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Sample records for affect system performance

  1. Mating system affects population performance and extinction risk under environmental challenge.

    PubMed

    Plesnar-Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Prokop, Zofia M; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-11-22

    Failure of organisms to adapt to sudden environmental changes may lead to extinction. The type of mating system, by affecting fertility and the strength of sexual selection, may have a major impact on a population's chances to adapt and survive. Here, we use experimental evolution in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) to examine the effects of the mating system on population performance under environmental change. We demonstrate that populations in which monogamy was enforced suffered a dramatic fitness decline when evolving at an increased temperature, whereas the negative effects of change in a thermal environment were alleviated in polygamous populations. Strikingly, within 17 generations, all monogamous populations experiencing higher temperature went extinct, whereas all polygamous populations survived. Our results show that the mating system may have dramatic effects on the risk of extinction under environmental change.

  2. Parametric analysis of variables that affect the performance of a desiccant dehumidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Durfee, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    Desiccant dehumidification systems, which are used to reduce the moisture (latent load) of the conditioned air in buildings, are typically specified on the basis of grain depression (pounds of water removed per hour) for a given volumetric flow rate of air at a specified dry-bulb or wet-bulb temperature. While grain depression gives some indication of the performance of the system, it does not adequately describe the efficiency of the moisture removal process. Several operating parameters, such as desiccant wheel speed, regeneration temperature, volumetric air flow rate, wheel thickness, sector angle, and desiccant loading, affect the ability of the desiccant dehumidification system to remove moisture. There are so many design parameters that influence the operation of a desiccant system that it is difficult to quantify the impact from the interactions on system performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of varying some of these operating parameters on the performance of a desiccant dehumidification system and to report the results using more quantitative measures, such as latent capacity and latent coefficient of performance (COP), that better describe the efficiency of the moisture removal process. The results will be used to improve the understanding of the operation of desiccant systems and to optimize their performance by changing certain operating parameters or improving components. Two desiccant loadings were tested: one at normal production level and the other with 25% more desiccant applied to the wheel. For both desiccant loadings, the latent capacity and COP increased as desiccant wheel speed increased. As expected, latent capacity improved significantly as air flow rates increased. It is noted, however, that the efficiency (latent COP) was quite sensitive to air flow rate and showed a maximum at a particular flow rate that best matched the other operating/design conditions of the system. Finally, higher regeneration temperatures

  3. Laying performance and egg quality of blue-shelled layers as affected by different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Zheng, J X; Ning, Z H; Qu, L J; Xu, G Y; Yang, N

    2009-07-01

    Blue-shelled eggs are gaining popularity as the consumption demand diversifies in some countries. This study was carried out to investigate the laying performance and egg quality of the blue-shelled egg layers as well as the effects of different housing systems on egg production and quality traits. One thousand pullets from Dongxiang blue-shelled layers were divided into 2 even groups and kept in different housing systems (outdoor vs. cage). Daily laying performance was recorded from 20 to 60 wk of age. External and internal egg quality traits were examined at 26, 34, 42, and 50 wk. Yolk cholesterol concentration and whole egg cholesterol content were measured at 40 wk of age. Average laying rate from 20 to 60 wk for the cage (54.7%) was significantly higher than that of outdoor layers (39.3%). Among all of the egg quality traits, only eggshell color was affected by housing system. Interaction between housing system and layer age was found in egg weight, eggshell color, eggshell ratio, yolk color, and yolk weight. Meanwhile, cholesterol concentration in yolk was 8.64 +/- 0.40 mg/g in the outdoor eggs, which was significantly lower than that of eggs from the cage birds (10.32 +/- 0.48 mg/g; P < 0.05). Whole egg cholesterol content in the outdoor eggs (125.23 +/- 6.32 mg/egg) was also significantly lower than that of eggs from the caged layers (158.01 +/- 8.62 mg/egg). The results demonstrated that blue-shelled layers have lower productivity in the outdoor system than in the cage system. Blue-shelled layers have lower egg weight, larger yolk proportion, and lower cholesterol content compared with commercial layers. In a proper marketing system, lower productivity could be balanced by a higher price for the better quality of blue-shelled eggs. PMID:19531721

  4. Intra-day signal instabilities affect decoding performance in an intracortical neural interface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perge, János A.; Homer, Mark L.; Malik, Wasim Q.; Cash, Sydney; Eskandar, Emad; Friehs, Gerhard; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Motor neural interface systems (NIS) aim to convert neural signals into motor prosthetic or assistive device control, allowing people with paralysis to regain movement or control over their immediate environment. Effector or prosthetic control can degrade if the relationship between recorded neural signals and intended motor behavior changes. Therefore, characterizing both biological and technological sources of signal variability is important for a reliable NIS. Approach. To address the frequency and causes of neural signal variability in a spike-based NIS, we analyzed within-day fluctuations in spiking activity and action potential amplitude recorded with silicon microelectrode arrays implanted in the motor cortex of three people with tetraplegia (BrainGate pilot clinical trial, IDE). Main results. 84% of the recorded units showed a statistically significant change in apparent firing rate (3.8 ± 8.71 Hz or 49% of the mean rate) across several-minute epochs of tasks performed on a single session, and 74% of the units showed a significant change in spike amplitude (3.7 ± 6.5 µV or 5.5% of mean spike amplitude). 40% of the recording sessions showed a significant correlation in the occurrence of amplitude changes across electrodes, suggesting array micro-movement. Despite the relatively frequent amplitude changes, only 15% of the observed within-day rate changes originated from recording artifacts such as spike amplitude change or electrical noise, while 85% of the rate changes most likely emerged from physiological mechanisms. Computer simulations confirmed that systematic rate changes of individual neurons could produce a directional ‘bias’ in the decoded neural cursor movements. Instability in apparent neuronal spike rates indeed yielded a directional bias in 56% of all performance assessments in participant cursor control (n = 2 participants, 108 and 20 assessments over two years), resulting in suboptimal performance in these sessions

  5. Intra-day signal instabilities affect decoding performance in an intracortical neural interface system

    PubMed Central

    Perge, János A.; Homer, Mark L.; Malik, Wasim Q.; Cash, Sydney; Eskandar, Emad; Friehs, Gerhard; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Motor Neural Interface Systems (NIS) aim to convert neural signals into motor prosthetic or assistive device control, allowing people with paralysis to regain movement or control over their immediate environment. Effector or prosthetic control can degrade if the relationship between recorded neural signals and intended motor behavior changes. Therefore, characterizing both biological and technological sources of signal variability is important for a reliable NIS. Approach To address the frequency and causes of neural signal variability in a spike-based NIS, we analyzed within-day fluctuations in spiking activity and action potential amplitude recorded with silicon microelectrode arrays implanted in the motor cortex of three people with tetraplegia (BrainGate pilot clinical trial, IDE). Main results Eighty-four percent of the recorded units showed a statistically significant change in apparent firing rate (3.8±8.71Hz or 49% of the mean rate) across several-minute epochs of tasks performed on a single session, and seventy-four percent of the units showed a significant change in spike amplitude (3.7±6.5μV or 5.5% of mean spike amplitude). Forty percent of the recording sessions showed a significant correlation in the occurrence of amplitude changes across electrodes, suggesting array micro-movement. Despite the relatively frequent amplitude changes, only 15% of the observed within-day rate changes originated from recording artifacts such as spike amplitude change or electrical noise, while 85% of the rate changes most likely emerged from physiological mechanisms. Computer simulations confirmed that systematic rate changes of individual neurons could produce a directional “bias” in the decoded neural cursor movements. Instability in apparent neuronal spike rates indeed yielded a directional bias in fifty-six percent of all performance assessments in participant cursor control (n=2 participants, 108 and 20 assessments over two years), resulting in

  6. Housing system may affect behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Pempek, J A; Eastridge, M L; Swartzwelder, S S; Daniels, K M; Yohe, T T

    2016-01-01

    Social pressure is increasing to adopt alternative housing and management practices that allow farm animals more opportunity to exercise and demonstrate social behavior. The present study investigated the effect of pair housing on the behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves. Forty female Jersey calves were allocated to individual or pair housing at birth and monitored for 9 wk. Calves were provided with a single hutch, and those allocated to the pair housing treatment were provided a pen enclosure twice the size of individually housed calves and only one hutch was provided per pair. All calves were fed milk replacer via bucket twice per day (1.89 L/feeding first 7 d; 2.27 L/feeding until weaned) and had ad libitum access to grain and water. Gradual weaning commenced on d 49 by reducing the calves' milk allowance to one feeding per day, and weaning occurred on d 56. Grain consumption was monitored daily and calves were weighed weekly. Direct behavioral observations were conducted twice per week. Calves housed in pairs tended to have greater average daily gain compared with calves housed individually (0.63 vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively). Pair housing also increased final body weight compared with individual housing (64.9 vs. 61.7 ± 0.59 kg, respectively). During observation periods, calves housed individually spent more time engaging in nonnutritive sucking than calves housed in pairs (21.5 vs. 8.15 ± 0.03% of total observations). Calves housed in pairs were observed cross sucking 13.5% of the time during observational periods. Although housing Jersey calves in pairs may increase measures of growth performance, future research should aim to reduce cross-sucking behavior within the Jersey breed through alternative feeding systems or environmental enrichment. PMID:26585485

  7. Confocal Microscopy and Flow Cytometry System Performance: Assessment of QA Parameters that affect data Quanitification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow and image cytometers can provide useful quantitative fluorescence data. We have devised QA tests to be used on both a flow cytometer and a confocal microscope to assure that the data is accurate, reproducible and precise. Flow Cytometry: We have provided two simple perform...

  8. Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance.

    PubMed

    Som, Sibendu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Magnotti, Gina M; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Longman, Douglas E; Skodje, Rex T; Davis, Michael J

    2013-06-20

    We study the role of individual reaction rates on engine performance, with an emphasis on the contribution of quantum tunneling. It is demonstrated that the effect of quantum tunneling corrections for the reaction HO2 + HO2 = H2O2 + O2 can have a noticeable impact on the performance of a high-fidelity model of a compression-ignition (e.g., diesel) engine, and that an accurate prediction of ignition delay time for the engine model requires an accurate estimation of the tunneling correction for this reaction. The three-dimensional model includes detailed descriptions of the chemistry of a surrogate for a biodiesel fuel, as well as all the features of the engine, such as the liquid fuel spray and turbulence. This study is part of a larger investigation of how the features of the dynamics and potential energy surfaces of key reactions, as well as their reaction rate uncertainties, affect engine performance, and results in these directions are also presented here.

  9. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  10. RTSJ Memory Areas and Their Affects on the Performance of a Flight-Like Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessner, Albert F.; Benowitz, Edward G.

    2003-01-01

    The two most important factors in improving performance in any software system, but especially a real-time, embedded system, are knowing which components are the low performers and knowing what can be done to improve their performance. The word performance with respect to a real-time, embedded system does not necessarily mean fast execution, which is the common definition when discussing non real-time systems. It also includes meeting all of the specified execution dead-lines and executing at the correct time without sacrificing non real-time performance. Using a Java prototype of an existing control system used on Deep Space 1[1], the effects from adding memory areas are measured and evaluated with respect to improving performance.

  11. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  12. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Negro, M; Giardina, S; Marzani, B; Marzatico, F

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1980's there has been high interest in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by sports nutrition scientists. The metabolism of BCAA is involved in some specific biochemical muscle processes and many studies have been carried out to understand whether sports performance can be enhanced by a BCAA supplementation. However, many of these researches have failed to confirm this hypothesis. Thus, in recent years investigators have changed their research target and focused on the effects of BCAA on the muscle protein matrix and the immune system. Data show that BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis. Muscle damage develops delayed onset muscle soreness: a syndrome that occurs 24-48 h after intensive physical activity that can inhibit athletic performance. Other recent works indicate that BCAA supplementation recovers peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogens after a long distance intense exercise, as well as plasma glutamine concentration. The BCAA also modifies the pattern of exercise-related cytokine production, leading to a diversion of the lymphocyte immune response towards a Th1 type. According to these findings, it is possible to consider the BCAA as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for sports events. PMID:18974721

  13. How Coriolis meter design affects field performance

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, A.; Dudiak, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although many possibilities exist for the design of Coriolis flowmeters, a common set of fundamental physical principles affect practical meter design. Design criteria such as tube geometry, alloy section, operating frequencies, stress levels, and tubing wall thickness have varying impacts on meter performance. Additionally, field conditions such as changing temperature, pressure, pipeline stress and vibration affect measurement performance. The challenge created in Coriolis flow meter design is to maximize the sensitivity of the meter Coriolis forces, while minimizing the impact of outside environmental influences. Data are presented on the physical principles that affect Coriolis flowmeters, and how the various aspects of meter design influence field performance.

  14. [Development of the affect system].

    PubMed

    Moser, U; Von Zeppelin, I

    1996-01-01

    The authors show that the development of the affect system commences with affects of an exclusively communicative nature. These regulate the relationship between subject and object. On a different plane they also provide information on the feeling of self deriving from the interaction. Affect is seen throughout as a special kind of information. One section of the article is given over to intensity regulation and early affect defenses. The development of cognitive processes leads to the integration of affect systems and cognitive structures. In the pre-conceptual concretistic phase, fantasies change the object relation in such a way as to make unpleasant affects disappear. Only at a later stage do fantasies acquire the capacity to deal with affects. Ultimately, the affect system is grounded on an invariant relationship feeling. On a variety of different levels it displays the features typical of situation theory and the theory of the representational world, thus making it possible to entertain complex object relations. In this process the various planes of the affect system are retained and practised. Finally, the authors discuss the consequences of their remarks for the understanding of psychic disturbances and the therapies brought to bear on them. PMID:8584745

  15. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate.

  16. Action video game experience affects oculomotor performance.

    PubMed

    West, Greg L; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Pratt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Action video games have been show to affect a variety of visual and cognitive processes. There is, however, little evidence of whether playing video games can also affect motor action. To investigate the potential link between experience playing action video games and changes in oculomotor action, we tested habitual action video game players (VGPs) and non-video game players (NVGPs) in a saccadic trajectory deviation task. We demonstrate that spatial curvature of a saccadic trajectory towards or away from distractor is profoundly different between VGPs and NVGPs. In addition, task performance accuracy improved over time only in VGPs. Results are discussed in the context of the competing interplay between stimulus-driven motor programming and top-down inhibition during oculomotor execution.

  17. Photovoltaic System Performance

    1989-09-25

    PVFORM4.0 is used to design a photovoltaic (PV) system using a set of design parameters which optimize the system's economic potential for the proposed location and the expected operating conditions. PVFORM3.3 has been used to determine PV system size and optimum mounting configuration. The anticipated electrical load determines the system size and the weather and the mounting configuration affect the system output. PVFORM4.0 uses program-supplied default values or their user-supplied equivalents for each of amore » large number of parameters describing the system and time-series data describing the environment to perform a series of hourly calculations to simulate the physical (photovoltaic) performance of a PV system for a one-year period. These iterative calculations sample the performance of the PV system throughout a simulated 365-day year of system operation. Within any simulated day on which system performance is sampled, the calculations are done hourly. The number of days sampled and the interval between them is determined by an input parameter. The results of these calculations are summarized on a monthly basis in output tables and an optional plot file. The program is applicable to grid interactive or stand-alone flat-plate systems. The grid interactive system is assumed to use power purchased from a local utility to supply that portion of the load not met by the simulated PV array. If the array produces more energy than can be consumed by the load, the excess energy is assumed to be sold back to the utility at a constant energy sellback price. If a stand-alone system is being modeled, the program assumes that all energy produced by the simulated PV array is first applied to the external load, and any excess is then used to charge the battery bank. Energy not consumed by the load or the batteries is considered to be wasted.« less

  18. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  19. Factors affecting the process performance of biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchynski, D.M.; Farmer, R.W.; Maier, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Biofiltration is an emerging biological treatment technology for the removal of airborne VOCs from industrial process waste streams. Removal of air-phase VOCs by biofiltration is accomplished by contacting a process airstream with an active microbial biofilm attached to a solid phase packing. VOCs that partition into the biofilm are aerobically oxidized to the endproducts of water, carbon dioxide and salts. A multiple reactor biofiltration pilot plant test program has been in progress at the University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering Laboratories since 1992. The primary goal of the program is to study factors that affect biofiltration process performance. Initial results of this test program were reported in a previous conference paper and master`s thesis. This paper presents the results of more recent studies that focus on the effects of: (1) biofilm accumulation (which in turn causes a decrease in biofilter bed porosity and packing bed surface area), (2) rates of nutrient addition, and (3) chemical properties of the target contaminant, on biofiltration removal performance. Removal performance was evaluated by determining biofilter removal capacities and efficiencies for various substrate feeds. The performance parameters were measured under constant contaminant inlet concentrations and under constant temperature. Three VOCs were selected for study and they are: MEK, (methyl ethyl ketone), xylene, and hexane. MEK, xylene, and hexane were chosen because they are representative of widely used industrial solvents and they have significantly different Henry`s law constants relative to each other (the MEK value < Xylene value < Hexane value). Henry`s law constants quantify the partitioning of a chemical between the air and water-biofilm phase and therefore can be used to correlate the effect of chemical properties on biofilter removal capacities. This paper also introduces a new model for the biofiltration process.

  20. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  1. Performance Measurement Analysis System

    1989-06-01

    The PMAS4.0 (Performance Measurement Analysis System) is a user-oriented system designed to track the cost and schedule performance of Department of Energy (DOE) major projects (MPs) and major system acquisitions (MSAs) reporting under DOE Order 5700.4A, Project Management System. PMAS4.0 provides for the analysis of performance measurement data produced from management control systems complying with the Federal Government''s Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria.

  2. Factors affecting distributed system security

    SciTech Connect

    Nessett, D.M.

    1985-11-13

    Recent work examining distributed system security requirements is critiqued. A notion of trust based on distributed system topology and distributed system node evaluation levels proposed in that work is shown to be deficient. The notion fails to make allowances for the distributed system physical security environment, security factors related to the management of distributed systems by more than one jurisdictive authority and interactions that can occur between nodes supporting different mandatory and discretionary security mechanisms.

  3. Feedback sandwiches affect perceptions but not performance.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Jay; Abercrombie, Sara; McCarty, Teresita

    2013-08-01

    The feedback sandwich technique-make positive comments; provide critique; end with positive comments-is commonly recommended to feedback givers despite scant evidence of its efficacy. These two studies (N = 20; N = 350) of written peer feedback with third-year medical students on clinical patient note-writing assignments indicate that students think feedback sandwiches positively impact subsequent performance when there is no evidence that they do. The effort necessary to produce feedback sandwiches and students' unwarranted confidence in their performance impact have implications for teaching about how to give feedback.

  4. Does television affect learning and school performance?

    PubMed

    Strasburger, V C

    1986-01-01

    Television is ubiquitous in American households and is becoming a pervasive force in the growth and development of American children. More time is spent watching television than in formal classroom instruction. Early studies, which failed to control for IQ and socioeconomic status, showed variable effects of heavy viewing on school performance. Later, better controlled studies have consistently demonstrated a significant deleterious effect of more than 1 or 2 h/day on academic performance, particularly reading scores. Innovative school programs that teach children how to watch television critically and appropriate management strategies for parents are discussed. PMID:3822948

  5. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  6. Factors affecting performance during an endurance relay.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, E L; Henderson, W; Covell, B; Bryce, G R

    1977-09-01

    A successful attempt by Edinburgh Athletic Club on the world record for the 24-hour 10-man x 1 mile relay is reported. The effects of a variety of factors on the performances of the athletes are assessed, and some physiological changes noted. In the light of these observations recommendations are made to help the planning of future record attempts.

  7. Student Profiles and Factors Affecting Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansarkar, B. A.; Michaeloudis, A.

    2001-01-01

    Studies the profiling of first year students studying the Quantitative Methods for Business module at a British university, and makes policy recommendations to improve student performance. Indicates that the highest proportion of students are United Kingdom students, 58% of the students are male, and only 30% of the students are mature students.…

  8. Is Oral Performance Affected by Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soozandehfar, Seyyed Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation intends to make a comparison between integratively motivated students of English at Islamic Azad University of Shiraz and their instrumentally motivated peers in terms of their oral performance. To this end, 35 junior students (15 males and 20 females) were selected out of 54 initial participants based on their scores on…

  9. How Does Heredity Affect Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews research regarding the effect of heredity on athletic performance. Research on twins indicates that genetic makeup may have a strong role in aerobic capacity, adaptability to training, composition of muscle tissue, and personality traits relating to competitiveness and leadership. (CB)

  10. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  11. Volume ratios between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system affect their performance and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-25

    An experimental temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system, with the thermophilic digester operated at neutral pH and with a balanced acidogenesis and methanogenesis (referred to as NT-TPAD), was evaluated with respect to the microbial communities and population dynamics of methanogens when digesting dairy cattle manure at 15-day overall system hydraulic retention time (HRT). When fed a manure slurry of 10% total solid (TS), similar system performance, 36-38% volatile solid (VS) removal and 0.21-0.22 L methane g(-1) VS fed, was achieved between a 5-day and 7.5-day HRT for the thermophilic digester. However, the thermophilic digester achieved a greater volumetric biogas yield when operated at a 5-day RT than at a 7.5-day HRT (6.3 vs. 4.7 L/L/d), while the mesophilic digester had a stable volumetric biogas yield (about 1.0 L/L/d). Each of the digesters harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, and some of the methanogens were significantly correlated with methane productions. Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta were the most important methanogenic genera in the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters, respectively. The microbiological findings may help understand the metabolism that underpins the anaerobic processes within each of the two digesters of TPAD systems when fed dairy manure.

  12. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    PubMed

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  13. Mathematics Anxiety and the Affective Drop in Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Moore, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a brief review of the history and assessment of math anxiety, its relationship to personal and educational consequences, and its important impact on measures of performance. Overall, math anxiety causes an "affective drop," a decline in performance when math is performed under timed, high-stakes conditions, both in laboratory…

  14. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  15. System performance analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helbig, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    The System Performance Analyzer (SPA) designed to provide accurate real time information about the operation of complex systems and developed for use on the Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS), a ROLM 1666 based system is described. The system uses an external processor to operate an intelligent, simulated control panel. Also provided are functions to trace operations, determine frequency of use of memory areas, and time or count user tasks in a multitask environment. This augments the information available from the standard debugger and control panel, and reduces the time and effort needed by ROLM 1666 users in optimizing their system, as well as providing documentation of the effect of any changes. The operation and state of the system are evaluated.

  16. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  17. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  18. Exposure to scientific theories affects women's math performance.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J

    2006-10-20

    Stereotype threat occurs when stereotyped groups perform worse as their group membership is highlighted. We investigated whether stereotype threat is affected by accounts for the origins of stereotypes. In two studies, women who read of genetic causes of sex differences performed worse on math tests than those who read of experiential causes.

  19. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  20. Focus of Attention Affects Performance of Motor Skills in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Cash, Carla Davis; Allen, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    To test the extent to which learners performing a simple keyboard passage would be affected by directing their focus of attention to different aspects of their movements, 16 music majors performed a brief keyboard passage under each of four focus conditions arranged in a counterbalanced design--a total of 64 experimental sessions. As they…

  1. System analysis of high performance MHD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Berry, G.F.; Hu, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the upper ranges of performance that an MHD power plant using advanced technology assumptions might achieve and a parametric study on the key variables affecting this high performance. To simulate a high performance MHD power plant and conduct a parametric study, the Systems Analysis Language Translator (SALT) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory was used. The parametric study results indicate that the overall efficiency of an MHD power plant can be further increased subject to the improvement of some key variables such as, the MHD generator inverter efficiency, channel electrical loading factor, magnetic field strength, preheated air temperature, and combustor heat loss. In an optimization calculation, the simulated high performance MHD power plant using advanced technology assumptions can attain an ultra high overall efficiency, exceeding 62%. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Study of how sash movement affects performance of fume hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, T.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine how sash movements affect the performance of fume hoods. The performance of two fume hoods was studied as the sashes were moved from closed to open position at speeds of 2 ft/s, 1.5 ft/s, and 1 ft/s. The tests were conducted with fume hoods operated at both constant volume and variable air volume. The tests indicate that sash movements can disturb airflow patterns at the face of the hood and potentially affect the performance of the hood. The effect of the sash movement varied with hood type and speed of sash movement. The faster sash movements of 2 ft/s and 1.5 ft/s had a greater effect on the performance of the hoods than the slower movement of 1 ft/s. Constant-volume hoods and variable-air-volume hoods were both affected by sash movements. Constant-volume hoods set to a full open face velocity of 60 ft/min were more susceptible to the sash movement than at 100 ft/min full open face velocity. The performance of variable-air-volume hoods is affected not only by sash movement speed but also by the response time of the controller. The drop in face velocity that occurs when the sash is moved is determined by the speed of the VAV controller. The required response time for containment depends on the fume hood design and the speed of the sash movement.

  3. Can Indigenous and Introduced Bacteria Affect the Performance of an Engineered Barrier System in the Designated Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Dias, V.; Carrillo, C.; van Buuren, N.; Horn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been tasked with establishing a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV and assessing the effects of long-term storage of the waste. Studies are being performed to identify the role of microorganisms, both indigenous and introduced during the construction phase, to waste package material corrosion. Some microorganisms produce by-products that may be deleterious to waste package materials, such as bacteria that produce hydrogen and mineral acids, or reduce sulfate, and fungi that produce organic acids. Long-term and accelerated tests in continuous flow reactors were conducted to assess the biogenic effects on waste package materials, and batch tests were implemented to identify corrosion products and biochemical changes to ground water chemistry. Surfacial and gravimetric analyses of the metal samples coupled with water chemistry analysis allow us to determine the overall contribution that organisms may make to waste package corrosion. Metal samples were periodically removed from the reactors and examined with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Effluent samples were also collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. Sterile controls were run in parallel to understand abiotic contributions to metals corrosion. In addition, we have characterized the microbial community at Yucca Mountain in order to define the physiological potential of the organisms extant at the site and evaluate the conditions required for growth (we have determined that water availability will be the major limiting factor). Analysis of the fluids from batch tests containing the Alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo alloy) metal suggest the solubilization of Mo, albeit in very low concentrations. Because we did not observe the solubilization of other metal components, it is unclear whether selective solubilization or dealloying is occurring. Endpoint analysis of precipitated particles in the

  4. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Boere, Julia J; Fellinger, Lizz; Huizinga, Duncan J H; Wong, Sebastiaan F; Bijleveld, Erik

    2016-02-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a modular arithmetic task. Performance pressure and caffeine intake were orthogonally manipulated. Findings indicated that pressure and caffeine both negatively impacted performance. However, (a) pressure vs. caffeine affected performance on different trial types, and (b) there was no hint of an interactive effect. So, though the evidence is indirect, findings suggest that pressure and caffeine shape performance via distinct mechanisms, rather than a shared one.

  5. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body. PMID:25026144

  6. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body.

  7. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  8. Economy Affects Students' Academic Performance as Well as Spending Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Like many Americans caught up in the economic downturn, college students are worried about money. Now research indicates that financial worries may affect their academic performance. The author presents the results of this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. The survey reveals that more than a third of seniors and more than a quarter of…

  9. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  10. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  11. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  12. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  13. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  14. System performance conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of reducing power levels and using antennas with diameters smaller than 1 Km were evaluated if rectenna costs and land usage requirements become major factors, operating at 5800 megahertz should be considered. Three sequences (random, incoherent phasing, and concentric rings - center to edge) provided satisfactory performance in that the resultant sidelobe levels during startup/ shutdown were lower than the steady-state levels present during normal operations. Grating lobe peaks and scattered power levels were used to determine the array/subarray mechanical alignment requirements. The antenna alignment requirement is 1 min or 3 min depending on phase control configuration. System error parameters were defined to minimize scattered microwave power.

  15. Personality interacts with implicit affect to predict performance in analytic versus holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Quirin, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Both theoretical approaches and empirical evidence suggest that negative affect fosters analytic processing, whereas positive affect fosters holistic processing, but these effects are inconsistent. We aim to show that (a) differences in affect regulation abilities ("action orientation") and (b) implicit more so than self-reported affect assessment need to be considered to advance our understanding of these processes. Forty participants were asked to verify whether a word was correctly or incorrectly spelled to measure analytic processing, as well as to intuitively assess whether sets of three words were coherent (remote associates task) to measure holistic processing. As expected, implicit but not explicit negative affect interacted with low action orientation ("state orientation") to predict higher d' performance in word spelling, whereas implicit but not explicit positive affect interacted with high action orientation to predict higher d' performance in coherence judgments for word triads. Results are interpreted according to personality systems interaction theory. These findings suggest that affect and affect changes should be measured explicitly and implicitly to investigate affect-cognition interactions. Moreover, they suggest that good affect regulators benefit from positive affect for holistic processing, whereas bad affect regulators benefit from negative affect for analytical processing. PMID:24725069

  16. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  17. Performance Comparison of CGM Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Lodwig, Volker; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ongoing progress of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems results in an increasing interest in comparing their performance, in particular in terms of accuracy, that is, matching CGM readings with reference values measured at the same time. Most often accuracy is evaluated by the mean absolute relative difference (MARD). It is frequently overseen that MARD does not only reflect accuracy, but also the study protocol and evaluation procedure, making a cross-study comparison problematic. Methods: We evaluate the effect of several factors on the MARD statistical properties: number of paired reference and CGM values, distribution of the paired values, accuracy of the reference measurement device itself and the time delay between data pairs. All analysis is done using clinical data from 12 patients wearing 6 sensors each. Results: We have found that a few paired points can have a potentially high impact on MARD. Leaving out those points for evaluation thus reduces the MARD. Similarly, accuracy of the reference measurements greatly affects the MARD as numerical and graphical data show. Results also show that a log-normal distribution of the paired references provides a significantly different MARD than, for example, a uniform distribution. Conclusions: MARD is a reasonable parameter to characterize the performance of CGM systems when keeping its limitations in mind. To support clinicians and patients in selecting which CGM system to use in a clinical setting, care should be taken to make MARD more comparable by employing a standardized evaluation procedure. PMID:26330485

  18. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  19. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks. PMID:24617273

  20. Inspection system performance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.E.

    1995-01-17

    This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system.

  1. How does self-efficacy affect performance of learner?

    PubMed

    Vakani, Farhan; Sheerani, Mughis; Afzal, Azam; Amin, Almas

    2012-01-01

    All types of attribution based on which learners make their judgement (i.e., self efficacy), about academic success or failure or about a specific task usually affect their performance and their capabilities to deal with different realities. It is perhaps the most distinctive capability of self-reflection. Many of the cognitive theorists have defined it as a meta-cognitive capability. This judgement influence learners choose what to do, how much effort to be invested in the activity, how long to carry the phase of disappointment, and whether to approach the task anxiously or with assurance.

  2. Can small shifts in circadian phase affect performance?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Legasto, Carlo S.; Fogg, Louis F.; Smith, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Small shifts in circadian timing occur frequently as a result of daylight saving time or later weekend sleep. These subtle shifts in circadian phase have been shown to influence subjective sleepiness, but it remains unclear if they can significantly affect performance. In a retrospective analysis we examined performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test before bedtime and after wake time in 11 healthy adults on fixed sleep schedules based on their habitual sleep times. The dim light melatonin onset, a marker of circadian timing, was measured on two occasions. An average 1.1 hour shift away from a proposed optimal circadian phase angle (6 hours between melatonin onset and midpoint of sleep) significantly slowed mean, median and fastest 10% reaction times before bedtime and after wake time (p<0.05). These results add to previous reports that suggest that humans may be sensitive to commonly occurring small shifts in circadian timing. PMID:22695081

  3. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  4. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882443

  5. Visualizing Parallel Computer System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    Parallel computer systems are among the most complex of man's creations, making satisfactory performance characterization difficult. Despite this complexity, there are strong, indeed, almost irresistible, incentives to quantify parallel system performance using a single metric. The fallacy lies in succumbing to such temptations. A complete performance characterization requires not only an analysis of the system's constituent levels, it also requires both static and dynamic characterizations. Static or average behavior analysis may mask transients that dramatically alter system performance. Although the human visual system is remarkedly adept at interpreting and identifying anomalies in false color data, the importance of dynamic, visual scientific data presentation has only recently been recognized Large, complex parallel system pose equally vexing performance interpretation problems. Data from hardware and software performance monitors must be presented in ways that emphasize important events while eluding irrelevant details. Design approaches and tools for performance visualization are the subject of this paper.

  6. Metal ions affecting the neurological system.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hana R; Roney, Nickolette; Abadin, Henry G

    2011-01-01

    Several individual metals including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, and mercury were demonstrated to affect the neurological system. Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. Environmental and occupational exposure to one metal is likely to be accompanied by exposure to other metals, as well. It is, therefore, expected that interactions or "joint toxic actions" may occur in populations exposed to mixtures of metals or to mixtures of metals with other chemicals. Some metals seem to have a protective role against neurotoxicity of other metals, yet other interactions may result in increased neurotoxicity. For example, zinc and copper provided a protective role in cases of lead-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, arsenic and lead co-exposure resulted in synergistic effects. Similarly, information is available in the current literature on interactions of metals with some organic chemicals such as ethanol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides. In depth understanding of the toxicity and the mechanism of action (including toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics) of individual chemicals is important for predicting the outcomes of interactions in mixtures. Therefore, plausible mechanisms of action are also described.

  7. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently

    PubMed Central

    Roe, R. Michael; Bacheler, Jack S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011–2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  8. Students' Interest in Surgery Affects Laparoscopic Practicing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mao Wu, Sheng; Kuei Chien, Wen; Sheng Huang, Chen; Cheng Lin, Wei; Chun Chang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Earlier exposure to laparoscopic techniques is thought to be beneficial for medical students. Reports have demonstrated that practice improves performance in laparoscopies. In this study, we intended to evaluate whether medical students' interest in surgery is affected by the amount of practice and the performance on a laparoscopic simulator. Methods: A laparoscopic simulation curriculum was introduced at Taipei Medical University, Wan-Fang Medical Center. Study participants included 36 sixth-year and 14 seventh-year students who were divided according to whether they had indicated an interest (group A) or not (group B) in surgery. The students had twice-a-week practice sessions for 2 weeks. They underwent baseline measurement (BM) before training and posttraining measurement (PTM). Self-guided practice on the simulator was allowed. The learning outcomes were assessed comparing the BM and PTM scores by using the interquartile range (IQR) test. We also tested the correlation between total score and number of self-guided practice sessions. Results: All study participants showed improvement. No differences were observed between BM and PTM scores and between 6th- and 7th-year medical students. Significant differences were found in PTM scores between groups A and B (P < .001). Analysis of variance with a post hoc test for different groups revealed that the PTMs were significantly higher for both the 6th- and 7th-year medical students in group A than for those in group B (P < .001). Total performance scores were improved with a higher number of self-guided practice sessions. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the number of self-guided practice sessions and total performance score (P < .001). Conclusion: Those clerks and interns interested in surgery who had more sessions for self-guided practice, displayed more improvement than those not interested in surgery did. Improvement in performance correlated

  9. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    PubMed

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training.

  10. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    PubMed

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training. PMID:15831060

  11. Designing Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Banerji, Ashok

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the basic nature of performance support and describes a generic model that can be used to facilitate electronic performance support system (EPSS) development. Performance measures are discussed; performance support guidelines are summarized; and a case study of the use of an EPSS is presented. (LRW)

  12. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  13. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  14. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew J; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-07-20

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters' retrospective assessments of candidates' performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  15. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Wunsch, Ewa; Jodko, Lukasz; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Bania, Izabela; Lawniczak, Malgorzata; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzislawa; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women) who had received a liver transplantation (LT) at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI). The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5%) had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04). A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results. PMID:27226801

  16. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-01-01

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters’ retrospective assessments of candidates’ performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved. PMID:20615955

  17. Irrelevant events affect voters' evaluations of government performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew J; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung

    2010-07-20

    Does information irrelevant to government performance affect voting behavior? If so, how does this help us understand the mechanisms underlying voters' retrospective assessments of candidates' performance in office? To precisely test for the effects of irrelevant information, we explore the electoral impact of local college football games just before an election, irrelevant events that government has nothing to do with and for which no government response would be expected. We find that a win in the 10 d before Election Day causes the incumbent to receive an additional 1.61 percentage points of the vote in Senate, gubernatorial, and presidential elections, with the effect being larger for teams with stronger fan support. In addition to conducting placebo tests based on postelection games, we demonstrate these effects by using the betting market's estimate of a team's probability of winning the game before it occurs to isolate the surprise component of game outcomes. We corroborate these aggregate-level results with a survey that we conducted during the 2009 NCAA men's college basketball tournament, where we find that surprising wins and losses affect presidential approval. An experiment embedded within the survey also indicates that personal well-being may influence voting decisions on a subconscious level. We find that making people more aware of the reasons for their current state of mind reduces the effect that irrelevant events have on their opinions. These findings underscore the subtle power of irrelevant events in shaping important real-world decisions and suggest ways in which decision making can be improved.

  18. The eccentricity effect: target eccentricity affects performance on conjunction searches.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, M; Evert, D L; Chang, I; Katz, S M

    1995-11-01

    The serial pattern found for conjunction visual-search tasks has been attributed to covert attentional shifts, even though the possible contributions of target location have not been considered. To investigate the effect of target location on orientation x color conjunction searches, the target's duration and its position in the display were manipulated. The display was present either until observers responded (Experiment 1), for 104 msec (Experiment 2), or for 62 msec (Experiment 3). Target eccentricity critically affected performance: A pronounced eccentricity effect was very similar for all three experiments; as eccentricity increased, reaction times and errors increased gradually. Furthermore, the set-size effect became more pronounced as target eccentricity increased, and the extent of the eccentricity effect increased for larger set sizes. In addition, according to stepwise regressions, target eccentricity as well as its interaction with set size were good predictors of performance. We suggest that these findings could be explained by spatial-resolution and lateral-inhibition factors. The serial self-terminating hypothesis for orientation x color conjunction searches was evaluated and rejected. We compared the eccentricity effect as well as the extent of the orientation asymmetry in these three conjunction experiments with those found in feature experiments (Carrasco & Katz, 1992). The roles of eye movements, spatial resolution, and covert attention in the eccentricity effect, as well as their implications, are discussed.

  19. PV System Performance and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during fiscal year (FY) 2005 of the Photovoltaic (PV) System Performance and Standards Subtask, which is part of the PV Systems Engineering Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  20. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  1. Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.

    PubMed

    Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P < 0.01). Seniors scored higher than juniors and sophomores, who scored higher than freshmen (P < 0.02). We observed a tendency for students with higher grades in biology to perform better in genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P < 0.01). There was a negative regression of hometown population on score in genetics (P < 0.01), and positive regressions of ACT score, all measures of GPA, course load, and cumulative credits on final percentage in the course (P < 0.02). To

  2. Epidemic features affecting the performance of outbreak detection algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Outbreak detection algorithms play an important role in effective automated surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed to improve the performance of outbreak detection, few published studies have examined how epidemic features of infectious disease impact on the detection performance of algorithms. This study compared the performance of three outbreak detection algorithms stratified by epidemic features of infectious disease and examined the relationship between epidemic features and performance of outbreak detection algorithms. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), cumulative sum (CUSUM) and moving percentile method (MPM) algorithms were applied. We inserted simulated outbreaks into notifiable infectious disease data in China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS), and compared the performance of the three algorithms with optimized parameters at a fixed false alarm rate of 5% classified by epidemic features of infectious disease. Multiple linear regression was adopted to analyse the relationship of the algorithms’ sensitivity and timeliness with the epidemic features of infectious diseases. Results The MPM had better detection performance than EWMA and CUSUM through all simulated outbreaks, with or without stratification by epidemic features (incubation period, baseline counts and outbreak magnitude). The epidemic features were associated with both sensitivity and timeliness. Compared with long incubation, short incubation had lower probability (β* = −0.13, P < 0.001) but needed shorter time to detect outbreaks (β* = −0.57, P < 0.001). Lower baseline counts were associated with higher probability (β* = −0.20, P < 0.001) and longer time (β* = 0.14, P < 0.001). The larger outbreak magnitude was correlated with higher probability (β* = 0.55, P < 0.001) and shorter time (β* = −0.23, P < 0.001). Conclusions The results of this study suggest

  3. Oligosaccharides Affect Performance and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Choct, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, flock uniformity and GIT development of broiler chickens were investigated. Four diets, one negative control, one positive control supplemented with zinc-bacitracin, and two test diets supplemented with mannoligosaccharide (MOS) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS), were used for the experiment. Birds given MOS or FOS had improved body weight (BW) and feed efficiency (FCR), compared to those fed the negative control diet during the 35-d trial period. The effect on FCR became less apparent when the birds got older. FOS and MOS supplementation reduced the pancreas weight as a percentage of BW, with an effect similar to that of the antibiotic, at 35 d of age. Birds given MOS tended to have a heavier bursa (p = 0.164) and lower spleen/bursa weight ratio (p = 0.102) at 35 d of age. MOS and Zn-bacitracin showed a clear improvement on flock uniformity, compared to FOS. The mortality rate was not affected by FOS or MOS. PMID:25049713

  4. Construction of Multi-Mode Affective Learning System: Taking Affective Design as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Su, Sheng-Hsiung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Yen; Tsai, Shang-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to design a non-simultaneous distance instruction system with affective computing, which integrates interactive agent technology with the curricular instruction of affective design. The research subjects were 78 students, and prototype assessment and final assessment were adopted to assess the interface and usability of the system.…

  5. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations. PMID:24513877

  6. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations.

  7. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  8. Compatibility Issues Affecting Information Systems and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid; Smith, Linda C.

    This UNISIST publication discusses issues related to the compatibility and standardization of bibliograpic records, index languages, software, hardware, and other information systems and services. Following an executive summary, definitions of terms, and other introductory material, existing information systems with common standards are briefly…

  9. Performance optimization of thermophotovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Kenneth Lee

    1998-12-01

    This research effort addresses the problem of modeling system performance and determining an optimum configuration for a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generation system. Specifically, the performance of a 100 watt cylindrical TPV system is modeled as a function of both configuration and geometry. The system parameters which yielded optimum performance in terms of radiant efficiency, system efficiency and power density were evaluated. The model presented employs an iterative type solution and incorporates two principal routines, the IMPROVEsp{copyright} genetic algorithm (GA) and a performance prediction code. The genetic algorithm governs the solution process and seeks to maximize an objective function (i.e system efficiency). The performance model is an energy-based formulation which represents the TPV system as two primary components, the radiant cavity and heat source. The radiant cavity includes the emitter, filter and photovoltaic elements of the system. Physical properties and performance data for the radiant cavity components are evaluated from a database of experimental data. Radiant transfer calculations include provisions for evaluating the effects of optical concentration and multiple reflections, and incorporates the use of ray tracking formulations and view factors calculations for evaluating various flat plate and cylindrical configurations in terms of cavity performance and power generated. In the heat source portion of the performance model, the thermodynamic states of a hydrocarbon fueled recuperative type burner are considered at six discrete points. A self-consistent set of equations for the conservation of energy is used to determine the heat source parameters as a function of the input, effective emitter radiant temperature, thermal recuperation, and heat loss. Evaluations of the equations are performed using a modified version of the NASA Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications (CEA) code. Of the configurations evaluated

  10. How phototherapy affects the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Mary

    2008-03-01

    The immune system is a complex group of cells, tissues and organs that recognize and attack foreign substances, pathogenic organisms and cancer cells. It also responds to injury by producing inflammation. The immune system has peripheral components that include skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), located where pathogens and other harmful substances gain access to the body. Phototherapy, delivered at appropriate treatment parameters, exerts direct actions on the cellular elements of the peripheral part of the immune system since it is readily accessible to photons.

  11. Performance of random multiple access transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinainitisart, N.; Wu, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the Random Multiple Access (RMA) technique, applied to a direct terminal-to-terminal link with a large number of potential users, is determined. The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. Under Gaussian assumption, the approximation of the probability of error is given. The analysis shows that the system performance is affected by the sequence length, the number of simultaneous users, and the number of cochannel symbols, but is not sensitive to the thermal noise. The performance of using very small aperture antenna for both transmitting and receiving without a hub station is given.

  12. Modeling System Operators Affecting the Information Organizer of an Individual. Research Bulletin 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Raimo

    This report details a study performed as an interplay between modeling and reality which was designed to find operators that affect the information organizer of an individual in a social system. The operator is defined as a system element that affects other elements. The information organizer is defined as a coordinating interface between the…

  13. How neighbor canopy architecture affects target plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tremmel, D.C.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Plant competition occurs through the negative effects that individual plants have on resource availability to neighboring individuals. Therefore competition experiments need to examine how different species change resource availability to their neighbors, and how different species respond to these changes-allocationally, architecturally, and physiologically-through time. In a greenhouse study we used a model system of annuals to examine how canopies of species having differing morphologies differed in their architectures and light-interception abilities, and how different species performed when grown in these canopies. Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, and Polygonum pensylvanicum were grown as [open quotes]targets[close quotes]. Plants were grown in pots, with one target plant and four neighbor plants. Detailed measurements of neighbor canopy structure and target plant canopy architecture were made at five harvests. Species with different morphologies showed large differences in canopy structure, particularly when grass and forb species were compared. Setaria, a grass, had a more open canopy than the other species (all forbs), and was a consistently weak competitor. Overall, however, the relative effects of different neighbors on target biomass varied with target species. Target biomass was poorly correlated with neighbor biomass and leaf area, but was highly correlated with a measure of target light-interception ability that took into account both target leaf deployment and neighbor light interception. Despite clear differences among neighbor species in canopy structure and effect on light penetration, the results suggest no broad generalizations about the effects of different species as neighbors. Knowledge of morphological, physiological, and life history characteristics of both the target and neighbor species may be necessary to explain the results of their competition. 53 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Maggot excretions affect the human complement system.

    PubMed

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Renwarin, Lennaert; Dorresteijn, Corry; Hamann, Dörte; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2012-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the activation of the inflammatory response to injury, although inappropriate complement activation (CA) can lead to severe tissue damage. Maggot therapy is successfully used to treat infected wounds. In this study, we hypothesized that maggot excretions/secretions influence CA in order to modulate the host's inflammatory response. Therefore, the effect of maggot excretions on CA was investigated in preoperatively and postoperatively obtained sera from patients. Our results show that maggot excretions reduce CA in healthy and postoperatively immune-activated human sera up to 99.9%, via all pathways. Maggot excretions do not specifically initiate or inhibit CA, but break down complement proteins C3 and C4 in a cation-independent manner and this effect proves to be temperature tolerant. This study indicates a CA-reducing substrate that is already successfully used in clinical practice and may explain part of the improved wound healing caused by maggot therapy. Furthermore, the complement activation-reducing substance present in maggot excretions could provide a novel treatment modality for several diseases, resulting from an (over)active complement system.

  15. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  16. Data management system performance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  17. Factors Affecting the Performance of Public Schools in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Dorine M.

    2012-01-01

    By sampling extreme cases (five high-performing schools and five low-performing ones), the researcher revealed the differences in the teachers' motivation (Mattar, 2010) as well as the extent to which Principals adopted the instructional leadership style (Mattar, 2012) in the two sets of schools. Here, she looked for additional issues, within the…

  18. Learners' Metalinguistic and Affective Performance in Blogging to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The documentation of the benefits of blog use in foreign language education has proliferated since 2006. In the field of blogging to write, most studies focus on learners' linguistic performance and perceptions. To provide an analysis of learners' writing performance by using blogs, in addition to the often-researched areas, this study examines…

  19. The Role of Positive Affect in Syllogism Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jeffrey R.

    1995-01-01

    Examined process mediating the effect of positive mood on performance of a cognitive task. Positive mood subjects performed significantly worse on a set of syllogisms than control subjects. Results are consistent with accounts arguing that people in positive moods expend less effort. (JBJ)

  20. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  1. Growth in body size affects rotational performance in women's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Ackland, Timothy; Elliott, Bruce; Richards, Joanne

    2003-07-01

    National and state representative female gymnasts (n = 37), aged initially between 10 and 12 years, completed a mixed longitudinal study over 3.3 years, to investigate the effect of body size on gymnastic performance. Subjects were tested at four-monthly intervals on a battery of measures including structural growth, strength and gymnastic performance. The group were divided into 'high growers' and 'low growers' based on height (> 18 cm or < 14 cm/37 months, respectively) and body mass (> 15 kg or < 12 kg/37 months, respectively) for comparative purposes. Development of gymnastic performance was assessed through generic skills (front and back rotations, a twisting jump and a V-sit action) and a vertical jump for maximum height. The results show that the smaller gymnast, with a high strength to mass ratio, has greater potential for performing skills involving whole-body rotations. Larger gymnasts, while able to produce more power and greater angular momentum, could not match the performance of the smaller ones. The magnitude of growth experienced by the gymnast over this period has a varying effect on performance. While some activities were greatly influenced by rapid increases in whole-body moment of inertia (e.g. back rotation), performance on others like the front rotation and vertical jump, appeared partly immune to the physical and mechanical changes associated with growth. PMID:14737925

  2. Investigating facial affect processing in psychosis: a study using the Comprehensive Affective Testing System.

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Joshua, Nicole R; O'Regan, Alison; Gogos, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Facial affect processing (FAP) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been widely reported; although effect sizes vary across studies, and there are limited direct comparisons of the two groups. Further, there is debate as to the influence of both psychotic and mood symptoms on FAP. This study aimed to address these limitations by recruiting groups of psychosis patients with either a diagnosis of SZ or BD and comparing them to healthy controls (HC) on a well validated battery of four FAP subtests: affect discrimination, name affect, select affect and match affect. Overall, both groups performed more poorly than controls in terms of accuracy. In SZ, this was largely driven by impairments on three of the four subtests. The BD patients showed impaired performance specifically on the match affect subtest, a task that had a high cognitive load. FAP performance in the psychosis patients was correlated with severity of positive symptoms and mania. This study confirmed that FAP deficits are a consistent finding in SZ that occur independent of task specific methodology; whilst FAP deficits in BD are more subtle. Further work in this group is needed to replicate these results.

  3. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  4. Performance Confirmation Data Aquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2000-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M&O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application.

  5. Aversive pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    IN NEUROSCIENCE AND PSYCHOLOGY, AN INFLUENTIAL PERSPECTIVE DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN TWO KINDS OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology.

  6. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  7. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    PubMed

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  8. Wheat gluten hydrolysate affects race performance in the triathlon.

    PubMed

    Koikawa, Natsue; Aoki, Emi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Nagaoka, Isao; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimmura, Yuki; Sawaki, Keisuke

    2013-07-01

    Wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) is a food ingredient, prepared by partial enzymatic digestion of wheat gluten, which has been reported to suppress exercise-induced elevation of serum creatinine kinase (CK) activity. However, its effects on athletic performance have not yet been elucidated. This is the presentation of an experiment performed on five female college triathletes who completed an Olympic distance triathlon with or without ingestion of 21 g of WGH during the cycling leg. The experiment was performed in a crossover double-blind manner. The race time of the running leg and thus the total race time was significantly shorter when WGH was ingested. However, serum CK levels exhibited no apparent differences between the two WGH or placebo groups.

  9. Women Officers' Performance Evaluations: Faint Praise May Affect Promotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia J.

    While comments in performance evalutions usually focus on competency, potential, and personality characteristics, discussions of personality are particularly vulnerable to sexual stereotyping. To determine whether gender influences the narrative portion of naval officers' evalutions, narrative information was extracted from the comments section of…

  10. Does Participative Decision Making Affect Lecturer Performance in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukirno, D. S.; Siengthai, Sununta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between participation and job performance has captured the interest of not only business researchers but also education researchers. However, the topic has not gained significant attention in the educational management research arena. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of participation in…

  11. How Motivation Affects Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, R. A.; Ten Cate, Th. J.; Vos, C. M. P.; Westers, P.; Croiset, G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous…

  12. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  13. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  14. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  15. Subsonic Performance of Ejector Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Samuel

    Combined cycle engines combining scramjets with turbo jets or rockets can provide efficient hypersonic flight. Ejectors have the potential to increase the thrust and efficiency of combined cycle engines near static conditions. A computer code was developed to support the design of a small-scale, turbine-based combined cycle demonstrator with an ejector, built around a commercially available turbojet engine. This code was used to analyze the performance of an ejector system built around a micro-turbojet. With the use of a simple ejector, net thrust increases as large as 20% over the base engine were predicted. Additionally the specific fuel consumption was lowered by 10%. Increasing the secondary to primary area ratio of the ejector lead to significant improvements in static thrust, specific fuel consumption (SFC), and propulsive efficiency. Further ejector performance improvements can be achieved by using a diffuser. Ejector performance drops off rapidly with increasing Mach number. The ejector has lower thrust and higher SFC than the turbojet core at Mach numbers above 0.2. When the nozzle chokes a significant drop in ejector performance is seen. When a diffuser is used, higher Mach numbers lead to choking in the mixer and a shock in the nozzle causing a significant decrease in ejector performance. Evaluation of different turbo jets shows that ejector performance depends significantly on the properties of the turbojet. Static thrust and SFC improvements can be achieved with increasing ejector area for all engines, but size of increase and change in performance at higher Mach numbers depend heavily on the turbojet. The use of an ejector in a turbine based combined cycle configuration also increases performance at static conditions with a thrust increase of 5% and SFC decrease of 5% for the tested configuration.

  16. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  17. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2006-01-01

    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  18. Assessing Affective Learning Using a Student Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimland, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning relates to students' attitudes, emotions, and feelings. This study focuses on measuring affective learning during library instruction by using a student response system. Participants were undergraduate students who received course-related library instruction for a research assignment. Students rated their confidence levels…

  19. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  20. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  1. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  3. Characterization of titanium dioxide: Factors affecting photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    Titanium dioxide is being evaluated as a photocatalyst in the destruction of contaminants in aqueous waste streams. Commercial samples of TiO{sub 2} powder have been obtained for base line studies of the photocatalytic destruction of salicylic acid standards. These commercial samples have been prepared by flame hydrolysis and aerosol or spray pyrolysis. Additional samples of TiO{sub 2} have been prepared in house by precipitation from TiCl{sub 4} in aqueous solution, some with the addition of dopants. X-ray powder diffraction data analysis indicates the predominate phase of these commercial and prepared powders to be anatase. A minor amount of the rutile crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} was observed at various levels in some of these catalysts. The broadness of the x-ray diffraction bands varied among the samples analyzed and indicated the primary particle size to be within the 500 to 1,000 angstrom range with the product produced in house having the smallest crystallite size. Experiments were then performed to assess the photocatalytic performance of these various types of catalyst in the destruction of 30 ppm salicylic acid in deionized water.

  4. Affect of Brush Seals on Wave Rotor Performance Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's experimental and theoretical research shows that wave rotor topping can significantly enhance gas turbine engine performance levels. Engine-specific fuel consumption and specific power are potentially enhanced by 15 and 20 percent, respectively, in small (e.g., 400 to 700 hp) and intermediate (e.g., 3000 to 5000 hp) turboshaft engines. Furthermore, there is potential for a 3- to 6-percent specific fuel consumption enhancement in large (e.g., 80,000 to 100,000 lbf) turbofan engines. This wave-rotor-enhanced engine performance is accomplished within current material-limited temperature constraints. The completed first phase of experimental testing involved a three-port wave rotor cycle in which medium total pressure inlet air was divided into two outlet streams, one of higher total pressure and one of lower total pressure. The experiment successfully provided the data needed to characterize viscous, partial admission, and leakage loss mechanisms. Statistical analysis indicated that wave rotor product efficiency decreases linearly with the rotor to end-wall gap, the square of the friction factor, and the square of the passage of nondimensional opening time. Brush seals were installed to further minimize rotor passage-to-cavity leakage. The graph shows the effect of brush seals on wave rotor product efficiency. For the second-phase experiment, which involves a four-port wave rotor cycle in which heat is added to the Brayton cycle in an external burner, a one-dimensional design/analysis code is used in conjunction with a wave rotor performance optimization scheme and a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The purpose of the four-port experiment is to demonstrate and validate the numerically predicted four-port pressure ratio versus temperature ratio at pressures and temperatures lower than those that would be encountered in a future wave rotor/demonstrator engine test. Lewis and the Allison Engine Company are collaborating to investigate

  5. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment. PMID:12051434

  6. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Harvey F; Patterson, William R; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m x 8 m x 3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  7. Factors affecting the performance of large-aperture microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Harvey F.; Patterson, William R.; Sachar, Joshua

    2002-05-01

    Large arrays of microphones have been proposed and studied as a possible means of acquiring data in offices, conference rooms, and auditoria without requiring close-talking microphones. When such an array essentially surrounds all possible sources, it is said to have a large aperture. Large-aperture arrays have attractive properties of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise enhancement. This paper presents a careful comparison of theoretical and measured performance for an array of 256 microphones using simple delay-and-sum beamforming. This is the largest currently functional, all digital-signal-processing array that we know of. The array is wall-mounted in the moderately adverse environment of a general-purpose laboratory (8 m×8 m×3 m). The room has a T60 reverberation time of 550 ms. Reverberation effects in this room severely impact the array's performance. However, the width of the main lobe remains comparable to that of a simplified prediction. Broadband spatial resolution shows a single central peak with 10 dB gain about 0.4 m in diameter at the -3 dB level. Away from that peak, the response is approximately flat over most of the room. Optimal weighting for signal-to-noise enhancement degrades the spatial resolution minimally. Experimentally, we verify that signal-to-noise gain is less than proportional to the square root of the number of microphones probably due to the partial correlation of the noise between channels, to variation of signal intensity with polar angle about the source, and to imperfect correlation of the signal over the array caused by reverberations. We show measurements of the relative importance of each effect in our environment.

  8. Does hallucination affect vigilance performance in schizophrenia? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudeshna; Ray, Deepshikha; Banerjee, Mallika

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigates the role of "auditory verbal hallucination" (AVH) in the attentional processes of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia compared with healthy participants. The sample consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia divided into - "schizophrenia with hallucination" (N=12) and "schizophrenia without hallucination" (N=14). 13 matched healthy participants were taken. A general health questionnaire was used to screen out psychiatric morbidity in healthy participants. The presence and/or absence of AVH were substantiated through the administration of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Only individuals having higher composite scores in the positive scale were included. Edinburgh Handedness Inventory was administered to all participants. Software designed to measure vigilance was used to assess attentional deficits in the three groups included in the study. The complexity of the "vigilance task" was varied across three parameters: (1) spatial position of the target stimulus and buffer, (2) frequency of the target stimulus and buffer and (3) colour of target stimulus and buffer. The performances of the 3 groups were compared statistically in terms of Hit, Miss and False Alarm scores. Results revealed that schizophrenia patients are deficient as compared to their healthy counterparts in the ability to focus on a specific target while inhibiting non-relevant information across all conditions. Also, schizophrenia patients who have AVH are relatively more deficient as compared to the schizophrenia patients without AVH. It can be concluded that perceptual abnormality in schizophrenia patients with hallucination has an additional negative impact on attentional processes. PMID:23051117

  9. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  10. Automated system for validating balance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P.W.; Clark, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Manual tank calibrations often have variabilities of both a random and systematic nature that often affect the quality of the data collected for determining accurate calibration equations. When performing the calibration run, data omissions and transcriptions often occur (forgetting to tare weigh the prover vessel or miswriting a displayed value). A computer can be used to minimize these errors associated with the logging of data. This paper describes a IBM compatible, portable computer based system, developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), that was used to calibrate three tanks in the second quarter 1990. It received data directly from instrumentation such as Ruska differential pressure sensors and electronic balances, while prompting the technicians to perform the various steps in the calibration procedure. This automated system greatly improved the quality of data for calculating the calibration equation for each of these tanks over previous calibration runs.

  11. Automated system for validating balance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P.W.; Clark, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Manual tank calibrations often have variabilities of both a random and systematic nature that often affect the quality of the data collected for determining accurate calibration equations. When performing the calibration run, data omissions and transcriptions often occur (forgetting to tare weigh the prover vessel or miswriting a displayed value). A computer can be used to minimize these errors associated with the logging of data. This paper describes a IBM compatible, portable computer based system, developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), that was used to calibrate three tanks in the second quarter 1990. It received data directly from instrumentation such as Ruska differential pressure sensors and electronic balances, while prompting the technicians to perform the various steps in the calibration procedure. This automated system greatly improved the quality of data for calculating the calibration equation for each of these tanks over previous calibration runs.

  12. Affective Neuronal Selection: The Nature of the Primordial Emotion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Toronchuk, Judith A.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies in affective neuroscience and evolutionary psychiatry, a tentative new proposal is made here as to the nature and identification of primordial emotional systems. Our model stresses phylogenetic origins of emotional systems, which we believe is necessary for a full understanding of the functions of emotions and additionally suggests that emotional organizing systems play a role in sculpting the brain during ontogeny. Nascent emotional systems thus affect cognitive development. A second proposal concerns two additions to the affective systems identified by Panksepp. We suggest there is substantial evidence for a primary emotional organizing program dealing with power, rank, dominance, and subordination which instantiates competitive and territorial behavior and is an evolutionary contributor to self-esteem in humans. A program underlying disgust reactions which originally functioned in ancient vertebrates to protect against infection and toxins is also suggested. PMID:23316177

  13. The High Performance Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, R.A.; Hulen, H.; Watson, R.

    1993-09-01

    The National Storage Laboratory (NSL) was organized to develop, demonstrate and commercialize technology for the storage system that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Within the NSL four Department of Energy laboratories and IBM Federal System Company have pooled their resources to develop an entirely new High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The HPSS project concentrates on scalable parallel storage system for highly parallel computers as well as traditional supercomputers and workstation clusters. Concentrating on meeting the high end of storage system and data management requirements, HPSS is designed using network-connected storage devices to transfer data at rates of 100 million bytes per second and beyond. The resulting products will be portable to many vendor`s platforms. The three year project is targeted to be complete in 1995. This paper provides an overview of the requirements, design issues, and architecture of HPSS, as well as a description of the distributed, multi-organization industry and national laboratory HPSS project.

  14. Factors affecting the performance of stormwater treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Carleton, J N; Grizzard, T J; Godrej, A N; Post, H E

    2001-04-01

    Data from 35 studies on 49 wetland systems used to treat stormwater runoff or runoff-impacted surface waters were examined and compared in order to identify any obvious trends that may aid future stormwater treatment wetland design efforts. Despite the intermittent nature of hydrologic and pollutant inputs from stormwater runoff, our analysis demonstrates that steady-state first-order plug-flow models commonly used to analyze wastewater treatment wetlands can be adapted for use with stormwater wetlands. Long-term pollutant removals are analyzed as functions of long-term mean hydraulic loading rate and nominal detention time. First-order removal rate constants for total phosphorus, ammonia, and nitrate generated in this fashion are demonstrated to be similar to values reported in the literature for wastewater treatment wetlands. Constituent removals are also demonstrated via regression analyses to be functions of the ratio of wetland area to watershed area. Resulting equations between these variables can be used as preliminary design tools in the absence of more site-specific details, with the understanding that they should be employed cautiously. PMID:11317903

  15. Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance?

    PubMed

    Judelson, Daniel A; Maresh, Carl M; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2007-01-01

    Significant scientific evidence documents the deleterious effects of hypohydration (reduced total body water) on endurance exercise performance; however, the influence of hypohydration on muscular strength, power and high-intensity endurance (maximal activities lasting >30 seconds but <2 minutes) is poorly understood due to the inconsistent results produced by previous investigations. Several subtle methodological choices that exacerbate or attenuate the apparent effects of hypohydration explain much of this variability. After accounting for these factors, hypohydration appears to consistently attenuate strength (by approximately 2%), power (by approximately 3%) and high-intensity endurance (by approximately 10%), suggesting alterations in total body water affect some aspect of force generation. Unfortunately, the relationships between performance decrement and crucial variables such as mode, degree and rate of water loss remain unclear due to a lack of suitably uninfluenced data. The physiological demands of strength, power and high-intensity endurance couple with a lack of scientific support to argue against previous hypotheses that suggest alterations in cardiovascular, metabolic and/or buffering function represent the performance-reducing mechanism of hypohydration. On the other hand, hypohydration might directly affect some component of the neuromuscular system, but this possibility awaits thorough evaluation. A critical review of the available literature suggests hypohydration limits strength, power and high-intensity endurance and, therefore, is an important factor to consider when attempting to maximise muscular performance in athletic, military and industrial settings.

  16. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  17. Affective Responses to an Aerobic Dance Class: The Impact of Perceived Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, John B.; Miller, Bridget M.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the mastery hypothesis as an explanation for the affective benefits of acute exercise. Undergraduate women from a self-selected aerobic dance class rated their exercise performance following class. Affect questionnaires were completed before and at 5 and 20 minutes after the class. Results showed an overall improvement in affect following…

  18. Does amalgam affect the immune system? A controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Eneström, S; Hultman, P

    1995-03-01

    Although in use for more than 150 years, dental amalgam has been questioned more or less vigorously as a dental restoration material due to its alleged health hazard. Humans are exposed to mercury and the other main dental amalgam metals (Ag, Sn, Cu, Zn) via vapour, corrosion products in swallowed saliva, and direct absorption into the blood from the oral cavity. Dental amalgam fillings are the most important source of mercury exposure in the general population. Local, and in some instances, systemic hypersensitivity reactions to dental amalgam metals, especially mercury, occur at a low frequency among amalgam bearers. Experimental and clinical data strongly indicate that these and other subclinical systemic adverse immunological reactions to dental amalgam metals in humans will be linked to certain MHC genotypes, and affect only a small number of the exposed individuals. These individuals will be very difficult to detect in a mixed population of susceptible and resistant individuals, including persons with alleged symptoms due to dental amalgam fillings, where many of the individuals are likely to suffer from conditions with no proven immunological background such as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Intensified studies should be performed to identify such susceptible MHC genotypes, taking advantage of the reported cases of more heavily metal-exposed humans with systemic autoimmune reactions. Further studies will also be needed to ascertain whether the combined exposure to the metals in dental amalgam may lower the threshold for adverse immunological reactions, since recent studies have shown that the metals in alloy, especially silver, may induce autoimmunity in genetically susceptible mice.

  19. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  20. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  1. Identity-level representations affect unfamiliar face matching performance in sequential but not simultaneous tasks.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nadia; White, David; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive and neurological models of the face-processing system, faces are represented at two levels of abstraction. First, image-based pictorial representations code a particular instance of a face and include information that is unrelated to identity-such as lighting, pose, and expression. Second, at a more abstract level, identity-specific representations combine information from various encounters with a single face. Here we tested whether identity-level representations mediate unfamiliar face matching performance. Across three experiments we manipulated identity attributions to pairs of target images and measured the effect on subsequent identification decisions. Participants were instructed that target images were either two photos of the same person (1ID condition) or photos of two different people (2ID condition). This manipulation consistently affected performance in sequential matching: 1ID instructions improved accuracy on "match" trials and caused participants to adopt a more liberal response bias than the 2ID condition. However, this manipulation did not affect performance in simultaneous matching. We conclude that identity-level representations, generated in working memory, influence the amount of variation tolerated between images, when making identity judgements in sequential face matching. PMID:25686094

  2. NEAR spacecraft flight system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft was built and launched in 29 months. After a 4-year cruise phase the spacecraft was in orbit about the asteroid Eros for 1 year, which enabled the science payload to return unprecedented scientific data. A summary of spacecraft in-flight-performance, including a discussion of the December 1998 aborted orbit insertion burn, is provided. Several minor hardware failures that occurred during the last few years of operations are described. Lessons learned during the cruise phase led to new features being incorporated into several in-flight software uploads. The added innovative features included the capability for the spacecraft to autonomously choose a spacecraft attitude that simultaneously kept the medium-gain antennas pointed at Earth while using solar pressure to control system momentum and a capability to combine a propulsive momentum dump with a trajectory correction maneuver. The spacecraft proved flexible, reliable, and resilient over the 5-year mission.

  3. Responses to formal performance appraisal feedback: the role of negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Lam, Simon S K; Yik, Michelle S M; Schaubroeck, John

    2002-02-01

    This study examined the effects of performance appraisal feedback on job and organizational attitudes of tellers (N = 329) in a large international bank. Negative affectivity moderated the link between favorable appraisal feedback and job attitudes. Among the higher rated performers, attitudes were improved 1 month after being notified of favorable appraisal results (Time 2). Improved attitudes persisted 6 months after the performance appraisal (Time 3) among tellers with low negative affectivity but not among those with high negative affectivity. Among the lower rated performers, mean levels of attitudes did not change significantly during the study. PMID:11924542

  4. Identifying Affective Domains That Correlate and Predict Mathematics Performance in High-Performing Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have shown that distinct yet highly correlated sub-constructs of three broad mathematics affective variables: (a) motivation, (b) attitudes and (c) anxiety, have varying degree of correlation with mathematics achievement. The sub-constructs of these three affective constructs are as follows: (a) (i) amotivation, (ii) external…

  5. AMiBA: System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y.; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-04-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.09-0.32. We achieved a point-source sensitivity of 63 ± 7 mJy with the seven 0.6 m dishes in 1 hr of on-source integration in two-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on timescales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hr per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hr for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using external calibrators (Jupiter and Saturn). Using Jupiter as the flux standard, we measured the disk brightness temperature of Saturn to be 149+5 -12 K.

  6. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  7. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice. PMID:23469474

  8. Severe hypoxia affects exercise performance independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue.

    PubMed

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Laursen, Paul B; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that hypoxia centrally affects performance independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue, we conducted two experiments under complete vascular occlusion of the exercising muscle under different systemic O(2) environmental conditions. In experiment 1, 12 subjects performed repeated submaximal isometric contractions of the elbow flexor to exhaustion (RCTE) with inspired O(2) fraction fixed at 9% (severe hypoxia, SevHyp), 14% (moderate hypoxia, ModHyp), 21% (normoxia, Norm), or 30% (hyperoxia, Hyper). The number of contractions (performance), muscle (biceps brachii), and prefrontal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters and high-frequency paired-pulse (PS100) evoked responses to electrical muscle stimulation were monitored. In experiment 2, 10 subjects performed another RCTE in SevHyp and Norm conditions in which the number of contractions, biceps brachii electromyography responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M wave), and transcranial magnetic stimulation responses (motor-evoked potentials, MEP, and cortical silent period, CSP) were recorded. Performance during RCTE was significantly reduced by 10-15% in SevHyp (arterial O(2) saturation, SpO(2) = ∼75%) compared with ModHyp (SpO(2) = ∼90%) or Norm/Hyper (SpO(2) > 97%). Performance reduction in SevHyp occurred despite similar 1) metabolic (muscle NIRS parameters) and functional (changes in PS100 and M wave) muscle states and 2) MEP and CSP responses, suggesting comparable corticospinal excitability and spinal and cortical inhibition between SevHyp and Norm. It is concluded that, in SevHyp, performance and central drive can be altered independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue. It is concluded that submaximal performance in SevHyp is partly reduced by a mechanism related directly to brain oxygenation. PMID:22323647

  9. An E-learning System based on Affective Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue

    In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.

  10. Carelessness and Affect in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.; de Baker, Ryan S. J.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between students' affect and their frequency of careless errors while using an Intelligent Tutoring System for middle school mathematics. A student is said to have committed a careless error when the student's answer is wrong despite knowing the skill required to provide the correct answer. We…

  11. ACCESS Sub-system Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; Aldoroty, Lauren Nicole; Godon, David; Pelton, Russell; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Wright, Edward L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Paul D.; Moos, H. Warren; Riess, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Sahnow, David J.; Lampton, Michael; Perlmutter, Saul

    2016-01-01

    ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to leverage significant technological advances in detectors, instruments, and the precision of the fundamental laboratory standards used to calibrate these instruments to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of laboratory absolute detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass.A cross wavelength calibration of the astrophysical flux scale to this level of precision over this broad a bandpass is relevant for the data used to probe fundamental astrophysical problems such as the SNeIa photometry based measurements used to constrain dark energy theories.We will describe the strategy for achieving this level of precision, the payload and calibration configuration, present sub-system test data, and the status and preliminary performance of the integration and test of the spectrograph and telescope. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX14AH48G supports this work.

  12. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  13. Does medical students’ clinical performance affect their actual performance during medical internship?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study examines the relationship between the clinical performance of medical students and their performance as doctors during their internships. METHODS This retrospective study involved 63 applicants of a residency programme conducted at Chonnam National University Hospital, South Korea, in November 2012. We compared the performance of the applicants during their internship with their clinical performance during their fourth year of medical school. The performance of the applicants as interns was periodically evaluated by the faculty of each department, while their clinical performance as fourth-year medical students was assessed using the Clinical Performance Examination (CPX) and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). RESULTS The performance of the applicants as interns was positively correlated with their clinical performance as fourth-year medical students, as measured by the CPX and OSCE. The performance of the applicants as interns was moderately correlated with the patient-physician interaction items addressing communication and interpersonal skills in the CPX. CONCLUSION The clinical performance of medical students during their fourth year in medical school was related to their performance as medical interns. Medical students should be trained to develop good clinical skills through actual encounters with patients or simulated encounters using manikins, to enable them to become more competent doctors. PMID:26768172

  14. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    SciTech Connect

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment`s anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material.

  15. [Pleasure, pain and affectivity in the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Houdart, R

    1999-01-01

    Affectivity plays an essential role in human life. It gives life its quality, and is responsible for what human beings have always considered to be main endeavor happiness. Still, looking for its description or organisation, in physiology or neurology, treatises is fruitless; there only one of its components is described pain, with no mention of pleasure. We wish to show, here, first, that pain and pleasure, depend of a same function, of which they are, of sorts, both extremities, and which in nothing but the most primitive function of the nervous system, and secondly, that this function in one of the components of an "affectivity center", which has its organisation in the limbic system. This center, integrating all the informations that arrives to the nervous system, triggers to each of them neuro-vegetative and neuro-hormonal informations that are "felt" by the organism, and thus transforms the information in a subjective feeling.

  16. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  17. Involvement of the mirror neuron system in blunted affect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Chun, Ji Won; Yoon, Sang Young; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Blunted affect is a relatively enduring schizophrenic symptom and its presence brings about poor functioning and outcomes. Functional impairment in the mirror neuron system which is involved in both motor execution and imitation may be a neural basis of blunted affect, but it is not proved yet. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls performed the facial expression task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The task was to reproduce facial expressions in response to the face or word stimuli for happiness, sadness, and meaningless expression. Brain activities during facial expressions in patients compared with controls and their relationship with affective flattening were analyzed. Compared to controls, patients exhibited decreased activity in the widespread dorsal frontal regions and increased activity in the ventral frontal and subcortical regions. Patients also demonstrated significant negative correlation of the severity of affective flattening with activities in the mirror neuron system, such as the premotor cortex, motor cortex, and inferior parietal lobule. Emotional expression in patients with schizophrenia may be related to hypoactivity of the dorsal system and hyperactivity of the ventral system. An imbalance of these two systems may contribute to blunted affect. Directly addressing blunted affect using emotional expression provides a new perspective that functional disturbance of the mirror neuron system may play an important role in manifestation of blunted affect in schizophrenia.

  18. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  19. Job Satisfaction and Performance: The Moderating Effects of Value Attainment and Affective Disposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Brymer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 270 hotel managers found that the strongest positive relationship between job satisfaction and performance occurred when high attainment of values associated with work was coupled with high-positive or low-negative affective disposition. (SK)

  20. Performance-Based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA). Implementation and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    This document contains two sections: implementation of the performance-based Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis (OABA), and supporting research. Section 1 presents OABA, an analytic procedure designed to identify those affective behaviors important to success in an occupation, and gives directions on how to implement the procedure. The…

  1. Using a False Biofeedback Methodology to Explore Relationships between Learners' Affect, Metacognition, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Amber Chauncey; Azevedo, Roger; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2013-01-01

    We used a false-biofeedback methodology to manipulate physiological arousal in order to induce affective states that would influence learners' metacognitive judgments and learning performance. False-biofeedback is a method used to induce physiological arousal (and resultant affective states) by presenting learners with audio stimuli of false heart…

  2. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  3. Happy Places, Horrible Times, and Scary Learners: Affective Performances and Sticky Objects in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naraian, Srikala; Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from two studies conducted in US public schools, this paper traces the affective productions and performances of teachers to illustrate the role of affect in delineating (non)normative pedagogical practices in inclusive classrooms. Occupying a borderland space in narrative inquiry that permitted the straddling of differing…

  4. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  5. Performance related issues in distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    The key elements of research performed during the year long effort of this project are: Investigate the effects of heterogeneity in distributed real time systems; Study the requirements to TRAC towards building a heterogeneous database system; Study the effects of performance modeling on distributed database performance; and Experiment with an ORACLE based heterogeneous system.

  6. User Satisfaction as a Measure of System Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Jillian R.; Johnson, Frances; Hartley, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    It is evident from previous research that user satisfaction is a multidimensional, subjective variable which can be affected by many factors other than performance of the system or searcher. This article draws on information retrieval and information systems literature in an attempt to understand what user satisfaction is, how it is measured, what…

  7. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    John, Chandy C.; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M.; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R.; Peterson, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  8. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    PubMed

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    PubMed

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  10. Electroosmotic pump performance is affected by concentration polarizations of both electrodes and pump

    PubMed Central

    Suss, Matthew E.; Mani, Ali; Zangle, Thomas A.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods of optimizing electroosmotic (EO) pump performance include reducing pore diameter and reducing ionic strength of the pumped electrolyte. However, these approaches each increase the fraction of total ionic current carried by diffuse electric double layer (EDL) counterions. When this fraction becomes significant, concentration polarization (CP) effects become important, and traditional EO pump models are no longer valid. We here report on the first simultaneous concentration field measurements, pH visualizations, flow rate, and voltage measurements on such systems. Together, these measurements elucidate key parameters affecting EO pump performance in the CP dominated regime. Concentration field visualizations show propagating CP enrichment and depletion fronts sourced by our pump substrate and traveling at order mm/min velocities through millimeter-scale channels connected serially to our pump. The observed propagation in millimeter-scale channels is not explained by current propagating CP models. Additionally, visualizations show that CP fronts are sourced by and propagate from the electrodes of our system, and then interact with the EO pump-generated CP zones. With pH visualizations, we directly detect that electrolyte properties vary sharply across the anode enrichment front interface. Our observations lead us to hypothesize possible mechanisms for the propagation of both pump- and electrode-sourced CP zones. Lastly, our experiments show the dynamics associated with the interaction of electrode and membrane CP fronts, and we describe the effect of these phenomena on EO pump flow rates and applied voltages under galvanostatic conditions. PMID:21516230

  11. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making. PMID:23089077

  12. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  13. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems. PMID:24110711

  14. Solar-heating system performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains results of performance tests on complete system for solar space and hot-water heating system that uses commercially available components. Results were used to determine system suitability for field installation and to generate performance data base for comparison with future tests on field installed systems.

  15. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers’ satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. Methods: The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Conclusion: Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered PMID:27041811

  16. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-12-02

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  17. Centrality and Charisma: Comparing How Leader Networks "and" Attributions Affect Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkundi, Prasad; Kilduff, Martin; Harrison, David A.

    2011-01-01

    When leaders interact in teams with their subordinates, they build social capital that can have positive effects on team performance. Does this social capital affect team performance because subordinates come to see the leader as charismatic? We answered this question by examining 2 models. First, we tested the charisma-to-centrality model…

  18. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  19. Some Factors That Affecting the Performance of Mathematics Teachers in Junior High School in Medan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manullang, Martua; Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    Some Factor's That Affecting The Mathematic Teacher Performance For Junior High School In Medan. This research will examine the effect of direct and indirect of the Organizational Knowledge towards the achievement motivation, decision making, organizational commitment, the performance of mathematics teacher. The research method is a method of…

  20. Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

    2012-01-01

    When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

  1. How Need for Cognition Affects the Formation of Performance Expectancies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with low Need for Cognition (NFC) have been found to process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences affect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that the formation of performance expectancies can be understood as an information processing…

  2. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    PubMed

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959

  3. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  4. Mass Storage Performance Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

  5. Implementing a Global Performance Measurement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesoro, Ferdinand; Tootson, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The systematic four-step process introduced in this article lays the basic groundwork in helping an organization link all its programs and initiatives to its strategic goals. Discusses the definition and purpose of performance measurement; elements of a global performance system; and building a global performance measurement system. (AEF)

  6. [Fluorosis of coal burning affects the male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jin; Xiao, Yue-Hai; Sun, Fa

    2014-01-01

    Fluorosis of coal burning is a new type of endemic fluorosis in China, which affects the male reproductive system. Furthermore, the content of fluoride in the semen, sperm mortality, sperm concentration and the incidence of infertility are higher in severe fluorosis areas than in mild- and non-fluorosis areas, so are the levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. However, the levels of inhibin B, serum testosterone and estradiol show different degrees of reduction in severe fluorosis areas. Accordingly, fluorosis of coal burning, just like other endemic fluorosis, may affect the structure of male reproductive organs, the generation of sperm and reproductive endocrinology, resulting in the decline of men's reproductive ability.

  7. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts.

  8. Influence of Design Variations on Systems Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Stone, Robert B.; Huff, Edward M.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-risk aerospace components have to meet very stringent quality, performance, and safety requirements. Any source of variation is a concern, as it may result in scrap or rework. poor performance, and potentially unsafe flying conditions. The sources of variation during product development, including design, manufacturing, and assembly, and during operation are shown. Sources of static and dynamic variation during development need to be detected accurately in order to prevent failure when the components are placed in operation. The Systems' Health and Safety (SHAS) research at the NASA Ames Research Center addresses the problem of detecting and evaluating the statistical variation in helicopter transmissions. In this work, we focus on the variations caused by design, manufacturing, and assembly of these components, prior to being placed in operation (DMV). In particular, we aim to understand and represent the failure and variation information, and their correlation to performance and safety and feed this information back into the development cycle at an early stage. The feedback of such critical information will assure the development of more reliable components with less rework and scrap. Variations during design and manufacturing are a common source of concern in the development and production of such components. Accounting for these variations, especially those that have the potential to affect performance, is accomplished in a variety ways, including Taguchi methods, FMEA, quality control, statistical process control, and variation risk management. In this work, we start with the assumption that any of these variations can be represented mathematically, and accounted for by using analytical tools incorporating these mathematical representations. In this paper, we concentrate on variations that are introduced during design. Variations introduced during manufacturing are investigated in parallel work.

  9. Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: −0.10, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p = 0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of

  10. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  11. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    PubMed

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  12. Monitoring Performance of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    33-page report describes use of computers in automatic on-line monitoring of Centaur rocket prior to launch. Computers analyze measurements and verify events and commands. System uses adaptive software so only real problems are detected and brought to attention of engineers. Software techniques transferable to such industrial uses as batch process control and production line automation.

  13. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

    2009-03-12

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

  14. A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities

  15. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  16. Malaysian and Singaporean students' affective characteristics and mathematics performance: evidence from PISA 2012.

    PubMed

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the extent to which the affective characteristics of Malaysian and Singaporean students' attainment compared to the OECD average in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, and examine the influence of students' affective characteristics, gender, and their socioeconomic status on mathematics performance at both student and school levels. Sample consisted of 5197 and 5546 15-year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.0 software. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed.

  17. Malaysian and Singaporean students' affective characteristics and mathematics performance: evidence from PISA 2012.

    PubMed

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the extent to which the affective characteristics of Malaysian and Singaporean students' attainment compared to the OECD average in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, and examine the influence of students' affective characteristics, gender, and their socioeconomic status on mathematics performance at both student and school levels. Sample consisted of 5197 and 5546 15-year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.0 software. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed. PMID:26543698

  18. [Research on the performance comparing and building of affective computing database based on physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ying, Lijuan; Li, Changwuz

    2014-08-01

    The validity and reasonableness of emotional data are the key issues in the cognitive affective computing research. Effects of the emotion recognition are decided by the quality of selected data directly. Therefore, it is an important part of affective computing research to build affective computing database with good performance, so that it is the hot spot of research in this field. In this paper, the performance of two classical cognitive affective computing databases, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) cognitive affective computing database and Germany Augsburg University emotion recognition database were compared, their data structure and data types were compared respectively, and emotional recognition effect based on the data were studied comparatively. The results indicated that the analysis based on the physical parameters could get the effective emotional recognition, and would be a feasible method of pressure emotional evaluation. Because of the lack of stress emotional evaluation data based on the physiological parameters domestically, there is not a public stress emotional database. We hereby built a dataset for the stress evaluation towards the high stress group in colleges, candidates of postgraduates of Ph. D and master as the subjects. We then acquired their physiological parameters, and performed the pressure analysis based on this database. The results indicated that this dataset had a certain reference value for the stress evaluation, and we hope this research can provide a reference and support for emotion evaluation and analysis.

  19. Thalidomide affects the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Folwarczna, Joanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-01-01

    Apart from having written an inglorious chapter in the history of medicine, thalidomide is currently being intensely studied because of its multidimensional activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats. The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats, divided into eight groups: sham-operated control rats; sham-operated rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po; ovariectomized control rats; ovariectomized rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po. The drug was administered for 4 weeks. Body mass gain and the mass of the uterus, liver, spleen and thymus were studied. Macrometric parameters and content of mineral substances, calcium and phosphorus in the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra and histomorphometric parameters of the femur and tibia were examined. In the femur, the mechanical properties of the whole bone and of the femoral neck were examined. Thalidomide did not affect the skeletal system of the non-ovariectomized rats. Bilateral ovariectomy induced osteoporotic skeletal changes in mature female rats. The effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats depended on the dose used. With a dose of 15 mg/kg, po, thalidomide counteracted some osteoporotic changes induced by estrogen deficiency. With a dose of 60 mg/kg, po, thalidomide intensified the destructive effects of estrogen deficiency on the rat skeletal system.

  20. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates.

    PubMed

    Inman, C F; Haverson, K; Konstantinov, S R; Jones, P H; Harris, C; Smidt, H; Miller, B; Bailey, M; Stokes, C

    2010-06-01

    Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12-28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2-5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12-28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy.

  1. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  2. Cost and Performance of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Davisson, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) model assists in design of Photovoltaic (PV) systems. LCP simulation of performance, cost and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. Provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of PV application.

  3. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-08-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  4. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  5. A Performance Appraisal System for School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert; Common, Ronald W.

    The Performance Review, Analysis, and Improvement System for Educators (PRAISE) is a formative evaluation instrument designed to improve the performance of school principals. The system appears to be reliable and valid and is flexible enough to accommodate the needs of a variety of schools. Sample items and categories of the instrument include…

  6. Business School's Performance Management System Standards Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azis, Anton Mulyono; Simatupang, Togar M.; Wibisono, Dermawan; Basri, Mursyid Hasan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to compare various Performance Management Systems (PMS) for business school in order to find the strengths of each standard as inputs to design new model of PMS. There are many critical aspects and gaps notified for new model to improve performance and even recognized that self evaluation performance management is not well…

  7. Mammographic density measurements are not affected by mammography system

    PubMed Central

    Damases, Christine N.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Mammographic density (MD) is a significant risk factor for breast cancer and has been shown to reduce the sensitivity of mammography screening. Knowledge of a woman’s density can be used to predict her risk of developing breast cancer and personalize her imaging pathway. However, measurement of breast density has proven to be troublesome with wide variations in density recorded using radiologists’ visual Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). Several automated methods for assessing breast density have been proposed, each with their own source of measurement error. The use of differing mammographic imaging systems further complicates MD measurement, especially for the same women imaged over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having a mammogram on differing manufacturer’s equipment affects a woman’s MD measurement. Raw mammographic images were acquired on two mammography imaging systems (General Electric and Hologic) one year apart and processed using VolparaDensity™ to obtain the Volpara Density Grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage (AvBD%). Visual BIRADS scores were also obtained from 20 expert readers. BIRADS scores for both systems showed strong positive correlation (ρ=0.904; p<0.001), while the VDG (ρ=0.978; p<0.001) and AvBD% (ρ=0.973; p<0.001) showed stronger positive correlations. Substantial agreement was shown between the systems for BIRADS (κ=0.692; p<0.001), however, the systems demonstrated an almost perfect agreement for VDG (κ=0.933; p<0.001). PMID:26158085

  8. Internal Challenges Affecting Academic Performance of Student-Athletes in Ghanaian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…

  9. Do prospective workday appraisals influence end-of-workday affect and self-monitored performance?

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Granda, Stephanie E; Barber, Larissa K

    2008-10-01

    The current study uses self-regulation as the basis for a model that examines the influence of three types of workday appraisals (resource, task, and response). At the beginning of their workday, a total of 170 faculty, graduate students, and staff of a university completed appraisal ratings of their anticipated workday tasks, resources, and responses. At the end of the workday, they completed assessments of positive and negative affect and self-monitored performance. Results suggested that resource appraisals of control and skills were predictive of task appraisals of difficulty, threat, and ambiguity. Task appraisals were then predictive of both response appraisals, in terms of anticipated support and effort, and self-monitored performance at the end of the day. Anticipated effort and self-monitored performance were both positively related to positive affect at the end of the day. Anticipated support and self-monitored performance were both negatively related to negative affect at the end of the day, while threat task appraisals were positively related to negative affect. Implications of the results for workplace interventions are discussed. PMID:18837628

  10. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  11. Factors Affecting Business Students' Performance: The Case of Students in United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors found that the most important factor that affected student performance was their competence in speaking English. The sample was a group of 864 business and economics students in United Arab Emirates. The authors used regression analysis for the study. The results of the study showed that students who participated in…

  12. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  13. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE (UFCP) INHALATION AFFECTS CARDIOVASCULAR PERFORMANCE IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled UfCP affect cardiovascular performance in healthy rats (Harder et al. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17:29-42) without apparent pulmonary damage. To assess whether geriatric cardiovascular compromised rats are more susceptible to UfCP effects, male adult (6months) and geriatric (13m...

  14. Students Perceptions on Factors That Affect Their Academic Performance: The Case of Great Zimbabwe University (GZU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…

  15. Do prospective workday appraisals influence end-of-workday affect and self-monitored performance?

    PubMed

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Granda, Stephanie E; Barber, Larissa K

    2008-10-01

    The current study uses self-regulation as the basis for a model that examines the influence of three types of workday appraisals (resource, task, and response). At the beginning of their workday, a total of 170 faculty, graduate students, and staff of a university completed appraisal ratings of their anticipated workday tasks, resources, and responses. At the end of the workday, they completed assessments of positive and negative affect and self-monitored performance. Results suggested that resource appraisals of control and skills were predictive of task appraisals of difficulty, threat, and ambiguity. Task appraisals were then predictive of both response appraisals, in terms of anticipated support and effort, and self-monitored performance at the end of the day. Anticipated effort and self-monitored performance were both positively related to positive affect at the end of the day. Anticipated support and self-monitored performance were both negatively related to negative affect at the end of the day, while threat task appraisals were positively related to negative affect. Implications of the results for workplace interventions are discussed.

  16. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  17. Performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Yinghong; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Data replication and transaction deadlocks can severely affect the performance of distributed database systems. Many current evaluation techniques ignore these aspects, because it is difficult to evaluate through analysis and time consuming to evaluate through simulation. A technique is used that combines simulation and analysis to closely illustrate the impact of deadlock and evaluate performance of replicated distributed database with both shared and exclusive locks.

  18. Performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Yinghong; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Data replications and transaction deadlocks can severely affect the performance of distributed database systems. Many current evaluation techniques ignore these aspects, because it is difficult to evaluate through analysis and time consuming to evaluate through simulation. Here, a technique is discussed that combines simulation and analysis to closely illustrate the impact of deadlock and evaluate performance of replicated distributed databases with both shared and exclusive locks.

  19. Telerobotic system performance measurement: motivation and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-11-01

    Telerobotic systems (TRSs) and shared teleautonomous systems result from the integration of multiple sophisticated modules. Procedures used in systems integration design decision-making of such systems are frequently ad hoc compared to more quantitative and systematic methods employed elsewhere in engineering. Experimental findings associated with verification and validation (V&V) are often application-specific. Furthermore, models and measurement strategies do not exist which allow prediction of overall TRS performance in a given task based on knowledge of the performance characteristics of individual subsystems. This paper introduces the use of general systems performance theory (GSPT), developed by the senior author to help resolve similar problems in human performance, as a basis for: (1) measurement of overall TRS performance (viewing all system components, including the operator, as a single entity); (2) task decomposition; (3) development of a generic TRS model; and (4) the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT uses a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented in the context of a distributed telerobotics network (Universities Space Automation and Robotics Consortium) as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data (i.e., multi-purpose or reusable) is described. Although the work is motivated by space automation and robotics challenges, it is considered to be applicable to telerobotic systems in general.

  20. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Data Validation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond (Technical Monitor); Sowers, T. Shane; Santi, L. Michael; Bickford, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    Online data validation is a performance-enhancing component of modern control and health management systems. It is essential that performance of the data validation system be verified prior to its use in a control and health management system. A new Data Qualification and Validation (DQV) Test-bed application was developed to provide a systematic test environment for this performance verification. The DQV Test-bed was used to evaluate a model-based data validation package known as the Data Quality Validation Studio (DQVS). DQVS was employed as the primary data validation component of a rocket engine health management (EHM) system developed under NASA's NGLT (Next Generation Launch Technology) program. In this paper, the DQVS and DQV Test-bed software applications are described, and the DQV Test-bed verification procedure for this EHM system application is presented. Test-bed results are summarized and implications for EHM system performance improvements are discussed.

  2. Ghosts, UFOs, and magic: positive affect and the experiential system.

    PubMed

    King, Laura A; Burton, Chad M; Hicks, Joshua A; Drigotas, Stephen M

    2007-05-01

    Three studies examined the potential interactions of the experiential system and positive affect (PA) in predicting superstitious beliefs and sympathetic magic. In Study 1, experientiality and induced positive mood interacted to predict the emergence of belief in videos purporting to show unidentified flying objects or ghosts. In Study 2, naturally occurring PA interacted with experientiality to predict susceptibility to sympathetic magic, specifically difficulty in throwing darts at a picture of a baby (demonstrating the law of similarity). In Study 3, induced mood interacted with experientiality to predict sitting farther away from, and expressing less liking for, a partner who had stepped in excrement (demonstrating the law of contagion). Results are interpreted as indicating that PA promotes experiential processing. Implications for the psychology of nonrational beliefs and behaviors are discussed.

  3. Protein oxidation affects proteolysis in a meat model system.

    PubMed

    Berardo, Alberto; Claeys, Erik; Vossen, Els; Leroy, Frédéric; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-08-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced protein oxidation and pH (4.8 and 5.2) on meat proteolysis was investigated in a meat model system for dry fermented sausages. In oxidised samples, increased protein carbonyl contents and decreased thiol concentrations were found. The initial concentration of protein carbonyls was significantly lower in oxidised samples at pH4.8 than in ones at pH5.2, but after ten days comparable levels were reached. The inhibition of proteolysis by the addition of a protease inhibitor cocktail did not influence protein oxidation. Yet, proteolysis was negatively affected by low pH values as well as by oxidation, resulting in a reduced release of amino acids during ripening.

  4. Ghosts, UFOs, and magic: positive affect and the experiential system.

    PubMed

    King, Laura A; Burton, Chad M; Hicks, Joshua A; Drigotas, Stephen M

    2007-05-01

    Three studies examined the potential interactions of the experiential system and positive affect (PA) in predicting superstitious beliefs and sympathetic magic. In Study 1, experientiality and induced positive mood interacted to predict the emergence of belief in videos purporting to show unidentified flying objects or ghosts. In Study 2, naturally occurring PA interacted with experientiality to predict susceptibility to sympathetic magic, specifically difficulty in throwing darts at a picture of a baby (demonstrating the law of similarity). In Study 3, induced mood interacted with experientiality to predict sitting farther away from, and expressing less liking for, a partner who had stepped in excrement (demonstrating the law of contagion). Results are interpreted as indicating that PA promotes experiential processing. Implications for the psychology of nonrational beliefs and behaviors are discussed. PMID:17484612

  5. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  6. Spectral monitoring of power system dynamic performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ostojic, D.R. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents a nonparametric method for the direct spectral analysis of power system dynamic performances after a disturbance. The developed monitoring technique uses a signal processing procedure for determining the time-frequency distribution of energy of electromechanical oscillations. The quantities obtained from this distribution enable a robust monitoring of frequency, damping, energy content and interaction mechanisms of system oscillatory modes. The performances of the proposed method are studied on the example of 10-machine, 39-bus test system.

  7. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  8. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains.

  9. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors. PMID:23398579

  10. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  11. How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

    1997-11-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. PMID:9394089

  12. Shuttle/TDRSS communications system performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the performance analysis performed on the Shuttle/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communications system are presented. The existing Shuttle/TDRSS link simulation program were modified and refined to model the post-radio frequency interference TDRS hardware and to evaluate the performance degradation due to RFI effects. The refined link models were then used to determine, evaluate and assess expected S-band and Ku-band link performance. Parameterization results are presented for the ground station carrier and timing recovery circuits

  13. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  14. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  15. Performance Monitoring of Distributed Data Processing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojha, Anand K.

    2000-01-01

    Test and checkout systems are essential components in ensuring safety and reliability of aircraft and related systems for space missions. A variety of systems, developed over several years, are in use at the NASA/KSC. Many of these systems are configured as distributed data processing systems with the functionality spread over several multiprocessor nodes interconnected through networks. To be cost-effective, a system should take the least amount of resource and perform a given testing task in the least amount of time. There are two aspects of performance evaluation: monitoring and benchmarking. While monitoring is valuable to system administrators in operating and maintaining, benchmarking is important in designing and upgrading computer-based systems. These two aspects of performance evaluation are the foci of this project. This paper first discusses various issues related to software, hardware, and hybrid performance monitoring as applicable to distributed systems, and specifically to the TCMS (Test Control and Monitoring System). Next, a comparison of several probing instructions are made to show that the hybrid monitoring technique developed by the NIST (National Institutes for Standards and Technology) is the least intrusive and takes only one-fourth of the time taken by software monitoring probes. In the rest of the paper, issues related to benchmarking a distributed system have been discussed and finally a prescription for developing a micro-benchmark for the TCMS has been provided.

  16. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  17. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  19. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  20. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena; Tunstel, Edward

    2009-09-01

    To design and develop capable, dependable, and affordable intelligent systems, their performance must be measurable. Scientific methodologies for standardization and benchmarking are crucial for quantitatively evaluating the performance of emerging robotic and intelligent systems technologies. There is currently no accepted standard for quantitatively measuring the performance of these systems against user-defined requirements; and furthermore, there is no consensus on what objective evaluation procedures need to be followed to understand the performance of these systems. The lack of reproducible and repeatable test methods has precluded researchers working towards a common goal from exchanging and communicating results, inter-comparing system performance, and leveraging previous work that could otherwise avoid duplication and expedite technology transfer. Currently, this lack of cohesion in the community hinders progress in many domains, such as manufacturing, service, healthcare, and security. By providing the research community with access to standardized tools, reference data sets, and open source libraries of solutions, researchers and consumers will be able to evaluate the cost and benefits associated with intelligent systems and associated technologies. In this vein, the edited book volume addresses performance evaluation and metrics for intelligent systems, in general, while emphasizing the need and solutions for standardized methods. To the knowledge of the editors, there is not a single book on the market that is solely dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems. Even books that address this topic do so only marginally or are out of date. The research work presented in this volume fills this void by drawing from the experiences and insights of experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. The book presents

  1. Performance and Evaluation of LISP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The final report of the Stanford Lisp Performance Study, Performance and Evaluation of Lisp Systems is the first book to present descriptions on Lisp implementation techniques actually in use. It provides performance information using the tools of benchmarking to measure the various Lisp systems, and provides an understanding of the technical tradeoffs made during the implementation of a Lisp system. The study is divided into three parts. The first provides the theoretical background, outlining the factors that go into evaluating the performance of a Lisp system. The second part presents the Lisp implementations: MacLisp, MIT CADR, LMI Lambda, S-I Lisp, Franz Lisp, MIL, Spice Lisp, Vax Common Lisp, Portable Standard Lisp, and Xerox D-Machine. A final part describes the benchmark suite that was used during the major portion of the study and the results themselves.

  2. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take

  3. Using representations in geometry: a model of students' cognitive and affective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaoura, Areti

    2014-05-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics, as a dimension of the affective domain, are related with students' performance on solving tasks and mainly on overcoming cognitive obstacles. The present study investigated the interrelations of cognitive performance on geometry and young students' self-efficacy beliefs about using representations for solving geometrical tasks. The emphasis was on confirming a theoretical model for the primary-school and secondary-school students and identifying the differences and similarities for the two ages. A quantitative study was developed and data were collected from 1086 students in Grades 5-8. Confirmatory factor analysis affirmed the existence of a coherent model of affective dimensions about the use of representations for understanding the geometrical concepts, which becomes more stable across the educational levels.

  4. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities.

  5. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:24811826

  6. A Behavior-Based Employee Performance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, William B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses human performance technology models for describing and understanding factors involved in day-to-day functioning of employees and then to develop specific remedial interventions as needed, and contrasts it to an organizational performance system perspective used to design an organization before employees are even hired to prevent bad…

  7. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  8. The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

    2005-09-18

    Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

  9. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    1997-05-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process.

  10. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  11. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  12. Myocardial performance index correlates with the BODE index and affects quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Masson-Silva, João Batista; Ribeiro, Lays Silva; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD, a systemic illness associated with the impairment of different organs, affects patient prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between right ventricle (RV) function, the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (a multifunctional scale for the assessment of mortality risk), and quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 107 outpatients presenting with stable COPD who underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, arterial blood gas analyses, a 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram and who responded to the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Among the study subjects, 53% (57/107) were males, and the mean age was 65.26±8.81 years. A positive correlation was observed between RV dysfunction measured by the myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (MPIt) and the BODE index, even after adjustment for age and partial pressure of oxygen (r2=0.47; P<0.01). Patients with alterations in the MPIt had worse quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was found for different domains of the SGRQ. Patients with a normal MPIt had a mean total score of 46.2±18.6, whereas for those with MPIt alterations, the mean total score was 61.6±14.2 (P=0.005). These patients had a 1.49-fold increased risk of exhibiting SGRQ total score above the upper limit of the 95% CI (P=0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that RV dysfunction as measured by the MPIt was associated with impairment in quality of life and a worse BODE index in COPD patients, irrespective of age and hypoxemia status.

  13. Myocardial performance index correlates with the BODE index and affects quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Masson-Silva, João Batista; Ribeiro, Lays Silva; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD, a systemic illness associated with the impairment of different organs, affects patient prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between right ventricle (RV) function, the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (a multifunctional scale for the assessment of mortality risk), and quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 107 outpatients presenting with stable COPD who underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, arterial blood gas analyses, a 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram and who responded to the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Among the study subjects, 53% (57/107) were males, and the mean age was 65.26±8.81 years. A positive correlation was observed between RV dysfunction measured by the myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (MPIt) and the BODE index, even after adjustment for age and partial pressure of oxygen (r2=0.47; P<0.01). Patients with alterations in the MPIt had worse quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was found for different domains of the SGRQ. Patients with a normal MPIt had a mean total score of 46.2±18.6, whereas for those with MPIt alterations, the mean total score was 61.6±14.2 (P=0.005). These patients had a 1.49-fold increased risk of exhibiting SGRQ total score above the upper limit of the 95% CI (P=0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that RV dysfunction as measured by the MPIt was associated with impairment in quality of life and a worse BODE index in COPD patients, irrespective of age and hypoxemia status. PMID:27695314

  14. An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human capital and encourage a high degree of social exchange within an organization, and that these are positively related to the organization's overall performance. On the basis of a sample of Japanese establishments, the results provide support for the existence of these mediating mechanisms through which high-performance work systems affect overall establishment performance.

  15. Strapdown system performance optimization test evaluations (SPOT), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, R. J.; Gilmore, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A three axis inertial system was packaged in an Apollo gimbal fixture for fine grain evaluation of strapdown system performance in dynamic environments. These evaluations have provided information to assess the effectiveness of real-time compensation techniques and to study system performance tradeoffs to factors such as quantization and iteration rate. The strapdown performance and tradeoff studies conducted include: (1) Compensation models and techniques for the inertial instrument first-order error terms were developed and compensation effectivity was demonstrated in four basic environments; single and multi-axis slew, and single and multi-axis oscillatory. (2) The theoretical coning bandwidth for the first-order quaternion algorithm expansion was verified. (3) Gyro loop quantization was identified to affect proportionally the system attitude uncertainty. (4) Land navigation evaluations identified the requirement for accurate initialization alignment in order to pursue fine grain navigation evaluations.

  16. Performance modeling of nonconcentrating solar detoxification systems

    SciTech Connect

    March, M.; Martin, A.; Saltiel, C.

    1995-03-01

    A detailed simulation model is developed for predicting the performance of solar detoxification systems. Concentration profiles are determined via a method of lines approach during sunlight hours for acquired and synthetic (simulating clear and cloudy days) ultraviolet radiation intensity data. Verification of the model is performed with comparison against indoor laboratory and outdoor field test results. Simulations are performed over a range of design parameters to examine system sensitivity. Discussions are focused on the determination of optimal sizing and operating conditions. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  17. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  18. Measuring Performance with Library Automated Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OFarrell, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the capability of three library automated systems to generate some of the datasets necessary to form the ISO (International Standards Organization) standard on performance measurement within libraries, based on research in Liverpool John Moores University (United Kingdom). Concludes that the systems are weak in generating the…

  19. Diversity in School Performance Feedback Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaeghe, Goedele; Schildkamp, Kim; Luyten, Hans; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As data-based decision making is receiving increased attention in education, more and more school performance feedback systems (SPFSs) are being developed and used worldwide. These systems provide schools with data on their functioning. However, little research is available on the characteristics of the different SPFSs. Therefore, this study…

  20. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US.

  1. SIMS prototype system 4 - performance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water was evaluated. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies its suitability for field installation.

  2. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2012-07-24

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU comprises: a plurality of performance counters each for counting signals representing occurrences of events from one or more the plurality of processor units in the multiprocessor system; and, a plurality of input devices for receiving the event signals from one or more processor devices of the plurality of processor units, the plurality of input devices programmable to select event signals for receipt by one or more of the plurality of performance counters for counting, wherein the PMU is shared between multiple processing units, or within a group of processors in the multiprocessing system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  3. Performance boundaries for prioritized multiplexing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Rubin, Izhak

    1987-01-01

    Systems in which many data sources are multiplexed over a single communication channel are considered. Data from all the sources are generated in fixed-length packets and are stored in a common buffer with finite capacity. Packets that overflowed or were removed from the buffer prior to transmission are lost. The system performance measure is the set of packet loss probabilities associated with the sources. Queueing disciplines vary depending on the stringency of prioritization and the utilization of the system resources. The set of all possible performances is characterized as the set of all queueing disciplines is spanned. Whether a given performance is possible can be deduced. Strategies that achieve the minimum overall loss probability are identified. The extreme disciplines are specified, and their performances are calculable by means of a given algorithm.

  4. A Perspective on DSN System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Timothy T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance analysis effort being carried out in the NASA Deep Space Network. The activity involves root cause analysis of failures and assessment of key performance metrics. The root cause analysis helps pinpoint the true cause of observed problems so that proper correction can be effected. The assessment currently focuses on three aspects: (1) data delivery metrics such as Quantity, Quality, Continuity, and Latency; (2) link-performance metrics such as antenna pointing, system noise temperature, Doppler noise, frequency and time synchronization, wide-area-network loading, link-configuration setup time; and (3) reliability, maintainability, availability metrics. The analysis establishes whether the current system is meeting its specifications and if so, how much margin is available. The findings help identify the weak points in the system and direct attention of programmatic investment for performance improvement.

  5. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lettsome, Annette K.; /Bethune-Cookman Coll. /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface.

  6. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. PMID:25995306

  7. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are.

  8. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  9. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randal G.; Robinson, Elisa L.

    1988-01-01

    The Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES), which supports the Hellfire missile and Copperhead projectile laser seekers, is discussed. The ALSPES capabilities in manual and automatic operation are described, and the ALSPES test hardware is examined, including the computer system, the laser/attenuator, optics systems, seeker test fixture, and the measurement and test equipment. The calibration of laser energy and test signals in ALSPES is considered.

  10. Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

    2005-04-01

    The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings.

  11. Factors affecting the performance of maternal health care providers in Armenia

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Alfredo L; Voltero, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Background Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. Each of these factors should be supplied by the organization in which the provider works, and thus, organizational support is considered as an overarching element for analysis. Little research, domestically or internationally, has been conducted on the actual effects of each of the factors on performance outcomes and most PI practitioners assume that all the factors are needed in order for performance to improve. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors, individually as well as in combination, affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives) in two regions of Armenia. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five nurses and midwives were observed conducting real or simulated antenatal and postpartum/neonatal care services and interviewed about the presence or absence of the performance factors within their work environment. Results were analyzed to compare average performance with the existence or absence of the factors; then, multiple regression analysis was conducted with the merged datasets to obtain the best models of "predictors" of performance within each clinical service. Results Baseline results revealed that performance was sub-standard in several areas and several performance factors were deficient or nonexistent. The multivariate analysis showed that (a) training in the use of the clinic tools; and (b) receiving recognition from the employer or the client/community, are factors strongly associated with performance, followed by (c) receiving performance feedback in postpartum care. Other – extraneous – variables such as the facility

  12. Detection performance of laser range-gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaofeng; Luo, Jijun; Zhang, Shengxiu; Xu, Yibin

    2010-10-01

    Laser radar is rapidly developing towards very capable sensors for number of applications such as military sensing and guidance, auto collision avoidance, robotic vision and atmospheric sensing. In this paper, the detection performance of non-scanned Laser Rang-gated (LRG) imaging system is studied. In order to compute the detection range of laser active imaging system, the range equation is derived by using laser illuminating model and considering factors which affect system imaging quality. According to the principle of laser radar and the characters of objects and the detectors in special applied setting, it mainly deduced the non-scanned laser radar range equation of the range-gated system, meanwhile, the SNR model of non-scanned LRG imaging system is set up. Then, relationship of the detection probability, the false alarm probability and the signal-to-noise ratio in the non-scanned LRG imaging system are analyzed, the influence factors of system's performance are pointed out, and the solution is proposed. The detection performance simulation software of non-scanned LRG imaging system is designed with MATLAB and the performance of the imaging system is simulated.

  13. Young doctors' health--I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?

    PubMed

    Baldwin, P J; Dodd, M; Wrate, R W

    1997-07-01

    Long hours and other difficult working conditions are thought to affect the health of young doctors, but there has been little evidence to support these assertions. Data are presented from a class cohort of junior doctors in the U.K. showing the relationships between working conditions, health and performance. Long hours appear to have short-term consequences in terms of the doctors feeling unwell and reporting poor performance, as measured by the somatic and social dysfunction scales of the General Health Questionnaire, but there are no demonstrated long-term health consequences. Instead, a number of working conditions, number of emergency admissions, number of deaths on the ward and the number of minor menial tasks contribute to a perception of being overwhelmed, as revealed by factor analysis of the Attitudes to Work questionnaire. This factor correlates significantly with a range of long-term physical and mental health measures as well as measure of work performance. PMID:9203268

  14. How Explicit and Implicit Test Instructions in an Implicit Learning Task Affect Performance

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised. PMID:23326409

  15. Scalable Performance Environments for Parallel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Daniel A.; Olson, Robert D.; Aydt, Ruth A.; Madhyastha, Tara M.; Birkett, Thomas; Jensen, David W.; Nazief, Bobby A. A.; Totty, Brian K.

    1991-01-01

    As parallel systems expand in size and complexity, the absence of performance tools for these parallel systems exacerbates the already difficult problems of application program and system software performance tuning. Moreover, given the pace of technological change, we can no longer afford to develop ad hoc, one-of-a-kind performance instrumentation software; we need scalable, portable performance analysis tools. We describe an environment prototype based on the lessons learned from two previous generations of performance data analysis software. Our environment prototype contains a set of performance data transformation modules that can be interconnected in user-specified ways. It is the responsibility of the environment infrastructure to hide details of module interconnection and data sharing. The environment is written in C++ with the graphical displays based on X windows and the Motif toolkit. It allows users to interconnect and configure modules graphically to form an acyclic, directed data analysis graph. Performance trace data are represented in a self-documenting stream format that includes internal definitions of data types, sizes, and names. The environment prototype supports the use of head-mounted displays and sonic data presentation in addition to the traditional use of visual techniques.

  16. Performance analysis of memory hierachies in high performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesh, A.

    1993-07-01

    This thesis studies memory bandwidth as a performance predictor of programs. The focus of this work is on computationally intensive programs. These programs are the most likely to access large amounts of data, stressing the memory system. Computationally intensive programs are also likely to use highly optimizing compilers to produce the fastest executables possible. Methods to reduce the amount of data traffic by increasing the average number of references to each item while it resides in the cache are explored. Increasing the average number of references to each cache item reduces the number of memory requests. Chapter 2 describes the DLX architecture. This is the architecture on which all the experiments were performed. Chapter 3 studies memory moves as a performance predictor for a group of application programs. Chapter 4 introduces a model to study the performance of programs in the presence of memory hierarchies. Chapter 5 explores some compiler optimizations that can help increase the references to each item while it resides in the cache.

  17. Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra Sana

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family

  18. Swimming performance of hatchling green turtles is affected by incubation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Booth, David T.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment repeated for two separate years, incubation temperature was found to affect the body size and swimming performance of hatchling green turtles ( Chelonia mydas). In the first year, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 26°C were larger in size than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C, whilst in the second year hatchlings from 25.5°C were similar in size to hatchings from 30°C. Clutch of origin influenced the size of hatchlings at all incubation temperatures even when differences in egg size were taken into account. In laboratory measurements of swimming performance, in seawater at 28°C, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 25.5 and 26°C had a lower stroke rate frequency and lower force output than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C. These differences appeared to be caused by the muscles of hatchlings from cooler temperatures fatiguing at a faster rate. Clutch of origin did not influence swimming performance. This finding that hatchling males incubated at lower temperature had reduced swimming ability may affect their survival whilst running the gauntlet of predators in shallow near-shore waters, prior to reaching the relative safety of the open sea.

  19. Performance management system enhancement and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaver, T. G.; Ahour, R.; Johnson, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The research described in this report concludes a two-year effort to develop a Performance Management System (PMS) for the NCC computers. PMS provides semi-automated monthly reports to NASA and contractor management on the status and performance of the NCC computers in the TDRSS program. Throughout 1984, PMS was tested, debugged, extended, and enhanced. Regular PMS monthly reports were produced and distributed. PMS continues to operate at the NCC under control of Bendix Corp. personnel.

  20. Effects of drought-affected corn and nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme inclusion on nursery pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Frantz, E L; Bingham, A C; Bergstrom, J R; DeRouchey, J M; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrase enzymes has been inconsistent in corn-based swine diets; however, the increased substrate of nonstarch polysaccharides in drought-affected corn may provide an economic model for enzyme inclusion, but this has not been evaluated. A total of 360 barrows (PIC 1050 × 337, initially 5.85 kg BW) were used to determine the effects of drought-affected corn inclusion with or without supplementation of commercial carbohydrases on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Initially, 34 corn samples were collected to find representatives of normal and drought-affected corn. The lot selected to represent the normal corn had a test weight of 719.4 kg/m3, 15.0% moisture, and 4.2% xylan. The lot selected to represent drought-affected corn had a test weight of 698.8 kg/m3, 14.3% moisture, and 4.7% xylan. After a 10-d acclimation period postweaning, nursery pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of corn (normal vs. drought affected) and enzyme inclusion (none vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A vs. 250 mg/kg Enzyme B vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A + 250 mg/kg Enzyme B). Both enzymes were included blends of β-glucanase, cellulose, and xylanase (Enzyme A) or hemicellulase and pectinases (Enzyme B). Pigs were fed treatment diets from d 10 to 35 postweaning in 2 phases. Feed and fecal samples were collected on d 30 postweaning to determine apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. The nutrient concentrations of normal and drought-affected corn were similar, which resulted in few treatment or main effects differences of corn type or enzyme inclusion. No interactions were observed (P > 0.10) between corn source and enzyme inclusion. Overall (d 10 to 35), treatments had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but enzyme A inclusion tended to improve (P < 0.10; 0.74 vs. 0.69) G:F, which was primarily driven by the improved feed efficiency (0

  1. Effects of drought-affected corn and nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme inclusion on nursery pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Frantz, E L; Bingham, A C; Bergstrom, J R; DeRouchey, J M; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrase enzymes has been inconsistent in corn-based swine diets; however, the increased substrate of nonstarch polysaccharides in drought-affected corn may provide an economic model for enzyme inclusion, but this has not been evaluated. A total of 360 barrows (PIC 1050 × 337, initially 5.85 kg BW) were used to determine the effects of drought-affected corn inclusion with or without supplementation of commercial carbohydrases on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Initially, 34 corn samples were collected to find representatives of normal and drought-affected corn. The lot selected to represent the normal corn had a test weight of 719.4 kg/m3, 15.0% moisture, and 4.2% xylan. The lot selected to represent drought-affected corn had a test weight of 698.8 kg/m3, 14.3% moisture, and 4.7% xylan. After a 10-d acclimation period postweaning, nursery pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of corn (normal vs. drought affected) and enzyme inclusion (none vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A vs. 250 mg/kg Enzyme B vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A + 250 mg/kg Enzyme B). Both enzymes were included blends of β-glucanase, cellulose, and xylanase (Enzyme A) or hemicellulase and pectinases (Enzyme B). Pigs were fed treatment diets from d 10 to 35 postweaning in 2 phases. Feed and fecal samples were collected on d 30 postweaning to determine apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. The nutrient concentrations of normal and drought-affected corn were similar, which resulted in few treatment or main effects differences of corn type or enzyme inclusion. No interactions were observed (P > 0.10) between corn source and enzyme inclusion. Overall (d 10 to 35), treatments had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but enzyme A inclusion tended to improve (P < 0.10; 0.74 vs. 0.69) G:F, which was primarily driven by the improved feed efficiency (0

  2. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: the role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders. PMID:22969712

  3. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L. Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits. PMID:25240065

  4. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-12-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits.

  5. Brain systems for assessing the affective value of faces.

    PubMed

    Said, Christopher P; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-06-12

    Cognitive neuroscience research on facial expression recognition and face evaluation has proliferated over the past 15 years. Nevertheless, large questions remain unanswered. In this overview, we discuss the current understanding in the field, and describe what is known and what remains unknown. In §2, we describe three types of behavioural evidence that the perception of traits in neutral faces is related to the perception of facial expressions, and may rely on the same mechanisms. In §3, we discuss cortical systems for the perception of facial expressions, and argue for a partial segregation of function in the superior temporal sulcus and the fusiform gyrus. In §4, we describe the current understanding of how the brain responds to emotionally neutral faces. To resolve some of the inconsistencies in the literature, we perform a large group analysis across three different studies, and argue that one parsimonious explanation of prior findings is that faces are coded in terms of their typicality. In §5, we discuss how these two lines of research--perception of emotional expressions and face evaluation--could be integrated into a common, cognitive neuroscience framework.

  6. Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo N; Grewal, Daisy; Kadis, Jessica; Gall, Michelle; Salovey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The relation between emotional intelligence, assessed with a performance measure, and positive workplace outcomes was examined in 44 analysts and clerical employees from the finance department of a Fortune 400 insurance company. Emotionally intelligent individuals received greater merit increases and held higher company rank than their counterparts. They also received better peer and/or supervisor ratings of interpersonal facilitation and stress tolerance than their counterparts. With few exceptions, these associations remained statistically significant after controlling for other predictors, one at a time, including age, gender, education, verbal ability, the Big Five personality traits, and trait affect. PMID:17295970

  7. Transit factors affecting shrink, shipping fever and subsequent performance of feeder calves.

    PubMed

    Camp, T H; Stevens, D G; Stermer, R A; Anthony, J P

    1981-06-01

    Five shipments of feeder calves (965 head hauled in 11 drop-center trailers) were shipped 1,600 km by tractor trailer from Algood, Tennessee, to Bushland, Texas, during the fall seasons of 1976, 1977 and 1978. Shrink, incidence of shipping fever and subsequent feedlot performance of these feeder calves were analyzed. There were significant differences in shrink and subsequent feedlot performance between calves shipped on different dates. In only one instance was there a significant difference in shrink between trucks of steers shipped on the same date, and this was due to a difference of in-transit time between trucks. There were no significant differences in shrink, incidence of shipping fever of feedlot performance between calves shipped in different trailer compartments, nor were there any interactions between shipping dates and trailer compartments for shrink, incidence of shipping fever and feedlot performance. The number of calves treated for shipping fever did not differ significantly among trailer compartments, but did differ among shipment dates. Significant differences in morbidity between shipping dates indicate that the incidence of shipping fever is apparently affected by environmental conditions before, during and immediately after transit. The results indicate that multiple truckloads of calves, if traveling together, can be treated as a single unit for the statistical analysis of shrink, incidence of shipping fever and feedlot performance.

  8. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  9. Materials performance in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-12-01

    A number of advanced technologies are being developed to convert coal into clean fuels for use as feedstock in chemical plants and for power generation. From the standpoint of component materials, the environments created by coal conversion and combustion in these technologies and their interactions with materials are of interest. The trend in the new or advanced systems is to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the process effluents. This paper discusses several systems that are under development and identifies requirements for materials application in those systems. Available data on the performance of materials in several of the environments are used to examine the performance envelopes for materials for several of the systems and to identify needs for additional work in different areas.

  10. System Performance Projections for TPV Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    PF Baldasaro; MW Dashiell; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; P Fourspring; K Rahner; LR Danielson; S Burger; E Brown

    2004-06-09

    TPV technology has advanced rapidly in the last five years, with diode conversion efficiency approaching >30%, and filter efficiency of {approx}80%. These achievements have enabled repeatable testing of 20% efficient small systems, demonstrating the potential of TPV energy conversion. Near term technology gains support a 25% efficient technology demonstration in the two year timeframe. However, testing of full size systems, which includes efficiency degradation mechanisms, such as: nonuniform diode illumination, diode and filter variability, temperature non-uniformities, conduction/convection losses, and lifetime reliability processes needs to be performed. A preliminary analysis of these differential effects has been completed, and indicates a near term integrated system efficiency of {approx}15% is possible using current technology, with long term growth to 18-20%. This report addresses the system performance issues.

  11. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  12. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  13. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  14. Advances in the study of far-field phenomena affecting repository performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of far-field phenomena affecting repository performance have focussed on the role of fractures and other heterogeneities in the potential transport of radioactive solutes from the repository to the biosphere. The present paper summarizes two recent advances in the subject: the channeling model for the understanding and analysis tracer transport in variable-aperture fractures and the modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geologic formation around a repository. The paper concludes with remarks on the need for duality in the approach to performance assessment. One line of the duality is fundamental studies and the other, goal-oriented assessment to satisfy regulatory requirements. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2007-12-20

    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  16. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  17. Domains of the Florida Performance Measurement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This monograph sets forth in detail the concepts included in the five domains of teaching as identified by the Florida Coalition for the Development of a Performance Evaluation System. The first domain, planning, includes the concepts: (1) content coverage; (2) utilization of instructional materials; (3) activity structure; (4) goal focusing; and…

  18. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: AXIAL RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Confocal Microscopy System Performance: Axial resolution.
    Robert M. Zucker, PhD

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Re...

  19. EVALUATION OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND. The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. Currently there is a subjective nature in the assessment of a confocal microscope's performance by primarily evaluating the system with a specific test slide provided by ea...

  20. Improved perceptual-motor performance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Reilly, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Battery of tests determines the primary dimensions of perceptual-motor performance. Eighteen basic measures range from simple tests to sophisticated electronic devices. Improved system has one unit for the subject containing test display and response elements, and one for the experimenter where test setups, programming, and scoring are accomplished.

  1. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  2. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  3. Cognition-Based and Affect-Based Trust as Mediators of Leader Behavior Influences on Team Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S. K.; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based…

  4. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  5. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  6. RHIC Sextant Test - Accelerator Systems and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, F.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Connolly, R.; dell, G. F.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; Mackay, W.; Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Wei, J.

    1997-05-01

    One sextant of the RHIC collider and the full AtR (AGS to RHIC) transfer line have been commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the design and performance of the accelerator systems during the test, such as the magnet and power supply systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. After reviewing the main milestones of the commissioning we describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems preformance and their impact on the plannig for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  7. Thought waves remotely affect the performance (output voltage) of photoelectric cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong; Cao, Daqing

    2012-02-01

    In our experiments, thought waves have been shown to be capable of changing (affecting) the output voltage of photovoltaic cells located from as far away as 1-3 meters. There are no wires between brain and photoelectric cell and so it is presumed only the thought waves act on the photoelectric cell. In continual rotations, the experiments tested different solar cells, measuring devices and lamps, and the experiments were done in different labs. The first experiment was conducted on Oct 2002. Tests are ongoing. Conclusions and assumptions include: 1) the slow thought wave has the energy of space-time as defined by C1.00007: The mass, energy, space and time systemic theory- MEST. Every process releases a field effect electrical vibration which be transmitted and focussed in particular paths; 2) the thought wave has the information of the order of tester; 3) the brain (with the physical system of MEST) and consciousness (with the spirit system of the mind, consciousness, emotion and desire-MECD) can produce the information (a part of them as the Genetic code); 4) through some algorithms such as ACO Ant Colony Optimization and EA Evolutionary Algorithm (or genetic algorithm) working in RAM, human can optimize the information. This Optimizational function is the intelligence; 5) In our experiments, not only can thought waves affect the voltage of the output photoelectric signals by its energy, but they can also selectively increase or decrease those photoelectric currents through remote consciousness interface and a conscious-brain information technology.

  8. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  9. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  10. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities developed for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues is provided. A set of 10 performance models are selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. The issues are discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. The models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  11. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  12. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-05-19

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contain power budget, next supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of a monitoring system that continuously inspects the evolution of run

  13. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-12-31

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contained power budget, next generation supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of such a monitoring system.

  14. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  15. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, D.; Samarakone, T. S.; Gunawardena, W. W. D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  16. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  17. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-13

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.

  18. SIGPI. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patenaude, C.J.

    1992-01-14

    SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependent components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.

  19. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance.

    2000-02-21

    Version 00 SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependentmore » components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  20. Fast scintillation counter system and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishioka, A.; Ohmori, N.; Kusumose, M.; Nakatsuka, T.; Horiki, T.; Hatano, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of the fast scintillation counter (FS) system to observe a shower disk structure at Mt. Norikura is described, especially the system performance and a pulse wave-form by a single charge particles. The photomultiplier tube (PT) pulse appears at the leading edge of the main pulse. To remove this PT-pulse from the main pulse, the frame of the scintillator vessel was changed. The fast triggering system was made to decrease the dead time which came from the use of the function of the self triggering of the storage oscilloscope (OSC). To provide a new field on the multi-parameter study of the cosmic ray showers, the system response of the FS system also improved as a result of many considerations.

  1. Pilot Performance With Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1997-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the benefits of predictive information have not been quantitatively demonstrated. The study described here attempted to identify and quantify these benefits if they existed. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to an alert (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+ 45 minutes) were found to affect when subjects accomplished certain actions, such as accessing pertinent checklists, declaring emergencies, diverting, and calling the flight attendant and dispatch.

  2. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-01-01

    When designing a photovoltaic (PV) system for northern climates, the prospective installation should be evaluated with respect to the potentially detrimental effects of snow preventing solar radiation from reaching the PV cells. The extent to which snow impacts performance is difficult to determine because snow events also increase the uncertainty of the solar radiation measurement, and the presence of snow needs to be distinguished from other events that can affect performance. This paper describes two instruments useful for evaluating PV system performance losses from the presence of snow: (1) a pyranometer with a heater to prevent buildup of ice and snow, and (2) a digital camera for remote retrieval of images to determine the presence of snow on the PV array.

  3. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H.; Gilhuis, H. Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G.; Brands, Augustina M.

    2015-01-01

    In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS) were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18), cognition (CDR System), fatigue (MFIS-5), depressive symptoms (BDI), disease impact (MSIS-29), and disability (EDSS). Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001), Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001), and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01), and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01). Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy. PMID:26064686

  4. Do senior management cultures affect performance? Evidence from Italian public healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Prenestini, Anna; Lega, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are often characterized by diffuse power, ambiguous goals, and a plurality of actors. In this complex and pluralistic context, senior healthcare managers are expected to provide strategic direction and lead their organizations toward their goals and performance targets. The present work explores the relationship between senior management team culture and performance by investigating Italian public healthcare organizations in the Tuscany region. Our assessment of senior management culture was accomplished through the use of an established framework and a corresponding tool, the competing values framework, which supports the idea that specific aspects of performance are related to a dominant management culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide range of measures collected by a multidimensional performance evaluation system, which was developed in Tuscany to measure the performance of its 12 local health authorities (LHAs) and four teaching hospitals (THs). Usable responses were received from 80 senior managers of 11 different healthcare organizations (two THs and nine LHAs). Our findings show that Tuscan healthcare organizations are characterized by various dominant cultures: developmental, clan, rational, and hierarchical. These variations in dominant culture were associated with performance measures. The implications for management theory, professional practice, and public policy are discussed.

  5. Measures of GCM Performance as Functions of Model Parameters Affecting Clouds and Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Mu, Q.; Sen, M.; Stoffa, P.

    2002-05-01

    This abstract is one of three related presentations at this meeting dealing with several issues surrounding optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of model predictions of climate. Uncertainty in model predictions of climate depends in part on the uncertainty produced by model approximations or parameterizations of unresolved physics. Evaluating these uncertainties is computationally expensive because one needs to evaluate how arbitrary choices for any given combination of model parameters affects model performance. Because the computational effort grows exponentially with the number of parameters being investigated, it is important to choose parameters carefully. Evaluating whether a parameter is worth investigating depends on two considerations: 1) does reasonable choices of parameter values produce a large range in model response relative to observational uncertainty? and 2) does the model response depend non-linearly on various combinations of model parameters? We have decided to narrow our attention to selecting parameters that affect clouds and radiation, as it is likely that these parameters will dominate uncertainties in model predictions of future climate. We present preliminary results of ~20 to 30 AMIPII style climate model integrations using NCAR's CCM3.10 that show model performance as functions of individual parameters controlling 1) critical relative humidity for cloud formation (RHMIN), and 2) boundary layer critical Richardson number (RICR). We also explore various definitions of model performance that include some or all observational data sources (surface air temperature and pressure, meridional and zonal winds, clouds, long and short-wave cloud forcings, etc...) and evaluate in a few select cases whether the model's response depends non-linearly on the parameter values we have selected.

  6. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    SciTech Connect

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  7. Modeling Topaz-II system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Klein, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The US acquisition of the Topaz-11 in-core thermionic space reactor test system from Russia provides a good opportunity to perform a comparison of the Russian reported data and the results from computer codes such as MCNP (Ref. 3) and TFEHX (Ref. 4). The comparison study includes both neutronic and thermionic performance analyses. The Topaz II thermionic reactor is modeled with MCNP using actual Russian dimensions and parameters. The computation of the neutronic performance considers several important aspects such as the fuel enrichment and location of the thermionic fuel elements (TFES) in the reactor core. The neutronic analysis included the calculation of both radial and axial power distribution, which are then used in the TFEHX code for electrical performance. The reactor modeled consists of 37 single-cell TFEs distributed in a 13-cm-radius zirconium hydride block surrounded by 8 cm of beryllium metal reflector. The TFEs use 90% enriched [sup 235]U and molybdenum coated with a thin layer of [sup 184]W for emitter surface. Electrons emitted are captured by a collector surface with a gap filled with cesium vapor between the collector and emitter surfaces. The collector surface is electrically insulated with alumina. Liquid NaK provides the cooling system for the TFEs. The axial thermal power distribution is obtained by dividing the TFE into 40 axial nodes. Comparison of the true axial power distribution with that produced by electrical heaters was also performed.

  8. Hologlyphics: volumetric image synthesis performance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Walter

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a novel volumetric image synthesis system and artistic technique, which generate moving volumetric images in real-time, integrated with music. The system, called the Hologlyphic Funkalizer, is performance based, wherein the images and sound are controlled by a live performer, for the purposes of entertaining a live audience and creating a performance art form unique to volumetric and autostereoscopic images. While currently configured for a specific parallax barrier display, the Hologlyphic Funkalizer's architecture is completely adaptable to various volumetric and autostereoscopic display technologies. Sound is distributed through a multi-channel audio system; currently a quadraphonic speaker setup is implemented. The system controls volumetric image synthesis, production of music and spatial sound via acoustic analysis and human gestural control, using a dedicated control panel, motion sensors, and multiple musical keyboards. Music can be produced by external acoustic instruments, pre-recorded sounds or custom audio synthesis integrated with the volumetric image synthesis. Aspects of the sound can control the evolution of images and visa versa. Sounds can be associated and interact with images, for example voice synthesis can be combined with an animated volumetric mouth, where nuances of generated speech modulate the mouth's expressiveness. Different images can be sent to up to 4 separate displays. The system applies many novel volumetric special effects, and extends several film and video special effects into the volumetric realm. Extensive and various content has been developed and shown to live audiences by a live performer. Real world applications will be explored, with feedback on the human factors.

  9. Annual Cycle Energy System characteristics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Abbatiello, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) provides space heating, air conditioning, and domestic water heating while using substantially less energy than competing systems providing the same services. The ACES is based on an electrically driven, unidirectional heat pump that extracts heat from an insulated tank of water during the heating season. As the heat is extracted, most of the water freezes, and the stored ice provides air conditioning in the summer. A single-family residence near Knoxville, Tennessee is being used to demonstrate the energy conserving features of the ACES. A second similar house, the control house, has been used to compare the performance of the ACES to both an electric resistance heating and hot water with central air conditioning system and an air-to-air heat pump system. The results of the first year's operation from November 1977 through mid-September 1978 showed that the ACES consumed 9012 kWh of electricity while delivering an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.78. The control house consumed 20,523 kWh of electricity while delivering an annual COP of 1.13. The second annual cycle was started on December 1978. The ACES was compared with an air-to-air heat pump during this period. During the ice storage portion of this test year, December 1, 1978 to September 1, 1979, 5705 kWh of electricity was used by the ACES, compared to 12,014 kWh for the control house. The respective COPs are 1.40 for the control house with the heat pump and 2.99 for the ACES house during this period. Annual energy consumption for the test year was 6597 kWh and the annual COPs were 1.41 for the control house and 2.81 for ACES. ACES is achieving its anticipated performance. The ACES concept and its general engineering performance as compared to conventional HVAC system are described and discussed.

  10. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  11. Temperature, plants, and oxygen: how does season affect constructed wetland performance?

    PubMed

    Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    The influence of temperature and plant-mediated oxygen transfer continues to draw attention from researchers, practitioners and regulators interested in the use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Because the vast majority of research on constructed wetland performance has been conducted during periods of active plant growth, the true influence of temperature, season, and plant species selection on constructed wetlands performance has not yet been evaluated adequately. In this article, we briefly summarize changes in the understanding of these influences on wetland performance, and suggest that effects of temperature and oxygen transfer are not readily separable because both factors respond to seasonal cycles and because effects of one can offset the other. We further speculate that the net effect of seasonal variation in these factors is such that plant-mediated oxygen transfer affects water treatment most in winter. Results of controlled-environment experiments conducted at Montana State University support these perspectives. Different plant species' capacities to oxidize the root zone responded differently to seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy, and species' effects on wastewater treatment were most pronounced in winter.

  12. Temperature, plants, and oxygen: how does season affect constructed wetland performance?

    PubMed

    Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    The influence of temperature and plant-mediated oxygen transfer continues to draw attention from researchers, practitioners and regulators interested in the use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Because the vast majority of research on constructed wetland performance has been conducted during periods of active plant growth, the true influence of temperature, season, and plant species selection on constructed wetlands performance has not yet been evaluated adequately. In this article, we briefly summarize changes in the understanding of these influences on wetland performance, and suggest that effects of temperature and oxygen transfer are not readily separable because both factors respond to seasonal cycles and because effects of one can offset the other. We further speculate that the net effect of seasonal variation in these factors is such that plant-mediated oxygen transfer affects water treatment most in winter. Results of controlled-environment experiments conducted at Montana State University support these perspectives. Different plant species' capacities to oxidize the root zone responded differently to seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy, and species' effects on wastewater treatment were most pronounced in winter. PMID:15921285

  13. Work-family enrichment and job performance: a constructive replication of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dawn; Kacmar, K Michele; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

    2011-07-01

    Based on affective events theory (AET), we hypothesize a four-step model of the mediating mechanisms of positive mood and job satisfaction in the relationship between work-family enrichment and job performance. We test this model for both directions of enrichment (work-to-family and family-to-work). We used two samples to test the model using structural equation modeling. Results from Study 1, which included 240 full-time employees, were replicated in Study 2, which included 189 matched subordinate-supervisor dyads. For the work-to-family direction, results from both samples support our conceptual model and indicate mediation of the enrichment-performance relationship for the work-to-family direction of enrichment. For the family-to-work direction, results from the first sample support our conceptual model but results from the second sample do not. Our findings help elucidate mixed findings in the enrichment and job performance literatures and contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms linking these concepts. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings.

  14. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  15. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species.

  16. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    PubMed

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  17. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development.

  18. Flexibility and Performance of Parallel File Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotz, David; Nieuwejaar, Nils

    1996-01-01

    As we gain experience with parallel file systems, it becomes increasingly clear that a single solution does not suit all applications. For example, it appears to be impossible to find a single appropriate interface, caching policy, file structure, or disk-management strategy. Furthermore, the proliferation of file-system interfaces and abstractions make applications difficult to port. We propose that the traditional functionality of parallel file systems be separated into two components: a fixed core that is standard on all platforms, encapsulating only primitive abstractions and interfaces, and a set of high-level libraries to provide a variety of abstractions and application-programmer interfaces (API's). We present our current and next-generation file systems as examples of this structure. Their features, such as a three-dimensional file structure, strided read and write interfaces, and I/O-node programs, are specifically designed with the flexibility and performance necessary to support a wide range of applications.

  19. Automated data entry system: performance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a system for extracting bibliographic fields from scanned pages in biomedical journals to populate MEDLINE, the flagship database of the national Library of Medicine (NLM), and heavily used worldwide. This system consists of automated processes to extract the article title, author names, affiliations and abstract, and manual workstations for the entry of other required fields such as pagination, grant support information, databank accession numbers and others needed for a completed bibliographic record in MEDLINE. Labor and time data are given for (1) a wholly manual keyboarding process to create the records, (2) an OCR-based system that requires all fields except the abstract to be manually input, and (3) a more automated system that relies on document image analysis and understanding techniques for the extraction of several fields. It is shown that this last, most automated, approach requires less than 25% of the labor effort in the first, manual, process.

  20. New system analyzes pumping well performance

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.N. ); Podio, A.L. )

    1990-11-01

    A SYSTEM has been developed that allows real-time analysis and visualization of the performance of the pumping well, including the pumping unit (beam or submersible), wellbore and reservoir. At a time when maximum efficiency is a prerequisite to profitable operations, this system has the potential to improve drastically the manner in which pumping wells are managed and operated. Micro computers have already had a major impact on petroleum engineering. And today one is unlikely to see an engineer's desk without some sort of PC or terminal to a local network, even in remote district offices. The development of extremely powerful and portable lap-top computers is causing the PC revolution to move to the field in the form of an intelligent data acquisition and diagnostic system. This one system combines all necessary elements to obtain data for annular liquid level surveys, dynamometer analysis, pressure transient analysis and other measurements required to analyze pumping well performance properly. Moreover, the system includes a database management component that allows maintaining and retrieving accurate records from past analyses.

  1. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  2. Fire performance of interstitial space construction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

  3. RHIC BPM SYSTEM PERFORMANCE, UPGRADES, AND TOOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.; CAMERON,P.; CERNIGLIA,P.; CUPOLO,J.; DAWSON,C.; DEGEN,C.; MEAD,J.; PTITSYN,V.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-06-02

    During the RHIC 2001-2 run, the beam position monitor (BPM) system provided independent average orbit and turn-by-turn (TBT) position measurements at 162 locations in each measurement plane and RHIC ring. TBT acquisition was successfully upgraded from 128 turns to 1024 turns per trigger, including injection. Closed orbits were acquired and automatically archived every two seconds through each acceleration ramp for orbit analysis and feed-forward orbit correction. This paper presents the overall system performance during this run, including precision, reproducibility, radiation damage, and analysis tools. We also summarize future plans, including million-turn TBT acquisition for nonlinear dynamics studies.

  4. Exercise VE and physical performance at altitude are not affected by menstrual cycle phase.

    PubMed

    Beidleman, B A; Rock, P B; Muza, S R; Fulco, C S; Forte, V A; Cymerman, A

    1999-05-01

    We hypothesized that progesterone-mediated ventilatory stimulation during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle would increase exercise minute ventilation (VE; l/min) at sea level (SL) and with acute altitude (AA) exposure but would only increase arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, %) with AA exposure. We further hypothesized that an increased exercise SaO2 with AA exposure would enhance O2 transport and improve both peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak; ml x kg-1 x min-1) and submaximal exercise time to exhaustion (Exh; min) in the midluteal phase. Eight female lowlanders [33 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD) yr, 58 +/- 6 kg] completed a VO2 peak and Exh test at 70% of their altitude-specific VO2 peak at SL and with AA exposure to 4,300 m in a hypobaric chamber (446 mmHg) in their early follicular and midluteal phases. Progesterone levels increased (P < 0.05) approximately 20-fold from the early follicular to midluteal phase at SL and AA. Peak VE (101 +/- 17) and submaximal VE (55 +/- 9) were not affected by cycle phase or altitude. Submaximal SaO2 did not differ between cycle phases at SL, but it was 3% higher during the midluteal phase with AA exposure. Neither VO2 peak nor Exh time was affected by cycle phase at SL or AA. We conclude that, despite significantly increased progesterone levels in the midluteal phase, exercise VE is not increased at SL or AA. Moreover, neither maximal nor submaximal exercise performance is affected by menstrual cycle phase at SL or AA.

  5. Light Machines Operator Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.

    1998-06-15

    The objective of this project was to create a multimedia operator performance support system (OPSS) shell that would provide a framework for delivering appropriate information to the student/novice machine tool user just when needed and in the most appropriate form. In addition, the program was designed so that it could be expanded and further developed by Light Machines personnel. The expertise of AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) in the areas of performance support system design and multimedia creation was employed to create the most user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while providing access to key topical areas. Light Machines provided a subject matter expert from their technical services group in order to provide the needed information for structuring the OPSS shell. They also provided a Benchman VMC 4000 machine tool at the ASFM and T New Mexico location as well as specific instruction on the safe and effective use of that machine tool.

  6. Performance evaluation of two OCR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Subramaniam, S.; Haralick, R.M.; Phillips, I.T.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental protocol for the performance evaluation of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) algorithms is described. The protocol is intended to serve as a model for using the University of Washington English Document Image Database-I to evaluate OCR systems. The plain text zones (without special symbols) in this database have over 2,300,000 characters. The performances of two UNIX-based OCR systems, namely Caere OCR v109a and Xerox ScanWorX v2.0, are measured. The results suggest that Caere OCR outperforms ScanWorX in terms of recognition accuracy; however, ScanWorX is more robust in the presence of image flaws.

  7. Thermal performance of complex fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.C.; Elmahdy, A.H.

    1994-12-31

    The thermal performance (i.e., U-factor) of four complex fenestration systems is examined using computer simulation tools and guarded hot box testing. The systems include a flat glazed skylight, a domed or bubble skylight, a greenhouse window, and a curtain wall. The extra care required in performing simulation and testing of these complex products is described. There was good agreement (within 10%) between test and simulation for two of the four products. The agreement was slightly poorer (maximum difference of 16%) for the two high-heat-transfer products: the domed skylight and the greenhouse window. Possible causes for the larger discrepancy in these projecting window products are uncertainties in the inside and outside film coefficients and lower warm-side air temperatures because of stagnant airflow.

  8. Factors affecting the performance of microbial fuel cells for sulfide and vanadium (V) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Gang; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Shi, Chun-Hong; Kong, Ling-Cai; Sun, Juan-Juan; Yang, Yang; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2010-02-01

    Sulfide and vanadium (V) are pollutants commonly found in wastewaters. A novel approach has been investigated using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies by employing sulfide and V(V) as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. This results in oxidizing sulfide and deoxidizing V(V) simultaneously. A series of operating parameters as initial concentration, conductivity, pH, external resistance were carefully examined. The results showed that these factors greatly affected the performance of the MFCs. The average removal rates of about 82.2 and 26.1% were achieved within 72 h operation for sulfide and V(V), respectively, which were accompanied by the maximum power density of about 614.1 mW m(-2) under all tested conditions. The products generated during MFC operation could be deposited, resulting in removing sulfide and V(V) from wastewaters thoroughly.

  9. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting performance of a zeolitic rock barrier to remove zinc from water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Hoon; Jo, Ho Young; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Young Jae

    2010-03-15

    This study examined the factors affecting the performance of zeolitic rocks as reactive media in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) used to remediate groundwater contaminated with Zn. Serial batch kinetic and sorption tests were conducted on zeolitic rock samples under a variety of conditions (i.e., reaction time, pH, initial Zn concentration, and particle size) using Zn(NO(3))(2).6H(2)O solutions. Serial column tests were also conducted on zeolitic rock samples at various flow rates. The removal of Zn increased approximately from 20-60 to 70-100% with increasing pH from 2 to 4 and decreasing initial Zn concentration from 434 to 5mg/L. Zn removal was not affected by the particle size, regardless of the zeolitic rock samples used in this study. The Zn removal increased approximately from 20-70 to 60-100% with increasing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) from 124.9 to 178.5meq/100g and increasing zeolite (i.e., clinoptilonite and mordenite) and montmorillonite contents from 53.7 to 73.2%. The results from the column and batch tests were comparable. Increasing the flow rate caused the earlier breakthrough of Zn (sorbing cation) and a rapid decrease in the concentration of Na, Ca, and Mg (desorbing cations). The hydraulic conductivities of the samples were unaffected by the particle size and mineral components.

  11. Experimental system and component performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, K.

    1984-10-01

    A prototype dye laser flow loop was constructed to flow test large power amplifiers in Building 169. The flow loop is designed to operate at supply pressures up to 900 psig and flow rates up to 250 GPM. During the initial startup of the flow loop experimental measurements were made to evaluate component and system performance. Three candidate dye flow loop pumps and three different pulsation dampeners were tested.

  12. Airplane-Runway-Performance Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari

    1992-01-01

    Airplane-Runway-Performance Monitoring System (ARPMS) increases safety during takeoffs and landings by providing pilots with symbolic "head-up" and "head-down" information pertinent to decisions to continue or abort takeoffs or landings. Provides graphic information concerning where airplane could be stopped. Pilot monitors ground speed and predicted stopping point while looking at actual runway. High potential for incorporation into cockpit environment for entire aerospace community.

  13. Switching between Sensory and Affective Systems Incurs Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M.; Luminet, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of the conceptual system hold that concepts are grounded in simulations of actual experiences with instances of those concepts in sensory-motor systems (e.g., Barsalou, 1999, 2003; Solomon & Barsalou, 2001). Studies supportive of such a view have shown that verifying a property of a concept in one modality, and then switching to…

  14. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  15. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Katherine S.; Parsons, Christine E.; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behavior in both an experimental and observational setting. Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviors of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND). Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1). Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries). Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2). Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest. PMID:25741255

  16. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  17. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    that of the sample cured at room temperature. The hydration reactions initiated during the mixing of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period in the vaults to produce the hardened waste form product. The heat generated from exothermic hydration reactions results in a temperature increase in the vaults that depends on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned, the grout formulation (mix design) and the pour frequency and volume. This heat generation is a contributing factor to the temperature increase in the vaults that leads to an increased cure temperature for the grout. This report will further investigate the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance properties (hydraulic conductivity, Young's modulus, porosity, etc.) over a range of aluminate concentration, water to premix (w/p) ratio and weight percent fly ash in the premix processed at the SPF. The three curing temperatures selected for this study were chosen to provide data at fixed cure temperatures that represent measured temperatures in the SDF vaults. This does not represent the conditions in the vault where the temperature of the saltstone is continually changing with time. For example, it may take several days for the saltstone to reach 60 C at a given elevation. Previous results demonstrated that the rates at which a selected curing temperature is reached affect the performance properties. The approach taken in this task, a rapid increase to the curing temperature, may be conservative with respect to decreased performance. Nevertheless, the data will provide a basis from which to determine the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance as a function of key variables. A statistical evaluation of the results for these mixes will be performed to provide the range, and associated uncertainties, of hydraulic conductivity and other properties over this factor space.

  18. How do radiographic techniques affect mass lesion detection performance in digital mammography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Dudley, Eric F.; Dance, David R.

    2004-05-01

    We investigated how the x-ray tube kV and mAs affected the detection of simulated lesions with diameters between 0.24 and 12 mm. Digital mammograms were acquired with and without mass lesions, permitting a difference image to be generated corresponding to the lesion alone. Isolated digital lesions were added at a reduced intensity to non-lesion images, and used in Four-Alternate Forced Choice (4-AFC) experiments to determine the lesion intensity that corresponded to an accuracy of 92% (I92%). Values of I92% were determined at x-ray tube output values ranging from 40 to 120 mAs, and x-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 32 kV. For mass lesions larger than ~0.8 mm, there was no significant change in detection peformance with changing mAs. Doubling of the x-ray tube output from 60 to 120 mAs resulted in an average change in I92% of only +3.8%, whereas the Rose model of lesion detection predicts a reduction in the experimental value of I92% of -29%. For the 0.24 mm lesion, however, reducing the x-ray beam mAs from 100 to 40 mAs reduced the average detection performance by ~60%. Contrast-detail curves for lesions with diameter >= 0.8 mm had a slope of ~+0.23, whereas the Rose model predicts a slope of -0.5. For lesions smaller than ~0.8 mm, contrast-detail slopes were all negative with the average gradient increasing with decreasing mAs value. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 24 to 32 kV at a constant display contrast resulted in a modest improvement in low contrast lesion detection performance of ~10%. Increasing the display window width from 2000 to 2500 reduced the average observer performance by ~6%. Our principal finding is that radiographic technique factors have little effect on detection performance for lesions larger than ~0.8 mm, but that the visibility of smaller lesions is affected by quantum mottle in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Rose model.

  19. Oral contraceptive cycle phase does not affect 200-m swim time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Rechichi, Claire; Dawson, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether swimming performance was affected by acute hormonal fluctuation within a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. Six competitive swimmers and water polo players completed a 200-m time trial at 3 time points of a single OC cycle: during the consumption phase (CONS), early (WITH1), and late in the withdrawal phase (WITH2). Split times and stroke rate were recorded during the time trial, and heart rate, blood lactate, glucose, and pH were measured after each performance test. Resting endogenous serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were also assessed. No significant differences were observed between phases for body composition, 200-m swim time, mean stroke rate, peak heart rate, or blood glucose (p > 0.05). The mean peak blood lactate was significantly lower during WITH2 (9.9 ± 3.0 mmol·L(-1)) compared with that of CONS (12.5 ± 3.0 mmol·L(-1)) and mean pH higher during WITH2 (7.183 ± 0.111) compared with that of CONS (7.144 ± 0.092). Serum estradiol levels were significantly greater during WITH2 compared with that during WITH1 and CONS, but there was no difference in serum progesterone levels. These results demonstrate that for monophasic OC users, cycle phase does not impact the 200-m swimming performance. There was a reduction in blood lactate and an increase in pH during the withdrawal phase, possibly because of an increase in fluid retention, plasma volume, and cellular alkalosis. Therefore, female 200-m swimmers taking a monophasic OC need not be concerned by the phase of their cycle with regard to competition and optimizing performance. However, coaches and scientists should exercise caution when interpreting blood lactate results obtained from swimming tests and consider controlling for cycle phase for athletes taking an OC. PMID:22446669

  20. Flight test of takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.

  1. Work duration does not affect cortisol output in experienced firefighters performing live burn drills.

    PubMed

    Rosalky, Deena S; Hostler, David; Webb, Heather E

    2017-01-01

    Work duration may affect firefighters' stress responses. Forty-two firefighters (38 males) performed either 2 (SWD) or 3 (LWD) bouts of simulated fire suppression activity. Salivary cortisol, self-reported fear and anxiety, and perceptual thermal responses were measured. Cortisol was evaluated using area-under-the-curve calculations (Pruessner et al., 2003). Affective responses between the two conditions were compared using T-tests. Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the relationships between affect and change in thermal load perception. Cortisol decreased across the protocol in both groups, and no difference was found in cortisol or affect between the groups. Cortisol decreased (F4,36 = 3.43, p < 0.05) in the SWD group from a mean concentration of 40.93 ± 11.41 nmol/L to 25.07 ± 9.88 nmol/L at the end of the protocol. In the LWD group, the mean cortisol concentration decreased from 42.89 ± 11.83 to 25.07 ± 8.82 at the end of the protocol (F5,50 = 14.77, p < 0.01). Anxiety increased in the LWD (F4,72 = 5.11, p = 0.001) but not the SWD group. Fear increased in the SWD (F3,48 = 14.15, p < 0.001) and LWD group (F4,60 = 4.47, p < 0.01). The present findings suggests a moderate fear load with firefighting, which appears not to be associated with duration of work bout. Examination of more varied work bout lengths may reveal an association between anxiety and work duration. However, the work bout durations investigated in the current study comprise the range of what is practical from an occupational standpoint and the physiological capabilities of the firefighters.

  2. Commentary: Medicaid reform issues affecting the Indian health care system.

    PubMed

    Wellever, A; Hill, G; Casey, M

    1998-02-01

    Substantial numbers of Indian people rely on Medicaid for their primary health insurance coverage. When state Medicaid programs enroll Indians in managed care programs, several unintended consequences may ensue. This paper identifies some of the perverse consequences of Medicaid reform for Indians and the Indian health care system and suggests strategies for overcoming them. It discusses the desire of Indian people to receive culturally appropriate services, the need to maintain or improve Indian health care system funding, and the duty of state governments to respect tribal sovereignty. Because of their relatively small numbers, Indians may be treated differently under Medicaid managed care systems without significantly endangering anticipated program savings. Failure of Medicaid programs to recognize the uniqueness of Indian people, however, may severely weaken the Indian health care system. PMID:9491006

  3. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiography systems. Part 2: system performance metric.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kam L; Bernardo, Michael; Ireland, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    This is part two of a two-part study in benchmarking system performance of fixed digital radiographic systems. The study compares the system performance of seven fixed digital radiography systems based on quantitative metrics like modulation transfer function (sMTF), normalised noise power spectrum (sNNPS), detective quantum efficiency (sDQE) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). It was found that the most efficient image receptors (greatest sDQE) were not necessarily operating at the lowest ESAK. In part one of this study, sMTF is shown to depend on system configuration while sNNPS is shown to be relatively consistent across systems. Systems are ranked on their signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (sDQE) and their ESAK. Systems using the same equipment configuration do not necessarily have the same system performance. This implies radiographic practice at the site will have an impact on the overall system performance. In general, systems are more dose efficient at low dose settings. PMID:27222199

  4. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiography systems. Part 2: system performance metric.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kam L; Bernardo, Michael; Ireland, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    This is part two of a two-part study in benchmarking system performance of fixed digital radiographic systems. The study compares the system performance of seven fixed digital radiography systems based on quantitative metrics like modulation transfer function (sMTF), normalised noise power spectrum (sNNPS), detective quantum efficiency (sDQE) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). It was found that the most efficient image receptors (greatest sDQE) were not necessarily operating at the lowest ESAK. In part one of this study, sMTF is shown to depend on system configuration while sNNPS is shown to be relatively consistent across systems. Systems are ranked on their signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (sDQE) and their ESAK. Systems using the same equipment configuration do not necessarily have the same system performance. This implies radiographic practice at the site will have an impact on the overall system performance. In general, systems are more dose efficient at low dose settings.

  5. Optimal performance of constrained control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, P. Scott, Jr.; Gavin, Henri P.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a method to compute optimal open-loop trajectories for systems subject to state and control inequality constraints in which the cost function is quadratic and the state dynamics are linear. For the case in which inequality constraints are decentralized with respect to the controls, optimal Lagrange multipliers enforcing the inequality constraints may be found at any time through Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In so doing, the set of differential algebraic Euler-Lagrange equations is transformed into a nonlinear two-point boundary-value problem for states and costates whose solution meets the necessary conditions for optimality. The optimal performance of inequality constrained control systems is calculable, allowing for comparison to previous, sub-optimal solutions. The method is applied to the control of damping forces in a vibration isolation system subjected to constraints imposed by the physical implementation of a particular controllable damper. An outcome of this study is the best performance achievable given a particular objective, isolation system, and semi-active damper constraints.

  6. Sampling and Filtering in Photovoltaic System Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Driesse, Anton; Stein, Joshua S.; Riley, Daniel M.; Carmignani, Craig K.

    2014-10-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems must be monitored accurately to ensure profitable long-term operation. The most important signals to be measured—irradiance and temperature, as well as power, current and voltage on both DC and AC sides of the system—contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless these fluctuations can affect the accuracy of the data that are stored. This report closely examines the main signals in one operating PV system, which were recorded at 2000 samples per second. It analyzes the characteristics and causes of the rapid fluctuations that are found, such as line-frequency harmonics, perturbations from anti-islanding detection, MPPT searching action and others. The operation of PV monitoring systems is then simulated using a wide range of sampling intervals, archive intervals and filtering options to assess how these factors influence data accuracy. Finally several potential sources of error are discussed with real-world examples.

  7. Performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Raffaele; Maio, Dario; Maltoni, Davide; Wayman, James L; Jain, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems. After an initial classification of biometric testing initiatives, we explore both the theoretical and practical issues related to performance evaluation by presenting the outcome of the recent Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC2004). FVC2004 was organized by the authors of this work for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art in this challenging pattern recognition application and making available a new common benchmark for an unambiguous comparison of fingerprint-based biometric systems. FVC2004 is an independent, strongly supervised evaluation performed at the evaluators' site on evaluators' hardware. This allowed the test to be completely controlled and the computation times of different algorithms to be fairly compared. The experience and feedback received from previous, similar competitions (FVC2000 and FVC2002) allowed us to improve the organization and methodology of FVC2004 and to capture the attention of a significantly higher number of academic and commercial organizations (67 algorithms were submitted for FVC2004). A new, "Light" competition category was included to estimate the loss of matching performance caused by imposing computational constraints. This paper discusses data collection and testing protocols, and includes a detailed analysis of the results. We introduce a simple but effective method for comparing algorithms at the score level, allowing us to isolate difficult cases (images) and to study error correlations and algorithm "fusion." The huge amount of information obtained, including a structured classification of the submitted algorithms on the basis of their features, makes it possible to better understand how current fingerprint recognition systems work and to delineate useful research directions for the future.

  8. Performance TTradeoffs in Distributed Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Holly

    Large scale systems consisting of many interacting subsystems are often controlled in a distributed fashion due to inherent limitations in computation, communication, or sensing. Here, individual agents must make decisions based on local, often incomplete information. This dissertation focuses on understanding performance tradeoffs in distributed control systems, specifically focusing on using a game theoretic framework to assign agent control laws. Performance of a distributed control law is determined by (1) the degree with which it meets a stated objective, (2) the amount of time it takes to converge, (3) agents' informational requirements, and (4) vulnerability to adversarial manipulation. The three main research questions addressed in this work are: • When is fast convergence to near-optimal behavior possible in a distributed system? We design a distributed control law which converges to a near-optimal configuration in a time that is near-linear in the number of agents. This worst case convergence time is an improvement over existing algorithms whose worst-case convergence times are exponential in the number of agents. • Can agents in a distributed system learn near-optimal correlated behavior despite severely limited information about one another's behavior? We design a distributed control law that imposes limited informational requirements for individual agents and converges to near-optimal correlated behavior. • How does the structure of agent interaction impact a distributed control system's vulnerability to adversarial manipulation? We derive a graph theoretical condition that ensures resilience to adversarial manipulation, and we examine the conditions under which an adversary can manipulate collective behavior in a distributed control system, simply by influencing small subsets of agents.

  9. Alignment performance monitoring for ASML systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woong-Jae; Temchenko, Vlad; Hauck, Tarja; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    In today's semiconductor industry downscaling of the IC design puts a stringent requirement on pattern overlay control. Tighter overlay requirements lead to exceedingly higher rework rates, meaning additional costs to manufacturing. Better alignment control became a target of engineering efforts to decrease rework rate for high-end technologies. Overlay performance is influenced by known parameters such as "Shift, Scaling, Rotation, etc", and unknown parameters defined as "Process Induced Variation", which are difficult to control by means of a process automation system. In reality, this process-induced variation leads to a strong wafer to wafer, or lot to lot variation, which are not easy to detect in the mass-production environment which uses sampling overlay measurements for only several wafers in a lot. An engineering task of finding and correcting a root cause for Process Induced Variations of overlay performance will be greatly simplified if the unknown parameters could be tracked for each wafer. This paper introduces an alignment performance monitoring method based on analysis of automatically generated "AWE" files for ASML scanner systems. Because "AWE" files include alignment results for each aligned wafer, it is possible to use them for monitoring, controlling and correcting the causes of "process induced" overlay performance without requiring extra measurement time. Since "AWE" files include alignment information for different alignment marks, it is also possible to select and optimize the best alignment recipe for each alignment strategy. Several case studies provided in our paper will demonstrate how AWE file analysis can be used to assist engineer in interpreting pattern alignment data. Since implementing our alignment data monitoring method, we were able to achieve significant improvement of alignment and overlay performance without additional overlay measurement time. We also noticed that the rework rate coming from alignment went down and

  10. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT < 50) and Low Attention (CPT ≥ 50) groups. No differences were found between the two groups for traditional paper-based English tests, trait anxieties, general English reading anxiety scales, and general English listening anxiety scales. The Low Attention group had higher test state anxiety and lower listening test scores than the High Attention group, but not in reading. State anxiety during listening tests for EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading.

  11. Factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide; fenoterol hydrobromide pressurized-metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher than 27% v/v remained as clear solutions. Nine formulations that contained the HFA propellant higher than 74% v/v precipitated. The results indicated that it was not only the HFA propellant content of the formulations that was related to the formulation instability but also ethanol content. Only six formulations from the 18 formulations, that did not precipitate, produced drug contents that were within the acceptable range (80-120%). These six formulations generated aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of approximately 2 μm with a fine particle fraction (FPF; particle size, <6.4 μm) between 45% and 52%. The MMAD and FPF did not change significantly after 6 months of storage (P > 0.05). PMID:23975571

  12. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT < 50) and Low Attention (CPT ≥ 50) groups. No differences were found between the two groups for traditional paper-based English tests, trait anxieties, general English reading anxiety scales, and general English listening anxiety scales. The Low Attention group had higher test state anxiety and lower listening test scores than the High Attention group, but not in reading. State anxiety during listening tests for EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading. PMID:27371638

  13. System performance predictions for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Follo, Jeffrey C.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) capability to effectively deliver power to housekeeping and user loads continues to strongly influence Freedom's design and planned approaches for assembly and operations. The EPS design consists of silicon photovoltaic (PV) arrays, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and direct current power management and distribution hardware and cabling. To properly characterize the inherent EPS design capability, detailed system performance analyses must be performed for early stages as well as for the fully assembled station up to 15 years after beginning of life. Such analyses were repeatedly performed using the FORTRAN code SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over a 10-year period. SPACE combines orbital mechanics routines, station orientation/pointing routines, PV array and battery performance models, and a distribution system load-flow analysis to predict EPS performance. Time-dependent, performance degradation, low earth orbit environmental interactions, and EPS architecture build-up are incorporated in SPACE. Results from two typical SPACE analytical cases are presented: (1) an electric load driven case and (2) a maximum EPS capability case.

  14. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  15. Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Seishi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-11-23

    The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-{delta}2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.

  16. Performance Charts for a Turbojet System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Irving M.

    1947-01-01

    Convenient charts are presented for computing the thrust, fuel consumption, and other performance values of a turbojet system. These charts take into account the effects of ram pressure, compressor pressure ratio, ratio of combustion-chamber-outlet temperature to atmospheric temperature, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency, combustion efficiency, discharge-nozzle coefficient, losses in total pressure in the inlet to the jet-propulsion unit and in the combustion chamber, and variation in specific heats with temperature. The principal performance charts show clearly the effects of the primary variables and correction charts provide the effects of the secondary variables. The performance of illustrative cases of turbojet systems is given. It is shown that maximum thrust per unit mass rate of air flow occurs at a lower compressor pressure ratio than minimum specific fuel consumption. The thrust per unit mass rate of air flow increases as the combustion-chamber discharge temperature increases. For minimum specific fuel consumption, however, an optimum combustion-chamber discharge temperature exists, which in some cases may be less than the limiting temperature imposed by the strength temperature characteristics of present materials.

  17. Performance modeling for large database systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaar, Stephen; Hum, Frank; Romano, Joe

    1997-02-01

    One of the unique approaches Science Applications International Corporation took to meet performance requirements was to start the modeling effort during the proposal phase of the Interstate Identification Index/Federal Bureau of Investigations (III/FBI) project. The III/FBI Performance Model uses analytical modeling techniques to represent the III/FBI system. Inputs to the model include workloads for each transaction type, record size for each record type, number of records for each file, hardware envelope characteristics, engineering margins and estimates for software instructions, memory, and I/O for each transaction type. The model uses queuing theory to calculate the average transaction queue length. The model calculates a response time and the resources needed for each transaction type. Outputs of the model include the total resources needed for the system, a hardware configuration, and projected inherent and operational availability. The III/FBI Performance Model is used to evaluate what-if scenarios and allows a rapid response to engineering change proposals and technical enhancements.

  18. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Webster, Premila; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education), professional (e.g. training, job security), and organisational (e.g. infrastructure) factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health. PMID:25319596

  19. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  20. Performance of a chill ATES system

    SciTech Connect

    Midkiff, K.C.; Song, Y.K.; Schaetzle, W.J.

    1989-03-01

    An aquifer air-conditioning system has been installed to cool the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama Campus. This research program encompasses the monitoring of the operation of the aquifer system and provision of emplacements to the system. The monitoring includes establishing the instrumentation, acquiring data, and analyzing the results. The instrumentation allows the measurement of water flow rates and corresponding temperatures, electrical energy input, aquifer temperatures at nineteen monitoring wells, and aquifer levels at six monitoring wells. Recent acquifer performance data indicate that 76% of the chill energy stored was recovered for the period Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 70% for the period Oct/87 - Sep/88. This is a substantial improvement over recoveries of 38% for the 1985 season and 55% for 1986. The overall coefficient of performance was 5.4 for Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 4.6 for Oct/87 - Sep/88. THe system has supplied 100% of the cooling with only about one-half of the energy input required by a conventional system. Some of the increased recovery of chilled water is a result of modifying the production well operation to reduce the regional flow of water toward the northwest. All warm water is withdrawn form the southeast wells, chilled, and injected in northwest wells. The cold water then withdrawn from the cold wells is used for air-conditioning but not reinjected into the aquifer. Additional flow control is provided by pumping (and discarding) water out of a southeast well, although the complete results of this new strategy are as yet unclear.

  1. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E.; Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  2. Performance of the Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    As the input/output (I/O) needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. Initial experiments, reported in this paper, indicate that Galley is capable of providing high-performance 1/O to applications the applications that rely on them. In Section 3 we describe that access data in patterns that have been observed to be common.

  3. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  4. Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

  5. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  6. Design and performances of JPCam actuator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalta, Joan Manel; Canchado, Manuel; Molins, Albert; Redondo, Miguel; Tomàs, Albert; Catalan, Albert

    2014-07-01

    JPCam is designed to perform the Javalambre-PAU Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS), a photometric survey of the northern sky with the new JST telescope being constructed in the Observatorio Astrofísico of Javalambre in Spain by CEFCA (Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón). SENER has been responsible for the design, manufacturing, verification and delivery of the JPCam Actuator System that will be installed between the Telescope and the cryogenic Camera Subsystem. The main function is to control the instrument position to guarantee the image quality required during observations in all field of view and compensate deformations produced by gravity and temperature changes. The paper summarizes the main aspects of the hexapod design and earliest information related of integration and performances tests results.

  7. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  8. Performance tuned radioisotope thermophotovoltaic space power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Saban, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    The trend in space exploration is to use many small, low-cost, special-purpose satellites instead of the large, high-cost, multipurpose satellites used in the past. As a result of this new trend, there is a need for lightweight, efficient, and compact radioisotope fueled electrical power generators. This paper presents an improved design for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) space power system in the 10 W to 20 W class which promises up to 37.6 watts at 30.1% efficiency and 25 W/kg specific power. The RTPV power system concept has been studied and compared to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) radioisotope, Stirling generators and alkali metal thermal electric conversion (AMTEC) generators (Schock, 1995). The studies indicate that RTPV has the potential to be the lightest weight, most efficient and most reliable of the three concepts. However, in spite of the efficiency and light weight, the size of the thermal radiator required to eliminate excess heat from the PV cells and the lack of actual system operational performance data are perceived as obstacles to RTPV acceptance for space applications. Between 1994 and 1997 EDTEK optimized the key converter components for an RTPV generator under Department of Energy (DOE) funding administered via subcontracts to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies Laboratory (Horne, 1995). The optimized components included a resonant micromesh infrared bandpass filter, low-bandgap GaSb PV cells and cell arrays. Parametric data from these components were supplied to OSC who developed and analyzed the performance of 100 W, 20 W, and 10 W RTPV generators. These designs are described in references (Schock 1994, 1995 and 1996). Since the performance of each class of supply was roughly equivalent and simply scaled with size, this paper will consider the OSC 20 W design as a baseline. The baseline 20-W RTPV design was developed by Schock, et al of OSC and has been presented elsewhere. The

  9. Self-Evaluation Accuracy and Satisfaction with Performance: Are there Affective Costs or Benefits of Positive Self-Evaluation Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narciss, Susanne; Koerndle, Hermann; Dresel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how self-evaluation biases may influence satisfaction with performance. A review of theoretical positions suggests there are two views, both of which are supported by studies involving laboratory tasks. The first view predicts affective costs, and the second affective benefits of positive self-evaluation bias. We test the…

  10. PFOS affects posterior swim bladder chamber inflation and swimming performance of zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, A; Stinckens, E; Vergauwen, L; Bervoets, L; Knapen, D

    2014-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is one of the most commonly detected perfluorinated alkylated substances in the aquatic environment due to its persistence and the degradation of less stable compounds to PFOS. PFOS is known to cause developmental effects in fish. The main effect of PFOS in zebrafish larvae is an uninflated swim bladder. As no previous studies have focused on the effect of PFOS on zebrafish swim bladder inflation, the exact mechanisms leading to this effect are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the exposure windows during early zebrafish development that are sensitive to PFOS exposure and result in impaired swim bladder inflation in order to specify the mechanisms by which this effect might be caused. Seven different time windows of exposure (1-48, 1-72, 1-120, 1-144, 48-144, 72-144, 120-144h post fertilization (hpf)) were tested based on the different developmental stages of the swim bladder. These seven time windows were tested for four concentrations corresponding to the EC-values of 1, 10, 80 and 95% impaired swim bladder inflation (EC1=0.70 mg L(-1), EC10=1.14 mg L(-1), EC80=3.07 mg L(-1) and EC95=4.28 mg L(-1)). At 6 days post fertilization, effects on survival, hatching, swim bladder inflation and size, larval length and swimming performance were assessed. For 0.70 mg L(-1), no significant effects were found for the tested parameters while 1.14 mg L(-1) resulted in a reduction of larval length. For 3.07 and 4.28 mg L(-1), the number of larvae affected and the severity of effects caused by PFOS were dependent on the time window of exposure. Exposure for 3 days or more resulted in significant reductions of swim bladder size, larval length and swimming speed with increasing severity of effects when the duration of exposure was longer, suggesting a possible effect of accumulated dose. Larvae that were only exposed early (1-48 hpf) or late (120-144 hpf) during development showed no effects on the studied endpoints

  11. Embodiments, visualizations, and immersion with enactive affective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Diana; Miosso, Cristiano J.; Rodrigues, Suélia F.; Silva Rocha Aguiar, Carla; Lucena, Tiago F.; Miranda, Mateus; Rocha, Adson F.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2014-02-01

    Our proposal in Bioart and Biomedical Engineering for a ective esthetics focuses on the expanded sensorium and investigates problems regarding enactive systems. These systems enhance the sensorial experiences and amplify kinesthesia by adding the sensations that are formed in response to the physical world, which aesthetically constitutes the principle of synaesthesia. In this paper, we also present enactive systems inside the CAVE, con guring compelling experiences in data landscapes and human a ective narratives. The interaction occurs through the acquisition, data visualization and analysis of several synchronized physiological signals, to which the landscapes respond and provide immediate feedback, according to the detected participants' actions and the intertwined responses of the environment. The signals we use to analyze the human states include the electrocardiography (ECG) signal, the respiratory ow, the galvanic skin response (GSR) signal, plantar pressures, the pulse signal and others. Each signal is collected by using a speci cally designed dedicated electronic board, with reduced dimensions, so it does not interfere with normal movements, according to the principles of transparent technologies. Also, the electronic boards are implemented in a modular approach, so they are independent, and can be used in many di erent desired combinations, and at the same time provide synchronization between the collected data.

  12. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  13. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet - Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  14. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Zaltash, Abdolreza; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ennis, Mike J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40

  15. Test performance of the PARSEC laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabien, Sebastian; Davies, Richard I.; Ott, Thomas; Li, Jianlang; Abuter, Roberto; Kellner, Stefan; Neumann, Udo

    2004-10-01

    The PARSEC laser system is designed for the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility to deliver a high power cw laser beam at 589nm, in order to create an artificial guide star in the mesospheric Sodium layer. The laser consists of a resonant, dye based power amplifier which is injection seeded with 589nm, single frequency radiation from a master oscillator. We report on the performance of the system both during the European Acceptance tests, and that which has been achieved in the laboratory. The maximum power we have obtained amounts to 20W cw laser light in a single mode and a single frequency at 589nm. With a beam quality of M2 of 1.05-1.15 and a long term stability without manual intervention, the laser suits all the demands for operation at the VLT.

  16. Metal ions affecting the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Some metals, such as copper and manganese, are essential to life and play irreplaceable roles in, e.g., the functioning of important enzyme systems. Other metals are xenobiotics, i.e., they have no useful role in human physiology and, even worse, as in the case of lead, may be toxic even at trace levels of exposure. Even those metals that are essential, however, have the potential to turn harmful at very high levels of exposure, a reflection of a very basic tenet of toxicology--"the dose makes the poison." Toxic metal exposure may lead to serious risks to human health. As a result of the extensive use of toxic metals and their compounds in industry and consumer products, these agents have been widely disseminated in the environment. Because metals are not biodegradable, they can persist in the environment and produce a variety of adverse effects. Exposure to metals can lead to damage in a variety of organ systems and, in some cases, metals also have the potential to be carcinogenic. Even though the importance of metals as environmental health hazards is now widely appreciated, the specific mechanisms by which metals produce their adverse effects have yet to be fully elucidated. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for most metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to nucleic acids, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Whilst copper, chromium, and cobalt undergo redox-cycling reactions, for metals such as cadmium and nickel the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. This chapter attempts to show that the toxic effects of different metallic compounds may be manifested in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. The knowledge of health effects due to metal exposure is necessary for practising physicians, and should be assessed by inquiring

  17. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  18. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:25203485

  19. Can subterranean cave systems affect soil CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajnc, Bor; Ferlan, Mitja; Ogrinc, Nives

    2015-04-01

    Main factors affecting soil CO2 fluxes in most ecosystems are soil temperature and soil moisture. Nevertheless occasionally high soil CO2 fluxes were observed at carst areas, which could result from ventilation of subterranean cavities (Ferlan et al., 2011). The aim of this work was to determine the influence of cave ventilation to soil CO2 fluxes. Research was done in a dead-end passage of Postojna cave (Pisani rov) and on the surface area above the passage (Velika Jeršanova dolina) in south-western Slovenia. Inside the cave we measured CO2 concentrations, its carbon (13C) stable isotope composition, 222Rn activity concentrations, temperatures and air pressure. At the surface we had chosen two sampling plots; test plot above the cave and control. At both plots we measured soil CO2 fluxes with automatic chambers, CO2 concentrations, temperatures and carbon stable isotope composition of soil air at three different depths (0.2 m, 0.5 m and 0.8 m) and different meteorological parameters such as: air temperature, air pressure, wind speed an precipitation. To detect the cave influence, we compared two surface CO2 flux measurements with air temperatures and changes of CO2 concentrations in the cave atmosphere. Our results on CO2 concentrations in the gallery of the cave indicated that the ventilation of this particular gallery also depends on outside air temperatures. Outside temperature increased and corresponded to higher CO2 concentrations, whereas at lower temperatures (T < 9 oC) cave started to ventilate and exhaled CO2 reach air through unknown fissures and cracks. At the control plot the soil CO2 fluxes were in a good correlation with soil temperatures (r = 0.789, p =0.01), where greater soil temperatures correspond to greater soil CO2 fluxes. Soil CO2 fluxes at the plot above the cave did not show statistically significant correlations with soil temperatures or soil moisture indicating that other factors possibly cave ventilation could influence it. References

  20. Short exposure to telestereoscope affects the oculomotor system.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne

    2010-11-01

    Under natural viewing conditions, the accommodation and vergence systems adjust the focus and the binocular alignment of the eyes in response to changes in viewing distance. The two responses are linked via cross-coupling and proceed almost simultaneously. Some optical devices, such as virtual reality or helmet mounted displays, create an oculomotor conflict by modifying demands on both vergence and accommodation. Previous studies extensively investigated the effect of such a conflict on the cross-coupling between vergence and accommodation, but little is known about the plasticity of the whole oculomotor system. In the present study, an oculomotor conflict was induced by a telestereoscope which magnified the standard inter-pupillary separation threefold and thus increased the convergence demand while accommodation remained almost unchanged. The effect of a 10 min exposure was assessed via a series of optometric parameters selected on the basis of existing oculomotor models. Associated with subject's visual complaints, most of the oculomotor parameters tested were modified: there was (1) deterioration of stereoscopic threshold; (2) increase in AC/A ratio; (3) increase in near and far phorias; and (4) shift of the zone of clear and single binocular vision towards convergence. These results showed a change in gain of accommodative vergence and a shift of vergence reserves towards convergence in response to telestereoscopic viewing. The subject's binocular behaviour tended towards esophoria with convergence excess as confirmed by Sheard's and Percival's criteria. Such changes in oculomotor parameters support adaptive behaviour linked with telestereoscopic viewing.

  1. The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances.

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P. J.

    2002-08-21

    This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's (1. generic results; 2. multirecycle of plutonium; 3. an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems (1. generic results; 2. homogeneous recycle of transuranics; 3. practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies.

  2. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  3. TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

  4. Performing the Bakla in The Care Divas: Crossdressing, Affective Labor, and the Glimpse of the Cosmopolitan.

    PubMed

    Tiatco, Anril Pineda

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a close reading of The Care Divas, a Filipino musical revolving around the struggle of five Filipino caregivers in Israel who also struggle with their sexual identities as bakla (Filipino homosexual). The analysis is both an affirmation and a critique of the performance. In the affirmation, the musical is argued to present a social reality that is intended for and in need of interrogation: the Filipino bakla. The musical implicitly features the bakla as a cosmopolitan. At the outset, this cosmopolitan disposition comes from the fact that the characters are migrant workers (caregivers). But more importantly, the cosmopolitan character is from a responsibility toward the other anchored within a genuine caring as implicated in the affective labor of these caregiver characters. In the critique, the essay marks some problematic limitations in the treatment of the bakla. In doing so, the musical, despite its attempt to present a social reality, is a problem play, a social drama touching social issues--realistic in approach, but the representation seems like an editorial. In the final analysis, The Care Divas is argued to seemingly fail because artists are not able to see the complexity of their chosen subject in a bigger picture. PMID:26291029

  5. Investigation of factors affecting terrestrial passive sampling device performance and uptake rates in laboratory chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDS) for soil contaminant characterization shows extreme promise. The use of PSDs increases ease and speed of analysis, decreases solvent usage and cost, and minimizes the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a high sampling frequency, providing a more thorough site characterization than traditional methods. The authors have conducted both laboratory and field studies with terrestrial PSDS. Laboratory studies demonstrated the concentration and moisture dependence of sampler uptake and provided an estimate of the optimal field sampling time for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These PSDs were also used to accurately estimate PCB concentrations at hazardous waste site where concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 200 ug PCB/g soil. However, PSDs in the field had sampling rates approximately three times greater than in the laboratory. As a result several factors affecting PSD sampling rates and/or performance in laboratory chambers were evaluated. The parameters investigated were soil bulk density or compactness, chamber size and air flow. The chemicals used in these studies included two PCB congeners (52 and 153), three organochlorine pesticides (DDT, dieldrin and methoxychlor), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and terbufos) and three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor).

  6. Protein sources for finishing calves as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Sindt, M H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Vieselmeyer, B A

    1993-03-01

    Two beef production systems were evaluated in conjunction with an evaluation of escape protein sources for finishing calves. Two hundred forty crossbred steers and 80 crossbred heifer calves (BW = 267 +/- 2 kg) were split into two groups: 1) control, finished (207 d) after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period and 2) grazing cornstalks for 74 d after a 3-wk feedlot adjustment period, then finished (164 d). Finishing treatments were sources and proportions of supplemental CP: 1) urea 100%; 2) soybean meal (SBM) 100%; 3) blood meal (BM) 50%, urea 50%; 4) feather meal (FTH) 50%, urea 50%; 5) SBM 50%, FTH 25%, urea 25%; 6) SBM 25%, FTH 38%, urea 37%; 7) FTH 25%, BM 25%, urea 50%, and 8) FTH 38%, BM 13%, urea 50%. Treatments 1 to 8 were fed in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets. Treatments 9 and 10 were supplement Treatments 1 and 7 fed in diets based on high-moisture corn. Calves finished after a 74-d period of grazing cornstalks consumed more feed (P < .01) and gained faster (P < .01) but were less efficient (P < .05) than calves finished directly after weaning. Although not statistically different, calves finished after grazing cornstalks and supplemented with natural protein in the feedlot were 7% more efficient than calves supplemented with urea alone. Efficiency of calves finished directly after weaning was similar for calves supplemented with natural protein or urea alone. Supplementing SBM/FTH/urea or BM/FTH/urea improved feed efficiency compared with supplementing FTH/urea alone. These data suggest that allowing calves to graze cornstalks before finishing is a possible management option, but this system may require more metabolizable protein in the finishing diet to maximize feed efficiency if the calves are expressing compensatory growth. PMID:8463161

  7. Measure for Measure: How Proficiency-Based Accountability Systems Affect Inequality in Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju

    2016-01-01

    How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This paper reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability pressure, they focus attention on students closest to proficiency. We refer to this practice as educational triage, and show that the difficulty of the proficiency standard affects whether lower or higher performing students gain most on high-stakes tests used to evaluate schools. Less difficult proficiency standards decrease inequality in high-stakes achievement, while more difficult ones increase it. Second, we show that educators emphasize test-specific skills with students near proficiency, a practice that we refer to as instructional triage. As a result, the effects of accountability pressure differ across high and low-stakes tests; we find no effects on inequality in low-stakes reading and math tests of similar skills. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that instructional triage is most pronounced in the lowest performing schools. We conclude by discussing how these findings shape our understanding of accountability's impacts on educational inequality. PMID:27122642

  8. Does the company's economic performance affect access to occupational health services?

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Background In Finland like in many other countries, employers are legally obliged to organize occupational health services (OHS) for their employees. Because employers bear the costs of OHS it could be that in spite of the legal requirement OHS expenditure is more determined by economic performance of the company than by law. Therefore, we explored whether economic performance was associated with the companies' expenditure on occupational health services. Methods We used a prospective design to predict expenditure on OHS in 2001 by a company's economic performance in 1999. Data were provided by Statistics Finland and expressed by key indicators for profitability, solidity and liquidity and by the Social Insurance Institution as employers' reimbursement applications for OHS costs. The data could be linked at the company level. Regression analysis was used to study associations adjusted for various confounders. Results Nineteen percent of the companies (N = 6 155) did not apply for reimbursement of OHS costs in 2001. The profitability of the company represented by operating margin in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to the company's probability to apply for reimbursement of the costs in 2001 (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.01). Profitability measured as operating profit in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to costs for curative medical services (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.11) nor to OHS cost of prevention in 2001 (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.00). Conclusion We did not find a relation between the company's economic performance and expenditure on OHS in Finland. We suppose that this is due to legislation obliging employers to provide OHS and the reimbursement system both being strong incentives for employers. PMID:19725952

  9. Tracer gauge: an automated dye dilution gauging system for ice-affected streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Fleming, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In-stream flow protection programs require accurate, real-time streamflow data to aid in the protection of aquatic ecosystems during winter base flow periods. In cold regions, however, winter streamflow often can only be estimated because in-channel ice causes variable backwater conditions and alters the stage-discharge relation. In this study, an automated dye dilution gauging system, a tracer gauge, was developed for measuring discharge in ice-affected streams. Rhodamine WT is injected into the stream at a constant rate, and downstream concentrations are measured with a submersible fluorometer. Data loggers control system operations, monitor key variables, and perform discharge calculations. Comparison of discharge from the tracer gauge and from a Cipoletti weir during periods of extensive ice cover indicated that the root-mean-square error of the tracer gauge was 0.029 m3 s−1, or 6.3% of average discharge for the study period. The tracer gauge system can provide much more accurate data than is currently available for streams that are strongly ice affected and, thus, could substantially improve management of in-stream flow protection programs during winter in cold regions. Care must be taken, however, to test for the validity of key assumptions, including complete mixing and conservative behavior of dye, no changes in storage, and no gains or losses of water to or from the stream along the study reach. These assumptions may be tested by measuring flow-weighted dye concentrations across the stream, performing dye mass balance analyses, and evaluating breakthrough curve behavior.

  10. PERFORMANCE OF THE DIII-D SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CALLIS,RW; KAJIWARA,K; LOHR,J; GORELOV,YA; PONCE,D

    2003-08-01

    A271 PERFORMANCE OF THE DIII-D SYSTEM. Three 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed and are operational on the DIII-D tokamak. All three gyrotrons were built by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). The CPI gyrotrons utilize a single disc CVD (chemical-vapor-deposition) diamond window that employs water cooling around the edge of the disc. Calculations predict that the CVD diamond window should be capable of full 1 MW cw operation, which is supported by IR camera measurements that show the window reaching equilibrium after 2.5 s. All gyrotrons are connected to the tokamak by low-loss-windowless evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide for propagation in the HE{sub 11} mode. Each waveguide system incorporates a two-mirror launcher, which can steer the rf beam poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. Results obtained using the DIII-D ECH systems will be reported.

  11. Turbidity and salinity affect feeding performance and physiological stress in the endangered delta smelt.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Komoroske, Lisa M; Connon, Richard E; Geist, Juergen; Fangue, Nann A

    2013-10-01

    Coastal estuaries are among the most heavily impacted ecosystems worldwide with many keystone fauna critically endangered. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered pelagic fish species endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary in northern California, and is considered as an indicator species for ecosystem health. This ecosystem is characterized by tidal and seasonal gradients in water parameters (e.g., salinity, temperature, and turbidity), but is also subject to altered water-flow regimes due to water extraction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of turbidity and salinity on feeding performance and the stress response of delta smelt because both of these parameters are influenced by water flows through the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) and are known to be of critical importance to the completion of the delta smelt's life cycle. Juvenile delta smelt were exposed to a matrix of turbidities and salinities ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) and 0.2 to 15 parts per thousand (ppt), respectively, for 2 h. Best statistical models using Akaike's Information Criterion supported that increasing turbidities resulted in reduced feeding rates, especially at 250 NTU. In contrast, best explanatory models for gene transcription of sodium-potassium-ATPase (Na/K-ATPase)-an indicator of osmoregulatory stress, hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-a precursor protein to adrenocorticotropic hormone (expressed in response to biological stress), and whole-body cortisol were affected by salinity alone. Only transcription of glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme that protects cells against reactive oxygen species, was affected by both salinity and turbidity. Taken together, these data suggest that turbidity is an important determinant of feeding, whereas salinity is an important abiotic factor influencing the cellular stress response in delta smelt. Our data support habitat association studies that have shown greater

  12. Airway resistance and reactance are affected in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Aronsson, David; Hesselstrand, Roger; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wuttge, Dirk M.; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial lung disease often occurs as an early complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim was to investigate whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) could be used to evaluate lung impairment in SSc. Methods Seventy-eight SSc patients, of which 65 had limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) and 13 had diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc), were subjected to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (spirometry, IOS, and single breath CO diffusion capacity test). Twenty-six healthy individuals served as controls. Results Patients with lcSSc had higher levels of peripheral airway resistance, that is, R5–R20 (difference between resistance at 5 Hz and resistance at 20 Hz) showed a median (and interquartile range) of 0.05 (0.02–0.09) in lcSSc, 0.01 (0.00–0.04) in dcSSc and 0.04 (0.01–0.06) in healthy controls. They also had higher levels of reactance: reactance area was 0.26 (0.15–0.56) in lcSSc, 0.20 (0.11–0.29) in dcSSc and 0.18 (0.08–0.30) in healthy controls, and resonant frequency was 10.9 (8.8–14.8) in lcSSc, 9.0 (8.3–11.6) in dcSSc and 9.1 (8.0–13.1) in healthy controls. Airway reactance correlated to fibrotic findings on HRCT, such as ground glass opacities and reticulations. Discussion This implies that IOS parameters to some extent are related to fibrosis in patients with SSc. PMID:26672963

  13. Pleiades System Architecture and Main Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, M. A.; Perret, L.; Kubik, P.

    2012-07-01

    France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES), has set up a cooperative program with Austria, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, in order to develop a space Earth Observation system called PLEIADES. PLEIADES is a dual system, this means that it is intended to fulfill an extended panel of both civilian and Defense user's needs.. This paper reports the status of the satellite after its launch and the in orbit commissioning, the PLEIADES satellite first model has been launched at the end of year 2011, the second model will be launched about 12 months later. It describes the main mission characteristics and performances status. It exposes how the system, satellite and ground segment have been designed in order to be compliant with a dual exploitation between civilian and defense partners. The system is based on the use of a set of newly European developed technologies to feature the satellite. In order to maximize the agility of the satellite, weight and inertia have been reduced using a compact hexagonal shape for the satellite bus. The optical mission consists in Earth optical observation composed of 0.7 m nadir resolution for the panchromatic band and 2.8 m nadir resolution for the four multi-spectral bands. The image swath is about 20 km. PLEIADES delivers optical high resolution products consisting in a Panchromatic image, into which is merged a four multispectral bands image, orthorectified on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Thanks to the huge satellite agility obtained with control momentum gyros as actuators, the optical system delivers as well instantaneous stereo images, under different stereoscopic conditions and mosaic images, issued from along the track thus enlarging the field of view. The ground segment is composed of a dual ground center located in CNES Toulouse premises in charge of preparing the dual mission command plan and of the real time contacts with the satellite through a control center. The dual ground center interfaces with several

  14. Affect and Managerial Performance: A Test of the Sadder-but-Wiser vs. Happier-and-Smarter Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staw, Barry M.; Barsade, Sigal G.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a comparative test of two psychological theories concerning the relationship between affect and performance. Used managerial simulations to test whether people with positive dispositions perform better or worse on both decisional and interpersonal tasks. Results support the happier-and-smarter, as opposed to the sadder-but-wiser,…

  15. Performance tuned radioisotope thermophotovoltaic space power system

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, W.E.; Morgan, M.D.; Saban, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    The trend in space exploration is to use many small, low-cost, special-purpose satellites instead of the large, high-cost, multipurpose satellites used in the past. As a result of this new trend, there is a need for lightweight, efficient, and compact radioisotope fueled electrical power generators. This paper presents an improved design for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) space power system in the 10 W to 20 W class which promises up to 37.6 watts at 30.1{percent} efficiency and 25 W/kg specific power. The RTPV power system concept has been studied and compared to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) radioisotope, Stirling generators and alkali metal thermal electric conversion (AMTEC) generators (Schock, 1995). The studies indicate that RTPV has the potential to be the lightest weight, most efficient and most reliable of the three concepts. However, in spite of the efficiency and light weight, the size of the thermal radiator required to eliminate excess heat from the PV cells and the lack of actual system operational performance data are perceived as obstacles to RTPV acceptance for space applications. Between 1994 and 1997 EDTEK optimized the key converter components for an RTPV generator under Department of Energy (DOE) funding administered via subcontracts to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies Laboratory (Horne, 1995). The optimized components included a resonant micromesh infrared bandpass filter, low-bandgap GaSb PV cells and cell arrays. Parametric data from these components were supplied to OSC who developed and analyzed the performance of 100 W, 20 W, and 10 W RTPV generators. These designs are described in references (Schock 1994, 1995 and 1996). Since the performance of each class of supply was roughly equivalent and simply scaled with size, this paper will consider the OSC 20 W design as a baseline. The baseline 20-W RTPV design was developed by Schock, et al of OSC and has been presented elsewhere

  16. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  17. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  18. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  19. Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1988-08-01

    This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Performance specification for control tower display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise L.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    2003-09-01

    Personnel in airport control towers monitor and direct the takeoff of outgoing aircraft, landing of incoming aircraft and all movements of aircraft on the ground. Although the primary source of information for the Local Controller, Assistant Local Controller and the Ground Controller is the real world viewed through the windows of the control tower, electronic displays are also used to provide situation awareness. Due to the criticality of the work to be performed by the controllers and the rather unique environment of the air traffic control tower, display hardware standards, which have been developed for general use, are not directly applicable. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested assistance of Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate in producing a document which can be adopted as a Tower Display Standard usable by display engineers, human factors practitioners and system integrators. Particular emphasis was placed on human factors issues applicable to the control tower environment and controller task demands.

  1. Takeoff Performance Monitoring System display options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The development of displays for the Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TPMS) is described with attention given to the three concepts prepared for commercial applications. The TPMS algorithm is described and related to the display requirements for pilots of two-engine airplanes. Head-up and -down displays are considered for displaying the simple advisory data which indicate whether the takeoff is a 'Go' or 'No-go' based on engine failure, acceleration error, and runway length. Six pilots are shown the three display options which include: (1) basic information; (2) basic data with 'Go/No-go' advisory flags; and (3) basic data, advisory flags, and an abort-warning symbol. The pilots tended to select the option with the most advisory data available, but the inconclusive preference study led to the concept of presenting all three configurations as possible display options for the TPMS.

  2. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    PubMed

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  3. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    PubMed

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  4. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  5. Performance of Tornado Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, T.

    1982-09-01

    The flow characteristics and power production capabilities of the Tornado Wind Energy Conversion System (TWECS) are examined. Experimental results indicate that the confined vortex in the tower of TWECS rotates approximately as a solid body and only supplements total power production, most of which comes from the tower acting as a bluff body. Wrapped tower experiments were performed by fitting a plastic shroud 360 deg around the tower from the top of the bottom inlet to the tower exit level which transformed the TWECS into a hollow, raised cylinder. Coefficient of power is compared for louvered towers vs. wrapped tower. The fact that the wrapped tower performs as well as the louvered tower suggests that it is the pressure difference between the bottom inlet region and the region above the tower (where the pressure of the ambient flow will be somewhat reduced owing to its acceleration over the bluff body of the tower) which determines the vertical force on the fluid within the tower.

  6. The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Kuen-Chang; Liu, Jau-Yang; Lin, Sin-Jin; Chou, Yu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We analyse whether there is a linkage between performance measures of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and earnings management. We find that earnings management decreases with the higher performance of ERP systems. The empirical result is as expected. We further analyse how the dimension of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems success affects earnings management. We find that the relationship between the performance of ERP systems and earnings management depends on System Quality after ERP implementation. The more System Quality improves, the more earnings management is reduced.

  7. Exposure to Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles Differently Affect Swimming Performance and Survival in Two Daphnid Species

    PubMed Central

    Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Auffan, Mélanie; Borschneck, Daniel; Thill, Antoine; Tella, Marie; Brousset, Lenka; Rose, Jérôme; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Thiéry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The CeO2 NPs are increasingly used in industry but the environmental release of these NPs and their subsequent behavior and biological effects are currently unclear. This study evaluates for the first time the effects of CeO2 NPs on the survival and the swimming performance of two cladoceran species, Daphnia similis and Daphnia pulex after 1, 10 and 100 mg.L−1 CeO2 exposures for 48 h. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed to determine EC50 of exposed daphnids. Video-recorded swimming behavior of both daphnids was used to measure swimming speeds after various exposures to aggregated CeO2 NPs. The acute ecotoxicity showed that D. similis is 350 times more sensitive to CeO2 NPs than D. pulex, showing 48-h EC50 of 0.26 mg.L−1 and 91.79 mg.L−1, respectively. Both species interacted with CeO2 NPs (adsorption), but much more strongly in the case of D. similis. Swimming velocities (SV) were differently and significantly affected by CeO2 NPs for both species. A 48-h exposure to 1 mg.L−1 induced a decrease of 30% and 40% of the SV in D. pulex and D. similis, respectively. However at higher concentrations, the SV of D. similis was more impacted (60% off for 10 mg.L−1 and 100 mg.L−1) than the one of D. pulex. These interspecific toxic effects of CeO2 NPs are explained by morphological variations such as the presence of reliefs on the cuticle and a longer distal spine in D. similis acting as traps for the CeO2 aggregates. In addition, D. similis has a mean SV double that of D. pulex and thus initially collides with twice more NPs aggregates. The ecotoxicological consequences on the behavior and physiology of a CeO2 NPs exposure in daphnids are discussed. PMID:23977004

  8. Performance and Mass Modeling Subtleties in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) thermal energy conversion is one available option for future spacecraft and surface systems. 2. Brayton system conceptual designs for milliwatt to megawatt power converters have been developed 3. Numerous features affect overall optimized power conversion system performance: Turbomachinery efficiency. Heat exchanger effectiveness. Working-fluid composition. Cycle temperatures and pressures.

  9. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  10. Thermal Performance Testing Of Cryogenic Piping Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal performance measurement of piping systems under actual field conditions is important for space launch development and commercial industry. Knowledge of the true insulating effectiveness is needed in system design, development, and research activities. A new 18-meter-long test apparatus for cryogenic pipelines has been developed. Three different pipelines, rigid or flexible, can be tested simultaneously. Critical factors in heat leak measurements include eliminating heat transfer at end connections and obtaining proper liquid saturation condition. Effects due to variations in the external ambient conditions like wind, humidity, and solar radiation must be minimized. The static method of liquid nitrogen evaporation has been demonstrated, but the apparatus can be adapted for dynamic testing with cryogens, chilled water, or other working fluids. This technology is suited for the development of an industry standard test apparatus and method. Examples of the heat transfer data from testing commercially available pipelines are given. Prototype pipelines are currently being tested and evaluated at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Diego

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009-2011 LHC running at centre of mass energies between 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. The first level uses custom electronics to reject most background events, in less than 2.5 μs, using information from the calorimeter and muon detectors. The upper two trigger levels are software-based triggers. The trigger system selects events by identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the performance of these trigger selections based on extensive online running during the 2011 LHC run and discuss issues encountered during 2011 operations. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity coping with pile-up conditions close to LHC design luminosity.

  12. Tutorial: Clock and Clock Systems Performance Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.

    1996-01-01

    This tutorial contains basic material - familiar to many. This will be used as a foundation upon which we will build - bringing forth some new material and equations that have been developed especially for this tutorial. These will provide increased understanding toward parameter estimation of clock and clock system's performance. There is a very important International Telecommunications Union (ITU) handbook being prepared at this time which goes much further than this tutorial has time to do. I highly recommend it as an excellent resource document. The final draft is just now being completed, and it should be ready late in 1996. It is an outstanding handbook; Dr. Sydnor proposed to the ITU-R several years ago, and is the editor with my assistance. We have some of the best contributors in the community from around the world who have written the ten chapters in this handbook. The title of the handbook is 'Selection and use of Precise Frequency and Time Systems'. It will be available from the ITU secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, but NAVTEC Seminars also plans to be a distributor.

  13. Factors affecting air sparging remediation systems using field data and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Benner, Michael L; Mohtar, Rabi H; Lee, Linda S

    2002-12-01

    Field data from five air sparging sites were used to assess the effect of several soil, contaminant, and air sparging system factors on the removal time and associated costs required to reach specified clean-up criteria. Numerical simulations were also performed to better assess the field data and to expand the data sets beyond the five field sites. Ten factors were selected and evaluated individually over a range of values based on information from practitioners and the literature. Trends in removal time and removal cost to reach a specified clean-up criterion were analyzed to ascertain the conditions controlling contaminant removal with variations in each factors' value. A linear sensitivity equation was used to quantify system dynamics controlling the observed contaminant removal trends for each factor. Factors found most critical across all field sites in terms of removal time and/or cost were contaminant type, sparge pulsing schedule, number of wells, maximum biodecay rate, total soil porosity, and aquifer organic carbon content. Factors showing moderate to low effect included the depth of the sparge point below the water table, air injection rate/pressure, horizontal air conductivity, and anisotropy ratio. At each field site, subsurface coverage of sparged air, sparged air residence time, contaminant equilibrium in the system, contaminant phase distribution, oxygen availability to microbes, and contaminant volatility seem to control the system responses and were affected by one or more of the 10 factors evaluated.

  14. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Teacher Attrition in High Performing and Low Performing Elementary Rural Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Blocker, Vickie R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors impacting teacher attrition in high-performing and low-performing elementary rural schools in South Carolina. Several factors were identified that interfered with teachers returning to the teaching profession. School districts in rural areas need to be better informed of the factors that affect…

  15. Let's not be indifferent about neutrality: Neutral ratings in the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) mask mixed affective responses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Iris K; Veenstra, Lotte; van Harreveld, Frenk; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a picture set used by researchers to select pictures that have been prerated on valence. Researchers rely on the ratings in the IAPS to accurately reflect the degree to which the pictures elicit affective responses. Here we show that this may not always be a safe assumption. More specifically, the scale used to measure valence in the IAPS ranges from positive to negative, implying that positive and negative feelings are end-points of the same construct. This makes interpretation of midpoint, or neutral ratings, especially problematic because it is impossible to tell whether these ratings are the result of neutral, or of mixed feelings. In other words, neutral ratings may not be as neutral as researchers assume them to be. Investigating this, in this work we show that pictures that seem neutral according to the valence ratings in the IAPS indeed vary in levels of ambivalence they elicit. Furthermore, the experience of ambivalence in response to these pictures is predictive of the arousal that people report feeling when viewing these pictures. These findings are of particular importance because neutrality differs from ambivalence in its specific psychological consequences, and by relying on seemingly neutral valance ratings, researchers may unwillingly introduce these consequences into their research design, undermining their level of experimental control. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  17. Polynomial chaos theory for performance evaluation of ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Michael D.; Bateman, Alec J.

    2010-04-01

    The development of a more unified theory of automatic target recognition (ATR) has received considerable attention over the last several years from individual researchers, working groups, and workshops. One of the major benefits expected to accrue from such a theory is an ability to analytically derive performance metrics that accurately predict real-world behavior. Numerous sources of uncertainty affect the actual performance of an ATR system, so direct calculation has been limited in practice to a few special cases because of the practical difficulties of manipulating arbitrary probability distributions over high dimensional spaces. This paper introduces an alternative approach for evaluating ATR performance based on a generalization of NorbertWiener's polynomial chaos theory. Through this theory, random quantities are expressed not in terms of joint distribution functions but as convergent orthogonal series over a shared random basis. This form can be used to represent any finite-variance distribution and can greatly simplify the propagation of uncertainties through complex systems and algorithms. The paper presents an overview of the relevant theory and, as an example application, a discussion of how it can be applied to model the distribution of position errors from target tracking algorithms.

  18. Male powerlifting performance described from the viewpoint of complex systems.

    PubMed

    García-Manso, J M; Martín-González, J M; Da Silva-Grigoletto, M E; Vaamonde, D; Benito, P; Calderón, J

    2008-04-01

    This paper reflects on the factors that condition performance in powerlifting and proposes that the result-generating process is inadequately described by the allometric equations commonly used. We analysed the scores of 1812 lifters belonging to all body mass categories, and analysed the changes in the results achieved in each weight category and by each competitor. Current performance-predicting methods take into account biological variables, paying no heed to other competition features. Performance in male powerlifting (as in other strength sports) behaves as a self-organised system with non-linear interactions between its components. Thus, multiple internal and external elements must condition changes in a competitor's score, the most important being body mass, body size, the number of practitioners, and the concurrency of favourable factors in one individual. It was observed that each behaved in a specific form in the high level, according to the individuals' circumstances, which make up the main elements of the competitive system in every category. In powerlifting, official weight categories are generally organised in three different groups: light (<52.0 to <60 kg), medium (<67.5 to <90.0 kg) and heavy (<100 to >125 kg) lifter categories, each one of them with specific allometric exponents. The exponent should be revised periodically, especially with regard to the internal dynamics of the category, and adjusted according to possible changes affecting competition.

  19. The Emotional Experience of People with Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Using the International Affective Pictures System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermejo, Belen G.; Mateos, Pedro M.; Sanchez-Mateos, Juan Degado

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is…

  20. A Systems Look at Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, E. Allen

    1975-01-01

    Results or goal achievement measurements of a manager's performance can be achieved for management with the use of the performance appraisal process which gives a broader perspective in the management of human resources. (Author)

  1. The Measurement of Program Implementation and Students' Cognitive, Affective, and Social Performance in a Field Test of the Inquiry Role Approach (1972-73). III. Students' Cognitive, Affective and Social Skills Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Lowell A.; And Others

    This report is one of three concerning the 1972-73 field test of the Inquiry Role Approach (IRA) to biology teaching developed by the staff of the Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL), Kansas City, Missouri. This paper contains a report of the students' cognitive, affective, and social skills performance. The 1,300 students…

  2. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  3. High-performance commercial building systems

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to building owners and

  4. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23937298

  5. Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Peng, Ann Chunyan

    2011-07-01

    We develop a model in which cognitive and affective trust in the leader mediate the relationship between leader behavior and team psychological states that, in turn, drive team performance. The model is tested on a sample of 191 financial services teams in Hong Kong and the U.S. Servant leadership influenced team performance through affect-based trust and team psychological safety. Transformational leadership influenced team performance indirectly through cognition-based trust. Cognition-based trust directly influenced team potency and indirectly (through affect-based trust) influenced team psychological safety. The effects of leader behavior on team performance were fully mediated through the trust in leader variables and the team psychological states. Servant leadership explained an additional 10% of the variance in team performance beyond the effect of transformational leadership. We discuss implications of these results for research on the relationship between leader behavior and team performance, and for efforts to enhance leader development by combining knowledge from different leadership theories.

  6. Young People's Time-of-Day Preferences Affect Their School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…

  7. Public School Principals' Perceptions of Selected External Factors Affecting Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisert, John E.

    Based on principals' own perceptions, this paper examines how the principal's role has changed, what constitutes principals' major problems or concerns, and how state and federal regulations and community pressures have affected the principal's role. The project identified and interviewed 56 public school principals for an 11-county area served by…

  8. Transitional Information in Spatial Serial Memory: Path Characteristics Affect Recall Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Elford, Greg; Mayberry, Murray

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of stimulus characteristics in a visuospatial order reconstruction task in which participants were required to recall the order of sequences of spatial locations. The complexity of the to-be-remembered sequences, as measured by path crossing, path length, and angles, was found to affect serial memory, in terms of both…

  9. Smokeless tobacco use: how it affects the performance of major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Robertson, P B; DeRouen, T A; Ernster, V; Grady, D; Greene, J; Mancl, L; McDonald, D; Walsh, M M

    1995-08-01

    The authors examined the effect of smokeless tobacco use on the athletic performance of major league baseball players during the 1988 season. They evaluated performance records of 158 players on seven major league teams who played or pitched at least 10 games or innings during the 1988 season. ST use, they concluded, is not related to player performance in major league baseball but does place players at significantly increased risk for mucosal lesions and other oral pathology.

  10. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers.

  11. 5 CFR 430.304 - SES performance management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SES performance management systems. 430.304 Section 430.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.304 SES performance management systems....

  12. 5 CFR 430.304 - SES performance management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SES performance management systems. 430.304 Section 430.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.304 SES performance management systems. (a) To encourage excellence in...

  13. 5 CFR 430.304 - SES performance management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SES performance management systems. 430.304 Section 430.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.304 SES performance management systems....

  14. Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS): Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jardins, Susan; Davis, Harry, Jr.

    An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is a computerized system designed to increase productivity by supporting the performance of the worker on demand at the time of need. This way, workers are allowed to perform with a minimum of intervention from others. Popular examples of performance support tools, or partially implemented EPSSs,…

  15. 5 CFR 430.304 - SES performance management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SES performance management systems. 430.304 Section 430.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.304 SES performance management systems....

  16. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  17. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  18. To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

  19. 5 CFR 9901.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance management system... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.405 Performance...

  20. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  1. Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Memory Performance, and Depressive Affect in Old Age: A Change-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimprich, Daniel; Martin, Mike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether and how subjective cognitive complaints are related to actual cognitive performance represents a central issue in applied cognitive aging research. Until recently, however, many studies have failed to find a strong association between subjective cognitive complaints and actual cognitive performance. In our study, we examine…

  2. Management as a Factor Affecting the Quality of Institutional Performance: The Experience of Kaunas College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spudyte, Irma; Misiunas, Mindaugas

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with the necessity of the development of higher education institutions, improvement of their performance and management in the context of constant changes and reforms. The outcomes of the research carried out at Kaunas College in 2003 while implementing the college performance quality improvement plan are presented. Research…

  3. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  4. Aligning Performance: Improving People, Systems, and Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny

    Performance is the actual work that is done to assure that an organization achieves its mission, and aligning that performance assures that the path to the mission is harmonious. Alignment exists when all people involved understand the dimensions of the work and want to achieve and improve alignment. This book presents the "Language of Work" model…

  5. Blocking and detection chemistries affect antibody performance on reverse phase protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Ambroz, Kristi L H; Zhang, Yonghong; Schutz-Geschwender, Amy; Olive, D Michael

    2008-06-01

    Antibody specificity is critical for RP protein arrays (RPA). The effects of blocking and detection chemistries on antibody specificity were evaluated for Western blots and RPA. Blocking buffers significantly affected nonspecific banding on Western blots, with corresponding effects on arrays. Tyramide signal amplification (TSA) increased both specific and nonspecific signals on Westerns and arrays, masking the expected gradations in signal intensity. These results suggest that consistent blocking and detection conditions should be used for antibody validation and subsequent RPA experiments. PMID:18563731

  6. Elevated CO2 Affects Predator-Prey Interactions through Altered Performance

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Bridie J. M.; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) affects how fishes perceive their environment, affecting behavioral and cognitive processes leading to increased prey mortality. However, it is unclear if increased mortality results from changes in the dynamics of predator-prey interactions or due to prey increasing activity levels. Here we demonstrate that ocean pCO2 projected to occur by 2100 significantly effects the interactions of a predator-prey pair of common reef fish: the planktivorous damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis and the piscivorous dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus. Prey exposed to elevated CO2 (880 µatm) or a present-day control (440 µatm) interacted with similarly exposed predators in a cross-factored design. Predators had the lowest capture success when exposed to elevated CO2 and interacting with prey exposed to present-day CO2. Prey exposed to elevated CO2 had reduced escape distances and longer reaction distances compared to prey exposed to present-day CO2 conditions, but this was dependent on whether the prey was paired with a CO2 exposed predator or not. This suggests that the dynamics of predator-prey interactions under future CO2 environments will depend on the extent to which the interacting species are affected and can adapt to the adverse effects of elevated CO2. PMID:23484032

  7. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  8. Factors affecting swimming performance of fasted rainbow trout with implications of exhaustive exercise on overwinter mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of body size, water temperature, and sustained swimming activity on swimming performance and the effects of exhaustive exercise on mortality of fasted juvenile rainbow trout. Fasting caused swimming performance to decline more rapidly for small fish than large fish, and warmer water temperatures and sustained swimming activity further decreased swimming performance. Exhaustive exercise increased mortality among fasted fish. Our observations suggest that juvenile rainbow trout with little or no food intake during winter can swim for long periods of time with little effect on mortality, but swimming to exhaustion can enhance mortality, especially among the smallest juveniles.

  9. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  10. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  11. Reproductive physiology in Zebu cattle. Unique reproductive aspects that affect their performance.

    PubMed

    Galina, C S; Orihuela, A; Duchateau, A

    1987-11-01

    This article describes the reproductive physiology of Zebu cattle and specific strategies that, when used in concert with an understanding of the physiologic differences between Zebu and other cattle, can improve reproductive performance. PMID:3319088

  12. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  13. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  14. Database Performance Monitoring for the Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.

    2015-10-01

    The Database Performance Monitoring (DPM) software (copyright in processes) is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform quality control analysis on time series data. The software loads time indexed databases (currently csv format), performs a series of quality control tests defined by the user, and creates reports which include summary statistics, tables, and graphics. DPM can be setup to run on an automated schedule defined by the user. For example, the software can be run once per day to analyze data collected on the previous day. HTML formatted reports can be sent via email or hosted on a website. To compare performance of several databases, summary statistics and graphics can be gathered in a dashboard view which links to detailed reporting information for each database. The software can be customized for specific applications.

  15. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  16. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Cesium Extraction Performance by Calix[4]Arene Derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rumppe, J.L.; Delmau, L.

    2004-01-01

    Novel aza-crown derivatives of dioctyloxy-calix[4]arene crown-6 were examined for their cesium extraction performance at different pH levels. These studies are of interest in addressing high-level waste tank remediation and the removal of 137Cs, a major contributor to heat and radiation generation. Preliminary studies were done to assess the performance of these calixarene compounds under varying conditions. Results showed an increase of cesium extraction with pH as well as expected trends in diluent effects and anion selectivity. Poor extraction performance of some aza-crown derivatives raised questions regarding the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding. A novel methylated derivative was used to address these questions. Additional experiments were conducted to determine the extraction effect on pH. Results indicate an increase in cesium extraction with pH, as shown in preliminary studies. Mono-aza derivatives were shown to exhibit better cesium extraction performance than their di-aza counterparts. The methylated derivative showed poorer extraction performance than the non-methylated derivative, indicating that completely removing the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding has negative effects on extraction performance. This suggests that the hydrogen-bonding facilitates anion co-extraction, which would lead to better overall extraction. Mono-aza derivatives were shown to cause unexpected changes in pH. This could possibly be attributed to protonation of the calix crown.

  17. An hierarchical approach to performance evaluation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1985-01-01

    The number and size of expert systems is growing rapidly. Formal evaluation of these systems - which is not performed for many systems - increases the acceptability by the user community and hence their success. Hierarchical evaluation that had been conducted for computer systems is applied for expert system performance evaluation. Expert systems are also evaluated by treating them as software systems (or programs). This paper reports many of the basic concepts and ideas in the Performance Evaluation of Expert Systems Study being conducted at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  18. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  19. Views of Effective Early Childhood Educators Regarding Systemic Constraints that Affect Their Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Simrall Garber; Patton, Mary Martin

    2001-01-01

    Examined 10 early childhood teachers' views regarding curricular trends for young children, their teaching practices, and systemic constraints affecting their teaching. Teachers were identified as advocates, resistors, or traditionalists. Systemic constraints identified included early academics, reading wars, and standardized testing. Teachers…

  20. Preliminary basic performance analysis of the Cedar multiprocessor memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallivan, K.; Jalby, W.; Turner, S.; Veidenbaum, A.; Wijshoff, H.

    1991-01-01

    Some preliminary basic results on the performance of the Cedar multiprocessor memory system are presented. Empirical results are presented and used to calibrate a memory system simulator which is then used to discuss the scalability of the system.

  1. MSFC Skylab airlock module, volume 1. [systems design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The history and development of the Skylab Airlock Module and Payload Shroud is presented from initial concept through final design. A summary is given of the Airlock features and systems. System design and performance are presented for the Spent Stage Experiment Support Module, structure and mechanical systems, mass properties, thermal and environmental control systems, EVA/IVA suite system, electrical power system, sequential system, sequential system, and instrumentation system.

  2. The emotional experience of people with intellectual disability: an analysis using the international affective pictures system.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Belén G; Mateos, Pedro M; Sánchez-Mateos, Juan Delgado

    2014-07-01

    The present study provides information on the emotional experience of people with intellectual disability. To evaluate this emotional experience, we have used the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The most important result from this study is that the emotional reaction of people with intellectual disability to affective stimuli is very similar to that of the control groups. The way in which people with intellectual disability express basic affect to emotional stimuli in terms of happy-sad and calm-nervous is very similar to that of the general population. However, there are also some differences in how basic affect is expressed in the affective dimensions that might be relevant to our understanding of the emotional life of people with intellectual disability.

  3. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM system 1A, Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of the solar energy system, Sims Prototype System 1A, is described. The system was designed by IBM to provide 50 to 60 percent of the space heating and domestic hot water preheating load to a 2,000 square foot floor space single family residence in the Huntsville area. The load design temperature inside the building was to be maintained at 70 degrees fahrenheit with auxiliary energy for heating supplied by an electric heat pump assisted by an electric resistance strip heater. In general the disappointing operation of this system is attributed to the manner in which it was used. The system was designed for residential application and used to satisfy the demands of an office environment. The differences were: (1) inside temperature was not maintained at 70 F as expected; and (2) hot water usage was much lower than expected. The conclusion is that the solar energy system must be designed for the type of application in which it is used. Misapplication usually will have an adverse affect on system performance.

  4. Do increases in selected fitness parameters affect the aesthetic aspects of classical ballet performance?

    PubMed

    Twitchett, Emily A; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Research has indicated that classical ballet dancers tend to have lower fitness levels and increased injury rates compared to other athletes with similar workloads. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specifically tailored fitness training programme on the incidence of injury and the aesthetic quality of performance of classical ballet dancers compared to a control group. Proficiency in performance was evaluated at the beginning and end of the intervention period for both groups through a 4-min dance sequence using previously ratified marking criteria. The intervention group (n = 8) partook in a weekly 1-hr training session that included aerobic interval training, circuit training, and whole body vibration. All dancers' performance proficiency scores increased from pre-intervention testing to post-intervention. The intervention group's overall performance scores demonstrated a significantly greater increase (p = 0.03) than the equivalent for the control group. It was concluded that supplementary fitness training has a positive effect on aspects related to aesthetic dance performance as studied herein; further research is recommended on a larger and more varied sample. Practical applications from this study suggest that supplemental training should be part of a ballet dancer's regime, and minimal intervention time is required to have observable effects.

  5. IR system field performance with superresolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, Jonathan; Miller, Justin; Park, Jennifer; Tener, Gene; Reynolds, Joseph; O'Shea, Patrick; Halford, Carl; Driggers, Ron

    2007-04-01

    Superresolution processing is currently being used to improve the performance of infrared imagers through an increase in sampling, the removal of aliasing, and the reduction of fixed-pattern noise. The performance improvement of superresolution has not been previously tested on military targets. This paper presents the results of human perception experiments to determine field performance on the NVESD standard military eight (8)-target set using a prototype LWIR camera. These experiments test and compare human performance of both still images and movie clips, each generated with and without superresolution processing. Lockheed Martin's XR® algorithm is tested as a specific example of a modern combined superresolution and image processing algorithm. Basic superresolution with no additional processing is tested to help determine the benefit of separate processes. The superresolution processing is modeled in NVThermIP for comparison to the perception test. The measured range to 70% probability of identification using XR® is increased by approximately 34% while the 50% range is increased by approximately 19% for this camera. A comparison case is modeled using a more undersampled commercial MWIR sensor that predicts a 45% increase in range performance from superresolution.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  7. Systemic availability of guanidinoacetate affects GABAA receptor function and seizure threshold in GAMT deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schulze, A; Tran, C; Levandovskiy, V; Patel, V; Cortez, M A

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) causes creatine depletion and guanidinoacetate accumulation in brain with the latter deemed to be responsible for the severe seizure disorder seen in affected patients. We studied electrical brain activity and GABAA mediated mechanisms of B6J.Cg-Gamt(tm1Isb) mice. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) monitoring of pharmacological treatments with ornithine (5 % in drinking water for 5-18 days) and/or Picrotoxin (PTX) (a GABAA receptor antagonist) (1.5 mg/kg, I.P.) in Gamt(MUT) and Gamt(WT) groups [n = 3, mean age (SEM) = 6.9 (0.2) weeks]. Mice were fitted with two frontal and two parietal epidural electrodes under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Baseline and test recordings were performed for determination of seizure activity over a 2 h period. The ECoG baseline of Gamt(MUT) exhibited an abnormal monotonous cortical rhythm (7-8 Hz) with little variability during awake and sleep states compared to wild type recordings. Ornithine treatment and also PTX administration led to a relative normalization of the Gamt(MUT) ECoG phenotype. Gamt(WT) on PTX exhibited electro-behavioral seizures, whereas the Gamt(MUT) did not have PTX induced seizures at the same PTX dose. Gamt(MUT) treated with both ornithine and PTX did not show electro-behavioral seizures while ornithine elevated the PTX seizure threshold of Gamt(MUT) mice even further. These data demonstrate: (1) that there is expression of electrical seizure activity in this Gamt-deficient transgenic mouse strain, and (2) that the systemic availability of guanidinoacetate affects GABAA receptor function and seizure thresholds. These findings are directly and clinically relevant for patients with a creatine-deficiency syndrome due to genetic defects in GAMT and provide a rational basis for a combined ornithine/picrotoxin therapeutic intervention.

  8. Factors affecting altitude relight performance of a double-annular ram-induction combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.; Mularz, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the altitude relight capabilities of a short-length, double-annular, ram-induction combustor which was designed for Mach 3 cruise operation. The use of distorted inlet-air flow profiles was tried to evaluate their effect on the relight performance. No significant improvement in altitude relight performance was obtained with this approach. A study was also made to determine the effects of the reference Mach number, the fuel temperature, and the fuel volatility (ASTM-A1 against JP-4) on the altitude relight performance. Decreasing the reference Mach number, increasing the fuel temperature, and using more volatile fuel all decrease the combustor pressure necessary for relight.

  9. Abdominally implanted transmitters with percutaneous antennas affect the dive performance of Common Eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Latty, Christopher J.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Andrews, Russel D.

    2010-01-01

    Implanted transmitters have become an important tool for studying the ecology of sea ducks, but their effects remain largely undocumented. To address this, we assessed how abdominally implanted transmitters with percutaneous antennas affect the vertical dive speeds, stroke frequencies, bottom time, and dive duration of captive Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). To establish baselines, we recorded video of six birds diving 4.9 m prior to surgery, implanted them with 38- to 47-g platform transmitter terminals, and then recorded their diving for 3.5 months after surgery to determine effects. Descent speeds were 16–25% slower and ascent speeds were 17–44% slower after surgery, and both remained below baseline at the end of the study. Dive durations were longer than baseline until day 22. On most days between 15 and 107 days after surgery, foot-stroke frequencies of birds foraging on the bottom were slower. Foot- and wing-stroke frequencies during descent and bottom time did not differ across the time series. If birds that rely on benthic invertebrates for sustenance dive slower and stay submerged longer after being implanted with a satellite transmitter, their foraging energetics may be affected. Researchers considering use of implanted transmitters with percutaneous antennas should be mindful of these effects and the possibility of concomitant alterations in diving behavior, foraging success, and migratory behavior compared to those of unmarked conspecifics.

  10. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; Shirako, Aiwa

    2015-05-01

    The current research examines how power affects performance in pressure-filled contexts. We present low-power-threat and high-power-lift effects, whereby performance in high-stakes situations suffers or is enhanced depending on one's power; that is, the power inherent to a situational role can produce effects similar to stereotype threat and lift. Three negotiations experiments demonstrate that role-based power affects outcomes but only when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and, therefore, pressure-filled. We link these outcomes conceptually to threat and lift effects by showing that (a) role power affects performance more strongly when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and (b) underperformance disappears when the low-power negotiator has an opportunity to self-affirm. These results suggest that stereotype threat and lift effects may represent a more general phenomenon: When the stakes are raised high, relative power can act as either a toxic brew (stereotype/low-power threat) or a beneficial elixir (stereotype/high-power lift) for performance.

  11. Trichobaris weevils distinguish amongst toxic host plants by sensing volatiles that do not affect larval performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gisuk; Joo, Youngsung; Diezel, Celia; Lee, Eun Ju; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Herbivorous insects use plant metabolites to inform their host plant selection for oviposition. These host-selection behaviours are often consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis; females oviposit on hosts that maximize the performance of their offspring. However, the metabolites used for these oviposition choices and those responsible for differences in offspring performance remain unknown for ecologically relevant interactions. Here, we examined the host-selection behaviours of two sympatric weevils, the Datura (Trichobaris compacta) and tobacco (T. mucorea) weevils in field and glasshouse experiments with transgenic host plants specifically altered in different components of their secondary metabolism. Adult females of both species strongly preferred to feed on D. wrightii rather than on N. attenuata leaves, but T. mucorea preferred to oviposit on N. attenuata, while T. compacta oviposited only on D. wrightii. These oviposition behaviours increased offspring performance: T. compacta larvae only survived in D. wrightii stems and T. mucorea larvae survived better in N. attenuata than in D. wrightii stems. Choice assays with nicotine-free, JA-impaired, and sesquiterpene-over-produced isogenic N. attenuata plants revealed that although half of the T. compacta larvae survived in nicotine-free N. attenuata lines, nicotine did not influence the oviposition behaviours of both the nicotine-adapted and nicotine-sensitive species. JA-induced sesquiterpene volatiles are key compounds influencing T. mucorea females' oviposition choices, but these sesquiterpenes had no effect on larval performance. We conclude that adult females are able to choose the best host plant for their offspring and use chemicals different from those that influence larval performance to inform their oviposition decisions. PMID:27146082

  12. Does training frequency and supervision affect compliance, performance and muscular health? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dalager, Tina; Bredahl, Thomas G V; Pedersen, Mogens T; Boyle, Eleanor; Andersen, Lars L; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of one weekly hour of specific strength training within working hours, performed with the same total training volume but with different training frequencies and durations, or with different levels of supervision, on compliance, muscle health and performance, behavior and work performance. In total, 573 office workers were cluster-randomized to: 1 WS: one 60-min supervised session/week, 3 WS: three 20-min supervised sessions/week, 9 WS: nine 7-min supervised sessions/week, 3 MS: three 20-min sessions/week with minimal supervision, or REF: a reference group without training. Outcomes were diary-based compliance, total training volume, muscle performance and questionnaire-based health, behavior and work performance. Comparisons were made among the WS training groups and between 3 WS and 3 MS. If no difference, training groups were collapsed (TG) and compared with REF. Results demonstrated similar degrees of compliance, mean(range) of 39(33-44)%, and total training volume, 13.266(11.977-15.096)kg. Musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders were reduced with approx. 50% in TG, which was significant compared with REF. Only the training groups improved significantly their muscle strength 8(4-13)% and endurance 27(12-37)%, both being significant compared with REF. No change in workability, productivity or self-rated health was demonstrated. Secondary analysis showed exercise self-efficacy to be a significant predictor of compliance. Regardless of training schedule and supervision, similar degrees of compliance were shown together with reduced musculoskeletal pain and improved muscle performance. These findings provide evidence that a great degree of flexibility is legitimate for companies in planning future implementation of physical exercise programs at the workplace. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027390.

  13. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. Methods 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. Results No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass. Conclusions Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have

  14. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Read, Adam L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-02-01

    Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior and battery performances were investigated. The substitution positions on the anthraquinone structure, binders for electrode preparation and electrolyte formulations have been found to have significant effects on the battery performances of such organic cathode materials. The substitution position with less steric stress has higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate capability. Polyvinylidene fluoride binder and ether-based electrolytes are favorable for the high capacity and long cycle life of the quinonyl organic cathodes.

  15. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms.

  16. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  17. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  18. Performance of NIRS Thoron Chamber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yosuke

    2008-08-01

    In order to carry out thoron sensitivity test for passive radon detectors, a thoron chamber system has been set up at NIRS, Japan. The thoron chamber system consists of four components: the exposure, monitoring, calibration, and humidity control systems, which was mounted in this study due to humidity dependence on the thoron concentration emanated from lantern mantles as the thoron source. The thoron concentration in the thoron chamber is controlled by humidity passed through the thoron source and the weight of the lantern mantle.

  19. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rajamony, Ram

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  20. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS (Universities…