade-offs in selection pressures. Among passerine birds, sperm length varies sevenfold, and sperm competition risk seems to drive the evolution of longer sperm. However, little is known about factors favouring short sperm or constraining the evolution of longer sperm. Here, we report a comparative analysis of sperm head abnormalities among 11 species of passerine bird in Chernobyl, presumably resulting from chronic irradiation following the 1986 accident. Frequencies of sperm abnormalities varied between 15.7 and 77.3% among species, more than fourfold higher than in uncontaminated areas. Nonetheless, species ranked similarly in sperm abnormalities in unpolluted areas as in Chernobyl, pointing to intrinsic factors underlying variation in sperm damage among species. Scanning electron microscopy of abnormal spermatozoa revealed patterns of acrosome damage consistent with premature acrosome reaction. Sperm length, but not sperm competition risk explained variation in sperm damage among species. This suggests that longer spermatozoa are more susceptible to premature acrosome reaction. Therefore, we hypothesize a trade-off between sperm length and sperm integrity affecting sperm evolution in passerine birds.

  7. Product design enhancement using apparent usability and affective quality.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios.

  8. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Odacı, E; Hancı, H; Yuluğ, E; Türedi, S; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Y; Kaya, H; Çolakoğlu, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure in utero to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymis. Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 - 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared. We found a higher apoptotic index, greater DNA oxidation levels and lower sperm motility and vitality in the NEMFG compared to controls. Immature germ cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen, and altered seminiferous tubule epithelium and seminiferous tubule structure also were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of NEMFG testis. Nuclear changes that indicated apoptosis were identified in TUNEL stained sections and large numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in most of the seminiferous tubule epithelium in the NEMFG. Sixty-day-old rat testes exposed to 900 MHz EMF exhibited altered sperm quality and biochemical characteristics.

  9. Co-administration of ginseng and ciprofloxacin ameliorates epididymo-orchitis induced alterations in sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis following infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, A; Zeighami, H; Rostami, A; Kazemi, M; Eyni, H; Shokri, S

    2017-04-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) may be a beneficial adjuvant along with ciprofloxacin to ameliorate devastating effects of epididymo-orchitis (EO) on male fertility. This study intends to assay the effects of KRG and ciprofloxacin on sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in EO rats. We divided 54 adult rats into nine groups (n = 6 rats per group): control (CO), sham-operated (SH), EO (E); ciprofloxacin (C), EO-ciprofloxacin (EC), KRG (G), EO-KRG (EG), ciprofloxacin-KRG (CG) and EO-ciprofloxacin-KRG (ECG). We administered ciprofloxacin and KRG 48 hr after the Escherichia coli (E. coli) injection for 10 days. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed after one sperm cycle (14 days) following the last treatment with ciprofloxacin and KRG. Total and progressive motility of E, C and EC groups decreased. However, motility is improved in CG and ECG in comparison with these groups. The E group induced negative changes in the architecture of testes tissue and dramatic increase in apoptosis indices. Interestingly, co-administration of ciprofloxacin and KRG has dramatically improved Miller's and Johnsen's scores and decreased the apoptosis indices of animals in the ECG group. Combined treatment of ciprofloxacin and KRG may improve the quality of spermatozoa and attenuated apoptosis indices in the ECG group.

  10. Ejaculated Mouse Sperm Enter Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes More Efficiently In Vitro than Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an established and popular animal model for studying reproductive biology. Epididymal mouse sperm, which lack exposure to secretions of male accessory glands and do not precisely represent ejaculated sperm for the study of sperm functions, have been almost exclusively used in studies. We compared ejaculated and epididymal sperm in an in vitro fertilization setting to examine whether ejaculated sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently. In order to prepare sperm for fertilization, they were incubated under capacitating conditions. At the outset of incubation, ejaculated sperm stuck to the glass surfaces of slides and the incidences of sticking decreased with time; whereas, very few epididymal sperm stuck to glass at any time point, indicating differences in surface charge. At the end of the capacitating incubation, when sperm were added to cumulus-oocyte complexes, the form of flagellar movement differed dramatically; specifically, ejaculated sperm predominantly exhibited increased bending on one side of the flagellum (a process termed pro-hook hyperactivation), while epididymal sperm equally exhibited increased bending on one or the other side of the flagellum (pro-hook or anti-hook hyperactivation). This indicates that accessory sex gland secretions might have modified Ca2+ signaling activities in sperm, because the two forms of hyperactivation are reported to be triggered by different Ca2+ signaling patterns. Lastly, over time, more ejaculated than epididymal sperm entered the cumulus oocyte complexes. We concluded that modification of sperm by male accessory gland secretions affects the behavior of ejaculated sperm, possibly providing them with an advantage over epididymal sperm for reaching the eggs in vivo. PMID:25996155

  11. Long sperm fertilize more eggs in a bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Hemmings, Nicola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition, in which the ejaculates of multiple males compete to fertilize a female's ova, results in strong selection on sperm traits. Although sperm size and swimming velocity are known to independently affect fertilization success in certain species, exploring the relationship between sperm length, swimming velocity and fertilization success still remains a challenge. Here, we use the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where sperm size influences sperm swimming velocity, to determine the effect of sperm total length on fertilization success. Sperm competition experiments, in which pairs of males whose sperm differed only in length and swimming speed, revealed that males producing long sperm were more successful in terms of (i) the number of sperm reaching the ova and (ii) fertilizing those ova. Our results reveal that although sperm length is the main factor determining the outcome of sperm competition, complex interactions between male and female reproductive traits may also be important. The mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood, but we suggest that differences in sperm storage and utilization by females may contribute to the outcome of sperm competition. PMID:25621327

  12. Virtual azoospermia and cryptozoospermia--fresh/frozen testicular or ejaculate sperm for better IVF outcome?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ron; Bibi, Guy; Yogev, Leah; Carmon, Ariella; Azem, Foad; Botchan, Amnon; Yavetz, Haim; Klieman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Men diagnosed as having azoospermia occasionally have a few mature sperm cells in other ejaculates. Other men may have constant, yet very low quality and quantity of sperm cells in their ejaculates, resulting in poor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. It has not been conclusively established which source of sperm cells is preferable for ICSI when both ejaculate and testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells are available. It is also unclear whether there is any advantage of fresh over frozen sperm if testicular sperm is to be used. We used ejaculate, testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells, or both for ICSI in 13 couples. Five of these couples initially underwent ICSI by testicular sperm extraction, because the males had total azoospermia, and in later cycles with ejaculate sperm cells. Ejaculate sperm cells were initially used for ICSI in the other 8 patients, and later with testicular sperm cells. The fertilization rate was significantly higher when fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm cells were used than when ejaculated sperm cells were used. Likewise, the quality of the embryos from testicular (fresh and frozen) sperm was higher than from ejaculated sperm (65.3% vs 53.2%, respectively, P < .05). The use of fresh testicular sperm yielded better implantation rates than both frozen testicular sperm and ejaculate. Therefore, fresh testicular sperm should be considered first for ICSI in patients with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia because of their superior fertility.

  13. Cryopreservation of turkey semen by the pellet method: effects of variables such as the extender, cryoprotectant concentration, cooling time and warming temperature on sperm quality determined through principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Romagnoli, Luca; Manchisi, Angelo; Rosato, Maria Pina

    2011-09-15

    This study was designed to identify the best pellet cryopreservation procedure for the cryosurvival of turkey semen among 192 different treatments established by variations and permutations of seven conditions used in the freezing/thawing process. These conditions were: diluent (IGGKPh, SPh or Tselutin); dilution rate (1:3 vs. 1:4); cooling time (45 vs. 60 min); dimethylacetamide (DMA) concentration as cryoprotectant (6 vs. 8%); equilibration time in DMA (1 vs. 5 min); semen drop volume (50 vs. 80 μL) and thawing temperature (60 vs. 75 °C). Through principal components analysis (PCA), post-thaw sperm quality data (mobility, viability and membrane functional integrity) were reduced to a single output variable (Sperm Quality) indicating overall post-thaw semen quality. All treatments induced a significant reduction in semen quality after warming (P < 0.01), though one set of seven conditions, or treatment, was identified by PCA to generate the highest Sperm Quality score and a further five treatments yielded a score not significantly different (P > 0.05) from this best score. Although still not fulfilling the requirements for commercial application, our findings serve to identify the critical steps in turkey sperm cryopreservation that need to be assessed in future studies.

  14. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bovine sperm function.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Adriano F P; Maria, Fernanda S; Mendes, Camilla M; Hamilton, Thais R S; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Dreyer, Thiago R; da Silva, Herculano M; Nichi, Marcilio; Milazzotto, Marcella P; Visintin, José A; Assumpção, Mayra E O A

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization rates and subsequent embryo development rely on sperm factors related to semen quality and viability. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is based on emission of electromagnetic waves of a laser optical system that interact with cells and tissues resulting in biological effects. This interaction is mediated by photoacceptors that absorb the electromagnetic energy. Effects are dependent of irradiation parameters, target cell type, and species. In sperm, PBMT improves several features like motility and viability, affecting sperm aerobic metabolism and energy production. The aim of this study was to investigate, under same conditions, how different output powers (5, 7.5, and 10 mW) and time of irradiation (5 and 10 min) of laser (He-Ne laser, 633 nm) may affect frozen/thawed bovine sperm functions. Results showed significant effects depending on power while using 10 min of irradiation on motility parameters and mitochondrial potential. However, no effect was observed using 5 min of irradiation, regardless of power applied. In conclusion, PBMT is effective to modulate bovine sperm function. The effectiveness is dependent on the interaction between power applied and duration of irradiation, showing that these two parameters simultaneously influence sperm function. In this context, when using the same fluency and energy with different combinations of power and time of exposure, we observed distinct effects, revealing that biological effects should be also based on simple parameters rather than only composite parameters such as fluency, irradiance and energy. Laser irradiation of frozen/thawed bovine semen led to an increase on mitochondrial function and motility parameters that could potentially improve fertility rates.

  15. Sulfur dioxide inhalation lowers sperm quality and alters testicular histology via increasing expression of CREM and ACT proteins in rat testes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zheng, Fei; Liang, Chen; Zhu, Yuchen; Shi, Yan; Han, Yongli; Wang, Jundong

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the main atmospheric pollutants worldwide, and is reported to be responsible for the formation of severe haze in China. Some studies have demonstrated a potential harmful effect of SO2 on the male reproductive system; however the underlying mechanism is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of cytochrome P450 (P450), cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activator of CREM (ACT) in SO2-induced toxicity. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. The experiment group was exposed to SO2 in ambient air (10ppm, 4h/day), and the control group was treated with filtered air in the same conditions. After 2 weeks, the results showed a significant decrease in body weight and sperm motility, and an increase in the testis weight-to-body weight ratio as compared to the control group. Histological investigation suggested that SO2 exposure led to loose arrangement of the spermatogenic cells and local structural damage in the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, the expressions of P450, CREM and ACT proteins increased in the testes by 0.22%, 47.26% and 23.38%, respectively. Taken together, SO2 inhalation lowered sperm quality, altered testicular histology, and increased expressions of CREM and ACT proteins in the testes of rats. Overall, these results could contribute to a better understanding of SO2-induced male reproductive toxicity.

  16. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  17. Protective effect of Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen-Min; Wang, Ting; Wen, Duan-Gai; Hou, Jian-Quan; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation brings sublethal damage to sperm, resulting in reduced fertile life of sperm. Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides (RPs) have antiviral, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In the present study, the cryoprotective effect of RPs on boar sperm quality parameters after frozen-thawed process was investigated. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with RPs added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mg/L and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were assessed. Addition of RPs significantly improved sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and decreased sperm malonaldehyde level (p<0.05). The results indicated that the addition of RPs to the freezing extender decreased the cryodamage to the boar sperm.

  18. Easy sperm processing technique allowing exclusive accumulation and later usage of DNA-strandbreak-free spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Moser, M; Mayer, R B; Arzt, W; Tews, G

    2011-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is increased in poor-quality semen samples and correlates with failed fertilization, impaired preimplantation development and reduced pregnancy outcome. Common sperm preparation techniques may reduce the percentage of strandbreak-positive spermatozoa, but, to date, there is no reliable approach to exclusively accumulate strandbreak-free spermatozoa. To analyse the efficiency of special sperm selection chambers (Zech-selectors made of glass or polyethylene) in terms of strandbreak reduction, 39 subfertile men were recruited and three probes (native, density gradient and Zech-selector) were used to check for strand breaks using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. The mean percentage of affected spermatozoa in the ejaculate was 15.8 ± 7.8% (range 5.0–42.1%). Density gradient did not significantly improve the quality of spermatozoa selected(14.2 ± 7.0%). However, glass chambers completely removed 90% spermatozoa showing strand breaks and polyethylene chambers removed 76%. Both types of Zech-selectors were equivalent in their efficiency, significantly reduced DNA damage (P < 0.001) and,with respect to this, performed better than density gradient centrifugation (P < 0.001). As far as is known, this is the first report ona sperm preparation technique concentrating spermatozoa unaffected in terms of DNA damage. The special chambers most probably select for sperm motility and/or maturity.

  19. Quantification of damage at different stages of cryopreservation of endangered North American bison (Bison bison) semen and the effects of extender and freeze rate on post-thaw sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S A; Lessard, C; Anzar, M

    2011-12-01

    Semen cryopreservation is an important technique for the banking of animal germplasm from endangered species and exploitation of genetically superior sires through artificial insemination. Being a member of bovidae family, bison semen has poor freezing ability as compared to dairy and beef bulls' semen. This study was designed to quantify the damage to bison sperm at different stages of cryopreservation, and to determine the effects of extender (commercial Triladyl(®) vs. custom made tris-citric acid [TCA]) and freeze rate (-10, -25 and -40°C/min) on post-thaw quality of bison semen. Semen was collected from five bison bulls (three woods and two plains) via electroejaculation. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted in Triladyl® extender and frozen with freeze rate -10°C/min. Sperm motility characteristics were recorded in fresh, diluted, cooled (4°C) and freeze-thawed semen using computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA). In Experiment 2, semen was diluted in Triladyl® or TCA extender, and frozen with three different freeze rates, i.e. -10, -25 or -40°C/min. Thawing was performed at 37°C for 60s. Post-thaw sperm motility characteristics were assessed using CASA, and sperm structural characteristics (plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomes) were evaluated using flow cytometer, at 0 and 3h while incubating semen at 37°C. In Experiment 1, total and progressive motilities did not differ among pre-freeze stages of cryopreservation (P>0.05). However, sperm total and progressive motilities declined (P<0.001) in freeze-thawed semen by 35% and 42%, respectively, compared to after cooling (pre-freeze) semen. In Experiment 2, Triladyl®, as compared to TCA, yielded greater (P<0.05) post-thaw sperm total motility (41% compared to 36%) and progressive motility (34% compared to 29%) at 0h, respectively. The percent change in post-thaw sperm total and progressive motilities, VAP, VCL, VSL, IPM-high ΔΨm and IPM-IACR during 3h incubation at 37°C, was

  20. Ultraviolet plumage ornamentation affects social mate choice and sperm competition in bluethroats (Aves: Luscinia s. svecica): a field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, A.; Andersson, S.; rnborg, J.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    The blue throat feathers of male bluethroats (Luscinia s. svecica) show a reflectance peak in the ultraviolet (UV) waveband (320 to 400 nm). The throat is actively displayed during courtship, suggesting a role for sexual selection on an ultraviolet signal. Indeed, a recent aviary experiment demonstrated that females discriminated against males with artificially reduced UV reflectance (Andersson and Amundsen 1997). Here, we report the results of a similar experimental manipulation applied on free-ranging males. UV-reduced (UVR) males had a lower success in attracting mates, as judged from a significantly later start of egg laying, compared with control (C) males. UVR males also spent significantly less time advertising for additional mates when their own mate was fertile, and they had a lower success in achieving extra-pair fertilizations. Furthermore, UVR males tended to guard their mates more closely and lose more paternity in their own brood than C males did. We conclude that the treatment affected both social and extra-pair mate choice. This is the first experimental evidence that UV signalling influences male mating success in free-ranging birds.

  1. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P < 0.01) and the African white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P < 0.05). Across all species and samples assessed (n = 11), mean post-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos.

  2. Cooling and freezing of sperm from captive, free-living and endangered squirrel monkey species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karol G; Santos, Regiane R; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Lima, Julianne S; Sampaio, Wlaísa V; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2016-06-01

    Germoplasm banking is an important tool for the preservation of genetic material from Neotropical primates in captivity, and from free living species, especially the endangered ones like Saimiri vanzolinii (Black-headed squirrel monkey), a primate with a low incidence area (870 km(2) of floodplains) in the southern part of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Brazil. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to develop a sperm cryopreservation protocol comparing sperm cooling in presence (T1) and absence (T2) of egg yolk, and to test freezing protocols to preserve semen from captive (Saimiri collinsi), and free-living (Saimiri vanzolinii, Saimiri cassiquiarensis and Saimiri macrodon) New World primates. Cooling preserved sperm of S. collinsi in all evaluated microscopic parameters, except for sperm motility. No differences were observed among the treatments, indicating that semen of this species can be cooled without egg yolk. Freezing did not affect sperm quality of S. collinsi, except plasma membrane integrity that was negatively affected. Generally, a good maintenance rate was observed between cooling and thawing of semen for the four species, showing the positive translational application of protocols from S. collinsi to the free-living species. Developed freezing protocol proved to be useful for sperm cryopreservation of S. collinsi and in field conditions.

  3. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems.

  4. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  5. Improved semen collection method for wild felids: urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality in African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Lueders, I; Luther, I; Scheepers, G; van der Horst, G

    2012-08-01

    For wild and domestic felids, electroejaculation (EE) is the most common semen collection method. However, the equipment is expensive, there is a risk of urine contamination and animals usually show strong muscular contraction despite general anesthesia. Accordingly, we tested the feasibility of a different approach using urethral catheterization (UC) in seven African lions, previously described for domestic cats only. After general anesthesia with the α2-agonist medetomidine (which also stimulates semen release into the urethra) and ketamine, a transrectal ultrasound was performed to locate the prostate. A commercial dog urinary catheter (2.6 or 3.3 mm in diameter) was advanced approximately 30 cm into the urethra to allow semen collection into the lumen of the catheter by capillary forces. After retraction, sperm volumes between of 422.86 ± 296.07 μl yielded motility of 88.83 ± 13.27% (mean ± SD) with a mean sperm concentration of 1.94 × 10(9)/ml. Here we describe a simple, field friendly and effective method to attain highly concentrated semen samples with excellent motility in lions and potentially other wild felid species as an alternative to electroejaculation.

  6. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus) as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice. PMID:21251249

  7. Season effect on genitalia and epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Guerra, Camino; Kaabi, Mohammed; Garcia-Macias, Vanesa; de Paz, Paulino; Alvarez, M; Herraez, Paz; Anel, Luis

    2005-04-15

    Seasonality deeply affects the physiology and behavior of many species, and must be taken into account when biological resource banks (BRBs) are established. We have studied the effect of seasonality on many reproductive parameters of free-ranging Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois, living in Spain. Testicles from hunted animals were collected and sent to our laboratory at different times during the year. We recorded the weight and volume of testis, the weight of the epididymis and its separate parts (caput, corpus, and cauda), the weight of the sperm sample collected from the cauda epididymis, and several sperm parameters (sperm concentration, spermatozoa recovered, motility, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status, and viability). We studied the data according to several periods, defined accordingly to each species. For red deer, we defined rut (mid-September to mid-October), post-rut (mid-October to mid-December), and non-breeding season (February). For roe deer, they were pre-rut (June), rut (July), post-rut (first fortnight of August), and non-breeding season (September). For chamois: non-breeding season (June to mid-September) and breeding season (October-November). The rut/breeding season yielded significantly higher numbers for almost all parameters. However, in the case of red deer, sperm quality was higher in the post-rut. For roe deer, testicular weight was similar in the pre-rut and in the rut, and sperm quality did not differ significantly between these two periods, although we noticed higher values in the rut. In the case of chamois, sperm quality did not differ significantly from the breeding season, but data distribution suggested that in the non-breeding season there are less males with sperm of good quality. On the whole, we find these results of interest for BRB planning. The best season to collect sperm in this species would be the breeding season. However, post-rut in red deer, pre-rut in roe deer, and non-breeding season in

  8. Thawing dog spermatozoa in just-boiled water: submersion time and effect on sperm quality compared to thawing in water at 70 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Nöthling, J O; Dolieslager, S M J; Fillekes, R; Colenbrander, B

    2007-09-01

    Dog spermatozoa have better quality after thawing in water at 70-75 degrees C instead of 35-38 degrees C. The aim of Experiment 1 was to determine the time needed to thaw 0.5 mL straws in just-boiled (98 degrees C) water and that of Experiment 2 to determine whether thawing frozen dog spermatozoa in just-boiled water will result in better quality than thawing in water at 70 degrees C. Prior to freezing the straws of Experiment 1, a Type J thermocouple with wire diameters of 0.08 mm (Osiris Technical Systems, Centurion, South Africa) was placed in the center of each of ninety-three 0.5 mL straws (IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France) filled with extender (Biladyl* with 0.5%, v/v of Equex STM paste**) and 54 filled with extender plus 200 x 10(6)spermatozoa/mL (Minitüb, Germany (*) and Nova Chemical Sales, MA (**)). Thirty straws with extender were thawed in water at 70 degrees C and the others in just-boiled water. Temperatures inside straws were recorded 10 times/s during warming. Two ejaculates were then collected from each of eight dogs and one from each of three others. Extended ejaculates from the same dog were pooled, frozen 8 cm above liquid nitrogen, and 2 straws from each of the 11 batches thawed in water at 70 degrees C for 8s and 2 in just-boiled water for 6.5s. Sperm morphology and viability were assessed on eosin-nigrosin smears made after thawing and the percentage progressively motile spermatozoa was estimated immediately, 1, 2 and 3h after thawing. The optimal submersion time in just-boiled water was 6.5s for both sperm concentrations, resulting in average temperatures of 23.6+/-1.5 degrees C (+/-S.E.M.) and 24.9+/-1.6 degrees C inside straws with extender or extender plus spermatozoa (P=0.6). The temperature inside straws thawed in water at 70 degrees C was 13.6+/-1.7 degrees C after 8s. Apart from a 1.5% higher (P<0.05) mean percentage motile sperm 2h after thawing, thawing dog spermatozoa in just-boiled (98 degrees C) water holds no benefit over

  9. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Ma, Duan; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Run-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1-a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)-as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen.

  10. Preventive effect of Desferal on sperm motility and morphology.

    PubMed

    Nenkova, Galina; Stefanov, Rossen; Chervenkov, Mihail; Alexandrova, Albena

    2016-08-01

    Transition metal ions, mainly iron, are involved in the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which are the most powerful inducers of oxidative damage to all biomolecules. The lipids in sperm membranes are highly susceptible to oxidation. Sperm lipid peroxidation (LPO) leads to decrease of motility and reduction of likelihood for sperm-oocyte fusion. The excess radical production may affect also the spermatozoa morphology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Desferal on the LPO, motility, and morphology of boar sperm subjected to oxidative stress. After collection, the ejaculates were equally separated and diluted in a commercial semen extender (experiment 1) or in physiological saline (experiment 2). The ejaculates of the 2 experiments were divided into aliquots, which were incubated with one of the following agents: FeSO4 (0.1mM), H2 O2 (0.5mM), or FeSO4  + H2 O2 (Fenton system), in the presence or absence of Desferal. The application of Desferal in the incubation medium had a protective effect against FeSO4  + H2 O2 -induced sperm damage, namely, decrease of LPO; decrease the quantity of immotile spermatozoa and decrease the number of morphological abnormalities, regardless of the used medium. In experiment 2, the presence of FeSO4 in the incubation medium induced LPO in the same range as the combination FeSO4  + H2 O2 , in which the effect was reduced by Desferal. Thus, the supplement of Desferal to media used for sperm storage and processing could be a useful tool for diminishing oxidative injury and improving the quality of the semen.

  11. Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens

    PubMed Central

    den Boer, Susanne P. A.; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stephanie; Aron, Serge; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps), reproduction is usually monopolized by one or relatively few queens, who mate only during a brief period early in life and store sperm for later use. The queens of some ants are particularly long-lived and have the potential to produce millions of offspring during their life. To do so, queens store many sperm cells, and this sperm must remain viable throughout the years of storage. Queens should also be under strong selection to use stored sperm prudently when fertilizing eggs. We used the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica to investigate the dynamics of sperm use during egg fertilization. We show that queens are able to fertilize close to 100 per cent of the eggs and that the average sperm use per egg is very low, but increases with queen age. The robustness of stored sperm was found to decrease with years of storage, signifying that senescence affects sperm either directly or indirectly via the declining glandular secretions or deteriorating sperm-storage organs. We evaluate our findings with a heuristic model, which suggests that the average queen has sperm for almost 9 years of normal colony development. We discuss the extent to which leaf-cutter ant queens have been able to optimize their sperm expenditure and infer that our observed averages of sperm number, sperm robustness and sperm use are consistent with sperm depletion being a significant cause of mortality of mature colonies of Atta leaf-cutter ants. PMID:19710057

  12. Prudent sperm use by leaf-cutter ant queens.

    PubMed

    den Boer, Susanne P A; Baer, Boris; Dreier, Stephanie; Aron, Serge; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2009-11-22

    In many species, females store sperm between copulation and egg fertilization, but the consequences of sperm storage and patterns of sperm use for female life history and reproductive success have not been investigated in great detail. In hymenopteran insect societies (ants, bees, wasps), reproduction is usually monopolized by one or relatively few queens, who mate only during a brief period early in life and store sperm for later use. The queens of some ants are particularly long-lived and have the potential to produce millions of offspring during their life. To do so, queens store many sperm cells, and this sperm must remain viable throughout the years of storage. Queens should also be under strong selection to use stored sperm prudently when fertilizing eggs. We used the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica to investigate the dynamics of sperm use during egg fertilization. We show that queens are able to fertilize close to 100 per cent of the eggs and that the average sperm use per egg is very low, but increases with queen age. The robustness of stored sperm was found to decrease with years of storage, signifying that senescence affects sperm either directly or indirectly via the declining glandular secretions or deteriorating sperm-storage organs. We evaluate our findings with a heuristic model, which suggests that the average queen has sperm for almost 9 years of normal colony development. We discuss the extent to which leaf-cutter ant queens have been able to optimize their sperm expenditure and infer that our observed averages of sperm number, sperm robustness and sperm use are consistent with sperm depletion being a significant cause of mortality of mature colonies of Atta leaf-cutter ants.

  13. Leptin Improves Sperm Cryopreservation via Antioxidant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Fontoura, Paula; Mello, Mariana Duque; Gallo-Sá, Paulo; Erthal-Martins, Maria Cecília; Cardoso, Maria Cecília Almeida; Ramos, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leptin and its receptor are present in spermatozoa; however, the role of leptin in sperm function is still controversial. Our present study aimed at demonstrating the effect of cryopreservation on sperm DNA fragmentation (DNAf) and investigating the possible effects of sperm capacitation techniques and leptin in vitro incubation on frozen-thawed sperm DNAf and oxidative stress. Methods: Samples of 45 normospermic men attending for infertility investigation at Vida Centro de Fertilidade, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were frozen and thawed with or without capacitation and leptin incubation prior to freezing. Sperm DNA fragmentation was evaluated by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Assay before and after cryopreservation and oxidative stress parameters were measured by spectrophotometry with and without leptin incubation. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t test to compare DNAf between groups before and after freeze-thaw cycle, to compare groups before and after capacitation and leptin incubation and oxidative measurements before and after leptin incubation. Statistical significance was considered when p≤0.05. Results: Our results revealed a significant post-thaw rise in sperm DNAf compared with fresh samples (p=0.0003). Sperm DNAf was significantly reduced when sperm capacitation was performed before freezing, when compared to those frozen with no previous capacitation (p=0.01). The addition of leptin to capacitated sperm before freezing reduced DNAf (p<0.0001) and enhanced superoxide dismutase (p=0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (p=0.02) antioxidant enzymes activity. Conclusion: The addition of leptin to capacitated sperm can improve sperm DNA quality following cryopreservation, possibly by inducing the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes. PMID:28377896

  14. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Jalil; Mardi Mamaghani, Azar; Hosseinifar, Hani; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Dadkhah, Farid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group). Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02) in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5) in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39) was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13) after three month of treatment (p=0.02). In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009). There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men. PMID:27679829

  15. Navy Shipbuilding: Opportunities Exist to Improve Practices Affecting Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Organization for Standardization’s ISO 9001 ( quality ), 14001 (environmental), and 18001 (occupational health and safety) series of management systems... ISO 9000 quality management standards. Page 52 GAO-14-122 Navy Shipbuilding commercial shipbuilders we visited did not report having...leading commercial shipbuilders have strong quality management processes that track quality problems to the worker or supervisor level. Navy

  16. Female choice of young sperm in a genetically monogamous bird.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Richard H; Helfenstein, Fabrice; Danchin, Etienne

    2004-01-01

    When females copulate with multiple males the potential exists for female sperm choice. Females may increase the probability of being fertilized by preferred males by selectively retaining their sperm while ejecting the sperm of unfavoured males. An alternative criterion to male quality for female sperm choice may be sperm age because old sperm degrade and can lead to zygote death or unhealthy offspring. Here, we report that in a genetically monogamous bird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, females eject their mates' sperm according to when the copulations were performed. Following copulations that were performed approximately two weeks before egg laying, females ejected inseminations at high frequencies while retaining inseminations that occurred soon before laying. Females that suffered hatching failure had ejected sperm from early copulations less than half as frequently as females whose entire clutches hatched. Furthermore, chicks that hatched from eggs fertilized by old sperm were in poor condition relative to those fertilized by young sperm. These findings support the 'young sperm' hypothesis, which predicts that females choose fresh sperm to avoid reproductive failure and are the first to show intra-male sperm choice by females. PMID:15252964

  17. DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-10-15

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies.

  18. The effect of bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of the liquid stored rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Sarıözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu; Eken, Ayşe; Akçay, Aytaç

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of liquid stored rabbit semen stored up to 72 h at 5 °C. Ejaculates were collected from five New Zealand male rabbits by artificial vagina and pooled at 37 °C following evaluation. Each pooled ejaculate was split into three equal experimental groups and diluted to a final concentration of approximately 40 × 10(6)sperm/ml (single step dilution), in an Eppendorf tube, with the Tris based extender containing BSA (5mg/ml), FCS (10%) or no additive (control) at 37 °C, cooled to 5 °C and stored for up to 72 h. The extender supplemented with BSA and FCS did not improve the percentages of motility and acrosomal abnormality during 48 h compared to the control. The additives BSA and FCS had a significant effect in the maintaining of plasma membrane integrity between 48 and 72 h storage period, compared to the control (P<0.01). The supplementation of BSA and FCS had a protective effect on motility (P<0.05), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.01) and acrosomal integrity (P<0.01) at 72 h compared to the control. The supplementations with BSA and FCS led to a reduction in DNA damage of rabbit sperm at 48 and 72 h during storage period, compared to the control (P<0.001). Although supplementation of BSA and FCS caused significant (P<0.01) decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level at 48 h and 72 h, they significantly (P<0.01) increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant activity up to 72 h when compared to the control group. In conclusion, BSA and FCS supplementation to liquid stored rabbit semen provide a protection for spermatozoa against cool storage-induced DNA damage and plasma membrane integrity by their antioxidative properties.

  19. The effects of addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the quality of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed sperm.

    PubMed

    Kandelousi, M A Sheikholeslami; Arshami, J; Naserian, A A; Abavisani, A

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids on the characteristics of bovine chilled and frozen-thawed semen. For this purpose, oil containing different levels of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids were added to semen extender. To emulsify the oil in semen extender, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as a suitable solvent and the solution was finally sonicated. Five proven Holstein bulls were randomly selected and their ejaculates were collected using an artificial vagina. Groups were designed as control, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4. The control group contained only the basic extender (Tris-citrate buffer, egg yolk and glycerol) without any additives. In treatment 1, only 5% PEG was added to the diluent; while in treatments 2, 3 and 4 different concentrations of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%) in combination with PEG were added to the basic extender. After dilution, the semen samples were packaged into 0.5 ml straws, a process that was followed by cooling the semen straws. Motility, viability and morphology of semen samples were evaluated after 24 and 48 h of storage in refrigerator (5 °C) or after one month of storage in the liquid nitrogen. Immotility was increased and all the other parameters including motility, viability and morphology were significantly decreased in all the groups compared with fresh samples during cold storage and freezing-thawing. Our results demonstrated the following: 1) PEG has significant detrimental effects, especially on the sperm motility; 2) addition of omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acids could not improve the sperm motility in chilled storage condition and after freezing-thawing; and 3) omega-3, 6, 9 fatty acidscould not also attenuate the other deleterious effects of PEG. In conclusion, our findings reveal that addition of these fatty acids to the semen extender does not enhance the resistance of the bovine sperm membrane to cooling and freezing-thawing and that further studies are required to find

  20. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase by acetamide affects sperm motility and fertilization success of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Sarosiek, B; Glogowski, J; Cejko, B I; Kujawa, R; Szczepkowski, M; Kuźmiński, H; Dobosz, S; Kowalski, R K

    2014-03-15

    β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (β-NAGase) is an enzyme found in the sperm acrosome of numerous animal species including fish. Fish spermatozoa differ in their morphology including acrosome or acrosomeless aquasperm in chondrostean (e.g., sturgeon) and teleostean (e.g., rainbow trout). It has been shown that β-NAGase exists with high activity in both eggs and sperm of these species. The present study shows the potency of β-NAGase in fertilization. In rainbow trout, increase in sperm motility parameters (VAP and MOT) were observed in the presence of acetamide, an inhibitor for β-NAGase. In contrast, sperm motility parameters (VCL, VSL, VAP, MOT, and PRG) were reduced on the Siberian sturgeon in the presence of acetamide. The inhibition of the activity of β-NAGase in rainbow trout spermatozoa was led to a reduction in the number of fertilized eggs from 79% to 40%, whereas in sturgeon no change was observed in fertilization. Moreover, inhibition of β-NAGase in both spermatozoa and eggs of trout and sturgeon resulted in significant decrease in fertilization rate from 79% to 1% in rainbow trout and from 84% to 12% in Siberian sturgeon. Our research proves that β-NAGase can play a significant role in the fertilization process in teleosteans.

  1. The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, I; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Perez-Patiño, C; Alkmin, D V; Ceron, J J; Martinez, E A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Roca, J

    2015-03-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) is a hydrolytic enzyme present in body fluids, capable of protecting cells against oxidative stress. The hypothesis was hereby to test that PON-1, present in seminal plasma (SP), acts protecting boar spermatozoa when showing a reasonable high activity in the ejaculate. SP-PON-1 activity differed (p < 0.001) among boars (from 0.10 to 0.29 IU/mL). Intra-boar variability was also observed (p < 0.05), but only in two of the 15 boars. SP-PON-1 activity differed among ejaculate portions, showing the spermatozoa-peak portion of spermatozoa-rich ejaculate fraction the highest levels (0.35 ± 0.03 IU/mL, ranging from 0.12 to 0.69) and the post-sperm ejaculate fraction the lowest levels (0.12 ± 0.01 IU/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 0.21). SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with rapid and progressive movement (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (p < 0.01) in semen samples after 72 h of liquid storage. SP-PON-1 activity was highest (p < 0.01) in boars with highest farrowing rates. In conclusion, SP-PON-1 activity differed among boars and ejaculate fractions/portions. SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with sperm quality and functionality of liquid-stored semen samples and it evidenced a positive association with in vivo fertility.

  2. Fenitrothion alters sperm characteristics in rats: ameliorating effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction.

    PubMed

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphate insecticides such as fenitrothion (FNT) in agriculture and public health has been reported to affect sperm quality. Antioxidants may have a potential to reduce spermatotoxic effects induced by organophosphate. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in reducing the detrimental effects occurring in spermatozoa of FNT-treated rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four equal groups: a control group and groups of rats treated orally with palm oil TRF (200 mg/kg), FNT (20 mg/kg) and palm oil TRF (200 mg/kg) combined with FNT (20 mg/kg). The sperm characteristics, DNA damage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) were evaluated. Supplementation with TRF attenuated the detrimental effects of FNT by significantly increasing the sperm counts, motility, and viability and decreased the abnormal sperm morphology. The SOD activity and GSH level were significantly increased, whereas the MDA and PC levels were significantly decreased in the TRF+FNT group compared with the rats receiving FNT alone. TRF significantly decreased the DNA damage in the sperm of FNT-treated rats. A significant correlation between abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage was found in all groups. TRF showed the potential to reduce the detrimental effects occurring in spermatozoa of FNT-treated rats.

  3. Topology of chromosome centromeres in human sperm nuclei with high levels of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Wiland, Ewa; Fraczek, Monika; Olszewska, Marta; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the ‘poor’ sperm DNA quality appears to be an important factor affecting male reproductive ability. In the case of sperm cells from males with the correct somatic karyotype but with deficient spermatogenesis, resulting in a high degree of sperm DNA fragmentation, we observed changes in the preferential topology of the chromosome 7, 9, 15, 18, X and Y centromeres. The changes occurred in radial localization and may have been directly linked to the sperm chromatin damage. This conclusion is mainly based on a comparison of FISH signals that were observed simultaneously in the TUNEL-positive and TUNEL-negative sperm cells. The analyzed cells originated from the same ejaculated sample and FISH was performed on the same slides, after in situ TUNEL reaction. Based on the observed changes and previous data, it appears that the sperm nucleus architecture can be disrupted by a variety of factors and has a negative influence on spermatogenesis at the same time. Often, these factors coexist (e.g. chromosomal translocations, aneuploidies, a higher DNA fragmentation, abnormal seminology), but no direct correlations between the factors were observed. PMID:27558650

  4. Fenitrothion Alters Sperm Characteristics in Rats: Ameliorating Effects of Palm Oil Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman,, Putri Ayu; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphate insecticides such as fenitrothion (FNT) in agriculture and public health has been reported to affect sperm quality. Antioxidants may have a potential to reduce spermatotoxic effects induced by organophosphate. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in reducing the detrimental effects occurring in spermatozoa of FNT-treated rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four equal groups: a control group and groups of rats treated orally with palm oil TRF (200 mg/kg), FNT (20 mg/kg) and palm oil TRF (200 mg/kg) combined with FNT (20 mg/kg). The sperm characteristics, DNA damage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) were evaluated. Supplementation with TRF attenuated the detrimental effects of FNT by significantly increasing the sperm counts, motility, and viability and decreased the abnormal sperm morphology. The SOD activity and GSH level were significantly increased, whereas the MDA and PC levels were significantly decreased in the TRF+FNT group compared with the rats receiving FNT alone. TRF significantly decreased the DNA damage in the sperm of FNT-treated rats. A significant correlation between abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage was found in all groups. TRF showed the potential to reduce the detrimental effects occurring in spermatozoa of FNT-treated rats. PMID:25030881

  5. Decay of sperm obtained from epididymes of wild ruminants depending on postmortem time.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pastor, F; Guerra, C; Kaabi, M; Diaz, A R; Anel, E; Herraez, P; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out a study on the effect of postmortem time (PT) in some characteristics of epididymal sperm salvaged from hunted Iberian red deer and roe deer. Testis were collected, identified, refrigerated down to 5 degrees C, and sent to our laboratory by the wardens of the hunting reserves. This way, samples were delivered at different times postmortem. Sperm were extracted from the cauda epididymis by means of cuts. Analyzed parameters were: osmolality, pH, motility-both subjectively and with CASA, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status and viability (assessed with propidium iodide). Osmolality and pH rose with prolonged postmortem time, possibly due to tissue decomposition. Most sperm quality parameters negatively correlated with PT. Besides, when comparing PT classes (groups of 24 h for red deer and 30 h for roe deer), we could appreciate that motility was more affected by PT than other quality variables. Progressive motility was especially impaired. We also classified the samples in high, medium and low quality for each PT group (considering progressive motility, intact acrosomes and reactivity to the HOS test), and it was clear that after 2 days the number of high quality samples was testimonial, and after several days, we almost found only low quality samples. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer and roe deer undergo a decrease of quality with PT, but it could stay acceptable within many hours postmortem. There are implications for wildlife conservation programs, as epididymal sperm is a good source of germplasm. If valuable animals die and it is not possible to process their sperm immediately, it may still be possible to obtain viable spermatozoa many hours later.

  6. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  7. Financial Health of Child Care Facilities Affects Quality of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…

  8. Accurate sperm morphology assessment predicts sperm function.

    PubMed

    Abu Hassan Abu, D; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    Sperm morphology has been associated with in vitro as well as in vivo fertilisation. The study aimed to evaluate the possible relation between the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology and the following sperm functional assays: (i) zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR); (ii) DNA integrity; (iii) chromatin condensation; (iv) sperm apoptosis; and (v) fertilisation rates. Regression analysis was employed to calculate the association between morphology and different functional tests. Normal sperm morphology correlated significantly with the percentages of live acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in the ZIAR (r = 0.518; P < 0.0001; n = 92), DNA integrity (r = -0.515; P = 0.0018; n = 34), CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa (r = -0.745; P < 0.0001; n = 92), sperm apoptosis (r = -0.395; P = 0.0206; n = 34) and necrosis (r = -0.545; P = 0.0009; n = 34). Negative correlations existed between for the acrosome reaction, and DNA integrity, while negative associations were recorded with the percentages of CMA(3) -positive spermatozoa, apoptotic and necrotic spermatozoa. Sperm morphology is related to sperm dysfunction such as poor chromatin condensation, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity. Negative and significant correlations existed between normal sperm morphology and chromatin condensation, the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA and spermatozoa with apoptotic activity. The authors do not regard sperm morphology as the only test for the diagnosis of male fertility, but sperm morphology can serve as a valuable indicator of underlying dysfunction.

  9. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (P<0.01) the activity level of testicular key enzymatic antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx), oxidative stress makers (blood hydroperoxide; testicular reduced glutathione, GSH and malondialdehyde, MDA), and testicular mercury levels. Moreover, HgCl2 administration resulted in a significant (P<0.01) increase in the number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decrease in epididymal sperm count, motility, plasma testosterone level and testicular cholesterol. Furthermore, HgCl2 exposure induced histopathological changes to the testis including morphological alterations of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells. Notably, oral pretreatment of animals with Spirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2

  10. Sperm competition in a fish with external fertilization: the contribution of sperm number, speed and length.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, J A; Neff, B D

    2006-11-01

    The role of sperm number and quality in male competitiveness was investigated using in vitro fertilization experiments with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Bluegill males use one of three mating tactics: 'sneakers', which streak spawn; 'satellites', which mimic females; and 'parentals', which are territorial. The in vitro experiments mimicked natural spawning by incorporating these males' mean proximity to eggs and timing of sperm release. Using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, raffle equations were fit to paternity data, which revealed a strong effect of sperm number on male competitiveness. There was no difference in sperm flagellum length, curvilinear swim speed or path linearity among the three male mating types, and these traits did not explain any additional variation in male competitiveness. It was estimated that, given closer proximity to eggs, satellites need release only 0.34 times as many sperm as parentals to obtain equal paternity. Despite being farther from the eggs and releasing sperm about half a second after parentals, sneakers need only release 0.58 times as many sperm as parentals to obtain equal paternity. Thus, the increased competitiveness of sneakers' sperm must come from a component of sperm quality other than speed or length.

  11. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).

    PubMed

    Beracochea, F; Gil, J; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fumagalli, F; Ungerfeld, R

    2014-10-01

    Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 μl, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 μm, width 4.4 ± 0.01 μm, area 28.1 ± 0.07 μm(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 μm. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections.

  12. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  13. Quality of boar spermatozoa from the sperm-peak portion of the ejaculate after simplified freezing in MiniFlatpacks compared to the remaining spermatozoa of the sperm-rich fraction.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, A P; Wallgren, M; Hossain, M S; Johannisson, A; Sanz, L; Calvete, J J; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2011-04-15

    Boar sperm viability post-thaw differs depending on the ejaculate fraction used, with spermatozoa present in the first 10 mL of the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) (portion 1, P1, sperm-peak portion) displaying the best cryosurvival in vitro compared with that of spermatozoa from the rest of the ejaculate (portion 2 of the SRF plus the post-spermatic fraction), even when using simplified freezing routines. This viability apparently relates to the specific profile of seminal plasma in P1 (i.e., glycoprotein and bicarbonate concentrations, and pH). However, spermatozoa from P1 have not been compared with spermatozoa from the rest of the SRF (SRF-P1, usually 30-40 mL of the SRF), which is routinely used for freezing. We compared P1 with SRF-P1 in terms of sperm kinematics (using the QualiSperm™ system), while membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity (FITC PNA/PI), and sperm membrane stability (Annexin-V) were explored using flow cytometry. As well, total protein concentration and the proteomics of the seminal plasma (SP) of both portions of the SRF were studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), mass fingerprinting (MALDI-TOF), and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) on selected peptides. The SRF portions were collected weekly from four mature boars (4-5 replicates per boar, sperm concentration: P1, 1.86 ± 0.20; SRF-P1, 1.25 ± 0.14 × 10(9) spz/mL) and processed using a quick freezing method in MiniFlatPacks. Post-thaw sperm motility reached 50%, without differences between SRF portions, but with clear inter-boar variation. Neither plasma membrane nor acrosome integrity differed (ns) between fractions. These results indicate that there are no differences in cryosurvival after quick freezing of boar spermatozoa derived from either of the two SRF portions. While P1 and SRF-P1 clearly differed in relative total protein contents, as expected, they displayed very similar protein profiles as assessed using 2DE and mass

  14. N-Acetylcysteine improves oocyte and embryo quality in polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an alternative to metformin.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Ebrahim; Mehranjani, Malek Soleimani; Shariatzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr; Ebrahimi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with low-quality oocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of metformin (MET), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and their combination on follicular fluid parameters, oocytes and embryo quality in PCOS patients. A prospective randomised placebo-controlled pilot study on 60 Iranian women with PCOS (aged 25-35 years) undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was designed. Women were divided into four groups (n=15 in each): (1) an MET, administered 1500mg day(-1) MET; (2) an NAC group, administered 1800mg day(-1) NAC; (3) an NAC + MET group; and (4) a placebo group. Drugs were administered from the 3rd day of previous cycle until the day of oocyte aspiration (6 weeks treatment in total). Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at P<0.05. The number of immature and abnormal oocytes decreased significantly in the NAC compared with placebo group, with a concomitant increase in the number of good-quality embryos in the NAC group (P<0.05). Malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the NAC and NAC + MET groups compared with the placebo-treated group (P<0.02). In addition, there were significant decreases in leptin levels in the NAC, MET and NAC + MET groups compared with the placebo group (P<0.001). Insulin and LH levels were significantly lower in the MET and NAC groups compared with the placebo-treated group (P<0.02). We concluded that NAC improves oocyte and embryo quality and could be administered as an alternative to MET.

  15. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Torbert, H.A.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Mullins, G.L.; Runion, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration has led to concerns about global changes to the environment. One area of global change that has not been addressed is the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on groundwater quality below agroecosystems. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration alterations of plant growth and C/N ratios may modify C and N cycling in soil and affect nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) leaching to groundwater. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a legume (soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) and a nonlegume (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]) CO{sub 2}-enriched agroecosystems on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} movement below the root zone in a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic Paleudults). The study was a split-plot design replicated three times with plant species (soybean and grain sorghum) as the main plots and CO{sub 2} concentration ({approximately}360 and {approximately}720 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}) as subplots using open-top field chambers. Fertilizer application was made with {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to act as a fertilizer tracer. Soil solution samples were collected weekly at 90-cm depth for a 2-yr period and monitored for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations. Isotope analysis of soil solution indicated that the decomposition of organic matter was the primary source of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in soil solution below the root zone through most of the monitoring period. Significant differences were observed for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations between soybean and grain sorghum, with soybean having the higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased total dry weight, total N content, and C/N ratio of residue returned to soil in both years. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly decreased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations below the root zone in both soybean and grain sorghum. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.

    PubMed

    Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff.

  17. Semen characterization, seasonality of production, and in vitro sperm quality after chilled storage and cryopreservation in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Justine K; Robeck, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine seasonal seminal traits and to establish short-term and long-term sperm preservation methods in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) for use in genome banking and artificial insemination (AI). Spermic ejaculates (n = 87) obtained using a cooperative method were collected across multiple (n = 6, Male 1) and a single (Male 2) breeding season(s). Non-contaminated ejaculates (n = 69) were 0.36 ± 0.32 ml at 56.3 ± 62.7 × 10(7)  sperm/ml with 85.3 ± 10.6% total motility (TMot), 52.5 ± 12.9% progressive motility (PMot), 86.6 ± 24.3 µm/sec average path velocity (VAP) and 92.3 ± 3.7% plasma membrane intact. In vitro quality of chilled semen was best maintained over 48 hr at 5°C than 21°C, with decreased (P < 0.05) motility and morphology parameters observed by 24 and 6 hr, respectively. A comparison of two freezing methods (straw [STR] vs. directional [DF]) demonstrated similar effects on post-thaw quality at 0 and 3 hr, with the exception of plasma membrane integrity which was higher (P < 0.05) at 0 hr for DF (48.7 ± 6.5%) than STR (41.2 ± 7.0%). At 0 hr post-thaw, DF samples retained 46%, 69%, and 52% of their initial PMot, VAP, and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Normal morphology of motile cells was reduced (P < 0.05) during freeze-thawing from 84% post-collection to 37% and 34% at 0 and 3 hr post-thaw, respectively. Results indicate that chilled and cryopreserved semen from the king penguin has potential for use in AI.

  18. Increased sperm ubiquitination correlates with abnormal chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Hodjat, M; Akhondi, M A; Al-Hasani, S; Mobaraki, M; Sadeghi, M R

    2008-09-01

    Ubiquitin, a 8.5 kDa peptide that marks other proteins for proteasomal degradation, tags defective spermatozoa during epididymal passage and is proposed as a biomarker for sperm quality. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationships between sperm ubiquitination, sperm chromatin integrity and semen parameters. Semen samples from 63 couples were collected and analysed according to World Health Organization criteria. Each sample was evaluated for sperm ubiquitination by the direct immunofluorescence method, using anti-ubiquitin antibodies. Chromatin integrity of the same samples was analysed using acridine orange (AO) and toluidine blue (TB) tests. A positive correlation was found between ubiquitinated spermatozoa and the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin (AO: r = 0.58, P < 0.001 and TB: r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Negative correlations were obtained between sperm ubiquitination and: sperm count (r = -0.2, P = 0.048), sperm morphology (r = -0.36, P = 0.003), rapidly progressive motility (r = -0.25, P = 0.044) and slow progressive motility (r = -0.28, P = 0.022). Sperm ubiquitination was positively correlated with the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. These results show that among semen parameters, chromatin abnormality is more closely associated with sperm ubiquitination and further validate sperm ubiquitination as a suitable marker for sperm quality.

  19. Drosophila Sperm Motility in the Reproductive Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Lu, Xiangyi

    2011-01-01

    Motile cilia and flagella exhibit many waveforms as outputs of dynein activation sequences on the highly conserved axoneme. Motility change of sperm in the reproductive tract is difficult to study and remains an important area of investigation. Sperm typically execute a sinusoidal waveform. Increased viscosity in the medium induces somewhat unusual arc-line and helical waveforms in some sperm. However, whether the latter two waveforms occur in vivo is not known. Using green fluorescence protein imaging, we show that Drosophila sperm in the uterus move in circular foci via arc-line waves, predominantly in a tail-leading orientation. From the uterus, a small fraction of the sperm enters the seminal receptacle (SR) in parallel formations. After sperm storage and coincident with fertilization of the egg, the sperm exit the SR via head-leading helical waves. Consistent with the observed bidirectional movements, the sperm show the ability to propagate both base-to-tip and tip-to-base flagellar waves. Numerous studies have shown that sperm motility is regulated by intraflagellar calcium concentrations; in particular, the Pkd2 calcium channel has been shown to affect sperm storage. Our analyses here suggest that Pkd2 is required for the sperm to adopt the correct waveform and movement orientation during SR entry. A working model for the sperm's SR entry movement is proposed. PMID:21293028

  20. Detrimental effects of an autosomal selfish genetic element on sperm competitiveness in house mice

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Andreas; Lindholm, Anna K.

    2015-01-01

    Female multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread across many animal taxa and indirect genetic benefits are a major evolutionary force favouring polyandry. An incentive for polyandry arises when multiple mating leads to sperm competition that disadvantages sperm from genetically inferior mates. A reduction in genetic quality is associated with costly selfish genetic elements (SGEs), and studies in invertebrates have shown that males bearing sex ratio distorting SGEs are worse sperm competitors than wild-type males. We used a vertebrate model species to test whether females can avoid an autosomal SGE, the t haplotype, through polyandry. The t haplotype in house mice exhibits strong drive in t heterozygous males by affecting spermatogenesis and is associated with homozygous in utero lethality. We used controlled matings to test the effect of the t haplotype on sperm competitiveness. Regardless of mating order, t heterozygous males sired only 11% of zygotes when competing against wild-type males, suggesting a very strong effect of the t haplotype on sperm quality. We provide, to our knowledge, the first substantial evidence that polyandry ameliorates the harmful effects of an autosomal SGE arising through genetic incompatibility. We discuss potential mechanisms in our study species and the broader implications for the benefits of polyandry. PMID:26136452

  1. Certain Organizational Characteristics Affect ACO Preventive Care Quality Performance.

    PubMed

    Ticse, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Key findings. (1) ACOs at provider workforce extremes--few primary care providers or many specialists--performed worse on measures of preventive care quality relative to those with more PCPs and fewer specialists. (2) Upfront investment in ACO formation is associated with higher performance in preventive care quality. (3) ACOs with a higher proportion of minority beneficiaries performed worse on disease prevention measures than did ACOs with a lower proportion of minority beneficiaries. (4) ACOs facing barriers to quality performance may benefit from organizational characteristics such as electronic health record capabilities and hospital inclusion in the ACO.

  2. Superoxide dismutase affects the viability of thawed European mouflon (Ovis g. musimon) semen and the heterologous fertilization using both IVF and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Sergio; Rosati, Irma; Bogliolo, Luisa; Leoni, Giovanni; Naitana, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on viability and acrosome integrity of European mouflon spermatozoa after cryopreservation and on the fertilization rates of sheep oocytes after i.v.f. or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (i.c.s.i.). Frozen semen was thawed and washed with synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with 0.6% bovine serum albumin. After centrifugation, the spermatozoa pellet was split into two culture systems: (i) without SOD; and (ii) in the presence of 1500 IU mL(-1) SOD. Sperm viability and acrosome integrity were evaluated simultaneously, immediately after thawing and after 3, 6 and 9 h of culture (5% CO2, 39 degrees C, 90% humidity), by incubating sperm with propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Pisum sativum agglutinin. At the same time, sperm were assessed for motility using a standard scoring system (independent operators' observation of sperm) that graded degree of motility (i.e. 1 = immotile to 10 = maximum motility, as observed at the moment of thawing). For i.v.f., frozen-thawed semen derived from the two culture systems was placed in culture together with in vitro-matured sheep oocytes. For i.c.s.i., semen derived from the same culture systems as that for i.v.f. was used, and incubated for 1 h under standard conditions. The results showed a marked difference (P < 0.01) between the percentages of live spermatozoa in medium with SOD and those obtained in medium alone, after 3, 6 and 9 h of culture. The percentages of intact acrosome spermatozoa were higher in medium with SOD after 6 h (P = 0.05) of culture. Spermatozoa motility decreased significantly in SOD containing medium at 3 and 6 h of culture compared with motility in control medium. Fertilization rates were significantly lower in medium with SOD than in medium alone, whereas in the i.c.s.i. system fertilization rates were significantly higher in the presence of SOD. The results indicate that the addition of SOD to the culture media

  3. Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds.

  4. Development of a novel CASA system based on open source software for characterization of zebrafish sperm motility parameters.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Leedy, Jonas G; Ingermann, Rolf L

    2007-02-01

    Although computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) outperforms manual techniques, many investigators rely on non-automated analysis due to the high cost of commercial options. In this study, we have written and validated a free CASA software primarily for analysis of fish sperm. This software is a plugin for the free National Institutes of Health software ImageJ and is available with documentation at . That it is open source makes possible external validation, should improve quality control and enhance the comparative value of data obtained among laboratories. In addition, we have improved upon the traditional velocity straight line (VSL) algorithm, eliminating inaccurate characterization of highly curved fish sperm paths. Using this system, the motion of zebrafish (Danio rerio) sperm was characterized relative to time post-activation and the impact of acquisition conditions upon data analysis determined. There were decreases in velocity and path straightness (STR), but not linearity (LIN), relative to time. From 30 to 300 frames/s, frame rate significantly affected curvilinear velocity (VCL) and STR measurements. Sperm density in the field of view did not affect any measured parameter. There was significant inter-male variation for VCL, VSL, velocity average path (VAP), percent motility, path character (STR, LIN), and duration of motility. Furthermore, relative sperm output (a measure reflecting both semen volume and concentration) was positively correlated to percent motility. For all motion parameters measured (except duration), the average CV was < or =10%, comparable to values obtained using commercial systems.

  5. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation in stallion (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) using the sperm chromatin dispersion test.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Crespo, F; Serres-Dalmau, C; Gutiérrez de las Rozas, A L; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; López-Fernández, C; Gósalvez, J

    2009-10-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) is an important parameter to assessing sperm quality. Information about sperm quality is not available for donkeys, especially in some breeds at risk of extinction. The objectives of this research were to test the four commercial variants of sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD; sperm Halomax test), originally developed to assess sDF in boars, bulls, rams and stallions, in order to scrutinize their applicability in the study of sDF in a donkey breed at risk of extinction (Zamorano-Leonesa), for which there is no specific test available to analyze sperm at present. Only the SCD test, originally developed for stallions, produced stable and consistent results, and was deemed suitable to assess DNA fragmentation in sperm samples from donkeys. Image analysis was used to compare differences between the SCD methodology applied to stallion and donkey semen samples processed under the same experimental conditions. The extent of SCD in the SCD test was approximately 20% lower in donkey sperm than in stallion sperm. Yet, the ratio of chromatin sperm dispersion achieved in fragmented and unfragmented nuclei did not differ significantly between species. These data suggest that a similar protein depletion treatment can cause differences in protein removal in equivalent cells from different species and that sperm chromatin may be organized differently in stallions and donkeys.

  6. Female sperm use and storage between fertilization events drive sperm competition and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2014-12-01

    Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affect male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and paternity. In our model, sperm use (a single parameter under female control) is the main determinant of sperm competition, which alters the effect of female promiscuity on male success and, ultimately, male reproductive allocation. Our theory reproduces the general pattern predicted by existing theory that increased sperm competition favors increased allocation to ejaculates. However, our model predicts a negative correlation between male ejaculate allocation and female promiscuity, challenging the generality of a prevailing expectation of sperm competition theory. Early models assumed that the energetic costs of precopulatory competition and the level of sperm competition are both determined by female promiscuity, which leads to an assumed covariation between these two processes. By modeling precopulatory costs and sperm competition independently, our theoretical framework allows us to examine how male allocation should respond independently to variation in sperm competition and energetic trade-offs in mating systems that have been overlooked in the past.

  7. Flow cytometry of sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1987-09-21

    This brief paper summarizes automated flow cytometric determination of sperm morphology and flow cytometry/sorting of sperm with application to sex preselection. In the latter context, mention is made of results of karyotypic determination of sex chromosome ratios in albumin-processed human sperm. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Sperm processing for advanced reproductive technologies: Where are we today?

    PubMed

    Rappa, Kari L; Rodriguez, Harold F; Hakkarainen, Gloria C; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Asghar, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) utilize sperm sorting methods to select viable sperm from the semen samples. Conventional sperm sorting techniques in current use are density gradient centrifugation, direct swim-up, and conventional swim-up. These methods use multiple centrifugation steps, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that decrease DNA integrity and damage sperm. Newer technologies, such as microfluidics, electrophoresis, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), and birefringence eliminate the centrifugation steps and can improve the selection of sperm with higher DNA integrity, normal morphology, and motility as well as improved artificial insemination outcomes. In this review, we discuss some recent research in centrifugation and non-centrifugation based techniques and their effect on sperm quality and ART outcomes.

  9. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation

  10. Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Affects Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Goreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra; Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases endanger not only physical health but also psychological and social health of patient. Thus, evaluation of such patients for psychological treatment decisions is very important. Method This is a descriptive study that was performed with 50 chronic patients (ischemic heart disease) selected from Valiasr and Mousavi at cardiac wards in Zanjan Province. They were given three types of questionnaire: demographic, WHOQOL, and Zung depression and anxiety index. The information was statically analyzed by frequency chart, central indexes, dispersion, Chi-Square and t tests, Pearson’s correlation index (P < 0.05). Results The average of quality of life in all patients were calculated as was respectively 12.19, 11.98, 12.08, and 12.4 in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains respectively, 68 percent of total number of the patients had various degrees of anxiety and 78 percent of them had various degrees of depression. There was a significant relationship between the life quality average in all domains and anxiety intensity and depression intensity (P < 0.05) and there was a significant relationship between life quality average in all domains and income (P < 0.05). Conclusion As the level of depression and anxiety goes up, quality of life decreases pointing out that they have a reverse relationship. Depression and anxiety are one of the most significant factors of quality of life among other variables. Regarding specific conditions of the treatment, it is necessary to pay special attention to psychological aspects.

  11. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  12. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    PubMed

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  13. Paternal exposure to testis cancer chemotherapeutics alters sperm fertilizing capacity and affects gene expression in the eight-cell stage rat embryo.

    PubMed

    Maselli, J; Hales, B F; Robaire, B

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of testicular cancer includes the coadministration of bleomycin, etoposide and cis-platinum (BEP); however, along with its therapeutic benefit, BEP exposure results in extensive reproductive chemotoxic effects, including alterations to sperm chromatin integrity. As an intact paternal genome is essential for successful fertilization and embryogenesis, we assessed the effect of paternal exposure to BEP on sperm fertilization capacity and the resulting consequences on early embryonic gene expression. Adult male Brown Norway rats received a 9-week treatment with BEP or saline and then were sacrificed immediately or subject to a 9-week recovery period. HSP90AA1, HSP90B1 and PDIA3, involved in spermatozoa-egg interactions, were overexpressed in BEP-exposed spermatozoa after the 9-week treatment period; overexpression was also observed in spermatozoa from BEP-treated rats after 9 weeks of recovery. These proteins were localized to the plasma membrane of the sperm head; this localization may facilitate their role in spermatozoa-egg interactions as the highest staining intensities were observed in capacitated spermatozoa. The fertilization potential of spermatozoa was determined by in vitro fertilization with oocytes from unexposed naturally cycling female rats. Interestingly, the fertilization potential of spermatozoa following a 9-week recovery period from BEP treatment was significantly enhanced compared with controls. Moreover, stem cell transcription factors, involved in the regulation of a plethora of early embryonic events, were upregulated by more than twofold in eight-cell stage embryos sired by BEP recovery males compared with controls; this suggests that there are potential deleterious effects on embryo development well after termination of BEP exposure.

  14. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  15. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  16. Magnitude of genotype x environment interactions affecting tomato fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing interest by consumers to purchase fresh tomato with improved quality traits including lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content. Therefore, there are considerable efforts by tomato breeders to improve tomato for these traits. However, suitabl...

  17. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.

    PubMed

    Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

    2012-09-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established.

  18. Sperm morphology, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and swimming velocity: unexpected relationships in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Brookes, Lola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between sperm energetics and sperm function is poorly known, but is central to our understanding of the evolution of sperm traits. The aim of this study was to examine how sperm morphology and ATP content affect sperm swimming velocity in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We exploited the high inter-male variation in this species and created extra experimental power by increasing the number of individuals with very long or short sperm through artificial selection. We found a pronounced quadratic relationship between total sperm length and swimming velocity, with velocity increasing with length up to a point, but declining in the very longest sperm. We also found an unexpected negative association between midpiece length and ATP content: sperm with a short midpiece generally contained the highest concentration of ATP. Low intracellular ATP is therefore unlikely to explain reduced swimming velocity among the very longest sperm (which tend to have a shorter midpiece). PMID:27559067

  19. Inhibitors of zinc-dependent metalloproteases hinder sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we report for the first time on a possible contribution of metalloproteases in sperm passage through the cumulus matrix in pigs. The presence of 20 μM 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PHEN), inhibitor of zinc-dependent metalloproteases, strongly inhibited the degree of sperm penetration in cumulus-intact (CI), but not in cumulus-free (CF), porcine oocytes during IVF. The inhibitory effect of 1,10-PHEN was due to the chelation of metal ions as a non-chelating analog (1,7-PHEN) did not affect IVF rates. Furthermore, incubation with 1,10-PHEN did not affect sperm binding to the zona pellucida nor sperm motility, membrane integrity, or acrosomal status. These findings led to the assumption that 1,10-PHEN interacts with a sperm- or cumulus-derived metalloprotease. Metalloproteases are key players in physiological processes involving degradation or remodeling of extracellular matrix. In vivo, their proteolytic activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP1-TIMP4). We tested the effect of TIMP3 on fertilization parameters after porcine IVF. Similar to 1,10-PHEN, TIMP3 inhibited total fertilization rate of CI but not CF oocytes and did not influence sperm quality parameters. Although the inhibitory effect was stronger in CI oocytes, TIMP3 also reduced the degree of sperm penetration in CF oocytes, suggesting the involvement of a metalloprotease in a subsequent step during fertilization. In conclusion, our results indicate the involvement of TIMP3-sensitive, zinc-dependent metalloprotease activity in sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus in pigs. The results should provide the basis for further biochemical research toward the localization and identification of the metalloprotease involved.

  20. EPISODIC AIR POLLUTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED DNA FRAGMENTATION IN HUMAN SPERM WITHOUT OTHER CHANGES IN SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was motivated by a previous report of associations between episodes of high air pollution and alterations in semen quality in young men living in an industrial district of the Czech Republic. Using a repeated measures study design, a cohort of men from this district we...

  1. Methods of sperm DNA extraction for genetic and epigenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    High quality DNA extractions developed for mammalian somatic cells are ineffective for sperm, due mainly to the high degree of nuclear compaction in sperm. The highly specialized nuclear proteins in sperm create a chromatin structure that is at least six times denser than histone bound DNA. Unlike somatic cells, sperm DNA is highly compacted by the replacement of histones with sperm-specific low molecular weight proteins called protamines. Both the protamines and the disulfide bridges formed within and between protamines inhibit the extraction of sperm DNA by standard techniques used for somatic cells. Here we describe the guanidine thiocyanate method reported by Hossain with additional modifications resulting in high molecular weight DNA of high quality with an A260/280 ratio ranging between 1.8 and 2.0 and an A260/230 ratio of 2.0 and greater. The DNA is efficiently digested with restriction enzymes and amplified by PCR.

  2. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (p<0.05). Therefore, HA could be a promising cryoprotectant for boar sperm.

  3. Quality of Visual Cue Affects Visual Reweighting in Quiet Standing

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Renato; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Razuk, Milena; Barela, José Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reweighting is a characteristic of postural control functioning adopted to accommodate environmental changes. The use of mono or binocular cues induces visual reduction/increment of moving room influences on postural sway, suggesting a visual reweighting due to the quality of available sensory cues. Because in our previous study visual conditions were set before each trial, participants could adjust the weight of the different sensory systems in an anticipatory manner based upon the reduction in quality of the visual information. Nevertheless, in daily situations this adjustment is a dynamical process and occurs during ongoing movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual transitions in the coupling between visual information and body sway in two different distances from the front wall of a moving room. Eleven young adults stood upright inside of a moving room in two distances (75 and 150 cm) wearing a liquid crystal lenses goggles, which allow individual lenses transition from opaque to transparent and vice-versa. Participants stood still during five minutes for each trial and the lenses status changed every one minute (no vision to binocular vision, no vision to monocular vision, binocular vision to monocular vision, and vice-versa). Results showed that farther distance and monocular vision reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway. The effect of visual transition was condition dependent, with a stronger effect when transitions involved binocular vision than monocular vision. Based upon these results, we conclude that the increased distance from the front wall of the room reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway and that sensory reweighting is stimulus quality dependent, with binocular vision producing a much stronger down/up-weighting than monocular vision. PMID:26939058

  4. Influence of staining and sampling procedures on goat sperm morphometry using the Sperm Class Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Dorado, Jesús

    2006-09-01

    Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (ASMA) has improved the assessment of sperm morphology, but the results depend on the use of adequate sampling and staining procedures of spermatozoa from individual species. In this study, the Sperm Class Analyzer ASMA system was used for the morphometric analysis of goat sperm heads. Semen samples, obtained from four bucks, were used to evaluate the influence of three staining procedures (Diff-Quik, Hemacolor and Harris' Haematoxylin) on the accuracy of image processing and sperm morphometry, the effect of the number of cells analysed and the repeatability of the method. These experiments were performed to obtain objective, accurate and reliable sperm morphometric measurements of goat spermatozoa. Diff-Quik and Harris' Haematoxylin were significantly (p<0.05) more accurate than Hemacolor. However, Diff-Quik obtained the highest proportion of correctly analysed sperm heads (86.06%) and the lowest coefficients of variation on the image processing and morphometric measurements. The staining methods affected significantly the sperm dimensions (p<0.001) with increased values from Diff-Quik than Hemacolor and Harris' Haematoxylin, respectively (Diff-Quik>Hemacolor>Harris' Haematoxylin). No differences in morphometric parameters were found when 100, 150, 175 or 200 spermatozoa were analysed. The repeatability of results obtained was very high since no differences were found when measuring the same sperm on multiple attempts. In conclusion, to obtain objective, accurate and repeatable sperm morphometric measurements by the Sperm Class Analyzer system in goats, the analysis of 100 spermatozoa from slides which have been previously stained with Diff-Quik is recommended.

  5. Combining reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid has supplementary beneficial effects on boar sperm cryotolerance.

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Elisa; Estrada, Efrén; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate how supplementing freezing and thawing media with reduced glutathione (GSH) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) affected the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, semen samples of 12 ejaculates coming from 12 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into seven aliquots to which 5 mM of GSH and 100 μM of AA were added separately or together at two different steps of freeze-thawing. Various sperm parameters (levels of free cysteine residues in sperm nucleoproteins, sperm viability, acrosome membrane integrity, intracellular peroxide and superoxide levels [ROS], and total and progressive motility) were evaluated before freezing and at 30 and 240 minutes after thawing. Both GSH and AA significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance when they were separately added to freezing and thawing media. However, the highest improvement was recorded when both freezing and thawing media were supplemented with 5 mM of GSH plus 100 μM of AA. This improvement was observed in sperm viability and acrosome integrity, sperm motility, and nucleoprotein structure. Although ROS levels were not much increased by freeze-thawing procedures, the addition of GSH and AA to both freezing and thawing extenders significantly decreased intracellular peroxide levels and had no impact on superoxide levels. According to our results, we can conclude that supplementation of freezing and thawing media with both GSH and AA has a combined, beneficial effect on frozen-thawed boar sperm, which is greater than that obtained with the separate addition of either GSH or AA.

  6. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  7. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  8. Effects of Nigella sativa (Habbatus sauda) Oil and Nicotine Chronic Treatments on Sperm Parameters and Testis Histological Features of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats (7–9 weeks old, 200–250 g) were divided into Nicotine (N) (0.5 mg/100 g body weight (BW), Nicotine Control (NC) (saline, 0.1 mL/100 g BW), Habbatus sauda oil (HS) (6.0 μL/100 g BW), and Habbatus sauda Control (HSC) (corn oil, 0.1 mL/100 g BW) groups and treated for 100 days. Sperm parameters and seminiferous tubules measurements were evaluated. The N showed a significantly lower sperm motility (1.03 ± 0.05 × 106 sperm/mL) and percentage of normal (82.61 ± 0.03%) and live (93.88 ± 0.01%) sperm, higher value for the seminiferous tubule (253.36 ± 1.83 μm) and lumen (100.15 ± 2.38 μm) diameters and spermatogonia (19.85 ± 0.39 μm) and spermatocytes (33.37 ± 0.59 μm) layers, and thinner spermatid-sperm layer (22.14 ± 0.71 μm) than the NC (P < 0.05). The HS had significantly higher sperm motility (1.49 ± 0.04 × 106 sperm/mL) and percentage of normal (90.61 ± 0.01%) and live (96.98 ± 0.01%) sperm, smaller lumen diameter (67.53 ± 2.34 μm) and thinner spermatogonia (17.67 ± 0.32 μm) and wider spermatid-sperm (36.95 ± 0.79 μm) layers than the HSC (P < 0.05). This research confirmed that nicotine reduced sperm motility and morphology of normal and live sperms and also affected the testis histology, while Habbatus sauda oil increased sperm quality and gave better testis histological features. PMID:24982686

  9. Not All Sperm Are Equal: Functional Mitochondria Characterize a Subpopulation of Human Sperm with Better Fertilization Potential

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Amaral, Alexandra; Baptista, Marta; Tavares, Renata; Caballero Campo, Pedro; Caballero Peregrín, Pedro; Freitas, Albertina; Paiva, Artur; Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2011-01-01

    Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm from a given ejaculate. We first determined that mitochondrial activity correlated with the quality of distinct human samples, from healthy donors to patients with decreased semen quality. Furthermore, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate sperm with active and inactive mitochondria we found that this was also true within samples. Indeed, sperm with active mitochondria defined a more functional subpopulation, which contained more capacitated and acrosome intact cells, sperm with lower chromatin damage, and, crucially, sperm more able to decondense and participate in early development using both chemical induction and injection into mature bovine oocytes. Furthermore, cell sorting using mitochondrial activity produced a more functional sperm subpopulation than classic swim-up, both in terms of improvement in a variety of functional sperm parameters and in statistical significance. In conclusion, whatever the true biological role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization, mitochondrial activity is a clear hallmark of human sperm functionality. PMID:21448461

  10. Mammalian sperm morphometry.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, M J

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the adaptive significance of sperm form and function has been a challenge to biologists because sperm are highly specialized cells operating at a microscopic level in a complex environment. A fruitful course of investigation has been to use the comparative approach. This comparative study attempts to address some fundamental questions of the evolution of mammalian sperm morphometry. Data on sperm morphometry for 445 mammalian species were collated from published sources. I use contemporary phylogenetic analysis to control for the inherent non-independence of species and explore relationships between the morphometric dimensions of the three essential spermatozoal components: head, mid-piece and flagellum. Energy for flagellar action is metabolized by the mitochondrial-dense mid-piece and these combine to propel the sperm head, carrying the male haplotype, to the ovum. I therefore search for evolutionary associations between sperm morphometry and body mass, karyotype and the duration of oestrus. In contrast to previous findings, there is no inverse correlation between body weight and sperm length. Sperm mid-piece and flagellum lengths are positively associated with both head length and area, and the slopes of these relationships are discussed. Flagellum length is positively associated with mid-piece length but, in contrast to previous research and after phylogenetic control, I find no relationship between flagellum length and the volume of the mitochondrial sheath. Sperm head dimensions are not related to either genome mass or chromosome number, and there are no relationships between sperm morphometry and the duration of oestrus. PMID:9474794

  11. Cryorecovery of Mouse Sperm by Different IVF Methods Using MBCD and GSH

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Wen; Glass, Olivia C; Zarrabi, Jasmin; Baker, Lisa N.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent

    2016-01-01

    Different protocols incorporating methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) have been reported to improve IVF recovery of cryopreserved mouse sperm on a C57BL/6 (J and N) genetic background. However, it is not clear which IVF protocol is most appropriate when using the various methods to cryorecover sperm with different sperm quality and sample volumes. Therefore, in the present study we correlated sperm motility with fertilization rate and compared the efficiency of different IVF methods using various sperm samples so as to establish general guidelines for mouse sperm cryorecovery by IVF. High linear correlation between sperm fertilization rate and progressive motility was found, R2 was 0.9623 and 0.9993 for pre-freezing and post-thaw progressive motility, respectively. High amounts of cryoprotective agent (CPA) were observed to impair both sperm capacitation and fertilization. Moreover, the presence of a large number of immotile sperm in the sperm-oocyte co-incubation drop was found to reduce IVF success which could be partially reversed by supplementation using monothioglycerol (MTG) during centrifugation. It was concluded that the efficiency of IVF using cryorecovered mouse sperm in media containing MBCD and GSH can be predicted from sperm progressive motility. High concentrations of CPA and immotile sperm should be mitigated prior to IVF. The optimum IVF method should be selected based on sperm sample volume and sperm parameters. PMID:27413624

  12. Cryorecovery of Mouse Sperm by Different IVF Methods Using MBCD and GSH.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Wen; Glass, Olivia C; Zarrabi, Jasmin; Baker, Lisa N; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2016-05-01

    Different protocols incorporating methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) have been reported to improve IVF recovery of cryopreserved mouse sperm on a C57BL/6 (J and N) genetic background. However, it is not clear which IVF protocol is most appropriate when using the various methods to cryorecover sperm with different sperm quality and sample volumes. Therefore, in the present study we correlated sperm motility with fertilization rate and compared the efficiency of different IVF methods using various sperm samples so as to establish general guidelines for mouse sperm cryorecovery by IVF. High linear correlation between sperm fertilization rate and progressive motility was found, R(2) was 0.9623 and 0.9993 for pre-freezing and post-thaw progressive motility, respectively. High amounts of cryoprotective agent (CPA) were observed to impair both sperm capacitation and fertilization. Moreover, the presence of a large number of immotile sperm in the sperm-oocyte co-incubation drop was found to reduce IVF success which could be partially reversed by supplementation using monothioglycerol (MTG) during centrifugation. It was concluded that the efficiency of IVF using cryorecovered mouse sperm in media containing MBCD and GSH can be predicted from sperm progressive motility. High concentrations of CPA and immotile sperm should be mitigated prior to IVF. The optimum IVF method should be selected based on sperm sample volume and sperm parameters.

  13. Fresh pasta quality as affected by enrichment of nonstarch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Brennan, C S; Tudorica, C M

    2007-11-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs), both soluble and insoluble, were added to pasta doughs at levels of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels. The cooking and textural characteristics of the pastas were evaluated using a range of analytical techniques. Generally, NSP addition was found to increase the cooking losses, and reduce the protein and starch contents of the pasta. This effect was dependent on the level of NSP added and also the type (soluble or insoluble). Pasta firmness was generally reduced in relation to the level of NSP addition, although some gel-forming NSPs resulted in higher firmness values. Pasta stickiness, adhesiveness, and elasticity were also affected. The results indicate that careful selection of NSP addition is needed to ensure optimum textural and cooking characteristics in NSP enriched pasta products.

  14. Elemental composition of human semen is associated with motility and genomic sperm defects among older men

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Thomas E.; Grant, Patrick G.; Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Older men tend to have poorer semen quality and are generally at higher risks for infertility and abnormal reproductive outcomes. METHODS We employed proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE, 3 MeV proton beam) to investigate the concentrations of zinc, copper, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, titanium, iron and nickel in washed sperm and seminal plasma from non-smoking groups of 10 older men (65–80 years old) and 10 younger men (22–28 years old) who were concurrently assayed for sperm function and genomicly defective sperm. RESULTS The older group showed elevated zinc, copper and calcium in sperm and elevated sulfur in seminal plasma compared with the younger men. The older group also showed reduced motility as well as increased sperm DNA fragmentation, achondroplasia mutations, DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations. Sperm calcium and copper were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (P < 0.03). Seminal sulfur was positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.04), and negatively associated with sperm motility (P < 0.05). Sperm calcium was negatively associated with sperm motility, independent of male age (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS We identified major differences in elemental concentrations between sperm and seminal plasma and that higher sperm copper, sulfur and calcium are quantitatively associated with poorer semen quality and increased frequencies of genomic sperm defects. PMID:23042799

  15. Sperm Flagellum Volume Determines Freezability in Red Deer Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Álvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = −0.60; p<0.001). Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success. PMID:25380133

  16. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001). Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  17. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  18. Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kane, T; Tipper, C; Spatrick, P; Jenness, D D

    1999-05-01

    Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen.

  19. MiRNA-320 in the human follicular fluid is associated with embryo quality in vivo and affects mouse embryonic development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ruizhi; Sang, Qing; Zhu, Yan; Fu, Wei; Liu, Miao; Xu, Yan; Shi, Huijuan; Xu, Yao; Qu, Ronggui; Chai, Renjie; Shao, Ruijin; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Sun, Xiaoxi; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-03

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated the existence of miRNAs in human follicular fluid. In the current study, we have sought to identify miRNAs that might affect oocyte/embryo quality in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection and to investigate their roles in in vitro fertilization outcomes in mouse oocytes. 53 samples were classified as Group 1 (high quality) if the day-3 embryos had seven and more cells or as Group 2 (low quality) if the embryos had six and fewer cells. TaqMan Human microRNAs cards and qRT-PCR were performed to verify differently expressed miRNAs. The function of the corresponding miRNA was investigated in mouse oocytes by injecting them with miRNA-inhibitor oligonucleotides. We found that hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-197 had significantly higher expression levels in the Group 1 follicular fluids than in Group 2 (p = 0.0073 and p = 0.008, respectively). Knockdown of mmu-miR-320 in mouse oocytes strongly decreased the proportions of MII oocytes that developed into two-cell and blastocyst stage embryos (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.0069, respectively). Wnt signaling pathway components had abnormal expression level in miR-320 inhibitor-injected oocytes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNAs in human follicular fluid are indicative of and can influence embryo quality.

  20. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas.

  1. Human semen as an early, sensitive biomarker of highly polluted living environment in healthy men: A pilot biomonitoring study on trace elements in blood and semen and their relationship with sperm quality and RedOx status.

    PubMed

    Bergamo, Paolo; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Lorenzetti, Stefano; Mantovani, Alberto; Notari, Tiziana; Cocca, Ennio; Cerullo, Stefano; Di Stasio, Michele; Cerino, Pellegrino; Montano, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    The Campania region in Italy is facing an environmental crisis due to the illegal disposal of toxic waste. Herein, a pilot study (EcoFoodFertility initiative) was conducted to investigate the use of human semen as an early biomarker of pollution on 110 healthy males living in various areas of Campania with either high or low environmental impact. The semen from the "high impact" group showed higher zinc, copper, chromium and reduced iron levels, as well as reduced sperm motility and higher sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). Redox biomarkers (total antioxidant capacity, TAC, and glutathione, GSH) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in semen were lower in the "high impact" group. The percentage of immotile spermatozoa showed a significant inverse correlation with TAC and GSH. Overall, several semen parameters (reduced sperm quality and antioxidant defenses, altered chemical element pattern), which were associated with residence in a high polluted environment, could be used in a further larger scale study, as early biomarkers of environmental pollution.

  2. Influence of semen collection method on sperm cryoresistance in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Soler, A J; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Fernández-Santos, M R; Montoro, V; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2016-04-01

    Semen collection for cryopreservation is a key step for small ruminant conservation programs. While in these species semen is mainly collected via artificial vagina (AV), electroejaculation (EE) provides a viable alternative for untrained males. Herein we investigated the effect of semen collection method on post-thaw sperm quality by comparing two small ruminant species, sheep and goats. Semen from Blanca-Celtibérica bucks and Manchega rams was collected by AV and EE on the same day and cryopreserved using a standard protocol. At thawing, sperm motion parameters were evaluated by CASA, whereas membrane stability (YO-PRO-1), sperm viability (propidium iodide, PI) and mitochondrial activity (Mitotracker Deep Red) were analyzed using flow cytometry. The semen collection method negatively affected post-thaw sperm quality in bucks but not in rams. Thus, in bucks, post-thaw sperm motility was higher for samples collected by AV as compared to those obtained via EE. Similarly, post-thaw sperm parameters evaluated by flow cytometry were worse for buck samples collected by EE than those collected by AV in the same species, or than ram samples regardless of collection method. These results suggest that ovine and caprine spermatozoa have a different response to the cryopreservation process depending upon the semen collection method used. We hypothesize that the EE procedure may lead to changes in the composition of the ejaculate in bucks that would make spermatozoa more susceptible to the cryopreservation process, whereas this procedure would have had no effect on ram spermatozoa. This assumption requires further investigation.

  3. Genetic sperm defects.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Genetic sperm defects are specific sperm defects, which have been shown to have a genetic mode of transmission. Such genetic linkage, either direct or indirect, has been associated with a number of sperm defects in different species, with this number increasing with improved diagnostic capabilities. A number of sperm defects, which have proven or suspected genetic modes of transmission are discussed herein, with particular emphasis on cattle. These include: 1. Acrosome defects (knobbed, ruffled and incomplete); 2. Head defects (abnormal condensation, decapitated, round head, rolled head, nuclear crest); 3. Midpiece abnormalities ("Dag" defect, "corkscrew" defect, "pseudo-droplet" defect); 4. Tail defects ("tail stump" defect, primary ciliary dyskinesia).

  4. Cigarette smoking and its possible effects on sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikauskas, V.; Blaustein, D.; Ablin, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The possible effects of cigarette smoking on sperm were evaluated by comparison of the quality of sperm from 103 smokers and 135 nonsmokers in a blind study. Smokers were found to possess significantly decreased density (number) and motility of their sperm than nonsmokers. Morphologic abnormalities, particularly bicephalia, although prevalent among individual smokers, did not differ significantly when a comparison of smokers versus nonsmokers was made as a whole. Based on these observations and those of others demonstrating the presence of the mutagenic properties of smoke condensates, the authors suggest that decreases in sperm density and motility in cigarette smokers may be reflective of smoke condensate-induced mutagenic spermatogenital alterations.

  5. Sperm DNA fragmentation and its role in wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Gosálvez, Jaime; Holt, William V; Johnston, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Until about 20 years ago, sperm assessment in the laboratory was focused on motility, morphology and acrosomal integrity. Then came the gradual realisation that, because the main objective of a spermatozoon is to deliver an intact genetic payload of DNA to the egg, being able to check DNA quality of spermatozoa would be equally important, if not more so. Research over the last two decades has therefore led to the development of several techniques for reliably detecting DNA strand breaks, and the more recent focus has been directed towards understanding the fertility implications of DNA damage. It is now clear that evolutionary history has played an important role in determining the stability of sperm DNA under stressful conditions, and that the nature of the DNA-protein interactions also influence the extent to which fertility is affected by both technical procedures involved in sperm preservation and the basic biology of the species concerned. Here we present an overview of the principles involved in DNA assessment and also provide some cases studies that illustrate the influences of species diversity.

  6. Influence of sperm pretreatment on the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in pigs.

    PubMed

    García-Roselló, Empar; Matás, Carmen; Cánovas, Sebastián; Moreira, Pedro N; Gadea, Joaquín; Coy, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of sperm pretreatment on the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in pigs. This was done by examining the effect of 1) the conservation method (fresh vs frozen); 2) the sperm treatment preinjection (resuspension in Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) vs selection by a Percoll gradient); and 3) the acrosomal and live or dead status of the spermatozoa (by incubation with or without calcium ionophore, 1 muM and 5 muM). In vitro matured porcine oocytes were injected with treated spermatozoa according to each experiment. All the experiments were done with non-artificially activated oocytes. The percentages of activation and cleavage were higher (68% vs 43% and 63% vs 43%, respectively, P < .05) in oocytes injected with fresh vs frozen spermatozoa. The DPBS treatment allowed higher cleavage proportions than the Percoll treatment (P < .05). Moreover, a boar effect was observed in the percentage of developing blastocysts. None of the studied parameters was affected by the acrosomal or the live or dead status of the spermatozoa injected. In conclusion, the use of fresh semen is recommended for porcine ICSI, as well as careful selection of the boar; Percoll treatment is only recommended for poor-quality samples or for removing toxic agents, and no exogenous form of activation or induction of the acrosome reaction is necessary for porcine oocytes to develop a male pronucleus and cleave up to the 2-cell stage after ICSI, although experimental conditions to reach the blastocyst stage need to be investigated further.

  7. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  8. Sensory Hypersensitivity Predicts Reduced Sleeping Quality in Patients With Major Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Walker, Muffy; Rihmer, Zoltan; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the sensory profile (expressed as hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity) of patients with major affective disorders and its relative contribution to the prediction of sleep quality while considering affective temperaments and depression, which may impact sleep quality. We recruited 176 participants (mean age, 47.3 y), of whom 56.8% had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 43.2% a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Reduced sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Affective temperaments were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. Sensory hypersensitivity, assessed using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, significantly distinguished between poor and good sleepers. Sleep quality was mainly predicted by the Beck Depression Inventory-II total score and anxious temperament. Sensory hypersensitivity contributed to this prediction mainly with regard to sleep efficiency and related daytime dysfunction.

  9. Acrosin activity is a good predictor of boar sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether acrosin activity could predict boar sperm freezability. For this purpose, we characterized the changes in sperm quality and acrosin activity throughout the cryopreservation procedure of sperm samples from 30 Pietrain boars by analyzing four critical steps: step 1 (extended sperm at 15 °C), step 2 (cooled sperm at 5 °C), step 3 (30 minutes postthaw), and step 4 (240 minutes postthaw). Freezability ejaculate groups were set on the basis of sperm motility and membrane integrity after freeze-thawing. Results obtained highlighted the low predictive value in terms of freezability of sperm motility and kinematics and sperm membrane integrity, as no differences between good and poor freezability ejaculates were seen before cryopreservation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between ejaculate groups were observed in the cooling step at 5 °C for sperm kinetic parameters, and after thawing for sperm motility and membrane integrity. In contrast, acrosin activity appeared as an indicator of boar sperm freezability because the differences (P < 0.05) between good and poor freezability ejaculates manifested yet in extended samples at 15 °C. On the other hand, we also found that variations in sperm kinematics, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium content, acrosome integrity, and acrosin activity throughout the cryopreservation procedure were indicative of a significant damage in spermatozoa during the cooling step in both ejaculate groups. In conclusion, the main finding of our study is that acrosin activity can be used as a reliable predictor of boar sperm freezability because it differs significantly between good and poor freezability ejaculates yet before freeze-thawing procedures took place, i.e., in the refrigeration step at 15 °C.

  10. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Mateo, Rafael; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-03-20

    Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation) and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus) that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation) and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid). Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

  11. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential initiation of sperm motility based on sperm intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Vines, Carol A; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a novel motility inducer from newt egg-jelly, is activated by the release from associated jelly substances at the beginning of internal fertilization and affects female-stored sperm. We examined motility initiation kinetics of newt sperm in response to SMIS by monitoring the changes of sperm intracellular calcium ([Ca²(+)](i)). In quiescent non-motile sperm loaded with the Ca²(+) indicator Fluo-4, intracellular free Ca²(+) was observed around mitochondria using confocal scanning laser microscopy. A slight increase in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred simultaneously and transiently at motility initiation in sperm treated with either heated jelly extract (hJE) containing activated SMIS, or a low osmotic solution, which naturally initiates motility in externally-fertilizing amphibians and can initiate motility in urodele sperm. When the increase of [Ca²(+)](i) at motility-initiation was monitored using spectrofluorometry, large increases in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred immediately in the low osmotic solution and within 1.5 min in the hJE. In the intact jelly extract (no heating), small increases of [Ca²(+)](i) irregularly occurred from around 1 min and for about 4 min, during which motility was differentially initiated among sperm. These results indicate that the SMIS induces differential initiation of sperm motility depending on the activational states of the SMIS and its overall activity. The motility initiation in the jelly extract was delayed in sperm whose intracellular Ca²(+) had been chelated with BAPTA-AM. The relative levels of [Ca²(+)](i) were variable with a mean of 414 ± 256 nmol/L among resting sperm, suggesting that the level of [Ca²(+)](i) in the resting sperm modulates the responsiveness to the SMIS.

  12. Bulky DNA adducts in human sperm associated with semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA adducts are widely used marker of DNA damage induced by environmental pollutants. The present study was designed to explore whether sperm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts were associated with sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. Methods A total of 433 Han Chinese men were recruited from an infertility clinic. Immunofluorescence was applied to analyze sperm PAH-DNA adducts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Results After adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression, sperm PAH-DNA adducts were negatively associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, and curvilinear velocity (VCL). In addition, a positive relationship between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and sperm DNA fragmentation was found. Conclusions Our findings suggested an inverse association between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and semen quality, and provided the first epidemiologic evidence of an adverse effect of PAH-DNA adducts on sperm DNA integrity. PMID:24073787

  13. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  14. Long-lived sperm in the geothermal bryophyte Pohlia nutans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Eppley, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-vascular plants rely on sperm to cross the distance between male and female reproductive organs for fertilization and sexual reproduction to occur. The majority of non-vascular plants have separate sexes, and thus, this distance may be a few millimetres to many metres. Because sperm need water for transport, it has been assumed that sperm lifespans are short and that this type of sexual reproduction limits the expansion of non-vascular plants in terrestrial environments. However, little data is available on the lifespan of sperm in non-vascular plants, and none is available for bryophytes, the group thought to have first colonized terrestrial habitats. Here, we documented the lifespan of sperm of Pohlia nutans, collected from a geothermal spring's area, and tested the effects of variation under environmental conditions on this lifespan. Surprisingly, 20 per cent of the sperm were still motile after 100 h, and sperm lifespan was not significantly affected by temperature variation between 22 and 60°C. Lifespan was significantly affected by sperm dilution and temperatures above 75°C. These results suggest the need to reconsider the importance of sperm motility in bryophyte fertilization. PMID:19640871

  15. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  16. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  17. Differences in the Ovine HSP90AA1 Gene Expression Rates Caused by Two Linked Polymorphisms at Its Promoter Affect Rams Sperm DNA Fragmentation under Environmental Heat Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    González, Carmen; Pérez-Guzmán, M. Dolores; Garde, J. Julián; García-Álvarez, Olga; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge H.; Serrano, M. Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) is one of the best-studied exogenous cellular stresses. Almost all tissues, cell types, metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions are affected in greater or lesser extent by HS. However, there are some especially thermo sensible cellular types such as the mammalian male germ cells. The present study examined the role of three INDELs in conjunction with the -660G/C polymorphism located at the HSP90AA1 promoter region over the gene expression rate under HS. Specially, the -668insC INDEL, which is very close to the -660G/C transversion, is a good candidate to be implied in the transcriptional regulation of the gene by itself or in a cooperative way with this SNP. Animals carrying the genotype II-668 showed higher transcription rates than those with ID-668 (FC = 3.07) and DD-668 (FC = 3.40) genotypes for samples collected under HS. A linkage between gene expression and sperm DNA fragmentation was also found. When HS conditions were present along or in some stages of the spermatogenesis, alternative genotypes of the -668insC and -660G/C mutations are involved in the effect of HS over sperm DNA fragmentation. Thus, unfavorable genotypes in terms of gene expression induction (ID-668GC-660 and DD-668GG-660) do not produce enough mRNA (stored as messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) and Hsp90α protein to cope with future thermal stress which might occur in posterior stages when transcriptional activity is reduced and cell types and molecular processes are more sensible to heat (spermatocytes in pachytene and spermatids protamination). This would result in the impairment of DNA packaging and the consequent commitment of the events occurring shortly after fertilization and during embryonic development. In the short-term, the assessment of the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation sensitivity and ram’s fertility will be of interest to a better understanding of the mechanisms of response to HS and its consequences on animal production and

  18. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  19. Sperm Membrane Behaviour during Cooling and Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sieme, H; Oldenhof, H; Wolkers, W F

    2015-09-01

    Native sperm is only marginally stable after collection. Cryopreservation of semen facilitates transport and storage for later use in artificial reproduction technologies, but cryopreservation processing may result in cellular damage compromising sperm function. Membranes are thought to be the primary site of cryopreservation injury. Therefore, insights into the effects of cooling, ice formation and protective agents on sperm membranes may help to rationally design cryopreservation protocols. In this review, we describe membrane phase behaviour of sperm at supra- and subzero temperatures. In addition, factors affecting membrane phase transitions and stability, sperm osmotic tolerance limits and mode of action of cryoprotective agents are discussed. It is shown how cooling only results in minor thermotropic non-cooperative phase transitions, whereas freezing causes sharp lyotropic fluid-to-gel phase transitions. Membrane cholesterol content affects suprazero membrane phase behaviour and osmotic tolerance. The rate and extent of cellular dehydration coinciding with freezing-induced membrane phase transitions are affected by the cooling rate and ice nucleation temperature and can be modulated by cryoprotective agents. Permeating agents such as glycerol can move across cellular membranes, whereas non-permeating agents such as sucrose cannot. Both, permeating and non-permeating protectants preserve biomolecular and cellular structures by forming a protective glassy state during freezing.

  20. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Marjorie; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Levy, Rachel; Drevet, Joël R; Saez, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia) affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. PMID:26067871

  1. A comparison of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic effects on sperm competitiveness and female remating in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Dowling, D K; Friberg, U; Arnqvist, G

    2007-11-01

    It is widely assumed that male sperm competitiveness evolves adaptively. However, recent studies have found a cytoplasmic genetic component to phenotypic variation in some sperm traits presumed important in sperm competition. As cytoplasmic genes are maternally transmitted, they cannot respond to selection on sperm and this constraint may affect the scope in which sperm competitiveness can evolve adaptively. We examined nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic contributions to sperm competitiveness, using populations of Callosobruchus maculatus carrying orthogonal combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic lineages. Our design also enabled us to examine genetic contributions to female remating. We found that sperm competitiveness and remating are primarily encoded by nuclear genes. In particular, a male's sperm competitiveness phenotype was contingent on an interaction between the competing male genotypes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic effects were detected on remating but not sperm competitiveness, suggesting that cytoplasmic genes do not generally play a profound evolutionary role in sperm competition.

  2. Acute and chronic effects of gold nanoparticles on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, Mahsa; Talebi, Ali Reza; Hosseini Sharifabad, Mohammad; Abbasi, Abolghasem; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Danafar, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: The particles in the range of 1-100 nm are called nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle is one of the most important metal nanoparticles with wide usage. Objective: This study investigated the effects of gold nanoparticles on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 male bulb-c mice were divided into 9 groups including: 4 Sham groups (Sc 1-4), 4 experimental groups (Au 1-4), and 1 control group (C). Experimental groups received 40 and 200 µg/kg/day soluble gold (Au) nano-particles for 7 and 35 days, by intra peritoneal injection, respectively. Sham groups were treated with 1.2 mM sodium citrate solution with 40 and 200 µg/kg/day doses for same days and control group did not receive any materials. Motility and Morphology of spermatozoa were analyzed. Chromatin quality was also evaluated using AB (Aniline blue), TB (Toluidine blue) and CMA3 (Chromomycin A3) staining methods. Results: The sperm analysis results showed that motility and morphology of sperm in experimental groups (especially in groups that have been treated for 35 days with nano-particles) had significant decrease in comparison with control group. TB, AB and CMA3 results showed a significant increase in abnormal spermatozoa from all Au-treated groups. Conclusion: Gold nano-particles firstly can reduce the sperm parameters such as motility and normal morphology and secondly affect sperm chromatin remodeling and cause the increase instability of chromatin and also increase the rate of sperm DNA damage. These deleterious effects were more obvious in maximum dose and chronic phase. PMID:27921087

  3. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  4. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Piña-Guzmán, B; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; Marchetti, F; Hernández-Ochoa, I; Solís-Heredia, M J; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2009-07-15

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  5. The relationship of bull fertility to sperm nuclear shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostermeier, G.C.; Sargeant, G.A.; Yandell, B.S.; Parrish, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    group had a linear relationship (r .89, P .05) with fertility. To construct a plot of mean sperm shapes, a novel technique to automatically orient and identify the anterior tip of the sperm head was developed. The mean nuclear shape of high-fertility sperm was more elongated and tapered than those of lower fertility. A discriminant function (P .05) was also constructed that separated the 6 bulls into 2 groups based only on the harmonic amplitudes or sperm nuclear shape. The bulls were correctly classified into the 2 fertility groups. A comparison of sperm chromatin structure analysis (SCSA) and harmonic amplitudes found that overall size variance, anterior roundness, and posterior taperedness of sperm nuclei were related to chromatin stability (P .05). Some of the differences observed in sperm nuclear shape between the high- and lower-fertility bulls may be explained by varying levels of chromatin stability. However, sperm nuclear shape appears to contain additional information from chromatin stability alone. In this particular study, with 6 bulls, all with good chromatin quality, sperm nuclear shape was a better predictor of bull fertility.

  6. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  7. How nematode sperm crawl.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Dean; Mogilner, Alexander; Roberts, Tom; Stewart, Murray; Oster, George

    2002-01-15

    Sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum, crawl using lamellipodial protrusion, adhesion and retraction, a process analogous to the amoeboid motility of other eukaryotic cells. However, rather than employing an actin cytoskeleton to generate locomotion, nematode sperm use the major sperm protein (MSP). Moreover, nematode sperm lack detectable molecular motors or the battery of actin-binding proteins that characterize actin-based motility. The Ascaris system provides a simple 'stripped down' version of a crawling cell in which to examine the basic mechanism of cell locomotion independently of other cellular functions that involve the cytoskeleton. Here we present a mechanochemical analysis of crawling in Ascaris sperm. We construct a finite element model wherein (a) localized filament polymerization and bundling generate the force for lamellipodial extension and (b) energy stored in the gel formed from the filament bundles at the leading edge is subsequently used to produce the contraction that pulls the rear of the cell forward. The model reproduces the major features of crawling sperm and provides a framework in which amoeboid cell motility can be analyzed. Although the model refers primarily to the locomotion of nematode sperm, it has important implications for the mechanics of actin-based cell motility.

  8. The North Atlantic Oscillation affects the quality of Cava (Spanish sparkling wine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Raimundo; Báez, José Carlos

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the possible effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the quality of Spanish Cava. We found a significant negative relationship between the mean NAO for the months of March through August of each year between 1970 and 2008 and the probability of obtaining a top quality Cava. The NAO is associated with temperature and rainfall variations in the Cava region, which affect vine physiological processes during grape maturity. The probability of obtaining a top quality Cava was highest when the mean value of the NAO was negative, which causes the mean temperature in the Cava area to decrease, with positive consequences on Cava quality. Although the overall discrimination capacity and explanatory power of the model were low, 80 % of clearly favorable years were classified correctly as corresponding to top quality Cava, and 70 % of clearly unfavorable years were classified correctly as non top quality Cava.

  9. Sperm cryopreservation in fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Tiersch, Terrence R; Yang, Huiping; Jenkins, Jill A; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2007-01-01

    , cryopreserved sperm of aquatic species will at some point become an entirely new industry itself. A successful industry will require integrated practices for sample collection, refrigerated storage, freezing, thawing, rules for use and disposal, transfer agreements, and database development. Indeed the development of this new industry is currently constrained by factors including the technical requirements for scaling-up to commercial operations during the transition from research, and the absence of uniform quality control practices, industry standards, marketing and price structures, and appropriate biosecurity safeguards.

  10. The application of in vitro sperm competition test to evaluate the impact of ZP-derived peptides on fertilization capacity of cat sperm.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuyu; Greube, Alexa; Ji, Weizhi; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to establish a sensitive in vitro assay to assess the binding capacity of cat spermatozoa. Cat oocytes and epididymal sperm cells were isolated from gonads and cultured for in vitro fertilization. Before fertilization, the sperm cells were incubated either in 10 microM green dye Fluo-3-AM or 10 microM orange dye CellTracker Orange CMTMR (Molecular Probes), respectively. After removing the dyes by washing, sperm cells stained with each dye were added to medium drops containing oocytes in various proportions and cultured for 16 h at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The oocytes were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm bound to oocytes, and stained with different colors, were counted. When fresh epididymal sperm were mixed in at a specific proportion, the number of sperm bound to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes reflected the proportion of differently colored sperm in the medium. This indicated that neither dye influenced the binding capacity of cat sperm. Mixing fresh and cryopreserved sperm, however, resulted in a higher number of fresh sperm bound to the oocyte surface in comparison to frozen-thawed sperm. Also, the pre-incubation of cat sperm cells with ZP derived peptide reduced the sperm binding capacity by 40%. In conclusion, the presented sperm competition assay allows assessment of fertilizing capacity of cat spermatozoa in vitro when a mixture of two different populations is used. The applied supravital fluorescence dyes do not affect motility and binding capacity of sperm cells and were clearly distinguishable under fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that the assay can be used to study the impact of sperm treatment, such as cryopreservation or pre-incubation in bioactive peptides, on fertilizing capacity.

  11. Factors affecting the quality of life of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the quality of life of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment and the factors affecting their quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 17 home-based elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment (8 males and 9 females, average age: 76.3 ± 10.5 years old). Their physical and psychological conditions, quality of life and other items were investigated. Nishimura’s Mental State Scale for the Elderly was used for the cognitive impairment assessment. The Functional Independence Measure was used to assess activities of daily living, and the Japanese Quality of Life Inventory for the Elderly with Dementia was used to assess quality of life. [Results] The subjects’ quality of life was affected by their cognitive impairment level and independence of activities of daily living. However, no correlations were observed between the quality of life of the homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment, age, gender or care-need level. [Conclusion] In order to improve the quality of life of homebound elderly hemiparetic stroke patients with cognitive impairment, assistance helping them to maintain their cognitive abilities and on-going rehabilitation for improving activities of daily living independence are required. PMID:28174455

  12. Dietary flax seed oil and/or Vitamin E improve sperm parameters of cloned goats following freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Rohollah; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation. Accordingly, eight adult cloned Bakhtiari bucks were divided randomly into four groups. Bucks were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate. The concentrate was enriched with flax seed oil, 30 gr/kg body weight/day (OIL), Vitamin E (VIT), 3 gr/kg body weight/day, or combined flax seed oil and the vitamin E (OIL-VIT). The concentrate with no supplements was considered as control group (CONT). Both flax seed oil and Vitamin E supplements were added to the total diet. The bucks were fed with their corresponding diets for a total of 9 weeks while sperm collection was carried out within 10-14 weeks. Ejaculates were diluted with Andromed(®) and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were evaluated following freezing/thawing. According to the results of our study, dietary supplementation with flax seed oil, or/and Vitamin E can improve sperm motility, vitality and number of sperm with intact plasma membrane following freezing-thawing. But the degree of improvement in these parameters was significantly higher when Flax seed oil and vitamin E were co-supplemented.

  13. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  14. Sperm number trumps sperm size in mammalian ejaculate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection is widely accepted to underlie the extraordinary diversification of sperm morphology. However, why does it favour longer sperm in some taxa but shorter in others? Two recent hypotheses addressing this discrepancy offered contradictory explanations. Under the sperm dilution hypothesis, selection via sperm density in the female reproductive tract favours more but smaller sperm in large, but the reverse in small, species. Conversely, the metabolic constraint hypothesis maintains that ejaculates respond positively to selection in small endothermic animals with high metabolic rates, whereas low metabolic rates constrain their evolution in large species. Here, we resolve this debate by capitalizing on the substantial variation in mammalian body size and reproductive physiology. Evolutionary responses shifted from sperm length to number with increasing mammalian body size, thus supporting the sperm dilution hypothesis. Our findings demonstrate that body-size-mediated trade-offs between sperm size and number can explain the extreme diversification in sperm phenotypes. PMID:26582027

  15. Direct visualization of sperm competition and sperm storage in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Civetta, A

    Drosophila females engage in multiple matings [1] [2] [3] [4] even though they can store sperm in specialized organs for most of their life [5]. The existence of sperm competition in Drosophila has been inferred from the proportion of progeny sired by the second male in double-mating experiments [6] [7] [8]. Investigators have used this approach to quantify genetic variation underlying sperm competition [8] [9] [10], to elucidate its genetic basis [11], to identify the dependence of different male competitive ability on the genotype of the females with which they mate [12] and to discern the potential role of sperm competition in species isolation [13] [14]. This approach assumes that the sperm from two males stored in a female compete to fertilize the eggs. The mechanism by which sperm competition is accomplished is still unknown, however. Here, fluorescence microscopy, cytometry, and differently labeled sperm were used to analyze the fate of sperm inside the female's sperm storage organs, to quantify sperm competition, and to assess how closely paternity success corresponds to the appearance and location of the sperm. The results show that the first male's sperm is retained for a shortened period if the female remates, and that the second males that sire more progeny either induce females to store and use more of their sperm or strongly displace resident sperm.

  16. Effects of mechanical stresses on sperm function and fertilization rate in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Qiu, Zhuo Lin; Li, Ke; Li, Liu; Chan, Carol Pui Shan; Chan, Si Mei; Li, Tian-Chiu; Quan, Song

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether any of the observed changes in mouse sperm function tests secondary to mechanical stresses (centrifugation and pipetting) correlate with sperm fertilization ability. Chinese Kunming mice were used as sperm and oocyte donors. Sperm samples were allocated evenly into centrifugation, pipette, and control groups. Sperm plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), baseline and stimulated intracellular ROS, and sperm fertilization ability were measured by hypo-osmotic swelling, flow cytometry, and fertilization tests. Parallel studies were conducted and all tests were repeated six times. Our results showed that after centrifugation, the progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility and PMI decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In addition, the MMP level decreased significantly in viable sperm when the centrifugation condition reached 1,400 g × 15 minutes (p < 0.05). When pipetting was performed two or more times, progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05); when it was performed four or more times, sperm membrane integrity and intracellular basal ROS level of viable sperm was also significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, various mechanical stresses seem to affect sperm function, however this does not appear to alter fertilization rate. Laboratory handling steps should be minimized to avoid unnecessary mechanical stresses being applied to sperm samples.

  17. Influence of sperm fertilising concentration, sperm selection method and sperm capacitation procedure on the incidence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in IVF early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián; Dorado, Jesús; Hidalgo, Manuel; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of numerical chromosomal aberrations, widely described as a major cause of mortality in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos, has been linked to several factors. In the present study we investigated the effect of sperm fertilising concentration and semen handling (sperm selection and capacitation) before IVF on the rate of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in bovine embryos. In all, 466 IVP cattle embryos were karyotyped throughout three sequential experiments, analysing the effects of sperm fertilising concentration (0.1, 1.0 or 10×10(6) spermatozoa mL(-1)), selection method (unselected or Percoll-selected spermatozoa) and capacitation medium (bovine serum albumin (BSA), heparin or their combination). The percentage of normal (diploid) and aberrant (haploid, polyploid or aneuploid) embryos was noted in each experiment. The rate of numerical chromosomal abnormalities was mainly affected by sperm fertilising concentration (P<0.01) and, to a lesser extent, by the sperm capacitation medium (P<0.05). Polyploidy and haploidy rates were only affected by sperm fertilising concentration (P<0.05). Interestingly, the sperm selection technique used in the present study did not reduce the incidence of chromosome abnormalities in IVP cattle embryos (P>0.05). Finally, aneuploidy rates were not affected during the experiments (P>0.05), which suggests that they are not related to sperm-related factors. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sperm fertilising concentration is the 'paternal' key factor that affects the rate of numerical chr