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Sample records for affect thermal comfort

  1. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

  2. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. PMID:26171688

  3. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice

    PubMed Central

    Fanger, P. O.

    1973-01-01

    Fanger, P. O. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 313-324. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice. A review is given of existing knowledge regarding the conditions for thermal comfort. Both physiological and environmental comfort conditions are discussed. Comfort criteria are shown diagrammatically, and their application is illustrated by numerous practical examples. Furthermore, the effect on the comfort conditions of age, adaptation, sex, seasonal and circadian rhythm, and unilateral heating or cooling of the body is discussed. The term `climate monotony' is considered. A method is recommended for the evaluation of the quality of thermal environments in practice. Images PMID:4584998

  4. Thermal aspects of vehicle comfort.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I; Nilsson, H; Bohm, M; Norén, O

    1995-07-01

    The combined thermal effects of convection, radiation and conduction in a vehicle compartment need special measuring equipment accounting for spatial and temporal variations in the driver space. The most sophisticated equipment measures local heat fluxes at defined spots or areas of a man-shaped manikin. Manikin segment heat fluxes have been measured in a variety of vehicle climatic conditions (heat, cold, solar radiation etc.) and compared with thermal sensation votes and physiological responses of subjects exposed to the same conditions. High correlation was found for segment fluxes and mean thermal vote (MTV) of subjects for the same body segments. By calibrating the manikin under homogenous, wind still conditions, heat fluxes could be converted (and normalised) to an equivalent homogenous temperature (EHT). Regression of MTV-values on EHT-values was used as basis for the derivation of a comfort profile, specifying acceptable temperature ranges for 19 different body segments. The method has been used for assessment of the thermal climate in trucks and crane cabins in winter and summer conditions. The possibility for spatial resolution of thermal influences (e.g. by solar radiation or convection currents) appeared to be very useful in the analysis of system performance. Ventilation of driver's seats is a technical solution to reducing insulation of thigh, seat and back areas of the body. Constructions, however, may vary in efficiency. In one system seat ventilation allowed for almost 2 degrees C higher ambient conditions for unchanged general thermal sensation, in addition to the pronounced local effect. In a recent study the effects of various technical measures related to cabin design and HVAC-systems have been investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7493249

  5. Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

  6. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  7. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  8. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2014-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous ‘components’. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].1 The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.1 Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude. PMID:27226992

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  10. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. PMID:23590514

  11. Predicting human thermal comfort in a transient nonuniform thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Rugh, J P; Farrington, R B; Bharathan, D; Vlahinos, A; Burke, R; Huizenga, C; Zhang, H

    2004-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a suite of thermal comfort tools to assist in the development of smaller and more efficient climate control systems in automobiles. These tools, which include a 126-segment sweating manikin, a finite element physiological model of the human body, and a psychological model based on human testing, are designed to predict human thermal comfort in transient, nonuniform thermal environments, such as automobiles. The manikin measures the heat loss from the human body in the vehicle environment and sends the heat flux from each segment to the physiological model. The physiological model predicts the body's response to the environment, determines 126-segment skin temperatures, sweat rate, and breathing rate, and transmits the data to the manikin. The psychological model uses temperature data from the physiological model to predict the local and global thermal comfort as a function of local skin and core temperatures and their rates of change. Results of initial integration testing show the thermal response of a manikin segment to transient environmental conditions. PMID:15221399

  12. Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.

    2005-06-01

    The objects of this report are to: (1) increase national energy security by reducing fuel use for vehicle climate control systems; (2) show/demonstrate technology that can reduce the fuel used by LD vehicles' ancillary systems; and (3) develop tools to evaluate the effectiveness of energy-efficient systems including--comfort, cost, practicality, ease-of-use, and reliability.

  13. Thermal comfort requirements: A study of people with multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, L.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Hodder, S.G.

    1999-07-01

    Existing specifications for thermal comfort in built environments are coming under increased criticism for failing to consider the requirements of specific populations. People with physical disabilities are an example of one such population. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort requirements of 32 people with multiple sclerosis. Subjects were exposed to three conditions: 18.5 C, PMV = {minus}1.5, slightly cool to cool; 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral; 29 C, PMV = +1.5, slightly warm to warm. Results indicate that people with multiple sclerosis have a wide range of responses to the three experimental conditions. The actual percentage dissatisfied was much higher than predicted by Fange's (1970) predicted percentage dissatisfied. Their preferred environment is slightly warmer than 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral. A subgroup of the population prefers an environment that is slightly cooler than 23 C. Further work is needed to qualify if their preferred environments match that of PMV+1 and PMV{minus}1 and to identify if any of the factors such as age, duration of disability, and medication affect the actual mean vote.

  14. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  15. Linguistic dimensions in descriptors expressing thermal sensation in Korean: `warm' projects thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    The present study was triggered by the inconsistency in verbal descriptors in English and Korean describing ‘warm’ and ‘hot’ in the thermal sensation scale. The purpose of this study was to examine the linguistic dimensions of the terms expressing ‘ ttatteuhada (warm)’ and ‘ yakkan duptta (slightly hot)’ in Korean. A total of 988 urban Koreans (479 males and 509 females) participated in a questionnaire survey consisting of six questions. The one-to-one survey was conducted indoors in December 2008. Our results showed that (1) ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’ in Korean are distinctive thermal descriptors; (2) ‘warm’ projects thermal comfort (80.4% of 988 respondents), but ‘slightly hot’ projects some thermal discomfort (54.3% of 988 respondents); (3) a slight thermally comfortable feeling was expressed as ‘warm’ (83.9% of 988 respondents), while a slight thermally uncomfortable feeling was seldom expressed as ‘warm’ (6.2% of 988 respondents) in mild heat environments; (4) the linguistic dimension within the term ‘warm’ was less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than that of the term ‘slightly hot’. In summary, ‘warm’ in Korean connotes a thermally comfortable feeling. In the case of being a little thermally uncomfortable, Koreans project their thermal sensation through the term ‘slightly hot’, rather than ‘warm’. In conclusion, thermal descriptors in the ISO 10551/ASHRAE scale, i.e., ‘very cold-cold-cool-slightly cool-neutral-slightly warm-warm-hot-very hot’, are not valid for the evaluation of mild hot environments in Korea. A new categorical scale is required in Korean considering the descriptors ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’.

  16. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

  17. Thermal comfort of patients in hospital ward areas.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Rae, A.

    1977-01-01

    The patient is identified as being of prime importance for comfort standards in hospital ward areas, other ward users being expected to adjust their dress to suit the conditions necessary for patients comfort. A study to identify the optimum steady state conditions for patients comfort is then described. Although this study raises some doubts as to the applicability of the standard thermal comfort assessment techniques to ward areas, it is felt that its results give a good indication of the steady-state conditions preferred by the patients. These were an air temperature of between 21-5 degrees and 22 degrees C and a relative humidity of between 30% and 70%, where the air velocity was less than 0-1 m/s and the mean radiant temperature was close to air temperature. PMID:264497

  18. An on-the-road experiment into the thermal comfort of car seats.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Tülin Gündüz; Babalik, Fatih C

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of thermal comfort in an extended road trial study. Automobile seats play an important role in improving the thermal comfort. In the assessment of thermal comfort in autos, in general subjective and objective measurements are used. Testing on the road is very difficult but real traffic conditions affect the comfort level directly, as well as the driver's experience to real conditions. Thus, for such cases real traffic situations should not be neglected in the evaluation of comfort. The aim of this study was to carry out, on an extended road trial study, an evaluation of thermal comfort using human subjects. In the experiments used, the 100% polyester seat cover had three different cover materials, which were velvet, jacquard and micro fiber. All experiments were carried out on a sunny day with ten participants over 1h. They were carried out at air temperatures of 25 degrees C in a Fiat Marea 2004, which had an automatic climate function. Skin temperature at eight points and skin wettedness at two points on the human body were measured during the trials. Participants were required to complete a questionnaire of 15 questions, every 5 min. It can be concluded that there was negligible difference in participants' reported thermal sensation between the three seats. According to objective measurement results, all seat cover materials have the same degree of thermal comfort. On the road the participants feel warmer around their waist than any other area of the body. It was suggested that the effects of real traffic conditions must be accounted for in comfort predictions. PMID:16759628

  19. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  20. The correlation between thermal comfort in buildings and fashion products.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Aline; de Mello Souza, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    This article is about thermal comfort in the wearable product. The research correlates fashion and architecture, in so far as it elects the brise soleil - an architectural element capable of regulating temperature and ventilation inside buildings - as a study referential, in trying to transpose and adapt its mechanisms to the wearable apparel. PMID:22317614

  1. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone: Including thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Boris Rm; Frijns, Arjan Jh; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  2. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  3. Heart rate variation and electroencephalograph--the potential physiological factors for thermal comfort study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Lian, Z; Liu, W; Jiang, C; Liu, Y; Lu, H

    2009-04-01

    Human thermal comfort researches mainly focus on the relation between the environmental factors (e.g. ambient temperature, air humidity, and air velocity, etc.) and the thermal comfort sensation based on a large amount of subjective field investigations. Although some physiological factors, such as skin temperature and metabolism were used in many thermal comfort models,they are not enough to establish a perfect thermal comfort model. In this paper,another two physiological factors, i.e. heart rate variation (HRV) and electroencephalograph (EEG), are explored for the thermal comfort study. Experiments were performed to investigate how these physiological factors respond to the environmental temperatures, and what is the relationship between HRV and EEG and thermal comfort. The experimental results indicate that HRV and EEG may be related to thermal comfort, and they may be useful to understand the mechanism of thermal comfort. PMID:19348034

  4. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (athletic park), named "Serafeio Athletic and Cultural Centre," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  6. Analysis of thermal comfort in a passive solar heated residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. T.

    1981-11-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a passive solar heated residence of the popular Trombe Wall configuration were investigated. The indoor thermal environment of an actual passive solar residence, using the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data tape as input as three locations of different climatic conditions was simulated. The relevant thermal comfort parameters such as the space air temperature, mean radiant temperatures, operative temperatures, radiant temperature asymmetry, and temperature drifts of the occupied zone, were computed for a prime heating month, a transition month and a prime cooling month of a typical weather year at the three locations. It is found that for the specific passive solar residence analyzed, the upper boundary of the comfort envelope can be exceeded (overheating) during a typical clear day in the transition month of April unless a change of clothing to summer wear is made during the daytime high solar radiation house. The upper boundary will be exceeded during a typical clear day in the prime cooling month of August for a person in typical summer clothing at all three locations unless the average air movement in the occupied zone is increased above the level of natural circulation, or the thermostat setting is reduced to a lower level, or both.

  7. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  8. Analysis of human thermal comfort and its tendencies in Budapest (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Akos; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the fact that the evaluation of the thermal conditions in the urban areas is extremely important and timely, in Budapest (capital of Hungary) very few studies were performed in this direction until now. The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences and changes of the thermal comfort conditions in the last half century (1961-2010) by comparing measurements of two meteorological stations located in different environments of Budapest: one in the central urban area (Local Climate Zone 2 - 'compact midrise') and the other in the suburbs (between Local Climate Zones 6 - 'open lowrise' and A - 'dense trees'). The thermal comfort was characterized by two human bioclimatological comfort indices, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), for four characteristic times of the day in the examined period. Then the thermal comfort differences between the stations according to two climatic normal periods (1961-1990 and 1981-2010), and the tendencies detected among the periods were also under investigation. For the last decade, 2001-2010, hourly-resolution investigations were carried out. The results indicate that the central area is affected by a higher degree of hot stress and less cold stress. Additionally, the warm stress has become more frequent, however, the cold heat load decreased in both examined area at each time.

  9. Thermal comfort and thermoregulation in manned space flight.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Fei, Jin-Xue; Yu, Xue-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to thermal environment is one of the main concerns for manned space exploration. By focusing on the works performed on thermoregulation at microgravity or simulated microgravity, we endeavored to review the investigation on space thermal environmental physiology. First of all, the application of medical requirements for the crew module design from normal thermal comfort to accidental thermal emergencies in a space craft will be addressed. Then, alterations in the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation caused by the effect of weightlessness both in space flight and its simulation on the ground are also discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures like exercise training, simulated natural ventilation, encouraged drink, etc., in the protection of thermoregulation during space flight is presented. Finally, the challenge of space thermal environment physiology faced in the future is figured out. PMID:24654534

  10. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles. PMID:19851789

  11. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces

  12. A statistical downscaling algorithm for thermal comfort applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Thorsson, Sofia; Holmer, Björn

    2015-11-01

    We describe a new two-step modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on human comfort in outdoor urban environments. In the first step, climate change scenarios for air temperature and solar radiation (global, diffuse, direct components) are created using a change-factor algorithm. The change factors are calculated by comparing ranked daily regional climate model outputs for a future-period and a present-day period, and then changes consistent with these daily change factors are applied to historical hourly climate observations. In the second step, the mean-radiant-temperature ( T mrt) is calculated using the SOLWEIG (SOlar and LongWave Environmental Irradiance Geometry) model. T mrt, which describes the radiant heat exchange between a person and their surroundings, is one of the most important meteorologically derived parameters governing human energy balance and outdoor thermal comfort, especially during warm and sunny days. We demonstrate that change factors can be applied independently to maximum air temperature and daily global solar radiation, and show that the outputs from the algorithm, when aggregated to daily values, are consistent with the driving regional climate model. Finally, we demonstrate how to obtain quantitative information from the scenarios regarding the potential impact of climate change on outdoor thermal comfort, by calculating changes in the distribution of hourly summer day-time T mrt and changes in the number of hours with T mrt >55 °C.

  13. Climate change and thermal comfort in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi Shing Calvin; Hart, Melissa Anne

    2014-03-01

    Thermal comfort is a major issue in cities and it is expected to change in the future due to the changing climate. The objective of this paper is to use the universal thermal comfort index (UTCI) to compare the outdoor thermal comfort in Hong Kong in the past (1971-2000) and the future (2046-2065 and 2081-2100). The future climate of Hong Kong was determined by the general circulation model (GCM) simulations of future climate scenarios (A1B and B1) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Three GCMs were chosen, GISS-ER, GFDL-CM2.1 and MRI-CGCM2.3.2, based on their performance in simulating past climate. Through a statistical downscaling procedure, the future climatic variables were transferred to the local scale. The UTCI is calculated by four predicted climate variables: air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. After a normalisation procedure, future UTCI profiles for the urban area of Hong Kong were created. Comparing the past UTCI (calculated by observation data) and future UTCI, all three GCMs predicted that the future climate scenarios have a higher mode and a higher maximum value. There is a shift from `No Thermal Stress' toward `Moderate Heat Stress' and `Strong Heat Stress' during the period 2046-2065, becoming more severe for the later period (2081-2100). Comparing the two scenarios, B1 exhibited similar projections in the two time periods whereas for A1B there was a significant difference, with both the mode and maximum increasing by 2 °C from 2046-2065 to 2081-2100.

  14. Climate change and thermal comfort in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Shing Calvin; Hart, Melissa Anne

    2014-03-01

    Thermal comfort is a major issue in cities and it is expected to change in the future due to the changing climate. The objective of this paper is to use the universal thermal comfort index (UTCI) to compare the outdoor thermal comfort in Hong Kong in the past (1971-2000) and the future (2046-2065 and 2081-2100). The future climate of Hong Kong was determined by the general circulation model (GCM) simulations of future climate scenarios (A1B and B1) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Three GCMs were chosen, GISS-ER, GFDL-CM2.1 and MRI-CGCM2.3.2, based on their performance in simulating past climate. Through a statistical downscaling procedure, the future climatic variables were transferred to the local scale. The UTCI is calculated by four predicted climate variables: air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. After a normalisation procedure, future UTCI profiles for the urban area of Hong Kong were created. Comparing the past UTCI (calculated by observation data) and future UTCI, all three GCMs predicted that the future climate scenarios have a higher mode and a higher maximum value. There is a shift from 'No Thermal Stress' toward 'Moderate Heat Stress' and 'Strong Heat Stress' during the period 2046-2065, becoming more severe for the later period (2081-2100). Comparing the two scenarios, B1 exhibited similar projections in the two time periods whereas for A1B there was a significant difference, with both the mode and maximum increasing by 2°C from 2046-2065 to 2081-2100. PMID:23150088

  15. A possible connection between thermal comfort and health

    SciTech Connect

    Stoops, John L.

    2004-05-20

    It is a well-established fact that cardiovascular health requires periodic exercise during which the human body often experiences significant physical discomfort. It is not obvious to the exerciser that the short-term pain and discomfort has a long-term positive health impact. Many cultures have well-established practices that involve exposing the body to periodic thermal discomfort. Scandinavian saunas and American Indian sweat lodges are two examples. Both are believed to promote health and well-being. Vacations often intentionally include significant thermal discomfort as part of the experience (e.g., sunbathing, and downhill skiing). So people often intentionally make themselves thermally uncomfortable yet the entire foundation of providing the thermal environment in our buildings is done to minimize the percentage of people thermally dissatisfied. We must provide an environment that does not negatively impact short-term health and we need to consider productivity but are our current thermal comfort standards too narrowly defined and do these standards actually contribute to longer-term negative health impacts? This paper examines the possibility that the human body thermoregulatory system has a corollary relationship to the cardiovascular system. It explores the possibility that we have an inherent need to exercise our thermoregulatory system. Potential, physiological, sociological and energy ramifications of these possibilities are discussed.

  16. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan's most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities. PMID:17940808

  17. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  18. Clothing microclimate temperatures during thermal comfort in boys, young and older men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Araki, Tsutomu; Matsudaira, Mitsuo

    1996-09-01

    To examine the effects of age-related differences in thermoregulatory function on the clothing microclimate temperature ( T m) and T m fluctuations while maintaining thermal comfort in daily life, 5 boys (group B, 10 11 years), 5 young men (group Y, 20 21 years) and 5 older men (group O, 60 65 years) volunteered to take part in this study. The subjects were asked to maintain thermal comfort as closely as possible in their daily lives. T m (temperatures between the skin surface and the innermost garment) at four sites (chest, back, upper arm, and thigh), skin temperature on the chest ( T chest) and ambient temperature ( T a) were measured over a period of 8 12 h from morning to evening on one day in each of the seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Records of ability to maintain thermal comfort and of adjustment of their clothes were kept by each subject. T a during periods of thermal comfort did not differ among the groups in any of the seasons. In group Y, T m was significantly lower at the thigh than at the other sites in spring, autumn, and winter ( P<0.05) and fluctuations (CV) of T m were significantly larger at the thigh than at other sites in autumn and winter ( P<0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for T m and CV of T m in group B. However, T m and CV of T m in group O did not differ by site except for the autumn T m. Group O had a smaller CV at the thigh in winter ( P<0.05), compared to groups B and Y, suggesting a smaller regional difference in T m fluctuation in group O. Group O adjusted their clothes even on the lower limbs (together with upper body) in order to maintain thermal comfort in accordance with changes in T a, while groups B and Y did so only on their upper bodies. These results sugest that compared to boys and young men, lower thermoregulatory function in older men may affect T m and CV of T m as a result of clothing on lower limbs being adjusted differently in order to maintain thermal comfort.

  19. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Thermal Comfort in High-Performance Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop recommendations on HVAC system design and operating conditions to achieve optimal thermal comfort in high-performance homes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed recommendations to help residential heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) designers select optimal supply inlet size and system operating conditions to maintain good thermal comfort in low heating and cooling load homes. This can be achieved by using high sidewall supply air jets to create proper combinations of air temperature and air motion in the occupied zone of the conditioned space. The design of air distribution systems for low-load homes is an integral part of residential system research and development in systems integration. As American homes become more energy efficient, space conditioning systems will be downsized. The downsizing will reach the point where the air flow volumes required to meet the remaining heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing, which can affect thermal comfort. NREL researchers performed a detailed study evaluating the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, supply air velocity, and supply inlet size. They found that in heating mode, low and intermediate supply temperatures of 95 F (308 K) and 105 F (314 K) maintained acceptable comfort levels at lower fan powers than can be achieved at 120 F (322 K) supply temperatures. For the high supply temperature of 120 F (322 K), higher fan powers (supply velocities) were required to overcome buoyancy effects and reach a good mixing in the room. In cooling mode, a supply temperature of 55 F (286 K) provided acceptable comfort levels. A small supply inlet of 8-in. (0.2 m) x 1-in. (0.025 m) is recommended in both heating and cooling modes. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model heat transfer and airflow in the room

  20. An investigation of thermal comfort at high humidities

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, M.E.; Arens, E. Xu, T.; Bauman, F.S.; Oguru, Masayuki

    1999-07-01

    Climate chamber experiments were performed to investigate thermal comfort at high humidities. Subjective reports were recorded for a total of 411 subjects at frequent intervals during the three-hour experiments with 65 selected subjects equipped with instrumentation to record skin wettedness and skin temperature. The exposures ranged from 20 C/60% RH to 26 C/90% RH with two clothing levels, 0.5 and 0.9 clo, and three levels of metabolic activity, 1.2, 1.6, and 4 met. Clear differences in humidity response were not found for sedentary subjects; however, non-sedentary activities produced differences on several subjective scales. These differences, though, are dictated via heat balance and thermoregulation and cannot be separated from humidity-related effects. For metabolic rates 1.6 met and above, these data suggest that no practical limit on humidity will lower the percent dissatisfied below 25%.

  1. Influence of evapotranspiration on thermal comfort in central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbach, A.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    In future, more and more people will be exposed to the negative thermal effects of urban climate, which will be exacerbated by predicted climate change. In regard to urban climate studies, it is necessary to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies tailored to the problem area and to include them in the local planning process. Urban green spaces or water bodies could help to mitigate the radiation and air temperature. For this purpose eddy-covariance technique has been carried out in Oberhausen (Germany; 51° N, 6° E) between 15 August 2010 and 14 August 2011 to quantify turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in areas with various types of urban land use. The results show that sensible heat flux (QH) is 20 % higher, latent heat flux (QE) 90 % lower at the urban (URB) site compared to the suburban one (SUB). Furthermore, partition of the turbulent heat fluxes (QH/Q* resp. QE/Q*) clearly depends on plan area density (λP). The human-biometeorological thermal index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), demonstrates that green spaces counteract growing thermal stress on city-dwellers due to improving thermal comfort. Aside from the positive effect of shading, inner-city green spaces can only be effective if an adequate water supply is ensured. Otherwise, the positive thermal effects of green spaces resulting from transpiration will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely, which is confirmed by the measured values. Additional planning recommendations for urban planners within cities located at mid-latitudes derived from measuring results are given.

  2. Thermal Comfort: An Index for Hot, Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sensation of thermal comfort is determined by a combination of air temperature, humidity of the air, rate of movement of the air, and radiant heat. This digest is intended to assist architects to design educational facilities that are as thermally comfortable as is possible without recourse to mechanical air conditioning. A nomogram is…

  3. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  4. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  5. An Open Source “Smart Lamp” for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called “Smart Lamp”, useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  6. Estimating outdoor thermal comfort using a cylindrical radiation thermometer and an energy budget model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. D.; Gillespie, T. J.

    1986-03-01

    A mathematical model to estimate outdoor thermal comfort for humans from micrometeorological data has been formulated using the energy balance concept and the simultaneous satisfaction of four criteria for comfort from the literature: (a) a comfortable perspiration rate, (b) a comfortable core body temperature, (c) a comfortable skin temperature, and (d) a near-zero energy budget. A cylindrical modification of the globe thermometer is proposed as a simple monitor of outdoor radiation absorption for a person, and the effect of windspeed on the thermal resistance of clothing is considered. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.91 between model output and subjective comfort ratings of 59 different situations with a variety of temperatures, insolations and windspeeds.

  7. Thermal comfort of various building layouts with a proposed discomfort index range for tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Lee, Yee Yong; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Iwao, Kenzo; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity. PMID:24679966

  8. Thermal Comfort in the Hot Humid Tropics of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, C. H.

    1963-01-01

    Day and night comfort votes were recorded from Caucasian residents at Weipa, a mission station in the hot humid tropics of North Queensland, Australia. The limit of day comfort for more than 50% of the men was 81·5°F. (27·5°C.) “normal” corrected effective temperature; the night limit was 78·0°F. (25·5°C.). Day comfort limits correlated well with air conditions at which sweat was apparent: night limits correlated with the amount of bed covering. Evidence of a change over 14 days in day comfort limit was found. Limitations in the effective temperature scale for expressing the “oppressive nature” of night air conditions are pointed out. Criticism is voiced of the use of dry bulb temperature instead of the effective temperature scale in conditions of high wet bulb temperatures with high relative humidity, such as in the hot humid tropics. PMID:14002126

  9. A large-scale survey of thermal comfort in office premises in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, D.W.T.; Burnett, J.; Ng, S.C.H.; Dear, R.J. de

    1998-10-01

    Hong Kong is a densely populated city in which the service sector dominates. The significant outdoor noise pollution and subtropical climate severely restrict the opportunity for office premises to be naturally ventilated. The high energy consumption for space cooling and the demand for improved indoor thermal comfort conditions simulated a large-scale survey of thermal comfort conditions in Hong Kong office premises. The neutral temperatures and preferred temperatures are found to be lower than those found in other studies in the tropics, with 60% of the surveyed subjects preferring a change of the thermal conditions in summer. The outcome provides for a better notion of thermal comfort, which can be imposed on design criteria. The results also add weight to the concern about the validity in the field of the traditional chamber test data presented by ASHRAE Standard 55-1992. It further suggests the potential for adopting an adaptive control algorithm for thermal comfort.

  10. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. PMID:23317756

  11. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    PubMed

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. PMID:25626476

  12. Thermal sensations and comfort investigations in transient conditions in tropical office.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Nur Dalilah; Gital, Yakubu Yau

    2016-05-01

    The study was done to identify affective and sensory responses observed as a result of hysteresis effects in transient thermal conditions consisting of warm-neutral and neutral - warm performed in a quasi-experiment setting. Air-conditioned building interiors in hot-humid areas have resulted in thermal discomfort and health risks for people moving into and out of buildings. Reports have shown that the instantaneous change in air temperature can cause abrupt thermoregulation responses. Thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) assessments as a consequence of moving through spaces with distinct thermal conditions were conducted in an existing single-story office in a hot-humid microclimate, maintained at an air temperature 24 °C (± 0.5), relative humidity 51% (± 7), air velocity 0.5 m/s (± 0.5), and mean radiant temperature (MRT) 26.6 °C (± 1.2). The measured office is connected to a veranda that showed the following semi-outdoor temperatures: air temperature 35 °C (± 2.1), relative humidity 43% (± 7), air velocity 0.4 m/s (± 0.4), and MRT 36.4 °C (± 2.9). Subjective assessments from 36 college-aged participants consisting of thermal sensations, preferences and comfort votes were correlated against a steady state predicted mean vote (PMV) model. Local skin temperatures on the forehead and dorsal left hand were included to observe physiological responses due to thermal transition. TSV for veranda-office transition showed that no significant means difference with TSV office-veranda transition were found. However, TCV collected from warm-neutral (-0.24, ± 1.2) and neutral-warm (-0.72, ± 1.3) conditions revealed statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05). Sensory and affective responses as a consequence of thermal transition after travel from warm-neutral-warm conditions did not replicate the hysteresis effects of brief, slightly cool, thermal sensations found in previous laboratory experiments. These findings also indicate that

  13. A fundamental model of the human thermal system for prediction of thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Takemori, Toshikazu; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Shoji, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    The authors have developed a fundamental model of the human thermal system (AVA model) for the prediction of thermal comfort. The distinguishing feature of this model is a more precise description of heat transfer by blood flow (that is, it includes arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA) of the extremities and a dual vascular network) that conventional models of human thermal systems. The following results were obtained: (1) the experimental verification under three different steady thermal conditions (22, 28 and 34 C) and an unsteady thermal condition (28.1 C {r_arrow} 47.1 {r_arrow} 28.3 C) which suggests that the AVA model can simulate body-temperature profiles well; (2) the visualized results of the model predictions demonstrate that the calculated tissue-temperature and blood-temperature distributions are physiologically plausible.

  14. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  15. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  16. The effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chupo; Fan, Jintu; Newton, Edward; Au, Raymond

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation on the effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on clothing comfort measured in terms of thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance. Four T-shirts in four different sizes (S, M, L, XL) were cut under the traditional sizing method while another (F-1) was cut with specially added fullness to create a 'flared' drape. A thermal manikin 'Walter' was used to measure the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the T-shirts in a chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The tests included four conditions: manikin standing still in the no-wind and windy conditions and walking in the no-wind and windy condition. It was found that adding fullness in the T-shirt design (F-1) to create the 'flared' drape can significantly reduce the T-shirt's thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under walking or windy conditions. Heat and moisture transmission through the T-shirt can be further enhanced by creating small apertures on the front and back of the T-shirt with specially added fullness. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The thermal comfort of the human body is one of the key issues in the study of ergonomics. When doing exercise, a human body will generate heat, which will eventually result in sweating. If heat and moisture are not released effectively from the body, heat stress may occur and the person's performance will be negatively affected. Therefore, contemporary athletic T-shirts are designed to improve the heat and moisture transfer from the wearer. Through special cutting, such athletic T-shirts can be designed to improve the ventilation of the wearer. PMID:21491282

  17. A comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in the terms of thermal comfort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fanger’s PMV equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air velocity, humidity, activity level and clothing insulation. Methods This paper contains a comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in terms of thermal comfort, Fanger’s PMV equation. Studies were processed in the winter for an office, which locates in Ankara, Turkey. The office was partitioned to fifty square cells. Humidity, relative air velocity, air temperature and mean radiant temperature were measured on the centre points of these cells. Thermal comfort analyses were processed for suit dressing (Icl = 1 clo) and summer clothing (Icl = 0.5 clo). Results Discomfort/comfort in an environment for different clothing types can be seen in this study. The relationship between indoor thermal comfort distribution and clothing type was discussed. Graphics about thermal comfort were sketched according to cells. Conclusions Conclusions about the thermal comfort of occupants were given by PMV graphics. PMID:24355097

  18. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    PubMed

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions. PMID:27280378

  19. Relative importance of different surface regions for thermal comfort in humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Kasuga, Momoko; Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the contribution of the surface of the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh to thermal comfort by applying local temperature stimulation during whole-body exposure to mild heat or cold. In hot conditions, humans prefer a cool face, and in cold they prefer a warm abdomen. In this study, we extended investigation of regional differences in thermal comfort to the neck, hand, soles, abdomen (Experiment 1), the upper and lower back, upper arm, and abdomen (Experiment 2). The methodology was similar to that used in the previous study. To compare the results of each experiment, we utilized the abdomen as the reference area in these experiments. Thermal comfort feelings were not particularly strong for the limbs and extremities, in spite of the fact that changes in skin temperature induced by local temperature stimulation of the limbs and extremities were always larger than changes that were induced in the more proximal body parts. For the trunk areas, a significant difference in thermal comfort was not observed among the abdomen, and upper and lower back. An exception involved local cooling during whole-body mild cold exposure, wherein the most dominant preference was for a warmer temperature of the abdomen. As for the neck and abdomen, clear differences were observed during local cooling, while no significant difference was observed during local warming. We combined the results for the current and the previous study, and characterized regional differences in thermal comfort and thermal preference for the whole-body surface. PMID:22569893

  20. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  1. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females. PMID:24478000

  2. Thermal Analysis--Human Comfort--Indoor Environments. NBS Special Publication 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Billy W., Ed.; Hill, James E., Ed.

    Included in these proceedings are 11 formal papers presented by leading researchers in the field of thermal comfort and heat stress at a symposium held for the purpose of exploring new aspects of indoor thermal environments, caused primarily by the impact of energy conservation in new and existing buildings. The contributed papers were from…

  3. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    PubMed

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension. PMID:25683544

  4. Effect of behavioral strategies and activity on thermal comfort of the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, K.M.; Spotila, J.R.; Ryan, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    A field survey indicated that 101 elderly subjects (mean age 73.4 years) of good health living independently in Hamilton, Ontario, maintained comfort in winter 1985-1986 with a constant mean clothing insulation of 0.8 clo and mean indoor air and operative temperatures at 21,2/degree/C (70.2 F) and 21.5/degree/C (70.7 F), respectively. The subjects scored 83.5 on the Self-Evaluation of Life Function (SELF) scale. Mean activity level at rest was 1.5 met and during periods of light exercise (walking at 1.3 mph, 2 km hr -1) and light domestic household work was 1.9 met. The subjects mean thermal comfort vote at rest was -0.1, very close to a thermal sensation of neutrality (0.0 on a scale from -3 tp +3). This agrees with corresponding measurement (mean of -0.2) of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) performed with a thermal comfort meter based on the Fanger Comfort Equation. Their thermal comfort vote and PMV during the two periods of increased activity were the same, 0.03. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  6. Thermal comfort investigation on a naturally ventilated two- storey residential house in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, N. A.; Khairuddin, M. H.; Rosli, M. F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a case study to investigate the human thermal comfort on a naturally ventilated two-storey residential house in Malaysia. Three parameters were investigated in this study, namely the air temperature, air velocity and air humidity. These parameters were measured using the appropriate measuring device to obtain the actual data and compared with simulation results. The level of thermal comfort in the house was found to be poor as the parameters measured are over the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. Simulation on the model of the house was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code, FLUENT to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The error between these two sets of data was acceptable and thus the simulation used in this study was validated. Comparison was also made in the CFD simulation to see the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the house and without ceiling fan. The level of thermal comfort was poor in both cases as it did not satisfy the standards set by ASHRAE but more uniform temperature distribution inside the house was found when the ceiling fan was turned on. The thermal comfort level became critical in the afternoon as during this period, the house receives direct sunlight which causes the temperature inside the house to increase. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help to improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers to further improve the level of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated residential houses.

  7. Automatic control of human thermal comfort with a liquid-cooled garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Water cooling in a liquid-cooled garment is used to maintain the thermal comfort of crewmembers during extravehicular activity. The feasibility of a simple control that will operate automatically to maintain the thermal comfort is established. Data on three test subjects are included to support the conclusion that heat balance can be maintained well within allowable medical limits. The controller concept was also successfully demonstrated for ground-based applications and shows potential for any tasks involving the use of liquid-cooled garments.

  8. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system. PMID:26052442

  9. Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

  10. Thermal comfort of diving dry suit with the use of the warp-knitted fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenfeldova, I.; Hes, L.; Annayeva, M.

    2016-07-01

    Achievement of a good level of thermal comfort of under-suits for dry suit diving which enable also the required mobility of the diver in water is inevitable not only for the scuba sport and commercial diving people but also for safety and activities of people who make research under water. The aim of this work is to verify whether selected knitted structures (which are not waterproof) can substitute the currently used textile materials (nonwovens). This dry-suit innovation is intended to increase the properties which correspond to the perception of thermal comfort of the diver in water. To achieve this objective, the Alambeta thermal tester was used in the study for experimental determination of thermal resistance of spacer warp knitted fabric at varying contact pressure. The studied textiles were expected to be very suitable for the intended application due to their low compressibility which yields relatively high thickness a hence increased thermal insulation.

  11. Thermal comfort range of a military cold protection glove: database by thermophysiological simulation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Carsten; Uedelhoven, Wolfgang H; Kurz, Bernhard; Glitz, Karl Jochen

    2008-09-01

    The thermal insulation properties of a military wet/cold protection glove of the German Bundeswehr were investigated using the thermophysiological simulation device CYBOR with a heated full-scale hand model. The aim of this study was the physiology related and more reliable estimation of a database for the thermal comfort range of the glove in terms of environmental limit temperatures and maximum safe wearing times (limit times). For that purpose the simulation device CYBOR is equipped with a control feature allowing the simulation of the physiological effect that the blood flow into the hands as the dominant heat source is reduced with decreasing skin temperature (vasoconstriction effect). In the simulation test, the criterion defining the thermal comfort range of the glove was the maintenance of a minimum hand phantom skin temperature of 15 degrees C. For various assumed metabolic rates between 50 and 175 W m(-2) and environmental temperatures down to -22 degrees C, the maximum safe wearing times within the thermal comfort range of the military glove were estimated between only 20 min and almost 1 h. The used simulation scenario for the prediction of environmental limit temperatures, however, tends to deliver too low values in correlation to the estimated limit times and needs further critical consideration. The estimated data concerning the thermal comfort range of the wet/cold protection glove of the German Bundeswehr leads to the recommendation for a use of this model in mild cold climatic regions. The presented thermophysiological simulation procedure for the evaluation of the cold protection properties of gloves in terms of maximum safe wearing times within the thermal comfort range can be a useful tool to establish practical operating instructions for soldiers or civilians acting in cold environments. PMID:18172670

  12. Understanding and Evaluating Human Thermal Comfort at Tertiary Level Using a Computer-Based Laboratory Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Phase changes in water are experienced in everyday life but students often struggle to understand mechanisms that regulate them. Human thermal comfort is closely related to humidity, evaporative heat loss and heat transfer. The purpose of the present study is to assist students in the evaluation of human thermal comfort. Such a goal is achievable…

  13. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  14. The CFD Simulation on Thermal Comfort in a library Building in the Tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Y. H.; Ghazali, N. N. N.; Badarudin, A.; Goh, F. C.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analysis for thermal comfort in a library. The room model includes library layout, equipment and peripheral positions as well as the positions of inlet and outlet air for IAQ controls. Cold clean air is supplied to the room through ceiling-mounted air grilles and exhausted through air grilles situated on the same ceiling. A commercial CFD package was used in this study to achieve solutions of the distribution of airflow velocity and temperature. Using high quality meshes is vital to the overall accuracy of the results. Simulation results show a good agreement with experimental data from the literature. This study has thoroughly analysed the indoor thermal conditions and airflow characteristics of the building. In addition, verification of the CFD program with experimental data showed that the program can provide reasonable and reliable predictions on thermal comfort performance with the help of precise boundary conditions.

  15. Effect of human behavior on economizer efficacy and thermal comfort in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, TIghe Glennon

    California has set a zero net-energy conservation goal for the residential sector that is to be achieved by 2020 (California Energy Commission 2011). To reduce energy consumption in the building sector, modern buildings should fundamentally incorporate sustainable performance standards, involving renewable systems, climate-specific strategies, and consideration of a variety of users. Building occupants must operate in concert with the buildings they inhabit in order to maximize the potential of the building, its systems, and their own comfort. In climates with significant diurnal temperature swings, environmental controls designed to capitalize on this should be considered to reduce cooling-related loads. One specific strategy is the air-side economizer, which uses daily outdoor temperature swings to reduce indoor temperature swings. Traditionally a similar effect could be achieved by using thermal mass to buffer indoor temperature swings through thermal lag. Economizers reduce the amount of thermal mass typically required by naturally ventilated buildings. Fans are used to force cool nighttime air deep into the building, allowing lower mass buildings to take advantage of nighttime cooling. Economizers connect to a thermostat, and when the outdoor temperature dips below a programmed set-point the economizer draws cool air from outside, flushing out the warmed interior air. This type of system can be simulated with reasonable accuracy by energy modeling programs; however, because the system is occupant-driven (as opposed to a truly passive mass-driven system) any unpredictable occupant behavior can reduce its effectiveness and create misleading simulation results. This unpredictably has helped prevent the spread of economizers in the residential market. This study investigated to what extent human behavior affected the performance of economizer-based HVAC systems, based on physical observations, environmental data collections, and energy simulations of a residential

  16. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  17. The analysis of thermal comfort requirements through the simulation of an occupied building.

    PubMed

    Thellier, F; Cordier, A; Monchoux, F

    1994-05-01

    Building simulation usually focuses on the study of physical indoor parameters, but we must not forget the main aim of a house: to provide comfort to the occupants. This study was undertaken in order to build a complete tool to model thermal behaviour that will enable the prediction of thermal sensations of humans in a real environment. A human thermoregulation model was added to TRNSYS, a building simulation program. For our purposes, improvements had to be made to the original physiological model, by refining the calculation of all heat exchanges with the environment and adding a representation of clothes. This paper briefly describes the program, its modifications, and compares its results with experimental ones. An example of potential use is given, which points out the usefulness of such models in seeking the best solutions to reach optimal environmental conditions for global, and specially local comfort, of building occupants. PMID:8206050

  18. Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, D.; Chabannes, G.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

  19. Effects of normobaric hypoxic bed rest on the thermal comfort zone.

    PubMed

    Ciuha, Ursa; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2015-01-01

    Future Lunar and Mars habitats will maintain a hypobaric hypoxic environment to minimise the risk of decompression sickness during the preparation for extra-vehicular activity. This study was part of a larger study investigating the separate and combined effects of inactivity associated with reduced gravity and hypoxia, on the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurohumoural, and thermoregulatory systems. Eleven healthy normothermic young male subjects participated in three trials conducted on separate occasions: (1) Normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement, (2) Normobaric hypoxic bedrest and (3) Normobaric normoxic bedrest. Normobaric hypoxia was achieved by reduction of the oxygen fraction in the air (FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004) within the facility, while the effects of reduced gravity were simulated by confining the subjects to a horizontal position in bed, with all daily routines performed in this position for 21 days. The present study investigated the effect of the interventions on behavioural temperature regulation. The characteristics of the thermal comfort zone (TCZ) were assessed by a water-perfused suit, with the subjects instructed to regulate the sinusoidally varying temperature of the suit within a range considered as thermally comfortable. Measurements were performed 5 days prior to the intervention (D-5), and on days 10 (D10) and 20 (D20) of the intervention. no statistically significant differences were found in any of the characteristics of the TCZ between the interventions (HAMB, HBR and NBR), or between different measurement days (D-5, D10, D20) within each intervention. rectal temperature remained stable, whereas skin temperature (Tsk) increased during all interventions throughout the one hour trial. no difference in Tsk between D-5, D10 and D20, and between HAMB, HBR and NBR were revealed. subjects perceived the regulated temperature as thermally comfortable, and neutral or warm. we conclude that regulation of thermal comfort is not compromised by

  20. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  1. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  2. Case study. Health hazards of automotive repair mechanics: thermal and lighting comfort, particulate matter and noise.

    PubMed

    Loupa, G

    2013-01-01

    An indoor environmental quality survey was conducted in a small private automotive repair shop during May 2009 (hot season) and February 2010 (cold season). It was established that the detached building, which is naturally ventilated and lit, had all the advantages of the temperate local climate. It provided a satisfactory microclimatic working environment, concerning the thermal and the lighting comfort, without excessive energy consumption for air-conditioning or lighting. Indoor number concentrations of particulate matter (PM) were monitored during both seasons. Their size distributions were strongly affected by the indoor activities and the air exchange rate of the building. During working hours, the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) number concentration ratio was 31 for PM0.3-1 in the hot season and 69 for the cold season. However I/O PM1-10 number concentration ratios were similar, 33 and 32 respectively, between the two seasons. The estimated indoor mass concentration of PM10 for the two seasons was on average 0.68 mg m(-3) and 1.19 mg m(-3), i.e., 22 and 36 times higher than outdoors, during the hot and the cold seasons, respectively. This is indicative that indoor air pollution may adversely affect mechanics' health. Noise levels were highly variable and the average LEX, 8 h of 69.3 dB(A) was below the European Union exposure limit value 87db (A). Noise originated from the use of manual hammers, the revving up of engines, and the closing of car doors or hoods. Octave band analysis indicated that the prevailing noise frequencies were in the area of the maximum ear sensitivity. PMID:23984679

  3. An Analysis of Some Observations of Thermal Comfort in an Equatorial Climate

    PubMed Central

    Webb, C. G.

    1959-01-01

    The analysis is introduced by a brief account of the development of work on thermal comfort. The observations, which are fully described in relation to the interior climates which were experienced, were made in Singapore in 1949-50. The climate of Singapore is typical of the equator, being warm, damp and windless; and the annual variation is almost negligible. Buildings are unheated, of an open type, and shaded from the sun and sky. A multiple regression equation has been derived, giving the thermal effect on a number of subjects of variations in the air temperature, the water vapour pressure, and the air velocity within the ranges experienced. The implications of the equation are discussed, and a climatic index is derived from it which is similar in definition to the widely used “effective temperature” scale, but shows a better correlation with thermal sensation. The new index is named the Singapore index. At a further stage the thermal sensation scale is simplified for the purpose of probit analysis. The probit regressions of discomfort due to warmth and cold are separately given in relation to the new index, and are combined to yield a thermal comfort graph from which the optimum is obtained and explored. A comfort chart for the rapid assessment of these humid climates is supplied, and an alternative form of the index equation is given which is more suitable for rapid calculation. It appears desirable in an equatorial climate to attempt to minimize discomfort by allowing to some extent for individual thermal requirements, and the benefits of a suitable climatic spread within a room are described. PMID:13843256

  4. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    PubMed

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas. PMID:26349476

  5. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  6. Suitability of different comfort indices for the prediction of thermal conditions in tree-covered outdoor spaces in arid cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, María Angélica; Correa, Erica Norma

    2015-10-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort is one of the most influential factors in the habitability of a space. Thermal level is defined not only by climate variables but also by the adaptation of people to the environment. This study presents a comparison between inductive and deductive thermal comfort models, contrasted with subjective reports, in order to identify which of the models can be used to most correctly predict thermal comfort in tree-covered outdoor spaces of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area, an intensely forested and open city located in an arid zone. Interviews and microclimatic measurements were carried out in winter 2010 and in summer 2011. Six widely used indices were selected according to different levels of complexity: the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), Vinje's Comfort Index (PE), Thermal Sensation Index (TS), the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the COMFA model's energy balance (S), and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that the predictive models evaluated show percentages of predictive ability lower than 25 %. Despite this low indicator, inductive methods are adequate for obtaining a diagnosis of the degree and frequency in which a space is comfortable or not whereas deductive methods are recommended to influence urban design strategies. In addition, it is necessary to develop local models to evaluate perceived thermal comfort more adequately. This type of tool is very useful in the design and evaluation of the thermal conditions in outdoor spaces, based not only to climatic criteria but also subjective sensations.

  7. Thermal comfort in the humid tropics: Field experiments in air conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Leow, K. G.; Foo, S. C.

    1991-12-01

    Thermal comfort field experiments were conducted in Singapore in both naturally ventilated highrise residential buildings and air conditioned office buildings. Each of the 818 questionnaire responses was made simultaneously with a detailed set of indoor climatic measurements, and estimates of clothing insulation and metabolic rate. Results for the air conditioned sample indicated that office buildings were overcooled, causing up to one-third of their occupants to experience cool thermal comfort sensations. These observations in air conditioned buildings were broadly consistent with the ISO, ASHRAE and Singapore indoor climatic standards. Indoor climates of the naturally ventilated apartments during the day and early evening were on average three degrees warmer than the ISO comfort standard prescriptions, but caused much less thermal discomfort than expected. Discrepancies between thermal comfort responses in apartment blocks and office buildings are discussed in terms of contemporary perceptual theory.

  8. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  9. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The higher the supply flow rates the easier to reach good mixing in the space. In high performance homes, however, the flow rates required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. We used computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply for residential applications in heating and cooling modes. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions, and room dimensions. Laboratory experiments supported the study of thermal mixing in heating mode; we used the results to develop a correlation to predict high sidewall diffuser performance. For cooling mode, numerical analysis is presented. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes. It is proven that these systems can achieve good mixing and provide acceptable comfort levels. Recommendations are given on the operating conditions to guarantee occupant comfort.

  10. Examination of thermal comfort in a hospital using PMV-PPD model.

    PubMed

    Pourshaghaghy, A; Omidvari, M

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the performance of air conditioning system and the level of thermal comfort are determined in a state hospital located in Kermanshah city in the west of Iran in winter and summer using the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model which has been presented by ISO-7730 (2005). The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices were computed using the data acquired from the experimental measurements performed in the building. The results showed that the values of PMV in some parts of the building, both for men and women, are not within the standard acceptable range defined by ISO. It was found that the most thermal problems in winter occur in morning work shift, and the worst thermal conditions in summer occur in noon work shift. The t-test results revealed that there is no noticeable difference between the thermal conditions of some rooms and those of the surroundings. PMID:22575492

  11. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    PubMed

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  12. Field study of occupant comfort and office thermal environments in a hot, arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, K.; Dear, R.J. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the main findings of ASHRAE research project RP-921, a field study of occupant comfort and office thermal environment in 22 air-conditioned office buildings in Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Western Australia, a location characterized by a hot and arid climate. A total of 935 subjects provided 1,229 sets of data for winter and summer, each accompanied by a full set of indoor climatic measurements with laboratory-grade instrumentation. Clothing insulation estimates for seated subjects (0.5 clo in summer and 0.7 in winter) were supplemented by the incremental effect of chairs (0.15 clo). Thermal neutrality, according to responses on the ASHRAE seven-point sensation scale, occurred at 20.3 C in winter and at 23.3 C in summer. Preferred temperature, defined as a minimum of subjects requesting temperature change, was 22.2 C for both seasons. Nearly 65% of the indoor measurements fell within the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55a-1992 summer comfort zone and 85% in the winter. Over 85% of the occupants considered their thermal conditions acceptable. Subjects who expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction on a 15-question index were 50% more likely to express dissatisfaction with their thermal environment than subjects with above-average job satisfaction.

  13. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  14. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI--a case study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L; Rossi, Francine A; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions. PMID:21604151

  15. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Azmoon, Hiva; Dehghan, Habibollah; Akbari, Jafar; Souri, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner Model) were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Results. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was −0.38 (P = 0.002). Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r = 0.241, P = 0.33) but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r = 0.019). Conclusion. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners. PMID:23476674

  16. Recommendations to Improve Employee Thermal Comfort When Working in 40°F Refrigerated Cold Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana; Mead, Kenneth; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee’s physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing. We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing, providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems. PMID:25961447

  17. Recommendations to Improve Employee Thermal Comfort When Working in 40°F Refrigerated Cold Rooms.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana; Mead, Kenneth; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee's physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing. We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing, providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems. PMID:25961447

  18. Evaluation of thermal comfort in university classrooms through objective approach and subjective preference analysis.

    PubMed

    Nico, Maria Anna; Liuzzi, Stefania; Stefanizzi, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Assessing thermal comfort becomes more relevant when the aim is to maximise learning and productivity performances, as typically occurs in offices and schools. However, if, in the offices, the Fanger model well represents the thermal occupant response, then on the contrary, in schools, adaptive mechanisms significantly influence the occupants' thermal preference. In this study, an experimental approach was performed in the Polytechnic University of Bari, during the first days of March, in free running conditions. First, the results of questionnaires were compared according to the application of the Fanger model and the adaptive model; second, using a subjective scale, a complete analysis was performed on thermal preference in terms of acceptability, neutrality and preference, with particular focus on the influence of gender. The user possibility to control the indoor plant system produced a significant impact on the thermal sensation and the acceptability of the thermal environment. Gender was also demonstrated to greatly influence the thermal judgement of the thermal environment when an outdoor cold climate occurs. PMID:25683538

  19. A field study on thermal comfort in an Italian hospital considering differences in gender and age.

    PubMed

    Del Ferraro, S; Iavicoli, S; Russo, S; Molinaro, V

    2015-09-01

    The hospital is a thermal environment where comfort must be calibrated by taking into account two different groups of people, that is, patients and medical staff. The study involves 30 patients and 19 medical staff with a view to verifying if Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index can accurately predict thermal sensations of both groups also taking into account any potential effects of age and gender. The methodology adopted is based on the comparison between PMV values (calculated according to ISO 7730 after having collected environmental data and estimated personal parameters) and perceptual judgments (Actual Mean Vote, AMV), expressed by the subjects interviewed. Different statistical analyses show that PMV model finds his best correlation with AMV values in a sample of male medical staff under 65 years of age. It has been observed that gender and age are factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of thermal comfort in the hospital due to very weak correlation between AMV and PMV values. PMID:25959333

  20. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  1. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, El Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The objective of the study outlined in this report is to resolve the issue that the flow rates that are required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space.and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes.

  2. Visitors' perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at the Royal Botanic Garden Melbourne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort studies have mainly examined the perception of local residents, and there has been little work on how those conditions are perceived differently by tourists, especially tourists of diverse origins. This issue is important because it will improve the application of thermal indices in predicting the thermal perception of tourists. This study aims to compare the differences in thermal perception and preferences between local and overseas visitors to the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) in Melbourne during summer. An 8-day survey was conducted in February 2014 at four sites in the garden (n = 2198), including 2 days with maximum temperature exceeding 40 °C. The survey results were compared with data from four weather stations adjacent to the survey locations. One survey location, `Fern Gully', has a misting system and visitors perceived the Fern Gully to be cooler than other survey locations. As the apparent temperature exceeded 32.4 °C, visitors perceived the environment as being `warm' or `hot'. At `hot' conditions, 36.8 % of European visitors voted for no change to the thermal conditions, which is considerably higher than the response from Australian visitors (12.2 %) and Chinese visitors (7.5 %). Study results suggest that overseas tourists have different comfort perception and preferences compared to local Australians in hot weather based at least in part on expectations. Understanding the differences in visitors' thermal perception is important to improve the garden design. It can also lead to better tour planning and marketing to potential visitors from different countries.

  3. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  4. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Results: Correlation between SA and sleep quality was −0.664(P < 0001), Pearson correlation between SA and thermal comfort was −0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P < 0001). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that improvement of thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses. PMID:25077165

  5. Environmental natural processes that achieve thermal comfort in multifamily buildings in hot-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Paola

    Buildings, especially in hot climates, consume a lot of energy when people want to be comfortable inside them, which translates to very expensive fees each month. The most innovative response to this problem is renewable energy, that is used, in this case, to run mechanical HVAC systems. Renewable energy is the solution for many problems, but to avoid urban heat islands when using excessive HVAC systems (powered by renewables), and to solve thermal comfort-related problems, there has to be other solution. The major challenge to find it would be to have a change of thinking process. If a building in a hot-arid region uses natural processes to emulate the functions of HVAC systems, and the proper passive strategies, then, it will provide thermal comfort to its users, diminishing the need of a mechanical system. This hypothesis will be carried out by extracting the natural processes found in a specific case in nature, applying them into a building's design, and then simulating its energy efficiency with the adequate software. There will be a comparison of the same proposed building without the natural processes, to have tangible numbers showing that these proposed strategies, in fact, work. With explanatory detailed diagrams and the energy analysis, the hypothesis could be proven correct or incorrect. The significance of this approach relies on the proximity to the natural processes that have been working in different aspects of life since the beginning of time. They have been there all the time, waiting until architects, engineers, and people in general use them, instead of making more new energy-using inventions. By having the numbers from a conventional building and the ones of the proposed building, and the right environmental diagrams, the experiment should be valid. In the near future, there should be more research focused on nature and its processes, in order to be able to reduce the use of mechanical systems, and with that, reduce the energy use and the carbon

  6. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  7. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  8. Helicopter pilot suits for offshore application. A survey of thermal comfort and ergonomic design.

    PubMed

    Gaul, C A; Mekjavic, I B

    1987-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the existing problems associated with helicopter pilot survival suits currently in use. A survey was conducted of helicopter pilots from both Canadian commercial and military disciplines. Pilots commented on eight different types of survival suits. Reduced thermal comfort as well as lack of ventilation were the two most common criticisms of the pilot suits. The 'greenhouse' effect, common to helicopter cockpits, results in hot working ambients both in summer and winter. The air cooling mechanisms employed in summer may cause a 'chilling' effect following an on-ground stand-by where cockpit temperatures may reach 40 degrees C. Thermal stress may also be induced with high cockpit temperatures caused by the sun's radiation in winter and summer. Suit design was another area considered. 72% and 86% of military and commercial pilots respectively felt their freedom of movement was hindered by their survival suits. Certain designs were considered more hazardous than others with regard to clips and hooks catching switches on the control panel. Difficulty in donning suits appeared to be a universal problem irrespective of type of suit used. Lack of comfort and movement in addition to thermal stress may lead to reduced time to fatigue and, thus, occurrence of errors and accidents. The results of this survey reflect the inadequacies of the helicopter pilot survival suits presently in use. It is suggested that evaluation of these suits be made on the basis of their ventilation capabilities, ergonomic design and thermal properties in a variety of ambient environments. PMID:15676618

  9. Assessment of Human Safety and Thermal Comfort in High-Temperature Environment: CFD and Human Thermoregulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuefeng, Han; Wenguo, Weng; Shifei, Shen

    2010-05-01

    The safety and the thermal comfort of victims and firefighters are important in the building fires, which are a little dependent on the occupant fatalities. In order to investigate the effects of the dangerous environment on human body in fires, numerical calculation of the heat transfer and human thermoregulation are presented in this paper. The numerical manikins coupled with human thermal models were proved as powerful tools for visualizing thermal comfort. The two-node model by Gagge and multi-code thermoregulation models were investigated, and the Gagge's model was coupled with the CFD for high-temperature environment simulation, with which a numerical manikin was built. During the simulation, temperatures of skin and core compartment of Computer Simulated Person (CPS) were recorded respectively, and the Predicted Mean Vote index values were counted. The thermal load on skin is much higher than neutral cases and the skin can be burnt in minutes if no protection and heat abstraction methods were introduced. Though existing models can predict thermal comfort in general indoor environment, they are not suitable in predicting the thermal comfort with high-temperature cases. It was suggested that more research combining CFD coupling thermoregulation models with thermal manikin experiment are needed.

  10. College Students' Comfort Level Discussing Death with Faculty and Perceptions of Faculty Support for Grief-Affected Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedman, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Students' comfort discussing death with faculty, views regarding faculty's likelihood to provide accommodations to grief-affected students, and perceived empathy of faculty were assessed. Undergraduate students (n = 371) attending a Midwestern university completed the Student Survey on Grief Issues. Twenty-six percent reported the death of at…

  11. Building automation: Photovoltaic assisted thermal comfort management system for energy saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Azwa Shaaya, Sharifah

    2013-06-01

    Building automation plays an important key role in the means to reduce building energy consumption and to provide comfort for building occupants. It is often that air conditioning system operating features ignored in building automation which can result in thermal discomfort among building occupants. Most automation system for building is expensive and incurs high maintenance cost. Such system also does not support electricity demand side management system such as load shifting. This paper discusses on centralized monitoring system for room temperature and photovoltaic (PV) output for feasibility study of PV assisted air conditioning system in small office buildings. The architecture of the system consists of PV modules and sensor nodes located at each room. Wireless sensor network technology (WSN) been used for data transmission. The data from temperature sensors and PV modules transmitted to the host personal computer (PC) wirelessly using Zigbee modules. Microcontroller based USB data acquisition device used to receive data from sensor nodes and displays the data on PC.

  12. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    PubMed Central

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of −0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of −6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  13. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet.

    PubMed

    Song, W F; Zhang, C J; Lai, D D; Wang, F M; Kuklane, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  14. The influence of park size and form on micro climate and thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; Chi, Xiaoli; Müller, Felix; Zhang, Huiwen

    2016-04-01

    The population of urban areas will increase in the next decades and it leads to higher fraction of sealed areas, which will increase the urban heat island intensity. In addition, climate model projections also show that the frequency and the intensity of heat waves and the related heat stress will be higher in the future. Urban Parks are the best key to mitigate the urban heat island and to minimize the local climate change. Due to the lack of free spaces which can be converted to green spaces, this study investigates the influence of urban park forms on the micro climate and thermal comfort. In this study, a central big park has been compared to different numbers of small parks in terms of the cooling effect and thermal comfort. Five different park forms with the same total size have been considered. The results show that the park cooling effect depends not only on the park form, but also on the arrangement of the vegetation inside the park and wind speed and direction. Grassy areas (with 10 and 50 Cm grass), shrubs and hedges as well as trees with small and big canopies have been considered for the simulation. ENVI-MET and Rayman models have been used to simulate the cooling effect, cooled area size, PET and UTCI, respectively. The results for a hot day in Berlin on three different times during day and night will be shown and compared to each other. The effects of Sky view factor and soil humidity (irrigation) have also been discussed.

  15. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly ( P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg-1), specific cost (0.75 R kg-1), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day-1), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg-1; 1.03 R kg-1; 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day-1, and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  16. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use.

    PubMed

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg(-1)), specific cost (0.75 R$ kg(-1)), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day(-1)), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg(-1); 1.03 R$ kg(-1); 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day(-1), and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat. PMID:26712531

  17. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2015-12-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg-1), specific cost (0.75 R kg-1), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day-1), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg-1; 1.03 R kg-1; 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day-1, and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  18. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows. PMID:25857272

  19. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  20. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions. PMID:24510118

  1. Thermal comfort of aeroplane seats: influence of different seat materials and the use of laboratory test methods.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2003-07-01

    This study determined the influence of different cover and cushion materials on the thermal comfort of aeroplane seats. Different materials as well as ready made seats were investigated by the physiological laboratory test methods Skin Model and seat comfort tester. Additionally, seat trials with human test subjects were performed in a climatic chamber. Results show that a fabric cover produces a considerably higher sweat transport than leather. A three-dimensional knitted spacer fabric turns out to be the better cushion alternative in comparison to a moulded foam pad. Results from the physiological laboratory test methods nicely correspond to the seat trials with human test subjects. PMID:12880748

  2. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  3. An ergonomics investigation into human thermal comfort using an automobile seat heated with encapsulated carbonized fabric (ECF).

    PubMed

    Brooks, J E; Parsons, K C

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of an ergonomics investigation into human thermal comfort using an automobile seat heated with an encapsulated carbonized fabric (ECF). Subjective and objective thermal comfort data were recorded while participants sat for 90 min in a heated and a non-heated automobile seat in an environmental chamber. Eight male participants each completed eight experimental sessions in a balanced order repeated measures experimental design. The conditions in the chamber were representative of a range of cool vehicle thermal environments (5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees C; in the 20 degrees C trial participants sat beside a 5 degrees C 'cold wall'). Participants in the heated seat condition used the heating controller with separate temperature control over the back of the seat (squab) and bottom of the seat (cushion) in an effort to maintain their thermal comfort while wearing the provided clothing, which had an estimated insulation value of 0.9 Clo. The trials showed that participants' overall sensations remained higher than 'slightly cool' in the heated seat at all temperatures. Participants' overall discomfort remained lower (i.e. more comfortable) than 'slightly uncomfortable' at temperatures ranging down to nearly 5 degrees C in the heated seat. Hand and foot comfort, sensation and temperature were similar in both seats. Asymmetric torso and thigh skin temperatures were higher in the heated seat although no significant discomfort was found in the front and back of the torso and thigh in either seat. Participants reported no significant difference in alertness between the control and heated seat. PMID:10327890

  4. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Trevor P; Roesch, Etienne B; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  5. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Trevor P.; Roesch, Etienne B.; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  6. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  7. Development of outdoor thermal index indicating universal and separate effects on human thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kazuo; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a new outdoor thermal index that simultaneously indicates universal and separate effects. The value indicating universal effect in this index consists of the summation of air temperature and the effective temperature differences by air velocity, longwave radiation, solar radiation, and humidity. This paper describes the theoretical construction of this newly derived index to compare with previous indices. The calculations of the new index are demonstrated using the observed data in order to explicitly indicate the specific features of the new index. PMID:20526886

  8. Human thermal comfort antithesis in the context of the Mediterranean tourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis N.; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Polychroni, Iliana

    2016-04-01

    Weather and climate information are determinative factors in the decision of a touristic destination. The evaluation of the thermal, aesthetical and physical components of the climate is considered an issue of high importance in order to assess the climatic tourism potential. Mediterranean is an endowed region with respect to its temperate climate and impressive landscapes over the coastal environment and numerous islands. However, the harmony of the natural beauty is interrupted by extreme weather phenomena, such as heat and cold waves, heavy rains and stormy conditions. Thus, it is very important to know the seasonal behavior of the climate for touristic activities and recreation. Towards this objective we evaluated the antithesis in the human thermal perception as well as the sultriness, stormy, foggy, sunny and rainy days recorded in specific Greek touristic destinations against respective competitive Mediterranean resorts. Daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloudiness and precipitation, were acquired from the most well-known touristic sites over the Mediterranean for the period 1970 to present. These variables were used on one hand to estimate the human thermal burden, by means of the thermal index of Physiologically Equivalent temperature (PET) and on the other hand to interpret the physical and aesthetic components of the tourism potential, by utilizing specific thresholds of the initial and derived variables in order to quantify in a simple and friendly way the environmental footprint on desired touristic destinations. The findings of this research shed light on the climate information for tourism in Greece against Mediterranean destinations. Greek resorts, especially in the Aegean Islands appear to be more ideal with respect to thermal comfort against resorts at the western and central Mediterranean, where the heat stress within the summer season seems to be an intolerable pressure on humans. This could

  9. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-09-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

  10. Modelling thermal comfort of visitors at urban squares in hot and arid climate using NN-ARX soft computing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariminia, Shahab; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Piri, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Kasra; Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Petković, Dalibor; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Visitors utilize the urban space based on their thermal perception and thermal environment. The thermal adaptation engages the user's behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects. These aspects play critical roles in user's ability to assess the thermal environments. Previous studies have rarely addressed the effects of identified factors such as gender, age and locality on outdoor thermal comfort, particularly in hot, dry climate. This study investigated the thermal comfort of visitors at two city squares in Iran based on their demographics as well as the role of thermal environment. Assessing the thermal comfort required taking physical measurement and questionnaire survey. In this study, a non-linear model known as the neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NN-ARX) was employed. Five indices of physiological equivalent temperature (PET), predicted mean vote (PMV), standard effective temperature (SET), thermal sensation votes (TSVs) and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) were trained and tested using the NN-ARX. Then, the results were compared to the artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The findings showed the superiority of the NN-ARX over the ANN and the ANFIS. For the NN-ARX model, the statistical indicators of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.53 and 0.36 for the PET, 1.28 and 0.71 for the PMV, 2.59 and 1.99 for the SET, 0.29 and 0.08 for the TSV and finally 0.19 and 0.04 for the T mrt.

  11. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  12. Part B: Revisions to the COMFA outdoor thermal comfort model for application to subjects performing physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Natasha A.; Warland, Jon S.; Brown, Robert D.; Gillespie, Terry G.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the accuracy of the COMFA outdoor thermal comfort model for application to subjects performing physical activity. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify conditions where the COMFA model produced erroneous estimates of the heat and moisture exchanges between the human body and the ambient environment, based on data from subjects performing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Errors occurred at high metabolic rates (> 400 W m-2), high wind speeds (> 4 m s-1) and warm air temperatures (> 28°C). Revisions to the clothing resistance ( r c), clothing vapour resistance ( r cυ), skin tissue resistance ( r t), and skin temperature ( T sk) equations were proposed. The revised assessment revealed that subjects had a wide range of thermal acceptability (B = -20 W m-2 to +150 W m-2), which was offset to the warm-end of the comfort scale. The revised model (COMFA*) performed well, predicting the actual thermal sensation of subjects in approximately 70% of cases. This study effectively integrated current empirical research related the effect of wind and activity on the clothing microclimate to improve the application of an outdoor thermal comfort model for subjects performing physical activity.

  13. Overview of physiological principles to support thermal balance and comfort of astronauts in open space and on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; Leon, Gloria R.

    2007-02-01

    Although specialists have attempted to improve the space suit to provide better protection in open space or on planetary surfaces, there has been a relative lack of attention to features of human thermoregulatory processes that influence comfort and therefore have an impact on the effectiveness of protective equipment. Our findings showed that different body tissues transfer heat in/out of the body in a different manner. There are also individual differences in thermal transfer through body areas with different proportions of tissues; therefore, data on the thermal profile of each astronaut needs to be used to estimate the optimal body areas for heat/cold transfer in and out of the body in an individually tailored cooling/warming garment. Principles for supporting thermal comfort in space were formulated based on a series of studies to evaluate the human body's response to uniform/nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. We conclude that future space suit design and comfort support of astronauts can be easier and more effective if these principles are incorporated.

  14. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  15. [Physiological and hygienic rationale for the duration of exposure to the heating environment and comfortable thermal conditions during a workshift].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, R F; Bessonova, N A

    2011-01-01

    The strain in different functional systems of human body maintaining thermal homeostasis that develops during work under heating conditions results in impaired working capacity and efficiency and may be harmful to health. One of the most efficacious measures is the reduction of exposure to the adverse conditions and its rational alternation with rest in the comfortable environment. Based on the mathematical and statistical analysis of the results of multiple-factor experiments, we derived a multiple regression equation describing the quantitative dependence of the integral index of human body thermal regime on the totality of factors responsible for thermal strain. The equation permits to determine the heat content in the human body formed by exothermal and endothermal strain, to estimate the contribution of each individual factor, and to predict the risk of overheating in order to take measures for reducing the thermal strain. Recommendations are proposed on the duration of thermal exposure during a workshift depending on the overheating risk level and on the optimal relationship between the duration of staying in the heating microclimate and the duration of the rest (work) in the comfortable environment. PMID:21544934

  16. Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Chi, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal comfort and its changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau over the last 50 years have been evaluated by using the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and a more complete tourism climate picture is presented by the Climate-Tourism-Information Scheme (CTIS). The results show that PET classes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover six out of the nine-point thermal sensation scale — very cold, cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm — and cold stress is prevailing throughout the year. A small number of slightly cool/warm and neutral days occur in summer months. There occur no warm, hot and very hot days. The frequency of PET classes varies among regions, depending on their altitude/latitude conditions. Xining, Lhasa and Yushu are the top three cities in terms of thermal favorability. With global warming, annual cumulative number of thermally favorable days has been increasing, and that of cold stress has been reducing. The change is more obvious in lower elevation than that in higher elevation regions. The improving thermal comfort in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau might be a glad tiding for local communities and tourists. Besides PET, CTIS can provide a number of additional bioclimatic information related to tourism and recreational activities. CTIS for Lhasa and Xining shows that sunshine is plentiful all the year round, and windy days occur frequently from late January to early May. This is a useful bioclimatic information for tourism authorities, travel agencies, resorts and tourists.

  17. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  18. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  19. Individual thermal profiles as a basis for comfort improvement in space and other environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.; Dancisak, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    , depending on their size and tissue mass content. The design of individual thermal profiles is feasible for better comfort of astronauts on long-duration missions and personnel in other extreme environments.

  20. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates-The case of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities. PMID:26628421

  1. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  2. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  3. The Return of the Freudian Couch®: Managing Affectivity through Technologies of Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou; Staunaes, Dorthe; Ratner, Helene

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the affective "set-up" of Freud's legendary couch has been exported into modern education relations. The so-called psy-sciences from pedagogy, psychology, and psychiatry have informed self-management in school. Managing self-management has a material-affective dimension. Through affective encounters with…

  4. Thermal Band Analysis of Agricultural Land Use and its Effects on Bioclimatic Comfort: The Case of Pasinler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdan, Uǧur; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Dagliyar, Ayse; Yigit Avdan, Zehra; Yilmaz, Sevgi

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the problems that arise due to the land use are not suitable for the purpose in the rural and urban areas most suitable for land use of parameters to be determined. Unintended and unplanned developments in the use of agricultural land in our country caused increases the losses by soil erosion. In this study, Thermal Band analysis is made in Pasinler city center with the aim of identifying bioclimatic comfort values of the different agricultural area. Satellite images can be applied for assessing the thermal urban environment as well as for defining heat islands in agricultural areas. In this context, temperature map is tried to be produced with land surface temperature (LST) analysis made on Landsat TM5 satellite image. The Landsat 5 images was obtained from USGS for the study area. Using Landsat bands of the study area was mapped by supervised classification with the maximum likelihood classification algorithm of ERDAS imagine 2011 software. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image was produced by using Landsat images. The digital number of the Landsat thermal infrared band (10.40 - 12.50 µm) is converted to the spectral radiance. The surface emissivity was calculated by using NDVI. The spatial pattern of land surface temperature in the study area is taken to characterize their local effects on agricultural land. Areas having bioclimatic comfort and ecologically urbanized, are interpreted with different graphical presentation technics. The obtained results are important because they create data bases for sustainable urban planning and provide a direction for planners and governors. As a result of rapid changes in land use, rural ecosystems and quality of life are deteriorated and decreased. In the presence of increased building density, for the comfortable living of people natural and cultural resources should be analyzed in detail. For that reason, optimal land use planning should be made in rural area.

  5. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P < 0.01) during outdoor exercise (cycling and running). The combined 5-min mean variation of the {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} RMSE was 1.5°C, with separate cycling and running giving RMSE of 1.4°C and 1.6°C, respectively, and no significant difference in residuals. Subjects' actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes displayed significant strong rank correlation with budget scores calculated using both measured and predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} ( r s = 0.507 and 0.517, respectively, P < 0.01). These results show improved predictive strength of ATS of subjects as compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  7. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75 % of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25 %, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75 % for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  8. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    PubMed

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. PMID:25683547

  9. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s-1), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m-2. Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  10. Design and optimization of personalized ventilation for overall improvement of thermal comfort, air quality, and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Ian Dominic

    This paper presents a simple and repeatable CFD-based method that can accurately predict the optimal operating conditions of personalized ventilation systems. In contrast to previous studies, the optimal performance of the PV system includes the influences of various operation characteristics (supply air velocity, PV flow rate, PV temperature, PV distance from face, turbulence intensity, relative humidity, central system flow rate, central system temperature, central system type, and PV on/off operation) on three critical performance factors: thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy savings. This method is able to predict more achievable and comprehensive operating performance of PV systems. It is found for the computer perimeter grill air terminal device that supply temperatures, central flow rate, and PV flow rate are the most influential factors on performance in terms of thermal comfort, IAQ, and energy. Using the Taguchi design of experiment and optimal performance prediction method, the computer perimeter grill personalized ventilation system is optimized in conjunction with under-floor and overhead central systems, separately.

  11. Development and validation of a low-cost infrared measurement system for real-time monitoring of indoor thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Arnesano, M.; Pietroni, F.

    2014-08-01

    A low-cost infrared measurement system has been developed to monitor in real time thermal comfort conditions in indoor environments. The device employs a scanning linear array of thermopiles installed on the ceiling of the room and is assessed and controlled by an embedded microcontroller to measure indoor surface temperatures. This feature allows the evaluation of the mean radiant temperature (Tr), in compliance with ISO 7726, for several positions inside the space. Together with Tr, the variables required by ISO 7730 are measured to calculate the predicted mean vote (PMV). The PMV and Tr are provided as real-time outputs of the device through a wireless or wired connection, also as distribution maps. The paper reports a detailed description of the system, its calibration and uncertainty analysis. The capability of predicting thermal comfort conditions for multiple positions in the room has been tested and validated in a real case study with respect to a reference measurement system (microclimate station). Comparison showed a deviation of ±0.5 °C for Tr and ±0.1 for PMV without direct solar radiation and an average deviation of ±2.0 °C for Tr and ±0.2 for PMV with direct solar radiation.

  12. Effect of climate change on outdoor thermal comfort in humid climates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Galicia, in northwest Spain, experiences warm summers and winters. However, the higher relative humidity that prevails the whole year through and the location of the summer hot points are related to real weather heat stroke in the hottest season. However, Planet Global Heating was recently analyzed for the climate in Galicia. Climate change was found to be able to trigger effects that involve a new situation with new potential regions of risk. In this paper, 50 weather stations were selected to sample the weather conditions in this humid region, over the last 10 years. From these results, new regions with a potential for heat stroke risk in the next 20 years were identified using the humidex index. Results Results reveal that during the last 10 years, the winter season presents more comfortable conditions, whereas the summer season presents the highest humidex value. Further, the higher relative humidity throughout the whole year reveals that the humidex index clearly depends upon the outdoor temperature. Conclusions Global Planet Heating shows a definite effect on the outdoor comfort conditions reaching unbearable degrees in the really hottest zones. Therefore, this effect will clearly influence tourism and risk prevention strategies in these areas. PMID:24517127

  13. Analysis of the Thermal Comfort and Impact Properties of the Neoprene-Spacer Fabric Structure for Preventing the Joint Damages

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Ehsan; Hasani, Hossein; Rafeian, Homa; Hashemibeni, Batool

    2013-01-01

    Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a new structure consisting of perforated Neoprene foam attached to the spacer fabric and also compares the properties of thermal and moisture comfort and impact properties of this structure in comparison with Neoprene foam. Methods: In order to measure the factors related to the samples lateral pressure behavior, a tensile tester was used. A uniform pressure is applied to the samples and a force – displacement curve is obtained. The test continues until the maximum compression force is reached to 50 N. The area under the curve is much greater; more energy is absorbed during the impact. In order to investigate the dynamic heat and moisture transfer of fabrics, an experimental apparatus was developed. This device made the simulation of sweating of human body possible and consisted of a controlled environmental chamber, sweating guarded hot plate, and data acquisition system. Results: The findings show that the Neoprene-spacer fabric structure represents higher toughness values compared to other samples (P ≤ 0.001). Neoprene-spacer fabric structure (A3) has higher rate of moisture transport than conventional Neoprene foam; because of undesirable comfort characteristics in Neoprene. Conclusions: Results of the tests indicate full advantage of the new structure compared with the Neoprene foam for use in orthopedic textiles (P ≤ 0.001). PMID:24049594

  14. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort - an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to cold temperatures is, often, a neglected problem in prehospital care. One of the leading influences of the overall sensation of cold discomfort is the cooling of the back. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort in an experimental study. Method Data were collected during four days in November, 2011 inside and outside of a cold chamber. All participants (n = 23) participated in two trials each. In one trial, they were lying on a stretcher with a supplied heated mattress and in the other trial without a heated mattress. Outcomes were back temperature, finger temperature, core body temperature, Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), four statements from the state-trait anxiety – inventory (STAI), and short notes of their experiences of the two mattresses. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effect of the two mattresses. Results A statistical difference between the regular mattress and the heated mattress was found in the back temperature. In the heated mattress trial, the statement “I am tense” was fewer whereas the statements “I feel comfortable”, “I am relaxed” and “I feel content” were higher in the heated mattress trial. The qualitative analyses of the short notes showed that the heated mattress, when compared to the unheated mattress, was experienced as warm, comfortable, providing security and was easier to relax on. Conclusions Heat supply from underneath the body results in increased comfort and may prevent hypothermia which is important for injured and sick patients in ambulance care. PMID:25103366

  15. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling.

    PubMed

    Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-09-10

    Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions. PMID:22877870

  16. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. PMID:25683541

  17. Our experience in the evaluation of the thermal comfort during the space flight and in the simulated space environment.

    PubMed

    Novak, L

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the mathematical modelling the effects of hypogravity on the heat output by the spontaneous convection. The theoretical considerations were completed by the experiments "HEAT EXCHANGE 1" performed on the biosatellite "KOSMOS 936". In the second experiment "HEAT EXCHANGE 2" accomplished on the board of the space laboratory "SALYUT 6" was studied the effect of the microgravity on the thermal state of a man during the space flight. Direct measurement in weightlessness prowed the capacity of the developed electric dynamic katathermometer to check directly the effect of the microgravity on the heat output by the spontaneous convection. The role of the heat partition impairment's in man as by the microgravity, so by the inadequate forced convection are clearly expressed in changes of the skin temperature and the subjective feeling of the cosmonaut's thermal comfort. The experimental extension of the elaborated methods for the flexible adjustment of the thermal environment to the actual physiological needs of man and suggestions for the further investigation are outlined. PMID:11537122

  18. Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

    1989-05-01

    An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. [STRATEGY AND METHODS FOR THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL COMFORT IN THE WORKPLACE].

    PubMed

    Chirico, Francesco; Rulli, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of assessing thermal conditions in moderate working environments. We reviewed all the laws and technical standards on the focus to propose a method of evaluation by steps including a subjective assessment and technical measurements. PMID:26934807

  20. Part A: Assessing the performance of the COMFA outdoor thermal comfort model on subjects performing physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Natasha A.; Warland, Jon S.; Brown, Robert D.; Gillespie, Terry G.

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the performance of the COMFA outdoor thermal comfort model on subjects performing moderate to vigorous physical activity. Field tests were conducted on 27 subjects performing 30 min of steady-state activity (walking, running, and cycling) in an outdoor environment. The predicted COMFA budgets were compared to the actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes provided by participants during each 5-min interval. The results revealed a normal distribution in the subjects’ ATS votes, with 82% of votes received in categories 0 (neutral) to +2 (warm). The ATS votes were significantly dependent upon sex, air temperature, short and long-wave radiation, wind speed, and metabolic activity rate. There was a significant positive correlation between the ATS and predicted budgets (Spearman’s rho = 0.574, P < 0.01). However, the predicted budgets did not display a normal distribution, and the model produced erroneous estimates of the heat and moisture exchange between the human body and the ambient environment in 6% of the cases.

  1. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress. PMID:26374468

  2. Implementation of human thermal comfort information in Köppen-Geiger climate classification—the example of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) is accepted and applied worldwide. The climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort (HTC) conditions or air humidity (AH) conditions directly, because they are originally based on climatic effects on vegetation, instead of that on human body directly. In addition, HTC is driven by meteorological parameters together. Thus, the objective of this study is to preliminarily implement the HTC information and the AH information in KGC. Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been chosen as the HTC index, and vapour pressure (VP) is for the quantification of AH conditions. In this preliminary study, 12 Chinese cities in total have been taken into account as the assumed representatives of 11 climate types. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-h resolution in 2000-2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been applied to calculate PET within the same time period. Each climate type has been described by frequencies of PET and frequencies of VP. For example, the Aw (Sanya) has the most frequent occurrence of thermally stressful conditions compared to other climate types: PET in 22 % points in time of the year was above 35 °C. The driest AH conditions existed in Dwc (Lhasa) and Dfb (Urumqi) with VP rarely above 18 hPa in the wettest month. Implementation of the HTC information and the additional AH information in each climate type of KGC can be helpful for the topics of human health, energy consumption, tourism, as well as urban planning.

  3. Energy efficiency and comfort conditions in passive solar buildings: Effect of thermal mass at equatorial high altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoli, David Mwale

    affect a building's use regarding thermal mass occur during early design stages. The intention is to present new knowledge to architects regarding the use of thermal mass in equatorial high altitude climates for energy-efficiency through passive solar strategies.

  4. Indoor climate and thermal comfort in high-rise public housing in an equatorial climate: A field-study in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Leow, K. G.

    Urban residential development in Singapore has been focussed on clusters of high-rise public housing known locally as 'new towns'. Indoor climatic conditions were assessed in a sample of 214 flats in the new towns. Also a sample of 583 occupants were interviewed about their experiences of thermal comfort. Separate body-environment heat-balances were estimated for each respondent and these data were input to the PMV (ISO 7730) mathematical model of thermal comfort. The operative temperature actually preferred by the respondents was about 1°C cooler than the mean value of 29.6°C recorded in their flats. However, their empirically derived temperature preference was about 2°C warmer than the value predicted by the PMV model and ISO standard. Processes of physiological acclimatization and perceptual habituation are put forward as possible explanations for the discrepancy between temperate climate comfort theory and actual human response in the tropics. The implications for energy conservation in tropical cities are also discussed.

  5. Optimum utilization of site energy sources for all-season thermal comfort in new residential construction for single-family attached (rowhouse/townhouse) designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-26

    A proposed design analysis is presented of a passive solar energy efficient system for a typical three-level, three bedroom, two story, garage-under townhouse. The design incorporates the best, most performance-proven and cost effective products, materials, processes, technologies, and sub-systems which are available today. Seven distinct categories recognized for analysis are identified as: the exterior environment; the interior environment; conservation of energy; natural energy utilization; auxiliary energy utilization; control and distribution systems; and occupant adaptation. Preliminary design features, fenestration sysems, the plenum-supply system, the thermal-storage party-fire walls, direct gain storage, the radiant comfort system, and direct passive cooling systems are briefly described. Features of the design under analysis and on which conclusions have not yet been formulated are: the energy reclamation system, auxiliary energy back-up systems, the distribution system and operating modes, the control systems, and non-comfort energy systems and inputs. (MCW)

  6. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P > 0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7 ± 2.6 versus 81.8 ± 2.1, P < 0.05). RR, HR, and BTCI significantly increased over the months and were different between the periods of the day (P > 0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8 ± 0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P < 0.05). Thus, buffalo bulls reared under a humid tropical climate may have variations in thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels. PMID:25801015

  7. Effects of thermal, personal and behavioural factors on the physiological strain, thermal comfort and productivity of Australian shearers in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Gun, R T; Budd, G M

    1995-07-01

    Multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of factors that are commonly expected to influence strain and productivity in a hot workplace. Forty-three men were studied throughout 54 man-days of shearing sheep and pressing wool bales, in air temperatures 19-41 degrees C and Wet-bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) 16-29 degrees C; 43% of the observations of WBGT exceeded 26.7 degrees C, the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for the subjects' work rate of 400 W. Subjects were men of age 18-59 years, fat-free mass 44-77 kg, and body fat content 11-26%, who had drunk an estimated 0-207 g alcohol the previous evening. Afternoon mean values of rectal temperature (Tre) exceeded 38.0 degrees C (maximum 38.4 degrees C) in 4 of the 15 observations made when WBGT > TLV, and in none of those made when WBGT < TLV. Over the 10 h work day the subjects sweated 2.4-9.9 kg, but they replaced their sweat losses so successfully that warmer weather and heavier sweating were not accompanied by significantly greater dehydration. Surprisingly, the fatter men felt cooler, and those who had drunk more alcohol the previous evening had lower Tre and tended to be more productive. Age was not associated with any measured response. All factors together explained barely half the observed variation in Tre and thermal comfort, and almost none of the variation in productivity. The findings highlight the uncertainty inherent in attempts to define safe limits for occupational heat stress; they show how such uncertainty could restrict the usefulness in the shearing industry of the current heat-stress guidelines; and they demonstrate the effectiveness of the behavioural responses that permit shearers to perform sustained strenuous work in a hot environment without excessive physiological strain. PMID:7635127

  8. Effects of comfort warming on preoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Doreen; Byrne, Michelle; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2006-09-01

    THERMAL COMFORT IS ONE DIMENSION of overall patient comfort, and it usually is addressed by covering the patient with warmed cotton blankets. WARMING HELPS A PATIENT maintain normothermia and appears to decrease patient anxiety. AN STUDY WAS CONDUCTED in a preoperative setting to compare the effects of preoperative warming with warmed cotton blankets versus patient-controlled warming gowns on patients' perceptions of thermal comfort and anxiety. BOTH WARMING INTERVENTIONS had a positive effect on patients' thermal comfort and sense of well-being. Patients who used the patient-controlled warming gown also experienced a significant reduction in preoperative anxiety. PMID:17004666

  9. The effect of cold protective clothing on comfort and perception of performance.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Kirsi; Valkama, Anita; Remes, Jouko; Anttonen, Hannu; Peitso, Ari

    2010-01-01

    The physiological properties of clothing designed to provide protection against cold, windy and damp conditions affect comfort. The weight, thickness, stiffness of the fabrics and friction between the clothing layers affect physical performance. The comfort and perception of performance associated with 3 military winter combat clothing systems from different decades (the new M05 system, the previous M91 system and traditional clothing) were observed during a winter military manoeuvre. Subjective experiences concerning comfort and performance were recorded for 319 subjects using questionnaires. The most challenging conditions for comfort and performance were perspiration in the cold and external moisture. The new M05 system provided warmer thermal sensations (p < .010), dryer moisture sensations in the presence of external dampness (p < .001), dryer perspiration moisture sensations (p < .050) and better perception of physical (p < .001) and mental performance (p < .001) than the other systems. Careful development of the clothing system guarantees good comfort and performance during cold exposure. PMID:20540839

  10. The influence of indoor microclimate on thermal comfort and conservation of artworks: the case study of the cathedral of Matera (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment

  11. Thermally affected characterization region by Barkhausen noise.

    PubMed

    Zergoug, M; Boucherrou, N; Haddad, A; Benchaala, A; Moulti, B; Tahraoui, H; Sellidj, F; Hammouda, A

    2000-07-01

    The controlling of some industrial components require the development of new and particular nondestructive testing techniques. The testing method using Barkhausen noise (BN) is a particular one which can be applied to ferromagnetic materials. It is a magnetic nondestructive evaluation method and can provide very important information about the material structure. The aim of our work is to study the material structure using this technique to characterize the region submitted to thermal processing. Samples of steel have been heated at temperatures between 650 degrees C and 1,200 degrees C with variable parameters (time processing, maintenance time, etc.). Acoustic BN processing allows an easy interpretation of results. Micrographs of samples have been obtained to confirm the results obtained by BN. PMID:10950355

  12. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens.

    PubMed

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions. PMID:25388948

  13. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions.

  14. Making noise comfortable for people

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhall, H.G.; Wise, S.S.

    1998-10-01

    Typical HVAC noise may produce an uncomfortable environment, leading to the associated problems of general dissatisfaction and reduced productivity. It is not sufficient to have good thermal, lighting, and air cleanliness conditions if the noise is disturbing. In this paper, noise comfort is considered, with special emphasis on the developing criteria for low-frequency noise.

  15. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  16. Vision and Visual Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, David

    1977-01-01

    Visual comfort and legibility are not the same thing. Visual comfort is the light brightness range between glare and insufficient light. Eye adjustment to changing light levels is described. (Author/STS)

  17. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  18. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  19. [Comfort: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jia-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Comfort is an important concept and core value of nursing. The defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of comfort need further analysis and exploration, even though the concept of comfort has been addressed previously in nursing literature. We employed the strategies of concept analysis as described by Walker&Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of comfort. The defining attributes of comfort include: 1) effective communication; 2) family and meaningful relationships; 3) maintaining functionality; 4) self-characteristics; 5) physical symptom relief, states, and interventions; 6) psychological, spiritual activities and states; and 7) a sense of safety and security. Antecedents consist of discomfort, distress and suffering. Consequences consist of (1) met/satisfied needs; (2) increased sense of control; (3) sense of inner peace; (4) a pleasant experience; (5) feeling cared for; (6) relief of symptoms; (7) reduced suffering; (8) decreased disequilibrium; and (9) absence of discomfort. We also outline the construction of cases, empirical references and comfort measurement tools. Analysis found comfort to have multiple dimensions and confirmed it as a clinical issue that should receive greater emphasis and valuation. Findings are hoped to increase nurse understanding of the concept of comfort and enable nurses to evaluate level of comfort and follow up on variations in such using empirical tools. Concept analysis can guide further comfort related interventions and research to benefit patients. PMID:22314653

  20. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  1. Learning in Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Students spend hours a day in classrooms, so it is critical to their learning to have places to sit that are healthful and comfortable. Schools and universities should outfit their classrooms and other learning spaces with furniture that enables students to carry out their school work comfortably and does not detract from their ability to focus…

  2. How the mode of action affects evidence of planning and movement kinematics in aging: End-state comfort in older adults.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Gonzalez, Dave A; Roy, Eric A; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Motor deficits are commonly observed with age; however, it has been argued that older adults are more adept when acting in natural tasks and do not differ from young adults in these contexts. This study assessed end-state comfort and movement kinematics in a familiar task to examine this further. Left- and right-handed older adults picked up a glass (upright or overturned) as if to pour water in four modes of action (pantomime, pantomime with image/cup as a guide, actual grasping). With increasing age, a longer deceleration phase (in pantomime without a stimulus) and less end-state comfort (in pantomime without a stimulus and image as a guide) was displayed as the amount of contextual information available to guide movement decreased. Changes in movement strategies likely reflect an increased reliance on feedback control and demonstration of a more cautious movement. A secondary aim of this study was to assess hand preference and performance, considering conflicting reports of manual asymmetries with age. Performance differences in the Grooved Pegboard place task indicate left handers may display a shift towards right handedness in some, but not all cases. Summarizing, this study supports age-related differences in planning and control processes in a familiar task, and changes in manual asymmetries with age in left handers. PMID:26617081

  3. Oxygen concentration affects upper thermal tolerance in a terrestrial vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Shea, Tanner K; DuBois, P Mason; Claunch, Natalie M; Murphey, Nicolette E; Rucker, Kiley A; Brewster, Robert A; Taylor, Emily N

    2016-09-01

    We tested the oxygen limitation hypothesis, which states that animals decline in performance and reach the upper limits of their thermal tolerance when the metabolic demand for oxygen at high temperatures exceeds the circulatory system's ability to supply adequate oxygen, in air-breathing lizards exposed to air with different oxygen concentrations. Lizards exposed to hypoxic air (6% O2) gaped, panted, and lost their righting response at significantly lower temperatures than lizards exposed to normoxic (21% O2) or hyperoxic (35% O2) air. A greater proportion of lizards in the hyperoxic treatment were able to withstand body temperatures above 44°C than in the normoxic treatment. We also found that female lizards had a higher panting threshold than male lizards, while sex had no effect on gaping threshold and loss of righting response. Body size affected the temperature at which lizards lost the righting response, with larger lizards losing the response at lower temperatures than smaller lizards when exposed to hypoxic conditions. These data suggest that oxygen limitation plays a mechanistic role in the thermal tolerance of lizards. PMID:27264957

  4. The Effect of Fibre Blend on Comfort Characteristics of Elastic Knitted Fabrics Used for Pressure Garments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, M.; Chattopadhay, R.; Gupta, D.

    2014-04-01

    Comfort characteristics of pressure garments are very important issue as these garments are recommended to wear for 23 h a day to recover from venous problem, scar maturation, orthopedic problems, post surgery, post pregnancy and many other problems. The patients mostly stop using such kind of medical devices because of itching, perspiration and other comfort relate problems. Mostly nylon, polyester and cotton fibres are used in the fabrics. Nylon, polyester are used for strength whereas cotton is used for good comfort related properties. It may be possible to get some certain type of strength and comfort property together by using both types of fibre. Less information is available in this aspect. In this paper, fabric samples were prepared in knit construction by varying the nylon and cotton blend percentage. Comfort properties in terms of air permeability, thermal property, water vapor permeability, surface friction behavior and wicking properties have been studied extensively. The results showed that, the fibre blend percentage did not have any influence on pressure generation. Air permeability and thermal properties were also not affected. However, water vapor permeability and wicking behavior vary significantly. Increase in nylon percentage increases both the water vapor permeability and wicking. It can be thus concluded that, manufacturers can choose fibre blend percentage according to the requirement.

  5. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  6. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  11. Stretching the comfort zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-08-01

    Bruce C. Gibb is organizing a workshop for two groups of scientists that study a similar topic, but rarely get together. The different perspectives they bring and the unusual set up of the meeting will hopefully lead to new ideas, but, as he suggests, they will also lead to the attendees leaving their comfort zones.

  12. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  13. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed. PMID:25189755

  14. Do chimpanzees build comfortable nests?

    PubMed

    Stewart, Fiona A; Pruetz, Jill D; Hansell, Mike H

    2007-08-01

    Nests built by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were studied at the Fongoli research site in southeastern Senegal from January 2004-May 2004 to investigate the role of comfort in nest building behavior by relating measures of nest comfort and building effort. Nest comfort across zones of the nest surface were compared with construction effort for 25 nests. Several variables of nest comfort were assessed: (1) physical discomfort, (2) visible discomfort, and (3) softness. Physical discomfort was used as a representative measure of nest discomfort. Building effort was measured by (1) construction force, (2) complexity, and (3) added material. Spearman rank correlations compared Effort and Comfort measures for both whole nests and central versus edge zones. The results show that construction force and complexity do not influence comfort of the nest as a whole. Greater Construction force correlates with more nest edge discomfort, yet the central area shows no difference. More complex nests do result in a more comfortable central area in the nest. Nests built with greater force may result in more discomfort, whereas complexity may allow chimpanzees to maintain comfort in a central area for sleep. Chimpanzees may place additional leaves or twigs over hard branches, protruding from the nest surface after construction, to increase comfort of the central nest area. Functions of chimpanzee nest building are likely to be several, but these results suggest comfort is a factor in nest building behavior. PMID:17358021

  15. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  16. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  17. Does the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul affect local thermal environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-H.; Ryoo, S.-B.; Baik, J.-J.; Park, I.-S.; Koo, H.-J.; Nam, J.-C.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in local thermal environment associated with the restoration of an inner-city stream in Seoul, Korea, are investigated using observational data. The stream, called the Cheonggye stream, which had been hidden and covered with cement/asphalt for 46 years, runs 5.8 km eastward through a central region of Seoul. Intensive observations were made in the stream area for a number of summertime periods before, during, and after the stream restoration to detect the effects of the stream on local environment and to quantify them. It is estimated that after the stream restoration the near-surface temperature averaged over the stream area dropped by 0.4 °C, with the largest local temperature drop being 0.9 °C. However, it cannot be stated that this 0.4 °C temperature drop is due entirely to the stream effect only, because synoptic-scale and local-scale weather conditions during the two periods were inevitably not identical. The stream effect on air temperature is also evident in the temperature distribution along a street traversing the stream. In the daytime after the stream restoration, the sensible heat flux was greatly reduced and the ratio of sensible heat flux to net radiative flux dramatically decreased. These first-time results of the restored-stream effects on urban thermal environment could contribute to the scientific basis of urban planning which aims to make a large city comfortable to live in and nature- and environment-friendly.

  18. Chicken soup really is good for the soul: "comfort food" fulfills the need to belong.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira

    2011-06-01

    Theories of social surrogacy and embodied cognition assume that cognitive associations with nonhuman stimuli can be affectively charged. In the current research, we examined whether the "comfort" of comfort foods comes from affective associations with relationships. Two experiments support the hypotheses that comfort foods are associated with relationships and alleviate loneliness. Experiment 1 found that the consumption of comfort foods automatically activates relationship-related concepts. Experiment 2 found that comfort foods buffer against belongingness threats in people who already have positive associations with relationships (i.e., are secure in attachment style). Implications for social surrogacy, need to belong, embodied cognition, and eating behavior are discussed. PMID:21537054

  19. Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally fluctuating temperature regimes. Both mean and fluctuation of temperature contributed to thermal acclimation and affected the transcriptome. The transcriptomic response to mean temperatures comprised modification of a major part of the transcriptome, while the response to fluctuations affected a much smaller set of genes, which was highly independent of both the response to a change in mean temperature and to the classic heat shock response. Although the independent transcriptional effects caused by fluctuations were relatively small, they are likely to contribute to our understanding of thermal adaptation. We provide evidence that environmental sensing, particularly phototransduction, is a central mechanism underlying the regulation of thermal acclimation to fluctuating temperatures. Thus, genes and pathways involved in phototransduction are likely of importance in fluctuating climates. PMID:27487917

  20. Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally fluctuating temperature regimes. Both mean and fluctuation of temperature contributed to thermal acclimation and affected the transcriptome. The transcriptomic response to mean temperatures comprised modification of a major part of the transcriptome, while the response to fluctuations affected a much smaller set of genes, which was highly independent of both the response to a change in mean temperature and to the classic heat shock response. Although the independent transcriptional effects caused by fluctuations were relatively small, they are likely to contribute to our understanding of thermal adaptation. We provide evidence that environmental sensing, particularly phototransduction, is a central mechanism underlying the regulation of thermal acclimation to fluctuating temperatures. Thus, genes and pathways involved in phototransduction are likely of importance in fluctuating climates. PMID:27487917

  1. Thermo-physiological comfort of soft-shell back protectors under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dotti, Francesca; Ferri, Ada; Moncalero, Matteo; Colonna, Martino

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate thermo-physiological comfort of three back protectors identifying design features affecting heat loss and moisture management. Five volunteers tested the back protectors in a climatic chamber during an intermittent physical activity. Heart rate, average skin temperature, sweat production, microclimate temperature and humidity have been monitored during the test. The sources of heat losses have been identified using infrared thermography and the participants answered a questionnaire to express their subjective sensations associated with their thermo-physiological condition. The results have shown that locally torso skin temperature and microclimate depended on the type of back protector, whose design allowed different extent of perspiration and thermal insulation. Coupling physiological measurements with the questionnaire, it was found that overall comfort was dependent more on skin wetness than skin temperature: the participants preferred the back protector with the highest level of ventilation through the shell and the lowest level of microclimate humidity. PMID:27184322

  2. Covered in Comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In 1988, NASA began working with private industry to develop thermally adaptive phase-change materials that could be applied to astronauts suits and gloves for better protection against the bitter cold and scorching heat encountered in space.

  3. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  4. Synthetic garments enhance comfort, thermoregulatory response, and athletic performance compared with traditional cotton garments.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David R; Cook, Brendan M; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as "wicking," and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort and thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting-type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters, and physical performance can be affected by the garment that is used. Ten men (age: 27.5 ± 4.4 years; height: 169.3 ± 14.2 cm; weight: 80.05 ± 10.87 kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 ± 3.7 years; height: 166.6 ± 4.46 cm; weight: 64.63 ± 4.49 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group crossover counterbalanced design was used that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) and the Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed while wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on 2 occasions, once while wearing a cotton garment (C) and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater comfort in men and women after both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of P garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of P garments on anaerobic tasks and also revealed dramatic sex differences, where women seem to be much more sensitive to the benefits of P garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and anaerobic tasks, particularly in women. PMID:25463694

  5. Comfort, satisfaction, and anxiolysis in surgical patients using a patient-adjustable comfort warming system: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Denise; Greenfield, Mary Lou V H; Anderson, Jane E; Smith, Beverly A; Morris, Michelle

    2010-04-01

    Comfort warming systems aim to produce a comfortable local environment over which the individual patient has control. We studied a patient-adjustable comfort warming system using the Bair PAWS (Patient Adjustable Warming System) (Arizant Healthcare, Inc, Eden Prairie, MN), specifically to study comfort warming rather than therapeutic warming. One-hundred thirty patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized clinical trial, with 58 patients randomized to the patient warming gown, and 72 randomized to the warm blanket group. Groups were similar for gender, age, height, weight, surgical time, body surface area, and body mass index. The patient-adjustable warming system group had perceived greater control and satisfaction at 30 minutes after treatment was initiated compared with the warmed blanket control group. However, there were no differences in satisfaction levels with thermal comfort among those patients contacted one day postoperatively. Additional research is needed to improve external validity of study findings. Further refinement of a nursing definition of thermal comfort should be explored. PMID:20359643

  6. Creating high performance buildings: Lower energy, better comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brager, Gail; Arens, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Buildings play a critical role in the challenge of mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is estimated that buildings contribute 39% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1] primarily due to their operational energy use, and about 80% of this building energy use is for heating, cooling, ventilating, and lighting. An important premise of this paper is about the connection between energy and comfort. They are inseparable when one talks about high performance buildings. Worldwide data suggests that we are significantly overcooling buildings in the summer, resulting in increased energy use and problems with thermal comfort. In contrast, in naturally ventilated buildings without mechanical cooling, people are comfortable in much warmer temperatures due to shifting expectations and preferences as a result of occupants having a greater degree of personal control over their thermal environment; they have also become more accustomed to variable conditions that closely reflect the natural rhythms of outdoor climate patterns. This has resulted in an adaptive comfort zone that offers significant potential for encouraging naturally ventilated buildings to improve both energy use and comfort. Research on other forms for providing individualized control through low-energy personal comfort systems (desktop fans, foot warmed, and heated and cooled chairs) have also demonstrated enormous potential for improving both energy and comfort performance. Studies have demonstrated high levels of comfort with these systems while ambient temperatures ranged from 64-84°F. Energy and indoor environmental quality are inextricably linked, and must both be important goals of a high performance building.

  7. Creating high performance buildings: Lower energy, better comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Brager, Gail; Arens, Edward

    2015-03-30

    Buildings play a critical role in the challenge of mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is estimated that buildings contribute 39% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1] primarily due to their operational energy use, and about 80% of this building energy use is for heating, cooling, ventilating, and lighting. An important premise of this paper is about the connection between energy and comfort. They are inseparable when one talks about high performance buildings. Worldwide data suggests that we are significantly overcooling buildings in the summer, resulting in increased energy use and problems with thermal comfort. In contrast, in naturally ventilated buildings without mechanical cooling, people are comfortable in much warmer temperatures due to shifting expectations and preferences as a result of occupants having a greater degree of personal control over their thermal environment; they have also become more accustomed to variable conditions that closely reflect the natural rhythms of outdoor climate patterns. This has resulted in an adaptive comfort zone that offers significant potential for encouraging naturally ventilated buildings to improve both energy use and comfort. Research on other forms for providing individualized control through low-energy personal comfort systems (desktop fans, foot warmed, and heated and cooled chairs) have also demonstrated enormous potential for improving both energy and comfort performance. Studies have demonstrated high levels of comfort with these systems while ambient temperatures ranged from 64–84°F. Energy and indoor environmental quality are inextricably linked, and must both be important goals of a high performance building.

  8. Comfort over Pain in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Charles, Niamh A; Yount, Susan; Morgan, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy is often a time when chronic pain is exacerbated, or when acute pain appears. Frequently the easiest intervention within reach, for both chronic and acute pain, is a prescription. However, medication cannot correct the cause of the pain; instead it alters the person's experiential perception of the pain. In addition, medication exposes both mother and fetus to risks. To provide simple, evidence-based, holistic/alternative remedies for women who experienced nonemergent pain during pregnancy. Holistic/alternative techniques for increasing comfort were taught to the participants and individualized during three sessions. Levels of pain and comfort were measured before and after the treatment, using the validated General Comfort Questionnaire and Pain Outcomes Profile. Pain scores decreased from an average of 5.8/10 to 3.5/10 (p = .00). Comfort scores increased from an average of 17.5 to 30 (p = .00). PMID:27105573

  9. Physiological and comfort effects of a commercial "cooling cap" worn under protective helmets.

    PubMed

    Wickwire, P J; Bishop, P A; Green, J M; Richardson, M T; Lomax, R G; Casaru, C; Curtner-Smith, M

    2009-08-01

    Ballistic protective helmets can impair heat dissipation. A cooling device in the helmet (cooling pad, CP) could help prevent heat problems in military personnel and potentially enhance comfort. This study examined the effects of CP on rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, percent change in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, rating of perceived exertion, and other subjective measures while performing light work in a hot environment. It was hypothesized that the CP would act as an insulator to the head, which would not positively affect any physiological variable but could positively affect wearer subjective comfort or temperature. Participants performed a work protocol for approximately 2 hr. A ballistic vest, slacks, short-sleeved button-up shirt, and a ballistic helmet (one trial with CP and one trial without) were worn. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no differences (p > 0.05) between wearing and not wearing the CP for any physiological parameter. However, participants perceived the CP as cooler (p = 0.002). Other trends in perceptual data such as thermal strain and helmet comfort indicated the CP felt cooler. However, based on forehead temperature and participant comments, the CP lost its cooling ability relatively quickly (within approximately 30 min). PMID:19412861

  10. EDUCATION, CHILDREN AND COMFORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City.

    TWO SIMILAR CLASSROOMS WERE SET UP IN THE LENNOX LIVING LABORATORY, DES MOINES, IOWA, ONE FOR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND ONE FOR CONTROL GROUPS. TEMPERATURE, AIR CIRCULATION AND HUMIDITY CAN BE CONTROLLED AND MEASURED IN BOTH ROOMS. THE ROOMS ARE OF SIMILAR SIZE, LAYOUT AND CONSTRUCTION, THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT BEING THE ONLY VARIABLE. THE FOLLOWING…

  11. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting. PMID:24547668

  12. Local divergence of thermal reaction norms among amphibian populations is affected by pond temperature variation.

    PubMed

    Richter-Boix, Alex; Katzenberger, Marco; Duarte, Helder; Quintela, María; Tejedo, Miguel; Laurila, Anssi

    2015-08-01

    Although temperature variation is known to cause large-scale adaptive divergence, its potential role as a selective factor over microgeographic scales is less well-understood. Here, we investigated how variation in breeding pond temperature affects divergence in multiple physiological (thermal performance curve and critical thermal maximum [CTmax]) and life-history (thermal developmental reaction norms) traits in a network of Rana arvalis populations. The results supported adaptive responses to face two main constraints limiting the evolution of thermal adaptation. First, we found support for the faster-slower model, indicating an adaptive response to compensate for the thermodynamic constraint of low temperatures in colder environments. Second, we found evidence for the generalist-specialist trade-off with populations from colder and less thermally variable environments exhibiting a specialist phenotype performing at higher rates but over a narrower range of temperatures. By contrast, the local optimal temperature for locomotor performance and CTmax did not match either mean or maximum pond temperatures. These results highlight the complexity of the adaptive multiple-trait thermal responses in natural populations, and the role of local thermal variation as a selective force driving diversity in life-history and physiological traits in the presence of gene flow. PMID:26118477

  13. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Stoops, John L.

    2006-04-15

    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  14. Legal and regulatory issues affecting the aquifer thermal energy storage concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1980-10-01

    A number of legal and regulatory issus that potentially can affect implementation of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) concept are examined. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  15. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  16. Analysing Thermal Response Test Data Affected by Groundwater Flow and Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Imitazione, Gianmario; Chiozzi, Paolo; Orsi, Marco; Armadillo, Egidio

    2014-05-01

    Tests that record the underground temperature variation due to a constant heat injected into a borehole (or extracted from it) by means of a carrier fluid are routinely performed to infer subsurface thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which are needed to size geothermal heat pump systems. The most popular model to analyse temperature-time curves obtained from these tests is the infinite line source (ILS). This model gives appropriate estimations of thermal parameters only if particular hydro-geological conditions are fulfilled. Several flaws can however affect data interpretation with ILS, which is based on strong assumptions like those of a purely conductive heat transfer regime in a homogeneous medium, no vertical heat flow and infinite length of the borehole. Other drawbacks can arise from the difficulty in the proper thermal insulation of the test equipment, and consequently with oscillations of the carrier fluid temperature due to surface temperature changes. In this paper, we focused on the treatment of thermal response test data when both advection and periodic changes of surface temperature occur. We used a moving line source model to simulate temperature-time signals under different hypothesis of Darcy velocity and thermal properties. A random noise was added to the signal in order to mimic high frequency disturbances, possibly caused by equipment operating conditions and/or geological variability. The subsurface thermal conductivity, the Darcy velocity and the borehole thermal resistance were inferred by minimising the root mean square error between the synthetic dataset and the theoretical model. The optimisation was carried out with the Nelder-Mead algorithm, and thermal and hydraulic properties were determined by iterative reprocessing according to a trial-and-error procedure. The inferred thermal and hydraulic parameters are well consistent with the 'a priory' values, and the presence of noise in the synthetic data does not produce

  17. Comfort Zone: Model or Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The comfort zone model is widespread within adventure education literature. It is based on the belief that when placed in a stressful situation people will respond by overcoming their fear and therefore grow as individuals. This model is often presented to participants prior to activities with a highly perceived sense of risk and challenge which…

  18. Assessing factors affecting the thermal properties of a passive thermal refuge using three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.

  19. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  20. Factors affecting the thermal shock resistance of several hafnia based composites containing graphite or tungsten. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal shock resistance of hafnia based composites containing graphite powder or tungsten fibers was investigated in terms of material properties which include thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, compressive fracture stress, modulus of elasticity, and phase stability in terms of the processing parameters of hot pressing pressure and/or density, degree of stabilization of the hafnia, and composition. All other parameters were held constant or assumed constant. The thermal shock resistance was directly proportional to the compressive fracture stress to modulus of elasticity ratio and was not affected appreciably by the small thermal expansion or thermal conductivity changes. This ratio was found to vary strongly with the composition and density such that the composites containing graphite had relatively poor thermal shock resistance, while the composites containing tungsten had superior thermal shock resistance.

  1. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors. PMID:23600166

  2. Bringing comfort to the masses: a novel evaluation of comfort agent solution properties.

    PubMed

    White, Charles J; Thomas, Calvin R; Byrne, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    Ocular comfort agents are molecules that relieve ocular discomfort by augmenting characteristics of the tear film to stabilize and retain tear volume and lubricate the ocular surface. While a number of clinical comparisons between ocular comfort agent solutions are available, very little work has been done correlating the properties of specific comfort agents (species, molecular weight, and water retention) and solution properties (concentration, viscosity, zero shear viscosity, and surface tension) to the performance and effectiveness of comfort agent solutions. In this work, comfort-promoting properties related strongly to comfort agent concentration and molecular weight, the first objective demonstration of this relationship across diverse comfort agent species and molecular weights. The comfort agents with the greatest comfort property contributions (independent of specific molecular weight and concentration considerations) were hyaluronic acid (HA), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), respectively. The observed, empirical relationships between comfort property contribution and comfort agent species, solution properties, comfort agent molecular weight, and solution concentration was used to develop novel comfort agent index values. The comfort agent index values provided much insight and understanding into the results of experimental studies and/or clinical trials and offer potential resolution to numerous conflicting reports within the literature by accounting for the difference in comfort agent performance due to molecular weight and concentration of comfort agents. The index values provide the first objective, experimental validation and explanation of numerous general trends suggested by clinical data. PMID:23999507

  3. Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Sam; Meagher, Daniel; Linza, Robert; Saheli, Fariborz; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Reis, Carl; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Homan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) Building 32 houses two large thermal-vacuum chambers (Chamber A and Chamber B). Within these chambers are liquid nitrogen shrouds to provide a thermal environment and helium panels which operate at 20K to provide cryopumping. Some amount of air leakage into the chambers during tests is inevitable. This causes "air fouling" of the helium panel surfaces due to the components of the air that adhere to the panels. The air fouling causes the emittance of the helium panels to increase during tests. The increase in helium panel emittance increases the heat load on the helium refrigerator that supplies the 20K helium for those panels. Planning for thermal-vacuum tests should account for this increase to make sure that the helium refrigerator capacity will not be exceeded over the duration of a test. During a recent test conducted in Chamber B a known-size air leak was introduced to the chamber. Emittance change of the helium panels and the affect on the helium refrigerator was characterized. A description of the test and the results will be presented.

  4. Thermal embrittlement of simulated heat-affected zone in cast austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Horii, Y.; Kume, R.; Uesugi, N.

    1998-08-01

    Metallurgical factors controlling thermal embrittlement in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of cast austenitic stainless steels were investigated by using the simulated HAZ. It was shown that the simulated HAZ was more susceptible to the thermal embrittlement by aging at 673 K in correspondence with its higher tendency to age hardening and a higher content of ferrite than the parent casting. Electron microprobe analyzer measurement showed that application of the simulated thermal cycle gave a change in the chemical composition of the ferrite, which might be a cause of the higher age hardening of the ferrite in the simulated HAZ. This higher ferrite hardness had a good correlation with fine precipitates of presumably G-phase in the ferrite grain, which existed more in the simulated HAZ than in the parent casting, though it is not clear whether this correlation was only apparent. Ductility of the austenite portion was found to reduce remarkably when surrounded by the hard ferrite of a high fraction. Annealing after aging restored CTOD to some degree. Aging after fatigue cracking gave more embrittlement than a usual procedure for preparation of test specimens, i.e., fatigue cracking after aging.

  5. Edge shape and comfort of rigid lenses.

    PubMed

    La Hood, D

    1988-08-01

    One of the main factors determining the comfort of a rigid contact lens is the shape of the edge. The comfort of four different contact lens edge shapes was assessed with four unadapted subjects in a randomized masked trial. Lenses with well rounded anterior edge profiles were found to be significantly more comfortable than lenses with square anterior edges. There was no significant difference in subjective comfort between a rounded and square posterior edge profile. The results suggest that the interaction of the edge with the eyelid is more important in determining comfort than edge effects on the cornea, when lenses are fitted according to a corneal alignment philosophy. PMID:3177585

  6. Comfort Theory: Unraveling the Complexities of Veterans' Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Boudiab, Lina Daou; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    The health care needs of veterans, especially those who have served in combat zones and their families are complicated, challenging, and interrelated. Physical limitations impact mental health, and mental health problems affect every aspect of adjustment to civilian life. Comfort theory offers a simple and holistic pattern for identifying needs, creating interventions to meet those needs, and evaluating the effects of those interventions. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how comfort theory has been applied throughout 1 Veterans Administration System to fulfill the goal of providing quality veteran-centric care. The application of comfort theory to daily patient and family care, discharge planning, and follow-up in various settings, as well as ways to enhance institutional integrity and branding are discussed. PMID:26517339

  7. The Effects of Various Comfort Food on Heart Coherence in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Madeline Matar; McIntosh, Mark S.; Joseph, Christine Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some of the nutrients in food are precursors to neurotransmitters, accounting for its effects on mood. Heart coherence (HC), which relates to the optimal psycho-physiological conditions for human body functions, is affected by a person's emotional status. Objectives: (1) To determine the effects of various comfort food on HC and heart rate (HR) in adult females 20 to 50 years of age and (2) to evaluate if body mass index (BMI) has an effect on HC and HR when eating various comfort foods. Methods: The researcher obtained consent from participants after explaining the project. The subjects' height and weight were measured using standardized methods to calculate their BMI. Participants sat in a comfortable chair in a quiet area with a clipped earpiece to measure their heart rate variability (HRV), HR, and HC. Each participant was asked about their favorite comfort food (sweet vs salty). First, the participant imagined eating her favorite comfort food (IFCF) and then was asked to imagine her non-favorite comfort food (INFCF). Finally, the participant ate her favorite comfort food (EFCF) and then ate her non-favorite comfort food (ENFCF). HC scores were recorded in three categories (low, medium, and high) in these four settings. Results: A total of 20 participants completed the study. Paired student's t-tests were used to assess whether the means of the compared groups were statistically different. The data demonstrated that there was a higher HC when participants ate their favorite comfort food than when they ate the non-favorite comfort food (t=−2.912, P<.01) and a higher HC when eating a favorite comfort food than when imaging eating a favorite comfort food (t=−.2408, P<.01). The participants' BMI had a positive correlation between the BMI and low HC (when one increases, the other increases as well) when imagining eating a favorite comfort food (r =.475, P<.05). There was a negative correlation between BMI and medium HC (when one increases, the other

  8. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort. PMID:26400090

  9. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  10. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable. PMID:27211672

  11. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  12. Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

  13. Thermoregulatory responses during exercise and a hot water immersion and the affective responses to peripheral thermal stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, K.

    1986-03-01

    Tympanic (Tty), mean skin (¯Tsk) and mean body (¯Tb) temperatures and heart rate (HR) increased more in low Vo2 max group (LG) than in high Vo2 max group (HG) during exercise. The regression coefficient of body temperatures (Tty and ¯Tb) on HR and the increased rate of heat storage were larger in LG than in HG during exercise. The local sweat rate (per min/cm2) during a hot water bath exhibited a considerable large quantity in comparison with the amount during exercise. Internal and skin temperatures during a hot water bath increased more immediately than those during exercise. The levels of comfort sensation during the preovulatory phase in women and pre-exercise period in men were higher at 40‡C than at 20‡C as peripheral thermal stimulus. The levels during the postovulatory and post-exercise phases in the same subjects were higher with the cool stimuli than with the warm stimuli. Above results suggest that thermoregulatory responses during submaximal exercise are different according to physical fitness and that these responses are different from those during hot water immersion. In addition, these suggest that the scores of thermal sensation with warm and cool stimuli are different during the pre- and post-ovulatory phases and the pre- and post-exercise periods.

  14. Tecnology innovation related to comfort on commercial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Martini, M; Ferrero, D

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article is to show the Iveco activity in terms of comfort improvement in all its product Portfolio, focusing on innovation research and realization of tools to get better the life of the driver on commercial vehicles. Comfort related to the ergonomics, thermal, vibrational comfort and after-treatment system in order to improve the life of driver and passengers. It is to remember that Commercial vehicles have different use from a car. For example an heavy truck cabin is not only a place where to drive 8 hours a day, but it is at the same time, an office, a place where to eat, where to sleep and to have a rest. The effort in the last 10 years of Iveco is to improve the comfort of the life of the drivers, utilizing continuous research in standards and innovative systems in order to increase the security and life improvement, focusing also on worldwide legislation as a partner in European committees for health and safety. PMID:23213810

  15. Depth of artificial Burrowing Owl burrows affects thermal suitability and occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Rathbun, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have installed artificial burrows to help bolster local Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations. However, occupancy probability and reproductive success in artificial burrows varies within and among burrow installations. We evaluated the possibility that depth below ground might explain differences in occupancy probability and reproductive success by affecting the temperature of artificial burrows. We measured burrow temperatures from March to July 2010 in 27 artificial burrows in southern California that were buried 15–76 cm below the surface (measured between the surface and the top of the burrow chamber). Burrow depth was one of several characteristics that affected burrow temperature. Burrow temperature decreased by 0.03°C per cm of soil on top of the burrow. The percentage of time that artificial burrows provided a thermal refuge from above-ground temperature decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 50% and 58% among burrows. The percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for incubating females also decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 27% and 100% among burrows. However, the percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for unattended eggs increased with burrow depth and ranged between 11% and 95% among burrows. We found no effect of burrow depth on reproductive success across 21 nesting attempts. However, occupancy probability had a non-linear relationship with burrow depth. The shallowest burrows (15 cm) had a moderate probability of being occupied (0.46), burrows between 28 and 40 cm had the highest probability of being occupied (>0.80), and burrows >53 cm had the lowest probability of being occupied (<0.43). Burrowing Owls may prefer burrows at moderate depths because these burrows provide a thermal refuge from above-ground temperatures, and are often cool enough to allow females to leave eggs unattended before the onset of full-time incubation, but not too cool for incubating females that

  16. Spatial variability of chilling temperature in Turkey and its effect on human comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toros, H.; Deniz, A.; Şaylan, L.; Şen, O.; Baloğlu, M.

    2005-03-01

    Air temperature, absolute humidity and wind speed are the most important meteorological parameters that affect human thermal comfort. Because of heat loss, the human body feels air temperatures different to actual temperatures. Wind speed is the most practical element for consideration in terms of human comfort. In winter, due to the strong wind speeds, the sensible temperature is generally colder than the air temperature. This uncomfortable condition can cause problems related to tourism, heating and cooling. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of cooling temperatures and Wind Chill Index (WCI) are analyzed for Turkey, and their effect on the human body is considered. In this paper, monthly cooling temperatures between October and March in the years 1929 to 1990 are calculated by using measured temperature and wind speed at 79 stations in Turkey. The influence of wind chill is especially observed in the regions of the Aegean, west and middle Black Sea and east and central Anatolia. The wind chill in these regions has an uncomfortable effect on the human body. Usually, the WCI value is higher in western, northern and central Anatolia than in other regions.

  17. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men. PMID:25866136

  18. Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-05-19

    Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.

  19. Funnel: Towards Comfortable Event Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    The funnel software package has solved for the ZEUS collaboration the problem of Monte Carlo event production; a problem faced by many HEP experiments. Thanks to extensive automation, a few man-hours per day are sufficient to resolve problems and to manage the entire ZEUS Monte Carlo production. Other than specifying the events to be produced, ZEUS physicists are thus freed from the chore of Monte Carlo production. As an additional benefit, the computing cycles required for production are nearly cost free since they replace otherwise idle cycles on hundreds of unix workstation and server computers, with minimal interference for their regular users. The computers are spread across a dozen sites around the world and continually deliver the effective equivalent of approximately one hundred dedicated computers. Funnel successfully demonstrates that generic independent tools can provide comfortable event processing. With an emphasis on automation and fault-tolerance, the tools manage all aspects of event processing including the job queues, the execution and failures of the processing program, parallel processing, as well as data buffering, archiving and remote transfer. The L3, HERMES and H1 collaborations are presently creating Monte Carlo production systems, using the funnel experience and, to different extents, parts of the funnel software package. The experience gained with funnel encourages the construction of EVPRO, a general purpose software package for event processing. EVPRO would build on top of existing software; for example CPS or PVM for parallel processing. Whether on a dedicated farm of computers or using idle cycles, an application of any size could then easily enjoy the comfort of automated, fault-tolerant event processing. EVPRO aims to minimize application-specific event processing software, whose high development costs can only be justified for the largest of applications. A casual user may provide EVPRO with only the processing program and the data

  20. Auralization studies on talker comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jessica; Torres, Rendell R.

    2003-10-01

    Although much research has focused on determining optimal acoustical environments for students in classrooms, relatively little has addressed the classroom as an acoustical workspace for teachers, who may suffer from stress and vocal strain due in part to poor acoustical environments. Although the primary problem is typically the background noise level (whether due to ventilation or students), it is also interesting to study systematically how controlling early reflections may improve the audible ``room response'' at the teacher's speaking location without inordinately increasing the reverberant level of the background noise. Moreover, the room response at the talker's position may help reduce the perceived need to strain the voice, as long as the reflections are not so delayed as to be disturbing. In this study approximately ten configurations of absorptive and reflective surfaces in a ``typical-sized'' classroom are auralized in real time. For each room condition, subjects rate the ``talker comfort'' in terms of perceived loudness of their speech, possible disturbance from echoes or increased background noise, and other factors. The primary descriptive physical parameter is essentially the relative amplitude and delay of clusters of early reflections, which are not always well characterized by the classical room-acoustics descriptors. Initial results of the modeling and subject testing will be presented.

  1. Flicker-glare and visual-comfort assessments of light emitting diode billboards.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Hsuan; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the discomfort glare produced by the high-brightness LED billboards in relation to four factors: flicker frequency, panel luminance, viewing angular sub-tense, and ambient illuminance. The results showed that visual comfort is not affected by ambient illuminance but by the other three factors. Also, interaction was found between luminance and viewing angle. The experimental data were curve fitted to construct visual comfort models of LED billboard displays. By modulating the operating conditions, comfort display with LED billboards can be achieved. PMID:25090356

  2. Metabolic rate, latitude and thermal stability of roosts, but not phylogeny, affect rewarming rates of bats.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Allyson K; Webber, Quinn M R; Baloun, Dylan E; McGuire, Liam P; Muise, Kristina A; Coté, Damien; Tinkler, Samantha; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-10-01

    Torpor is an adaptation that allows many endotherms to save energy by abandoning the energetic cost of maintaining elevated body temperatures. Although torpor reduces energy consumption, the metabolic heat production required to arouse from torpor is energetically expensive and can impact the overall cost of torpor. The rate at which rewarming occurs can impact the cost of arousal, therefore, factors influencing rewarming rates of heterothermic endotherms could have influenced the evolution of rewarming rates and overall energetic costs of arousal from torpor. Bats are a useful taxon for studies of ecological and behavioral correlates of rewarming rate because of the widespread expression of heterothermy and ecological diversity across the >1200 known species. We used a comparative analysis of 45 bat species to test the hypothesis that ecological, behavioral, and physiological factors affect rewarming rates. We used basal metabolic rate (BMR) as an index of thermogenic capacity, and local climate (i.e., latitude of geographic range), roost stability and maximum colony size as ecological and behavioral predictors of rewarming rate. After controlling for phylogeny, high BMR was associated with rapid rewarming while species that live at higher absolute latitudes and in less thermally stable roosts also rewarmed most rapidly. These patterns suggests that some bat species rely on passive rewarming and social thermoregulation to reduce costs of rewarming, while others might rely on thermogenic capacity to maintain rapid rewarming rates in order to reduce energetic costs of arousal. Our results highlight species-specific traits associated with maintaining positive energy balance in a wide range of climates, while also providing insight into possible mechanisms underlying the evolution of heterothermy in endotherms. PMID:27317837

  3. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  4. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met.

  5. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  6. Influence of rapid thermal cycles in multipass welding on heat-affected-zone properties in ferritic cryogenic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Shin, H.K.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The results of both welding and weld simulation studies on 2BT-treated 9Ni steel show that multiple rapid thermal cycles have a very beneficial effect on heat-affected zone toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The metallurgical sources of toughness are, however, different from those in the furnace-treated base plate. The rapidly cycled material contains no detectable austenite phase. The alloy is grain-refined by the rapid thermal cycle, and the matrix carbon content is relieved by the formation of interlathcementite precipitates which do not destroy toughness.

  7. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-11-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15-25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  8. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-01-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15–25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  9. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  10. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  11. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  12. Heat-affected zone thermal cycles in Inconel[reg sign] 718

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.J. CANMET-MTL, Ottawa, Ontario ); Nippes, E.F. . Materials Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    Thermal cycles adjacent to autogenous welds in 1-cm (0.39-in.) IN718 plate were obtained using a computer data-acquisition system. Data from gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) of various energy inputs were regression analyzed and tabulated for various times and distances from the centerline. The observation of grain-boundary precipitates in simulated and actual weld microstructures were used as a method of thermal-cycle verification. Application of the thermal-cycle data to the simulation of a fracture-toughness specimen was investigated. Thermal gradients across the specimen and high cooling rates were limiting factors in the microstructural simulation of a large cross-sectional-area specimen.

  13. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, M A; Yanar, N M; Pettit, F S; Taylor, T A; Meier, G H

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  14. Normothermia and patient comfort: a comparative study in an outpatient surgery setting.

    PubMed

    Leeth, Dianne; Mamaril, Myrna; Oman, Kathleen S; Krumbach, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    ASPAN guidelines for the prevention of unplanned perioperative hypothermia define normothermia as a core temperature between 36 and 38 degrees C and an acceptable level of warmth. Over a six-month period, more than 30% of the same-day surgery patients experienced hypothermic core temperatures on admission to the preoperative unit. The purpose of the study was to compare two preoperative warming methods (forced-air gowns vs traditional warmed cotton blankets) on oral body temperatures, and patients reported "thermal" comfort in ambulatory surgery patients. A repeated measures experimental design study included 150 subjects in Pre-op who were randomly assigned to either the control warmed blankets group or the experimental forced-air gown group. Oral temperatures and thermal comfort assessments were measured every 30 minutes while the patients were in Pre-op, and on admission and discharge from the Phase I PACU. There was no significant difference in postoperative temperature between the subjects warmed with blankets and the warm-air gowns. Subjects warmed with the warm-air gowns reported higher comfort scores after 30 minutes of warming than those warmed with blankets. The change in comfort score from baseline to 30 minutes post warming was greater in the warm-air gown group (P = .001), indicating that warm-air gowns contribute to patients' increased thermal comfort. PMID:20511085

  15. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient (R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  16. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza Mansouri; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient ( R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  17. Microstructural changes in HSLA-100 steel thermally cycled to simulate the heat-affected zone during welding

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, G.; Fonda, R.W.; Vandermeer, R.A.; Matuszeski, A.

    1995-12-01

    The microstructural changes that occur in a commercial HSLA-100 steel thermally cycled to simulate weld heat affected zone (HAZ) behavior were systematically investigated primarily by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eight different weld thermal cycles, with peak temperatures representative of four HAZ regions (the tempered region, the intercritical region, the fine-grained austenitized region, and the coarse-grained austenitized region) and cooling rates characteristic of high heat input (cooling rate (CR) = 5 C/s) and low heat input (CR = 60 C/s) welding were simulated in a heating/quenching dilatometer. The as-received base plate consisted of heavily tempered lath martensite, acicular ferrite, and retained austenite matrix phases with precipitates of copper, niobium-carbonitride, and cementite. The microstructural changes in both the matrix and precipitate phases due to thermal cycling were examined by TEM and correlated with the results of (1) conventional optical microscopy, (2) prior austenite grain size measurements, (3) microhardness testing, and (4) dilatometric analysis. Many of the thermal cycles resulted in dramatic changes in both the microstructures and the properties due to the synergistic interaction between the simulated position in the HAZ and the heat input. Some of these microstructures deviate substantially from those predicted from published continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves. The final microstructure was predominantly dependent upon peak temperature (i.e., position within the HAZ), although the cooling rate (i.e., heat input) strongly affected the microstructures of the simulated intercritical and fine-grained austenitized regions.

  18. The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takashi; Kim, Joohwan; Hoffman, David M.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increased usage of stereo displays has been accompanied by public concern about potential adverse effects associated with prolonged viewing of stereo imagery. There are numerous potential sources of adverse effects, but we focused on how vergence–accommodation conflicts in stereo displays affect visual discomfort and fatigue. In one experiment, we examined the effect of viewing distance on discomfort and fatigue. We found that conflicts of a given dioptric value were slightly less comfortable at far than at near distance. In a second experiment, we examined the effect of the sign of the vergence–accommodation conflict on discomfort and fatigue. We found that negative conflicts (stereo content behind the screen) are less comfortable at far distances and that positive conflicts (content in front of screen) are less comfortable at near distances. In a third experiment, we measured phoria and the zone of clear single binocular vision, which are clinical measurements commonly associated with correcting refractive error. Those measurements predicted susceptibility to discomfort in the first two experiments. We discuss the relevance of these findings for a wide variety of situations including the viewing of mobile devices, desktop displays, television, and cinema. PMID:21778252

  19. Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters. PMID:17204649

  20. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualism is an often-complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and in exchange protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40°C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0°C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  1. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C; Bronstein, Judith L

    2014-09-01

    Mutualism is an often complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and, in exchange, protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40 °C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0 °C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  2. Behavior of Avirulent Yersinia pestis in Liquid Whole Egg as Affected by Antimicrobials and Thermal Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia spp. is a psychrotrophic bacterium that can grow at temperatures as low as minus two degrees Celsius, and is known to contaminate shell eggs in the United States and shell eggs and liquid egg in South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia...

  3. Skin-to-Skin Contact: A Comforting Place With Comfort Food.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Birth and the newborn environment are stressful, especially for preterm infants who have to contend with medical conditions while adapting to the extrauterine world. Therefore, preterm newborns are excellent candidates for comforting measures. Skin-to-skin contact is the best way to provide comfort in several of the realms of Kolcaba's Comfort Theory. Evidence suggests that skin-to-skin contact between the mother and newborn changes the discomforting newborn environment into one that is profoundly comforting. Skin-to-skin contact promotes infant physiologic stability and warmth, helps in organizing infant sleep, reduces stress and pain, and makes breast milk readily available. Comfort to the newborn can be effectively accomplished by skin-to-skin contact. PMID:26280947

  4. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  5. Few genetic and environmental correlations between life history and stress resistance traits affect adaptation to fluctuating thermal regimes.

    PubMed

    Manenti, T; Sørensen, J G; Moghadam, N N; Loeschcke, V

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations because of the activation of environmentally dependent genes. To test whether and how genetic correlations among stress resistance and life history traits constrain evolutionary adaptation, we used three populations of D. simulans selected for 20 generations in constant, predictable and unpredictable daily fluctuating thermal regimes and tested each of these selected populations in the same three thermal regimes. We explored the relationship between genetic correlations between traits and the evolutionary potential of D. simulans by comparing genetic correlation matrices in flies selected and tested in different thermal test regimes. We observed genetic correlations mainly between productivity, body size, starvation and desiccation tolerance, suggesting that adaptation to the three thermal regimes was affected by correlations between these traits. We also found that the correlations between some traits such as body size and productivity or starvation tolerance and productivity were determined by test regime rather than selection regime that is expected to limit genetic adaptation to thermal regimes in these traits. The results of this study suggest that several traits and several environments are needed to explore adaptive responses, as genetic and environmentally induced correlations between traits as results obtained in one environment cannot be used to predict the response of the same population in another environment. PMID:27273321

  6. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Englemann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  7. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products. PMID:26890337

  8. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  9. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-11-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ɛ26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ɛ26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6h after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ɛ26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  10. Modeling phase transformation behavior during thermal cycling in the heat-affected zone of stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; Iskander, Y.S.; David, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    An implicit finite-difference analysis was used to model the diffusion-controlled transformation behavior in a ternary system. The present analysis extends earlier work by examining the transformation behavior under the influence of multiple thermal cycles. The analysis was applied to the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system to simulate the microstructural development in austenitic stainless steel welds. The ferrite-to-austenite transformation was studied in an effort to model the response of the heat-affected zone to multiple thermal cycles experienced during multipass welding. Results show that under some conditions, a transformation ``inertia`` exists that delays the system`s response when changing from cooling to heating. Conditions under which this ``inertia`` is most influential were examined. It was also found that under some conditions, the transformation behavior does not follow the equilibrium behavior as a function of temperature. Results also provide some insight into effect of composition distribution on transformation behavior.

  11. Identifying factors of comfort in using hand tools.

    PubMed

    Kuijt-Evers, L F M; Groenesteijn, L; de Looze, M P; Vink, P

    2004-09-01

    To design comfortable hand tools, knowledge about comfort/discomfort in using hand tools is required. We investigated which factors determine comfort/discomfort in using hand tools according to users. Therefore, descriptors of comfort/discomfort in using hand tools were collected from literature and interviews. After that, the relatedness of a selection of the descriptors to comfort in using hand tools was investigated. Six comfort factors could be distinguished (functionality, posture and muscles, irritation and pain of hand and fingers, irritation of hand surface, handle characteristics, aesthetics). These six factors can be classified into three meaningful groups: functionality, physical interaction and appearance. The main conclusions were that (1) the same descriptors were related to comfort and discomfort in using hand tools, (2) descriptors of functionality are most related to comfort in using hand tools followed by descriptors of physical interaction and (3) descriptors of appearance become secondary in comfort in using hand tools. PMID:15246883

  12. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870

  13. Ammonium in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: processes affecting speciation and isotope fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, J.M.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Böhlke, J.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Ball, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen, largely in reduced form (NH4(T)≈NH4(aq)++NH3(aq)o), has been documented in thermal waters throughout Yellowstone National Park, with concentrations ranging from a few micromolar along the Firehole River to millimolar concentrations at Washburn Hot Springs. Indirect evidence from rock nitrogen analyses and previous work on organic compounds associated with Washburn Hot Springs and the Mirror Plateau indicate multiple sources for thermal water NH4(T), including Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks, Eocene lacustrine deposits, and glacial deposits. A positive correlation between NH4(T) concentration and δ18O of thermal water indicates that boiling is an important mechanism for increasing concentrations of NH4(T) and other solutes in some areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved NH4(T) is highly variable (δ15N = −6‰ to +30‰) and is positively correlated with pH values. In comparison to likely δ15N values of nitrogen source materials (+1‰ to +7‰), high δ15N values in hot springs with pH >5 are attributed to isotope fractionation associated with NH3(aq)o loss by volatilization. NH4(T) in springs with low pH typically is relatively unfractionated, except for some acid springs with negative δ15N values that are attributed to NH3(g)o condensation. NH4(T) concentration and isotopic variations were evident spatially (between springs) and temporally (in individual springs). These variations are likely to be reflected in biomass and sediments associated with the hot springs and outflows. Elevated NH4(T) concentrations can persist for 10s to 1000s of meters in surface waters draining hot spring areas before being completely assimilated or oxidized.

  14. Stress analysis of thermally affected rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2016-04-01

    Based on the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch, thermo-elastic fields within rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties subjected to a thermal field are explicitly examined. Accounting for the surface energy effect, the nonclassical boundary conditions are enforced in the cases of fixed-free and free-free conditions. The effects of variation of material properties, temperature of the environment, angular velocity, and radius of the outer radius on the radial displacement, hoop and radial stresses are investigated. In all performed studies, the role of the surface effect on the thermo-elastic field of the nanostructure is methodically discussed.

  15. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of glabrous canaryseed proteins as affected by variety and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Rajamohamed, Sahul H; Aryee, Alberta N A; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann; Boye, Joyce I

    2013-09-01

    Glabrous or hairless canaryseed is a nutritional grain that could be a good addition to the diet if approved as a novel food. To assess the impact of thermal treatment on its digestibility; raw, roasted or boiled flours prepared from three different varieties of glabrous canaryseed were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion conditions and the effect on protein electrophoretic profiles was examined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Roasting was done by dry-heat in an oven at 176 °C for 12 min whereas boiling was done in water at 98 °C for 12 min. SDS-PAGE showed approximately twenty-five protein bands in the undigested raw flour with molecular masses (MM) ranging from <14 kDa to >97 kDa. The dominant proteins had low MM, between the ranges of ~57 to 12 kDa. Roasting markedly altered the protein electrophoretic profile with the appearance of large molecular weight aggregates. Canaryseed proteins were more easily digested after thermal treatment and under sequential gastric-duodenal conditions than under gastric or duodenal conditions alone. Furthermore, roasting appeared to have a greater impact on in vitro protein digestibility than boiling. PMID:23912803

  16. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

  17. Helping Children Feel Comfortable and Calm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents calming activities and routines for children at different ages and stages. Honig discusses the different stages of arousal for children ages 0-2 and gives suggestions for ways to sooth fussy babies. Miller discusses calming activities and comforting environments for children ages 3-4, and recommends activities that require…

  18. Lithospheric Thermal Structure: One of Factors Affecting the Depth of the Seismogenic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.

    2008-12-01

    Evidence that the base of the crustal seismogenic zone may be critically dependent on temperature has been bolstered for more than three decades. This paper addresses and reviews several topics related to relationship between lithospheric thermal regime and depth extent of seismicity. The base of the seismogenic crustal zone correlates with surface heat flow in most intraplate seismic areas of the world [e.g., Kobayshi, 1976; Sibson, 1982]. Compilation of previous studies shows that temperatures at the base of seismogenic zone appear to be distributed from about 250°C to 450°C over a large depth interval, 5-30 km, at different tectonic settings [e.g., Tanaka, 2008]. It supports that temperature is one of factors governing the focal depth. Variations in lithology, slip rate, pore pressure, and focal mechanism may account for the temperature difference. Inverse relationship between the base of the seismogenic crustal zone and surface heat flow is obvious, however this relationship is shown at geographically restricted area due to uneven data distribution. In order to overcome this spatial limitation, determination of the basal depth of magnetic layer, Curie point depth (Zb), based on spectrum analysis of magnetic anomaly data was applied to estimate regional thermal structure. This analysis is still controversial and Zb does not necessarily represent an isotherm, however, previous studies suggested that there was an inverse correlation between Zb and heat-flow measurements. Recently, the correlation between Zb and the base of the seismogenic crustal zone has been shown at Japan [Tanaka and Ishikawa, 2005] and California [Ross et al., 2006]. Correlations between them in both regions are good, however each region has own cluster; Zb of California region are significantly deeper than those of Japan. The lithological difference may cause the cluster shift between Japan and California.

  19. Monitoring of Lower Limb Comfort and Injury in Elite Football

    PubMed Central

    Kinchington, Michael; Ball, Kevin; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI) to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day). A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union). The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77) and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18). The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury. Key points Comfort as a method to determine the well-being of athletes has a role in injury management. A lower limb comfort index is a mechanism by which lower limb comfort can be evaluated. Poor lower limb comfort is associated with injury in professional football. The use of a comfort as a marker of athlete health has practical and clinical relevance to sports medicine professionals managing musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24149793

  20. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  1. Thermal conditions experienced during differentiation affect metabolic and contractile phenotypes of mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Little, Alex G; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Central pathways regulate metabolic responses to cold in endotherms to maintain relatively stable internal core body temperatures. However, peripheral muscles routinely experience temperatures lower than core body temperature, so that it would be advantageous for peripheral tissues to respond to temperature changes independently from core body temperature regulation. Early developmental conditions can influence offspring phenotypes, and here we tested whether developing muscle can compensate locally for the effects of cold exposure independently from central regulation. Muscle myotubes originate from undifferentiated myoblasts that are laid down during embryogenesis. We show that in a murine myoblast cell line (C2C12), cold exposure (32°C) increased myoblast metabolic flux compared with 37°C control conditions. Importantly, myotubes that differentiated at 32°C compensated for the thermodynamic effects of low temperature by increasing metabolic rates, ATP production, and glycolytic flux. Myotube responses were also modulated by the temperatures experienced by "parent" myoblasts. Myotubes that differentiated under cold exposure increased activity of the AMP-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK), which may mediate metabolic changes in response cold exposure. Moreover, cold exposure shifted myosin heavy chains from slow to fast, presumably to overcome slower contractile speeds resulting from low temperatures. Adjusting thermal sensitivities locally in peripheral tissues complements central thermoregulation and permits animals to maintain function in cold environments. Muscle also plays a major metabolic role in adults, so that developmental responses to cold are likely to influence energy expenditure later in life. PMID:27385733

  2. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  3. Thermal conditions during juvenile development affect adult dispersal in a spider.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Dries; Travis, Justin M J; De Clercq, Nele; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Lens, Luc

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of dispersal is a prerequisite for the effective management of natural populations. Rather than treating dispersal as a fixed trait, it should be considered a plastic process that responds to both genetic and environmental conditions. Here, we consider how the ambient temperature experienced by juvenile Erigone atra, a spider inhabiting crop habitat, influences adult dispersal. This species exhibits 2 distinct forms of dispersal, ballooning (long distance) and rappelling (short distance). Using a half-sib design we raised individuals under 4 different temperature regimes and quantified the spiders' propensity to balloon and to rappel. Additionally, as an indicator of investment in settlement, we determined the size of the webs build by the spiders following dispersal. The optimal temperature regimes for reproduction and overall dispersal investment were 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Propensity to perform short-distance movements was lowest at 15 degrees C, whereas for long-distance dispersal it was lowest at 30 degrees C. Plasticity in dispersal was in the direction predicted on the basis of the risks associated with seasonal changes in habitat availability; long-distance ballooning occurred more frequently under cooler, spring-like conditions and short-distance rappelling under warmer, summer-like conditions. Based on these findings, we conclude that thermal conditions during development provide juvenile spiders with information about the environmental conditions they are likely to encounter as adults and that this information influences the spider's dispersal strategy. Climate change may result in suboptimal adult dispersal behavior, with potentially deleterious population level consequences. PMID:18974219

  4. Thermal stress and tropical cyclones affect economic production in Central America and Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Surface temperatures and tropical cyclones have large impacts on economic production. Local cyclone energy dissipation reduces output in agriculture and tourism, while stimulating output in construction. High surface temperatures reduce output in several labor-intensive industries; a 1° C increase for two consecutive years results in production losses of ˜13%. The response is greatest during the hottest season and is non-linear, with high temperature days contributing the most to production losses. The structure of this response matches results from a large ergonomics literature, supporting the hypothesis that thermal stress reduces human performance, driving macroeconomic fluctuations. This large response of non-agricultural sectors suggests that current estimates underestimate the scale and scope of economic vulnerabilities to climate change. Responses of each industry to surface temperature, tropical cyclones and rainfall. Estimates represent the change of value-added in the industry in response to each atmospheric variables during the year of production (L=0) and the years prior (L≥1). The responses to surface temperature are triangles, tropical cyclones are squares and rainfall are crosses. Estimates are grey if none of the annual responses are significant at the α = 0.1 level. Whiskers indicate 95% confidence intervals. Tourism receipts displays the five years prior (L=1-5) because of the long response of that industry to cyclones. Agriculture per worker is also plotted as circles when estimated a second time excluding mainland countries from the sample. Units are: temperature- percent change in output per 0.33°C; cyclones- percent changes in output per 1 standard deviation of tropical cyclone energy; rainfall- percent change in output per 2 cm/month.

  5. Calculation of Level of Comfort of the Micro-Climate in Buildings During the Estimation of the Energy-Saving Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prorokova, M. V.; Bukhmirov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the method of valuation of comfort of microclimate of residen-tial, public and administrative buildings. The method is based on calculation of the coefficient of thermal comfort of a person in the room. Further amendments are introduced to the asym-metry of the thermal radiation, radiation cooling and air quality. The method serves as the basis for a computer program.

  6. Walking after Stroke: Comfortable versus Maximum Safe Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This study attempted to (1) determine whether stroke patients (n=20) can safely increase their walking speed above that of comfortable walking; (2) describe the relationship between comfortable and maximum safe walking speed; and (3) examine correlations between maximum and comfortable speeds and a functional walking score. Subjects were able to…

  7. The Role of Interpersonal Comfort in Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Day, Rachel; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This research examined interpersonal comfort as a potential mediating mechanism in mentoring relationships. Results indicated that interpersonal comfort mediated the relationship between gender similarity and protege reports of career and psychosocial mentoring. Contrary to prediction, interpersonal comfort did not mediate relationships involving…

  8. Analysis of Knitting Process Variables and Yarn Count Influencing the Thermo-physiological Comfort Properties of Single Jersey and Rib Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anindya; Mal, Prithwiraj; Majumdar, Abhijit; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an investigation has been made to study the effect of yarn count and various knitting parameters, namely loop length, carriage speed and yarn input tension on thermo-physiological comfort properties like air permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal absorptivity. An orthogonal block Box and Behnken experimental design has been used to conduct the study. Analyses of the results show that yarn count and loop length have significant influence on the fabric thermo-physiological comfort properties. Yarn input tension and carriage speed have no significant impact on the fabric comfort.

  9. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    PubMed Central

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  10. How "Does" the Comforting Process Work? An Empirical Test of an Appraisal-Based Model of Comforting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susanne M.; Wirtz, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Burleson and Goldsmith's (1998) comforting model suggests an appraisal-based mechanism through which comforting messages can bring about a positive change in emotional states. This study is a first empirical test of three causal linkages implied by the appraisal-based comforting model. Participants (N=258) talked about an upsetting event with a…

  11. Survey on RGB, 3D, Thermal, and Multimodal Approaches for Facial Expression Recognition: History, Trends, and Affect-Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Corneanu, Ciprian Adrian; Simon, Marc Oliu; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera

    2016-08-01

    Facial expressions are an important way through which humans interact socially. Building a system capable of automatically recognizing facial expressions from images and video has been an intense field of study in recent years. Interpreting such expressions remains challenging and much research is needed about the way they relate to human affect. This paper presents a general overview of automatic RGB, 3D, thermal and multimodal facial expression analysis. We define a new taxonomy for the field, encompassing all steps from face detection to facial expression recognition, and describe and classify the state of the art methods accordingly. We also present the important datasets and the bench-marking of most influential methods. We conclude with a general discussion about trends, important questions and future lines of research. PMID:26761193

  12. Effects of thermal underwear on thermal and subjective responses in winter.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Wha; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, So-Young

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain basic data in improving the health of Koreans, saving energy and protecting environments. This study investigated the effects of wearing thermal underwear for keeping warm in the office in winter where temperature is not as low as affecting work efficiency, on thermoregulatory responses and subjective sensations. In order to create an environment where every subject feels the same thermal sensation, two experimental conditions were selected through preliminary experiments: wearing thermal underwear in 18 degrees C air (18-condition) and not wearing thermal underwear in 23 degrees C air (23-condition). Six healthy male students participated in this study as experiment subjects. Measurement items included rectal temperature (T(re)), skin temperature (T(sk)), clothing microclimate temperature (T(cm)), thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The results are as follows: (1) T(re) of all subjects was maintained constant at 37.1 degrees C under both conditions, indicating no significant differences. (2) (T)(sk) under the 18-condition and the 23-condition were 32.9 degrees C and 33.7 degrees C, respectively, indicating a significant level of difference (p<0.05). (3) Among local skin temperature, trunk part (forehead and abdomen) did not show significant differences. After 90-min exposure, the skin temperature of hands and feet under the 18-condition was significantly lower than that under the 23-condition (p<0.001). (4) More than 80% of all the respondents felt comfortable under both conditions. It was found (T)(sk) decreased due to a drop in the skin temperature of hands and feet, and the subjects felt cooler wearing only one layer of normal thermal underwear at 18 degrees C. Yet, the thermal comfort level, T(re) and T(cm) of chest part under the 18-condition were the same as those under the 23-condition. These results show that the same level of comfort, T(re) and T(cm) can be maintained as that of an environment about 5 degrees C higher

  13. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. PMID:26267512

  14. Effect of parallax distribution and crosstalk on visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-05-01

    Although autostereoscopic display is considered to be mainstream in the three-dimensional (3-D) display market for the near future, practical quality problems still exist due to various challenges such as the accommodation-vergence conflict and crosstalk. A number of studies have shown that these problems reduce the visual comfort and reliability of the perceived workload. We present two experiments for investigating the effect of parallax distribution, which affects the behavior of the accommodation and vergence responses and crosstalk on visual comfort in autostereoscopic display. We measured the subjective visual scores and perceived depth position for watching under various conditions that include foreground parallax, background parallax, and crosstalk levels. The results show that the viewers' comfort is significantly influenced by parallax distribution that induces a suitable conflict between the accommodation and vergence responses of the human visual system. Moreover, we confirm that crosstalk changes significantly affect visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display. Consequently, the results can be used as guidelines to produce or adjust the 3-D image in accordance with the characteristics of parallax barrier autostereoscopic display.

  15. [Effect of various furniture covering fabrics on heat regulation and comfort].

    PubMed

    Koller, M; Stidl, H G; Kundi, M; Haider, M

    1982-08-01

    The effects of three different materials for furniture fabrics (wool, polyacrylonitrile and Skai) on thermophysiological parameters and comfort were studied. In a laboratory design male, middle aged subjects were tested three times for three hours in a climate chamber, being exposed to internal and external thermal strains as well as to stress inducing situations. The outcome of this research suggests an essential influence of the structure of the tested materials but only small influences by the kind of fibres. The test situation "Skai" induced markedly different effects on skin temperature, skin moisture level and self rated thermal comfort as compared to both textile materials: A high sweat secretion followed by a continuously increasing moisture accumulation could be observed, especially for areas of the body surface which were tight contact with the material. Simultaneously a distinct skin temperature decrease at the back was found, which can be interpreted as a consequence of a high heat conduction due to the material itself as well as by sweat vaporization when the back was lifted from the backrest. The differences between the natural fibre- and synthetic fibre materials were generally small and occurred merely under heat stress conditions, where a pronounced reactivity of skin temperatures, skin moisture and heart rate could be observed testing the synthetic textile material. Being asked about thermal comfort, the subjects attributed their ratings to uncomfortable room climate conditions rather than to properties of the materials on which they were seated. PMID:7148203

  16. Examining Therapist Comfort in Delivering Family Therapy in Home and Community Settings: Development and Evaluation of the Therapist Comfort Scale

    PubMed Central

    Glebova, Tatiana; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric properties of a new measure assessing therapist comfort in the home treatment context, and the relationship between therapist comfort, related process variables, and therapist characteristics. Data were drawn from a longitudinal evaluation of 185 families treated by 51 therapists using Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Therapist comfort was measured at four time points. Psychometric evaluation indicated that the measure was internally and temporally consistent. Examination of the measure’s validity indicated that therapists’ feelings of safety and comfort during the provision of home-based treatment were associated with family neighborhood characteristics and family socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, the therapist’s reported level of alliance (as measured by the Emotional Bonding subscale of the Working Alliance Inventory) was related to her/his feeling of comfort. Analyses also indicated that therapists with greater belief in the clinical utility of the MST model felt more comfortable when delivering MST. Together the results suggest that economically disadvantaged families treated in home and community settings may be most at risk for erosions in the therapeutic relationship over time as a function of lower therapist comfort. Because therapist comfort was associated with therapeutic alliance - a factor found to be associated with clinical outcomes across studies and treatment models - findings imply that psychotherapists should regularly examine their own level of comfort, especially when providing services in non-traditional settings, and that therapist comfort should be routinely assessed as part of clinical supervision and training. PMID:22181024

  17. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    PubMed

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

  18. Solid state NMR spectroscopy in the evaluation of the conformational changes of humic substances as affected by thermal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pasquale, C.; Berns, A. E.; Kucerik, J.; Conte, P.; Alonzo, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an ubiquitous, complex material which is produced by the degradation of plant tissues and animal bodies. It is the major indicator of soil quality since it is directly involved in the maintenance of soil fertility, prevention of erosion and desert encroachment and provision of suitable environment for biological activity. Organic matter is an important driving force in environmental global change as it acts as both a source and sink of atmospheric carbon. However, SOM is subjected to rapid changes due to environmental transformations such as massive deforestations, fires, intensive land uses, temperature increases and so on. In the present work, a characterization of humic substances was done in order to obtain information about the transformation occurring to SOM as affected by temperature increases. For the first time variable temperature cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was applied in combination with thermal analyses (TG and DSC) on environmentally relevant soil organic matter. The results show that the conformational changes occurring in humic substances as temperature is raised can be associated to melting of alkyl components connected with sublimation of some organic compounds. The simultaneous application of solid phase micro extraction GC-MS also allowed the identification of the components which were released by sublimation processes.

  19. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously. PMID:26360222

  20. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  1. A Systematic Literature Review Toward the Characterization of Comfort.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara; Caldeira, Sílvia; Martins, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Comfort integrates the taxonomies and the classifications of nursing knowledge. Its meaning is not yet clear, although it is an important construct from which theories are developed. This article aims to analyze comfort in nursing scientific literature. The results highlight a particular interest in comfort at crisis situations such as illness, palliative care, or intensive care. Comforting seems to be a complex intervention. More studies are needed to achieve its operational assimilation and implementation in clinical practice, as well as the evaluation of its efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:26633722

  2. Passenger comfort response times as a function of aircraft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinalducci, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between a passenger's response time of changes in level of comfort experienced as a function of aircraft motion was examined. The aircraft used in this investigation was capable of providing a wide range of vertical and transverse accelerations by means of direct lift flap control surfaces and side force generator surfaces in addition to normal control surfaces. Response times to changes in comfort were recorded along with the passenger's rating of comfort on a five point scale. In addition, a number of aircraft motion variables including vertical and transverse accelerations were also recorded. Results indicate some relationship between human comfort response times to reaction time data.

  3. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  4. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    This document contains Appendix A, B, and C. In Appendix A, we are working as part of a research project with King Monkut's Institute of Technology, Thonburi, and the University of California, Berkeley (USA) to determine how people respond to the thermal environment inside buildings. We have prepared a short questionnaire which will survey thermal comfort. Our plan is to survey each building during each of three seasons over this year (e.g. hot, rainy, and cool seasons). Appendix B contains supporting technical documentation on conservation potential and Appendix C contains documentation on utility impacts.

  5. Patient comfort during flexible and rigid cystourethroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojowy, Romuald; Wojciechowska, Joanna; Kościelska, Katarzyna; Dembowski, Janusz; Matuszewski, Michał; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Małkiewicz, Bartosz; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystourethroscopy (CS) is an endoscopic method used to visualize the urethra and the bladder. Aim In this study, we prospectively evaluated pain in men undergoing cyclic cystoscopic assessment with rigid and flexible instruments after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB). Material and methods One hundred and twenty male patients who were under surveillance after a TURB procedure due to urothelial cell carcinoma and who had undergone at least one rigid cystourethroscopy in the past were enrolled in the trial. Patients were prospectively randomized to age-matched groups for flexible (group F) or rigid (group R) CS. Patient's comfort was evaluated on an 11-grade scale, ranging from 0 (free from pain) to 10 points (unbearable pain). Results The patients described the pain during the previous rigid CS as ranging from 4 to 10 (mean: 6.8) in group F and from 0 to 10 (mean: 5.8) in group R. Group R patients described the pain during the current rigid CS as ranging from 0 to 10 (mean: 5.7). No mean change in the grade was observed between the two pain descriptions (no change 11 patients, weaker pain 25 patients, stronger pain 24 patients, gamma 0.51, p < 0.0001). Group F described the pain as 1 to 5 (mean: 2.1). In the case of flexible CS the pain experience was greatly lowered compared to the previous rigid CS. All flexible CS patients reported lowered pain (by 1 to 9 grades). Patients’ age did not influence the comfort of the flexible CS or the change in pain level. Conclusions Flexible CS is better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy by male patients regardless of patients’ age. PMID:27458489

  6. Substrate-Modulated Thermal Fluctuations Affect Long-Range Allosteric Signaling in Protein Homodimers: Exemplified in CAP

    PubMed Central

    Toncrova, Hedvika; McLeish, Tom C.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The role of conformational dynamics in allosteric signaling of proteins is increasingly recognized as an important and subtle aspect of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Cooperative binding is commonly observed in proteins with twofold symmetry that bind two identical ligands. We construct a coarse-grained model of an allosteric coupled dimer and show how the signal can be propagated between the distant binding sites via change in slow global vibrational modes alone. We demonstrate that modulation on substrate binding of as few as 5–10 slow modes can give rise to cooperativity observed in biological systems and that the type of cooperativity is given by change of interaction between the two monomers upon ligand binding. To illustrate the application of the model, we apply it to a challenging test case: the catabolite activator protein (CAP). CAP displays negative cooperativity upon association with two identical ligands. The conformation of CAP is not affected by the binding, but its vibrational spectrum undergoes a strong modification. Intriguingly, the first binding enhances thermal fluctuations, yet the second quenches them. We show that this counterintuitive behavior is, in fact, necessary for an optimal anticooperative system, and captured within a well-defined region of the model's parameter space. From analyzing the experimental results, we conclude that fast local modes take an active part in the allostery of CAP, coupled to the more-global slow modes. By including them into the model, we elucidate the role of the modes on different timescales. We conclude that such dynamic control of allostery in homodimers may be a general phenomenon and that our model framework can be used for extended interpretation of thermodynamic parameters in other systems. PMID:20483341

  7. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆T(u-r)) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*). PMID:22886367

  8. The Digital Divide in Classrooms: Teacher Technology Comfort and Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornisch, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A disconnect exists between students' comfort with using technology for learning and teachers' comfort in using technology for teaching. Students report the desire for more engaging technology-based assignments. Teachers cite multiple reasons for their hesitancy to use technology in their teaching. The current study investigates whether…

  9. The End-State Comfort Effect in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adalbjornsson, Carola F.; Fischman, Mark G.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The end-state comfort effect has been observed in recent studies of grip selection in adults. The present study investigated whether young children also exhibit sensitivity to end-state comfort. The task was to pick up an overturned cup from a table, turn the cup right side up, and pour water into it. Two age groups (N = 20 per group) were…

  10. Is Listener Comfort a Viable Construct in Stuttering Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; Cream, Angela; O'Brian, Nigel; Bastock, Kaely

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen listeners using the Listener Comfort Scale rated videos of 10 adults before and after stuttering treatment and videos of 10 controls. Results were compared with those of 15 listeners who used the Speech Naturalness Scale. Reliability of the Speech Naturalness Scale was superior; however, the Listener Comfort Scale captured different…

  11. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  12. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal's housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  13. Performance criteria for dynamic window systems using nanostructured behaviors for energy harvesting and environmental comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andow, Brandon C.; Krietemeyer, Bess; Stark, Peter R. H.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary commercial building types continue to incorporate predominantly glazed envelope systems, despite the associated challenges with thermal regulation, visual comfort, and increased energy consumption. The advantage of window systems that could adaptively respond to changes in the environment while meeting variable demands for building energy use and occupant comfort has led to considerable investment towards the advancement of dynamic window technologies. Although these technologies demonstrate cost warranting improvements in building energy performance, they face challenges with visible clarity, color variability and response time. Furthermore, they remain challenged with respect to their ability to adequately control important qualitative criteria for daylighting such as glare and balanced light redistribution within occupied spaces. The material dependent limitations of advanced glazing technologies have initiated a search for new thin film solutions, with new device possibilities emerging across many fields. Idealized window performance has traditionally been defined as the dynamic control of solar transmittance, glare, solar gain and daylighting at any time to manage energy, comfort and view. However, in the context of wider goals towards building energy self-sufficiency through the achievement of on-site net zero energy, emerging material systems point towards other physical phenomena for achieving transparency modulation and energy harvesting, demanding a broader range of criteria for advanced glazing controls that allow the glazed building envelope to exist as a transfer function that can address and potentially accommodate the following five principal criteria: 1. Thermal management; 2. Daylighting harvesting and modulation; 3. Maintenance of views; 4. Active power capture, transfer, storage and redistribution; 5. Information Display. Building upon the existing set of performance requirements for high-performance glazing, this paper prescribes

  14. Evaluation of thermal and moisture management properties on knitted fabrics and comparison with a physiological model in warm conditions.

    PubMed

    Bedek, Gauthier; Salaün, Fabien; Martinkovska, Zuzana; Devaux, Eric; Dupont, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    This study reports on an experimental investigation of physical properties on the textile thermal comfort. Textile properties, such as thickness, relative porosity, air permeability, moisture regain, thermal conductivity, drying time and water-vapour transmission rate have been considered and correlated to the thermal and vapour resistance, permeability index, thermal effusivity and moisture management capability in order to determine the overall comfort performance of underwear fabrics. The results suggested that the fibre type, together with moisture regain and knitted structure characteristics appeared to affect some comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Additionally, thermal sensations, temperature and skin wetness predicted by Caseto® software for three distinct activity levels were investigated. Results show that the data obtained from this model in transient state are correlated to the thermal conductivity for the temperature and to Ret, moisture regain and drying time for the skin wetness. This provides potential information to determine the end uses of these fabrics according to the selected activity level. PMID:21277564

  15. Applying outdoor environment to develop health, comfort, and energy saving in the office in hot-humid climate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2-23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  16. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO{sub 2} and comfort assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-07-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO{sub 2} concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO{sub 2} concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants.

  17. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  18. Factors Related to Establishing a Comfort Care Goal in Nursing Home Patients with Dementia: A Cohort Study among Family and Professional Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    van Soest-Poortvliet, Mirjam C.; de Vet, Henrica C.W.; Hertogh, Cees M.P.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Deliens, Luc H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many people with dementia die in long-term care settings. These patients may benefit from a palliative care goal, focused on comfort. Admission may be a good time to revisit or develop care plans. Objective: To describe care goals in nursing home patients with dementia and factors associated with establishing a comfort care goal. Design: We used generalized estimating equation regression analyses for baseline analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses for longitudinal analyses. Setting: Prospective data collection in 28 Dutch facilities, mostly nursing homes (2007–2010; Dutch End of Life in Dementia study, DEOLD). Results: Eight weeks after admission (baseline), 56.7% of 326 patients had a comfort care goal. At death, 89.5% had a comfort care goal. Adjusted for illness severity, patients with a baseline comfort care goal were more likely to have a religious affiliation, to be less competent to make decisions, and to have a short survival prediction. Their families were less likely to prefer life-prolongation and more likely to be satisfied with family–physician communication. Compared with patients with a comfort care goal established later during their stay, patients with a baseline comfort care goal also more frequently had a more highly educated family member. Conclusions: Initially, over half of the patients had a care goal focused on comfort, increasing to the large majority of the patients at death. Optimizing patient–family–physician communication upon admission may support the early establishing of a comfort care goal. Patient condition and family views play a role, and physicians should be aware that religious affiliation and education may also affect the (timing of) setting a comfort care goal. PMID:25226515

  19. The effects of videotape modeling and daily feedback on residential electricity conservation, home temperature and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer

    PubMed Central

    Winett, Richard A.; Hatcher, Joseph W.; Fort, T. Richard; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Love, Susan Q.; Riley, Anne W.; Fishback, James F.

    1982-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with daily feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded temperature and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean temperature of about 62°F when home and about 59°F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75°F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or daily feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal temperature change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior change, and energy

  20. Adaptation to local thermal regimes by crustose coralline algae does not affect rates of recruitment in coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Evenhuis, Christian; Logan, Murray; Motti, Cherie A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are well known for their ability to induce settlement in coral larvae. While their wide distribution spans reefs that differ substantially in temperature regimes, the extent of local adaptation to these regimes and the impact they have on CCA inductive ability are unknown. CCA Porolithon onkodes from Heron (southern) and Lizard (northern) islands on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (separated by 1181 km) were experimentally exposed to acute or prolonged thermal stress events and their thermal tolerance and recruitment capacity determined. A sudden onset bleaching model was developed to determine the health status of CCA based on the rate of change in the CCA live surface area (LSA). The interaction between location and temperature was significant ( F (2,119) = 6.74, p = 0.0017), indicating that thermally driven local adaptation had occurred. The southern population remained healthy after prolonged exposure to 28 °C and exhibited growth compared to the northern population ( p = 0.022), with its optimum temperature determined to be slightly below 28 °C. As expected, at the higher temperatures (30 and 32 °C) the Lizard Island population performed better that those from Heron Island, with an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Lizard Island CCA displayed the lowest bleaching rates at 30 °C, while levels consistently increased with temperature in their southern counterparts. The ability of those CCA deemed thermally tolerant (based on LSA) to induce Acropora millepora larval settlement was then assessed. While spatial differences influenced the health and bleaching levels of P. onkodes during prolonged and acute thermal exposure, thermally tolerant fragments, regardless of location, induced similar rates of coral larval settlement. This confirmed that recent thermal history does not influence the ability of CCA to induce settlement of A. millepora larvae.

  1. A Comparison of Helping, Sharing, Comforting, Honesty, and Civic Awareness for Home Care, Day Care, and Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; And Others

    In a study designed to determine whether experience in day care or preschool affects children's knowledge and enactment of prosocial behaviors, 59 children in day care, preschool, and home care were pre- and post-tested concerning: (1) their understanding of helping, sharing, comforting, honesty, and civic awareness; (2) their definitions of…

  2. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  3. Pulsed lavage: promoting comfort and healing in home care.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D; Hoelscher, J

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrodebridement with pulsed lavage facilitates the removal of necrotic tissue, promotes healing, and increases comfort in the homebound patient. Home healthcare provides cost-effective care in the setting that is most conducive to healing. People want to be at home, yet many illnesses require services that cannot be obtained at home. Wound care sometimes falls into this category. Pulsed lavage has expanded treatment options for the homebound patient. Hydrodebridement with pulsed lavage is site specific, avoids cross contamination, and is less expensive than whirlpool therapy. It also may facilitate the removal of necrotic tissue and promote the formation of healthy granulation tissue. The authors performed a retrospective audit to gather data on 28 patients who received pulsed lavage treatments at home. A descriptive analysis of five variables that affect healing was undertaken including mobility/activity, nutritional status, cardiovascular/respiratory status, continence, and sensory perception. All of the clients in the sample achieved a clean, warm, moist wound bed, free of signs and symptoms of infection, absence of necrotic tissue, and the presence of granulation tissue to meet the definition of "ready for healing" as presented in the literature. The majority of clients experienced no pain. Although comorbid conditions required rehospitalization for 35.7% of the sample, the conditions did not interfere with healing. Hydrodebridement with pulsed lavage is a viable nontraumatic, noninvasive, site-specific treatment alternative for patients receiving care in the home. PMID:10788926

  4. A Comfortability Level Scale for Performance of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Robert Drew

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses the development of an instrument to appraise the comfortability level of college students in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methodology and findings of data collection are given. (Author/DF)

  5. Ride quality evaluation 1: Questionnaire studies of airline passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents; the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.

  6. End of Life: Helping with Comfort and Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... and give you a framework for making care decisions. Publication Date: September 2012 Page Last Updated: January 22, ... Share this: ​ Table of Contents Introduction Providing Comfort at the End ...

  7. 68. Smart view recreation area comfort station with postandrail fence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Smart view recreation area comfort station with post-and-rail fence reflecting Appalachian culture. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Family therapist comfort with and willingness to discuss client sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harris, Steven M; Hays, Kelli Wenner

    2008-04-01

    Limited empirical information exists on whether or not marriage and family therapists are having sexuality-related discussions with their clients. When helping professionals ignore client sexuality, the potential for unintended negative outcomes increases. The researchers surveyed 175 clinical members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy to assess how their clinical training and education, their perceived sexual knowledge, and their comfort with sexual material influenced their willingness to engage in sexuality-related discussions with their clients. The results indicate that sexuality education and supervision experiences are the cornerstone for a therapist's base level of comfort. It is through sexuality education and supervision that sex knowledge is acquired and comfort levels are increased. Once comfort with sexual discussions increases, then therapists are more likely to engage in sexuality discussions with their clients. PMID:18412829

  9. 67. Smart view recreation area comfort station, reflecting Appalachian Architecture, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Smart view recreation area comfort station, reflecting Appalachian Architecture, was completed by the summer of 1940 by era crews. View to the south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  11. Dynamic weakening of fault gouge affected by thermal conductivity of host specimen: implications for the high-velocity weakening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Niemeijer, André

    2015-04-01

    Since many high-velocity weakening mechanisms are thermal in origin, we study the effects of thermal conductivity of host specimen on fault gouge friction behavior at seismic slip rates. By using host specimens made of brass, stainless steel, Ti-Al-V alloy and gabbro with thermal conductivities of 123, 15, 5.8 and 3.25 W/m/K, respectively, the experiments in this study produce completely different temperature conditions within the same gouge under the same slip rates and normal stresses. Fault gouges used in the experiments are a natural illite- and quartz-rich gouge from Longmenshan fault zone and pure periclase (MgO) nanopowder. High-velocity weakening of gouges were more pronounced with decreasing thermal conductivity of the specimens. Particularly, almost no dynamic weakening was observed in the tests performed with brass host specimens, while tests with specimens of gabbro and Ti-Al-V alloy exhibits quite similar dramatic weakening behaviors. Such differences in gouge frictional behavior cannot be explained by original flash heating model, since asperity contacts within the slip zone and experimental conditions are still same, even though host specimens are different. Microstructure observations under scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal that slip zone materials tend to change from individual ultrafine nanograins to larger sintered grains or aggregates, with decreasing thermal conductivities of host specimens. Calculated temperature together with observed microstructure indicate that bulk temperature rise may be also play an important role in fault weakening, as predicted by a recent theoretical analysis of the role of flash heating within the gouge zone [Proctor et al., 2014]. Current results demonstrate the importance of frictional heating in causing the dynamic weakening of gouge, and the powder lubrication hypothesis is not consistent with our experimental data.

  12. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  13. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  14. End-state comfort and joint configuration variance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J.; Rosenbaum, David A.; Scholz, John P.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    This study joined two approaches to motor control. The first approach comes from cognitive psychology and is based on the idea that goal postures and movements are chosen to satisfy task-specific constraints. The second approach comes from the principle of motor abundance and is based on the idea that control of apparently redundant systems is associated with the creation of multi-element synergies stabilizing important performance variables. The first approach has been tested by relying on psychophysical ratings of comfort. The second approach has been tested by estimating variance along different directions in the space of elemental variables such as joint postures. The two approaches were joined here. Standing subjects performed series of movements in which they brought a hand-held pointer to each of four targets oriented within a frontal plane, close to or far from the body. The subjects were asked to rate the comfort of the final postures, and the variance of their joint configurations during the steady state following pointing was quantified with respect to pointer endpoint position and pointer orientation. The subjects showed consistent patterns of comfort ratings among the targets, and all movements were characterized by multi-joint synergies stabilizing both pointer endpoint position and orientation. Contrary to what was expected, less comfortable postures had higher joint configuration variance than did more comfortable postures without major changes in the synergy indices. Multi-joint synergies stabilized the pointer position and orientation similarly across a range of comfortable/uncomfortable postures. The results are interpreted in terms conducive to the two theoretical frameworks underlying this work, one focusing on comfort ratings reflecting mean postures adopted for different targets and the other focusing on indices of joint configuration variance. PMID:23288326

  15. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiener, Michael; Green, Peter; Ahuna, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role "comfortability" plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple…

  16. Human comfort response to random motions with a dominant transverse motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Subjective ride comfort response ratings were measured on the Langley Visual Motion Simulator with transverse acceleration inputs with various power spectra shapes and magnitudes. The results show only little influence of spectra shape on comfort response. The effects of magnitude on comfort response indicate the applicability of psychophysical precepts for comfort modeling.

  17. Impact of three biological decontamination methods on filtering facepiece respirator fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Novak, Debra A; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), moist heat incubation (MHI), or microwave-generated steam (MGS) decontamination affects the fitting characteristics, odor, comfort, or donning ease of six N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models. For each model, 10 experienced test subjects qualified for the study by passing a standard OSHA quantitative fit test. Once qualified, each subject performed a series of fit tests to assess respirator fit and completed surveys to evaluate odor, comfort, and donning ease with FFRs that were not decontaminated (controls) and with FFRs of the same model that had been decontaminated. Respirator fit was quantitatively measured using a multidonning protocol with the TSI PORTACOUNT Plus and the N95 Companion accessory (designed to count only particles resulting from face to face-seal leakage). Participants' subjective appraisals of the respirator's odor, comfort, and donning ease were captured using a visual analog scale survey. Wilcoxon signed rank tests compared median values for fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease for each FFR and decontamination method against their respective controls for a given model. Two of the six FFRs demonstrated a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in fit after MHI decontamination. However, for these two FFR models, post-decontamination mean fit factors were still ≥ 100. One of the other FFRs demonstrated a relatively small though statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in median odor response after MHI decontamination. These data suggest that FFR users with characteristics similar to those in this study population would be unlikely to experience a clinically meaningful reduction in fit, increase in odor, increase in discomfort, or increased difficulty in donning with the six FFRs included in this study after UVGI, MHI, or MGS decontamination. Further research is needed before decontamination of N95 FFRs for purposes of reuse can be

  18. Do season and distribution affect thermal energetics of a hibernating bat endemic to the tropics and subtropics?

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2011-08-01

    Although many tropical and subtropical areas experience pronounced seasonal changes in weather and food availability, few studies have examined and none have compared the thermal physiology and energetics of a hibernating mammal that is restricted to these regions. We quantified thermal energetics of northern long-eared bats (Nyctophilus bifax; body mass ∼10 g) during summer, winter, and spring from a subtropical habitat, and also during winter from a tropical habitat, to determine how N. bifax cope with climate and seasonal changes in weather. We captured bats in the wild and measured metabolic rates via open-flow respirometry. The basal metabolic rate of subtropical bats at an ambient temperature (T(a)) of 32.6 ± 0.7°C was 1.28 ± 0.06 ml O(2)·g(-1)·h(-1) during both summer and winter, similar to other species of Nyctophilus. Resting metabolic rates below the thermoneutral zone increased similarly with decreasing T(a) during all seasons and in both regions. All individuals showed a high proclivity to enter torpor at T(a) values below the thermoneutral zone. Metabolic rates in torpid thermoconforming bats fell with T(a) and body temperature, and mean minimum metabolic rates during torpor were similar during all seasons and in both regions and as predicted from body mass in temperate zone hibernators. At very low T(a), torpid N. bifax thermoregulated, and this threshold T(a) differed significantly between subtropical (T(a) = 3.5 ± 0.3°C) and tropical (T(a) = 6.7 ± 0.7°C) individuals, but not between seasons. Our data show that thermal energetics of N. bifax do not vary seasonally and in many aspects are similar in tropical and subtropical bats; however, torpid individuals from the subtropics allow body temperature to fall to significantly lower values than those from the tropics. PMID:21632847

  19. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

    2012-06-01

    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  20. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant’s functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies. PMID:26657745

  1. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies. PMID:26657745

  2. Does Thermal Breathing Affect Collision Cross Sections of Gas-Phase Peptide Ions? An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Robert; Petrone, Alessio; Laszlo, Kenneth J; Bush, Matthew F; Li, Xiaosong; Tureček, František

    2016-07-21

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) with density functional theory (DFT) was applied to explore conformational motions and collision cross sections (Ω) of folded (2) and extended (7) conformers of doubly charged peptide ions, (Ala-Ala-Leu-Arg + 2H)(2+), in the gas phase at 300 and 473 K. The experimental Ω of (Ala-Ala-Leu-Arg +2H)(2+) was measured as 149 ± 1.2 Å(2) at 298 K. Thermally distributed mean values of Ω for 2 and 7 at 300 and 473 K were only 0.8-1.1% larger than for the equilibrium 0 K structures. Long (>10 ps) trajectory calculations indicated entropy-driven conformational change of 2 to 7 that occurred at random within a ∼ 4 ps time window. The experimental Ω was found to fit the calculated population averaged values for 2 and 7, indicating a rapid conformer interconversion. Overall, thermal breathing had only a minor effect on the peptide ion collision cross sections. PMID:27389035

  3. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-05-01

    In many parts of North America residential HVAC systems are installed outside conditioned space. This leads to significant energy losses and poor occupant comfort due to conduction and air leakage losses from the air distribution ducts. In addition, cooling equipment performance is sensitive to air flow and refrigerant charge that have been found to be far from manufacturers specifications in most systems. The simulation techniques discussed in this report were developed in an effort to provide guidance on the savings potentials and comfort gains that can be achieved by improving ducts (sealing air leaks) and equipment (correct air-flow and refrigerant charge). The simulations include the complex air flow and thermal interactions between duct systems, their surroundings and the conditioned space. They also include cooling equipment response to air flow and refrigerant charge effects. Another key aspect of the simulations is that they are dynamic to account for cyclic losses from the HVAC system and the effect of cycle length on energy and comfort performance. To field test the effect of changes to residential HVAC systems requires extensive measurements to be made for several months for each condition tested. This level of testing is often impractical due to cost and time limitations. Therefore the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at LBNL developed a computer simulation tool that models residential HVAC system performance. This simulation tool has been used to answer questions about equipment downsizing, duct improvements, control strategies and climate variation so that recommendations can be made for changes in residential construction and HVAC installation techniques that would save energy, reduce peak demand and result in more comfortable homes. Although this study focuses on California climates, the simulation tool could easily be applied to other climates. This report summarizes the simulation tool and discusses the significant developments that allow

  4. Evaluation of vehicle ride comfort based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yinhan; Tang, Rongjiang; Liang, Jie; Shen, Shen; Liang, Jie; Sun, Huihui

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between subjective ride comfort in a vehicle seat and human whole-body vibration can be modeled using frequency weightings and rms(root mean square) averaging as specified in ISO2631. However, recent studies indicate that, there are some flaws in the relationship between subjective response and objective vibration given by the ISO2631.This paper presents an alternative approach based on neural network model. Time-domain vibration acceleration signals are processed as neural network inputs, subjective evaluation results are quantified as outputs, and the weights of neural networks are used as frequency weighting coefficients to evaluate the vehicle ride comfort. The method has been used to evaluate the ride comfort on a number of conditions with good results achieved.

  5. Postural sway and perceived comfort in pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J; Rosenbaum, David A; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2014-05-21

    In this study, we explored relations between indices of postural sway and perceived comfort during pointing postures performed by standing participants. The participants stood on a force plate, grasped a pointer with the dominant (right) hand, and pointed to targets located at four positions and at two distances from the body. We quantified postural sway over 60-s intervals at each pointing posture, and found no effects of target location or distance on postural sway indices. In contrast, comfort ratings correlated significantly with indices of one of the sway components, trembling. Our observations support the hypothesis that rambling and trembling sway components involve different neurophysiological mechanisms. They also suggest that subjective perception of comfort may be more important than the actual posture for postural sway. PMID:24686189

  6. Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support.

    PubMed

    Franz, M; Durt, A; Zenk, R; Desmet, P M A

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a neck-/headrest to increase car comfort. Two studies were undertaken to create a new comfortable headrest with neck support. In experiment one, neck- and headrest data were gathered using 35 test subjects. The pressure distribution, stiffness of the foam material and position of the head and neck support were determined. In experiment two a full adjustable final headrest with adjustable neck support was constructed and tested with 12 subjects using a new adjustable headrest under virtual reality driving conditions. Experiment two showed that the headrest with the new/adjustable neck support was favoured by the majority of the subjects. 83% were satisfied with the stiffness of the material. 92% were satisfied with the size of the neck- and headrest. All subjects mentioned that the neck support is a comfort benefit in calm traffic conditions or on the motorway. PMID:21944482

  7. Effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive with caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength in total-etch versus self-etch adhesive systems in caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty class II cavities were prepared on extracted proximally carious human mandibular first molars and were divided into two groups: Group I — self-etch adhesive system restorations and Group II — total-etch adhesive system restorations. Group I and II were further divided into sub-groups A (Without thermal and mechanical loading) and B (With thermal and mechanical loading of 5000 cycles, 5 ± 2°C to 55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 seconds, and 150,000 cycles at 60N). The gingival margin of the proximal box was evaluated at 200X magnification for marginal adaptation in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. The restorations were sectioned, perpendicular to the bonded surface, into 0.8 mm thick slabs. All the specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. The marginal adaptation was analyzed using descriptive studies, and the bond strength data was analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results and Conclusions: The total-etch system performed better under thermomechanical loading. PMID:21691507

  8. Adolescents’ comfort answering questions about sexuality asked by their physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Natacha; Beaulieu, Émilie; Tremblay, Marie-Michelle; Laflamme, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitudes of adolescents toward communicating with their doctor about different aspects of their sexuality. METHODS: The present descriptive survey was conducted with the participation of teenagers from four high schools in Sherbrooke, Quebec. In each school, the students of two grade 8 classes (≤14 years of age) and two grade 10 classes (≥15 years of age) anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire. Permission from the school board and parental consent for every participant was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 387 adolescents completed the self-administered questionnaire. The response rate for the study was 98%. Only 27% of the respondents remembered being questioned by their doctor about sexuality, and 17% of the respondents had already brought up the topic of sexuality themselves with their doctor. More than one-half (57%) of the adolescents reported they would be moderately comfortable to totally comfortable discussing sexuality with their doctor if they felt the need to. Overall, when asked to evaluate their degree of comfort if questioned on specific questions about their sexuality, 73.8% to 99.5% believed they would be moderately to totally comfortable responding. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant difference between age groups, with the older age group being more comfortable than the younger age group (P<0.001). There was no difference between the level of comfort among boys and girls answering the same questions. Respondents believed that their treating physician should discuss sexuality with them (73.8%) and, in the majority of cases (78%), that he/she should initiate the conversation. CONCLUSION: Regardless of age or sex, teenagers considered themselves to be at ease discussing sexuality with their doctor and found it an important topic best brought up by their practitioner. PMID:24421673

  9. A review of ride comfort studies in the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    United Kingdom research which is relevant to the assessment of vehicle ride comfort was reviewed. The findings reported in approximately 80 research papers are outlined, and an index to the areas of application of these studies is provided. The data obtained by different research groups are compared, and it is concluded that, while there are some areas of general agreement, the findings obtained from previous United Kingdom research are insufficient to define a general purpose ride comfort evaluation procedure. The degree to which United Kingdom research supports the vibration evaluation procedure defined in the current International Standard on the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration is discussed.

  10. Do dissociated or associated phoria predict the comfortable prism?

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Joanna M. N.; Kromeier, Miriam; Bach, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Dissociated and associated phoria are measures of latent strabismus under artificial viewing conditions. We examined to what extent dissociated and associated phoria predict the “comfortable prism”, i.e. the prism that appears most comfortable under natural viewing conditions. Methods For associated phoria, a configuration resembling the Mallett test was employed: both eyes were presented with a fixation cross, surrounded by fusionable objects. Nonius lines served as monocular markers. For dissociated phoria, the left eye was presented with all the Mallett elements, while only a white spot was presented to the right eye. To determine the comfortable prism, all the Mallett elements, including the Nonius lines, were shown to both eyes. In each of the three tests, the observer had to adjust a pair of counterrotating prisms. To avoid any (possibly prejudiced) influence of the experimenter, the prismatic power was recorded with a potentiometer. Twenty non-strabismic subjects with a visual acuity of ≥1.0 in each eye were examined. Results The range of the intertrial mean was for dissociated phoria from +9.3 eso to −5.9 cm/m exo, for associated phoria from +11.2 eso to −3.3 cm/m exo, and for the comfortable prism from +4.8 eso to −4.1 cm/m exo (cm/m = prism dioptre). In most observers, the phoria parameters differed greatly from the comfortable prism. On average, the phoria values were shifted about 2 cm/m towards the eso direction in relation to the comfortable prism (associated phoria not less than dissociated phoria). Conclusions The deviation of both, dissociated and associated phoria, from the comfortable prism suggests that the abnormal viewing conditions under which the phoria parameters are determined induce artefacts. Accordingly, the findings cast doubt on current textbook recommendations to use dissociated or associated phoria as a basis for therapeutic prisms. Rather, patients should be allowed to determine their comfortable prism

  11. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms. PMID:17202022

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of the Thermally Affected Metallurgical Condition of Extruded and Drawn CuFe2P Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazopoulos, George; Toulfatzis, Anagnostis; Zormalia, Sylvia; Vazdirvanidis, Athanasios; Skarmoutsos, Dionysios

    2012-10-01

    The influence of heat treatment conditions on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of CuFe2P (ASTM C19400) in comparison to deoxidized-high-phosphorus (DHP-Cu/ASTM C12200) tubes was investigated. The aim of this study was the enhancement of understanding of microstructure/thermal treatment/strength relationships which could be further utilized for the manufacturing of components exhibiting superior performance and reliability for refrigeration and heat exchanger applications. Microstructural examination employing optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy is used for the evaluation of the recrystallization progress and grain growth processes. In addition, tensile testing was conducted to CuFe2P and DHP tubes following the application of heat treatment cycles, in accordance to the EN 10002-1 specifications. Mechanical properties and microstructure evaluation showed that CuFe2P material is fully recrystallized at 740 °C and DHP at 400 °C for 20 min. Recrystallization initiation varies within the range of 640-660 °C for CuFe2P and below 400 °C for DHP tubes. The tensile strength of the CuFe2P tube decreased from 513 to 367 MPa, the hardness was reduced from 144 to 126 HV, while tensile elongation was significantly improved from 3 to 17%. At 640 °C, only isolated recrystallized areas were evident mainly at the Fe-based intermetallic particle/copper matrix interface areas.

  13. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  14. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  15. Effects of respirator ambient air cooling on thermophysiological responses and comfort sensations.

    PubMed

    Caretti, David M; Barker, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation assessed the thermophysiological and subjective impacts of different respirator ambient air cooling options while wearing chemical and biological personal protective equipment in a warm environment (32.7 ± 0.4°C, 49.6 ± 6.5% RH). Ten volunteers participated in 90-min heat exposure trials with and without respirator (Control) wear and performed computer-generated tasks while seated. Ambient air cooling was provided to respirators modified to blow air to the forehead (FHC) or to the forehead and the breathing zone (BZC) of a full-facepiece air-purifying respirator using a low-flow (45 L·min(-1)) mini-blower. An unmodified respirator (APR) trial was also completed. The highest body temperatures (TTY) and least favorable comfort ratings were observed for the APR condition. With ambient cooling over the last 60 min of heat exposure, TTY averaged 37.4 ± 0.6°C for Control, 38.0 ± 0.4°C for APR, 37.8 ± 0.5°C for FHC, and 37.6 ± 0.7°C for BZC conditions independent of time. Both the FHC and BZC ambient air cooling conditions reduced facial skin temperatures, reduced the rise in body temperatures, and led to more favorable subjective comfort and thermal sensation ratings over time compared to the APR condition; however statistical differences among conditions were inconsistent. Independent of exposure time, average breathing apparatus comfort scores with BZC (7.2 ± 2.5) were significantly different from both Control (8.9 ± 1.4) and APR (6.5 ± 2.2) conditions when ambient cooling was activated. These findings suggest that low-flow ambient air cooling of the face under low work rate conditions and mild hyperthermia may be a practical method to minimize the thermophysiological strain and reduce perceived respirator discomfort. PMID:24730706

  16. The Comfort Corner: Fostering Resiliency and Emotional Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program at Helen Baller Elementary School in Camus, Washington, called the Comfort Corner, part of the Primary Intervention Program. It provides a safe, supportive place for children who may be experiencing difficulty in classroom, playground, or home situations, by helping them build friendship skills, communication skills, and…

  17. Measurements and simulation on the comfort of forklifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoore, R.; Pieters, J. G.; Pollet, I. V.

    2003-09-01

    In order to determine the influence of some parameters of a forklift such as the road profile, the tyre characteristics, the riding comfort, etc., measurements carried out on a forklift with different tyres and seats were evaluated using different standards and methods. In addition, a simulation model was developed and used to investigate the influence of these parameters. Simulations and test run results showed good agreement. The comparison of the results obtained with several methods of comfort evaluation and a series of tests showed that they nearly all resulted in the same classification. However, the results obtained with different methods could not always be compared among themselves. Solid tyres were found to be more comfortable than pneumatic ones because of their high damping. The negative influence of higher stiffness was smaller than the positive influence of higher damping. The simulations pointed out that for a global general investigation about comfort, the influence of the horizontal tyre stiffness and damping can be neglected. Also the seat characteristics could be linearized. When the stability of the forklift has to be investigated, the horizontal forces must also be considered.

  18. Beyond the Comfort Zone: Lessons of Intercultural Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urraca, Beatriz; Ledoux, Michael; Harris, James T., III

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an international service-learning project in Bolivia undertaken by faculty and students from Widener University. The authors examine characteristics of the student group, trip preparation, and lessons learned from the experience. The article discusses the American cultural biases that emphasize personal comfort and…

  19. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience. PMID:26557798

  20. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  1. A novel medical bandage with enhanced clothing comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oğlakcioğlu, N.; Sari, B.; Bedez Üte, T.; Marmarali, A.

    2016-07-01

    Compression garments are special textile products which apply a pressure on needed body zones for supporting medical, sport or casual activities. Medical bandages are a group of these garments and they have a very common usage for compression effect on legs or arms. These bandages are generally produced by using synthetic raw materials such as polyamide or polyester fibres. Medical bandages are in contact with skin. Even if the synthetic fibres are used, they may cause both comfort and health problems like allergies. Nowadays in textile sector, the expectations of clients include using of natural fibres as far as possible in all garments. Natural fibres have good advantages such as breathability, softness, moisture management ability, non-allergenic and ecologic structure and these characteristics present optimum utilization conditions. In this study, tubular medical bandages were manufactured by using core spun yarns (sheath fibres are selected as tencel, bamboo and cotton, core material is elastane) and their pressure and comfort (air and water vapour permeability) characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that the bandages have good comfort abilities beside adequate pressure values for compression effect. These garments can constitute a new production field for medical bandages with their comfort properties in addition to pressure characteristics.

  2. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience. PMID:26557798

  3. Acoustical comfort of vehicles: A combination of sound and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schutte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, Andre

    2005-09-01

    As vehicles become more and more quiet, the customer's sensitivity to acoustical comfort increases. The acoustical comfort is not independent of the vibrations the driver can feel in the seat and at the steering. The passenger of a vehicle must be regarded as part of a vibro-acoustic system. Correspondingly, the subjective judgement which passengers make about their impression of levels of acoustic comfort encompasses both sound and vibration. Achievement in this field depends on obtaining knowledge about the interaction between sound and vibration and how these factors impact subjective evaluation. To save time and money prediction tools for the estimation of sound and vibration contributions into the vehicle cabin are very important in order to simulate the final comfort with respect to sound and vibration. Based on the binaural transfer path analysis in combination with the binaural transfer path synthesis a sound and vibration reproduction in a so-called SoundCar can be realized with a very good simulation of a real situation of a car. First research tests completed for the European research project OBELICS (Objective Evaluation of Interior Car Sound) have shown that the use of SoundCar may result in more reliable sound characteristic and quality evaluation.

  4. Evaluating thermophysiological comfort using the principles of sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cubrić, Ivana Salopek; Skenderi, Zenun

    2013-03-01

    Thermophysiological comfort applies to the way in which clothing lets through or retains heat and moisture and helps the body retain heat balance in rest position or at various levels of activities. In this paper, the principles of sensory analysis are used to define the protocol of new method for the evaluation of thermophysiological comfort wearing different garments. Sensory analysis was chosen because as a scientific discipline that applies experiment principles using human senses is used for the evaluation of consumer goods. Test protocol using assessors described in this paper consists of the following steps: defining the interview content, finding potential assessors and making an interview, creating a survey, conducting a survey, group discussion, test and group discussion scoring, selection of assessors, assessment preparation and subjective assessment. On average the most distinctive increase in the sensation of warmth was recorded for the polyester clothing ensemble, and the lowest one for the cotton clothing ensemble. Concerning the average grades of comfort given by assesors, the most comfortable clothing ensemble is the one made of viscose. It was also found out that the method is especially suitable if a representative group of assessors is formed. PMID:23697251

  5. End-state comfort trumps handedness in object manipulation.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Chase J; Studenka, Breanna E; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-04-01

    A goal of research on human perception and performance is to explore the relative importance of constraints shaping action selection. The present study concerned the relative importance of two constraints that have not been directly contrasted: (1) the tendency to grasp objects in ways that afford comfortable or easy-to-control final postures; and (2) the tendency to grasp objects with the dominant rather than the nondominant hand. We asked participants to reach out and grasp a horizontal rod whose left or right end was to be placed into a target after a 90° rotation. In one condition, we told participants which hand to use and let them choose an overhand or underhand initial grasp. In another condition, we told participants which grasp to use and let them choose either hand. Participants sacrificed hand preference to perform the task in a way that ensured a comfortable or easy to control thumb-up posture at the time of object placement, indicating that comfort trumped handedness. A second experiment confirmed that comfort was indeed higher for thumb-down postures than thumb-up postures. A third experiment confirmed that the choice data could be linked to objective performance differences. The results point to the importance of identifying constraint weightings for action selection and support an account of hand selection that ascribes hand preference to sensitivity to performance differences. The results do not support the hypothesis that hand preference simply reflects a bias to use the dominant hand. PMID:24294873

  6. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  7. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  8. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX, to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless minisplit heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  9. Teaching Children about Aspects of Comfort in the Built Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.; Filho, Francisco Borges; Labaki, Lucila C.; Pina, Silvia A. Mikami G.; Bernardi, Nubia

    2004-01-01

    This article presents specific teaching material for the primary school level that introduces basic concepts of environmental comfort. The authors developed 2 booklets to make children aware of the built environment. Following a postoccupancy evaluation of state schools in the city of Campinas, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the research team…

  10. How Were Southwest Pacific Pelagic Ecosystems Affected by Extreme Global Warming During the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, C. J.; Crouch, E. M.; Dickens, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Four sections in eastern New Zealand provide the only South Pacific record of the initial Eocene thermal maximum (IETM): a siliciclastic outer shelf section (Tawanui, Hawkes Bay) and three pelagic-hemipelagic sections forming an outer shelf-upper slope transect across a carbonate ramp (Muzzle, Dee and Mead Streams, Clarence Valley). Although the rocks are too indurated to yield reliable oxygen isotope data, the IETM is identified by bulk carbonate carbon isotopes as a sharp negative excursion followed by gradual recovery over 0.6 to 4.0 m. In all sections, the excursion is mirrored by terrigenous sediment concentration, due to reduced biogenic (carbonate and silica) input and increased terrigenous input. Increased precipitation under warm humid conditions appears to have increased terrestrial discharge, recorded by deposition of smectitic marl in pelagic settings and illite/kaolinite-bearing smectitic mudstone in neritic settings. Eutrophic conditions are inferred for the IETM interval at Tawanui based on dysoxia, carbonate dissolution, an acme for the peridinioid dinocyst Apectodinium and abundant Toweius spp in nannofossil assemblages. Continued abundance of Toweius and replacement of Apectodinium by peridinioids of the Deflandrea complex suggests that eutrophic, albeit cooler, conditions persisted for at least 0.5 Ma after the IETM. In contrast, the IETM in Clarence Valley is marked by reduced biogenic silica content but little change in carbonate, and no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Sparse, poorly preserved palynomorphs assemblages suggest organic matter was oxidised under fully oxic conditions. Reduced numbers of upwelling indicators in the siliceous microfossil assemblage and common warm-water planktic foraminifera (Morozovella spp.), nannoplankton (Discoaster spp.) and radiolarians (e.g. Podocyrtis and Theocorys spp.) signal a switch from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions and significant warming of near-surface waters. A progressive increase in

  11. On the development of a new pre-weld thermal treatment procedure for preventing heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking in nickel-base IN 738 superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ola, O. T.; Ojo, O. A.; Chaturvedi, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Hot cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, such as IN 738, during fusion welding remains a major factor limiting reparability of nickel-base gas turbine components. The problem of HAZ intergranular cracking can be addressed by modifying the microstructure of the pre-weld material through thermal treatment, which requires significant understanding of the critical factors controlling cracking behaviour. The decomposition of Mo-Cr-W-and Cr-rich borides in the alloy, among other factors, has been observed to contribute significantly to non-equilibrium intergranular liquation and, hence, intergranular liquation cracking during welding. Gleeble physical simulation of HAZ microstructure has also shown that non-equilibrium liquation is more severe in the vicinity of decomposed borides in the alloy and can occur at temperatures as low as 1,150 °C. Although currently existing pre-weld heat treatments for IN 738 superalloy minimize the contributions of dissolution of second phases, including borides, to HAZ intergranular liquation, these heat treatments are not industrially feasible due to process-related difficulties. Therefore, a new industrially feasible and effective pre-weld thermal treatment process, designated as FUMT, was developed during the present research by controlling both the formation of borides and the segregation of boron at the grain boundaries in the pre-weld heat-treated material. This thermal treatment was observed to very significantly reduce intergranular HAZ cracking in welded IN 738 superalloy. The details of the development process and developed procedure are presented in this paper.

  12. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian® Homes constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  13. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian(R) Homes(R) constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  14. Features of determining the nonmanufacturing premises comfort level by the integrated microclimate quality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhmirov, V. V.; Prorokova, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The method of determining a microclimate comfort level have been developed, taking into account the main parameters influencing the microclimate in residential, public and administration buildings, their mutual influence on the comfort level, and air quality.

  15. Electrical vestibular stimuli to enhance vestibulo-motor output and improve subject comfort.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Geers, Anoek M; Vlaar, Martijn P; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be enhanced by increasing the stimulus amplitude, subjects often perceive these higher intensity electrical stimuli as noxious or painful. Here, we developed multisine vestibular stimulation (MVS) signals that include precise frequency contributions to increase signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of stimulus-evoked muscle and motor responses. Subjects were exposed to three different MVS stimuli to establish that: 1) MVS signals evoke equivalent vestibulo-motor responses compared to SVS while improving subject comfort and reducing experimentation time, 2) stimulus-evoked vestibulo-motor responses are reliably estimated as a linear system and 3) specific components of the cumulant density time domain vestibulo-motor responses can be targeted by controlling the frequency content of the input stimulus. Our results revealed that in comparison to SVS, MVS signals increased the SNR 3-6 times, reduced the minimum experimentation time by 85% and improved subjective measures of comfort by 20-80%. Vestibulo-motor responses measured using both EMG and force were not substantially affected by nonlinear distortions. In addition, by limiting the contribution of high frequencies within the MVS input stimulus, the magnitude of the medium latency time domain motor output response was increased by 58%. These results demonstrate that MVS stimuli can be designed to target and enhance vestibulo-motor output responses while simultaneously improving subject comfort, which should prove beneficial for both research and clinical applications. PMID:24392130

  16. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  17. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  18. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  19. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  20. Climate and colored walls: in search of visual comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrarte-Grau, Malvina

    2002-06-01

    The quality of natural light, the landscape surrounds and the techniques of construction are important factors in the selection of architectural colors. Observation of exterior walls in differentiated climates allows the recognition of particularities in the use of color which satisfy the need for visual comfort. At a distance of 2000 kilometers along the coast of Peru, Lima and Mancora at 12° and 4° respectively, are well defined for their climatic characteristics: in Mancora sunlight causes high reflection, in Lima overcast sky and high humidity cause glare. The study of building color effects at these locations serves to illustrate that color values may be controlled in order to achieve visual comfort and contribute to color identity.

  1. [Significance of comforting experiences in mental health (part 1)].

    PubMed

    Bécherraz, Maud

    2005-03-01

    This article begins with an overview of the program of research that has examined comforting in a variety of clinical settings (Bécherraz, 2001; 2002). Then, the context, participants and research question for this study are presented briefly. The article continues with an hermeneutic analysis of patient and clinician narratives. This hermeneutic analysis revealed four thematic categories related to comforting in mental health. These consist of (a) relational, (b) embodied, (c) social ties and (d) contextual dimensions. Further, the distribution of the 14 dyads along orthogonal axes as well as their composition will be presented and discussed. Finally, a paradigm case will illustrate all of the thematic categories, concluding with a brief synthesis. PMID:15861916

  2. Using outgroup comfort to predict Black students' college experiences.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elizabeth R; Yip, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether Black students' social comfort with Whites, termed outgroup comfort (OC), predicted outcomes related to academics and mental health. Surveys administered to Black college students near the beginning and end of their first year showed OC measured in the fall predicted outcomes assessed in the spring, including contact with other races, academic concerns among men, and psychological well-being among women. A subsample selected on the basis of high or low OC scores participated in two weeks of experience sampling, revealing students high in OC reported less state anxiety than those low in OC when in academic settings; in nonacademic settings, anxiety did not differ by OC. System-justifying ideology favoring the outgroup was controlled, thus OC is distinct from internalized oppression. Results are discussed in relation to gender differences in racial identity and college student development. PMID:18230001

  3. 108. Doughton Park Recreation Area Comfort Station. Instead of trying ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Doughton Park Recreation Area Comfort Station. Instead of trying to hide this building, it was decided to let it be seen. A salt box design reflecting a mountain building was chosen, it had a sloping split shingle roof matching the hill side with a front porch placed on the lower side. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Satisfaction and comfort with nursing in Australian general practice.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The practice nursing workforce has grown exponentially in recent years. Whilst evidence has shown the important contributions of nurses to general practice service delivery, the consumer perspective of nursing in general practice has received limited attention. Given that acceptability of nurses is influenced by patient satisfaction which can in turn improve both treatment adherence and clinical outcomes, this is an important area for investigation. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate consumer satisfaction with chronic disease management by nurses in general practice (NiGP) and comfort with the tasks undertaken by nurses in general practice. Consumers receiving chronic disease services from nurses in general practice participating in a larger study were recruited to complete a survey. The survey comprised of demographic information, and items related to satisfaction with the nurse encounter (SPN-9) and consumer comfort with nurse roles in general practice (CPN-18). Eighty-one consumers participated in the study. Cronbach's alpha values of the SPN-9 and the CPN-18 were 0.95 and 0.97 respectively. SPN-9 results demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with PN consultations. Bivariate analysis did not show any significant differences within the consumer group relating to satisfaction. However, those who presented for diabetes-related reasons were more likely to report high comfort levels with the nurse encounter compare to those who presented to general practice for other chronic disease conditions (38% versus 14%, p = 0.016). The results of this study demonstrate that consumers are generally satisfied with nursing consultations in general practice related to chronic disease. However, further research evaluating consumer confidence, comfort and satisfaction with nursing care is needed to ensure that nursing services meet consumer needs. PMID:26281408

  5. Comfortable and leisurely: Old women on style and dress.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article uses wardrobe interviews with women in the ages of 62-94 to explore transitions and continuities during the life course. During interviews the women have defined their style preferences. One categorization favored by several of them was comfortable. Different meanings were attached to this concept. Practical and convenient outfits were described as increasingly important when aging. Garments that did not expose the body-and its changes with aging-were preferred. The informants talked about the importance of feeling at ease, appropriately dressed for the occasion and situation. They were concerned with feeling nice in their outfits but also stressed becoming more laid-back and prioritizing convenience in their later years. All of these examples had to do with comfort and being comfortable. Uncomfortable clothes were too tight, deemed wrong for the occasion, and unwanted sources of self-consciousness and visibility. Transitions in their style of dress had been gradual, slowly adapting to changes in everyday life as well as in their bodies. PMID:26713964

  6. Comfortable synchronization of cyclic drawing movements with a metronome.

    PubMed

    Repp, Bruno H

    2011-02-01

    Continuous circle drawing is considered a paragon of emergent timing, whereas the timing of finger tapping is said to be event-based. Synchronization with a metronome, however, must to some extent be event-based for both types of movement. Because the target events in the movement trajectory are more poorly defined in circle drawing than in tapping, circle drawing shows more variable asynchronies with a metronome than does tapping. One factor that may have contributed to high variability in past studies is that circle size, drawing direction, and target point were prescribed and perhaps outside the comfort range. In the present study, participants were free to choose most comfortable settings of these parameters for two continuously drawn shapes, circles and infinity signs, while synchronizing with a regular or intermittently perturbed metronome at four different tempi. Results showed that preferred circle sizes were generally smaller than in previous studies but tended to increase as tempo decreased. Synchronization results were similar for circles and infinity signs, and similar to earlier results for circles drawn within a fixed template (Repp & Steinman, 2010). Comparison with tapping data still showed drawing to exhibit much greater variability and persistence of asynchronies as well as slower phase correction in response to phase shifts in the metronome. With comfort level ruled out as a factor, these differences can now be attributed more confidently to differences in event definition and/or movement dynamics. PMID:21185101

  7. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output. PMID:26819580

  8. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output. PMID:26819580

  9. Effect of simulated thermal cycles on the microstructure of the heat-affected zone in HSLA-80 and HSLA-100 steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, M.; Gupta, O. P.; Mohanty, O. N.

    2004-03-01

    The influence of weld thermal simulation on the transformation kinetics and heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of two high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels, HSLA-80 and HSLA-100, has been investigated. Heat inputs of 10 kJ/cm (fast cooling) and 40 kJ/cm (slow cooling) were used to generate single-pass thermal cycles with peak temperatures in the range of 750 °C to 1400 °C. The prior-austenite grain size is found to grow rapidly beyond 1100 °C in both the steels, primarily with the dissolution of niobium carbonitride (Nb(CN)) precipitates. Dilatation studies on HSLA-80 steel indicate transformation start temperatures (T s ) of 550 °C to 560 °C while cooling from a peak temperature (T p ) of 1000 °C. Transmission electron microscopy studies show here the presence of accicular ferrite in the HAZ. The T s value is lowered to 470 °C and below when cooled from a peak temperature of 1200 °C and beyond, with almost complete transformation to lath martensite. In HSLA-100 steel, the T s value for accicular ferrite is found to be 470 °C to 490 °C when cooled from a peak temperature of 1000 °C, but is lowered below 450 °C when cooled from 1200 °C and beyond, with correspondingly higher austenite grain sizes. The transformation kinetics appears to be relatively faster in the fine-grained austenite than in the coarse-grained austenite, where the niobium is in complete solid solution. A mixed microstructure consisting of accicular ferrite and lath martensite is observed for practically all HAZ treatments. The coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) of HSLA-80 steel shows a higher volume fraction of lath martensite in the final microstructure and is harder than the CGHAZ of HSLA-100 steel.

  10. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard; Grim, Joel; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Rowe, Emmanuel; Buliga, Vladimir M.; Burger, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  11. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. T.; Grim, Joel Q.; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, S.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E.; Rowe, E.; Buliga, V. M.; Burger, A.

    2013-09-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  12. The influence of snow cover on thermal and mechanical processes in a permafrost-affected rock wall at Steintaelli, Valais, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draebing, Daniel; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    time, how snow cover controls the timing and the extent of active layer thawing and kinematic processes in permafrost affected rock walls. References: Draebing, D., M. Krautblatter, and R. Dikau (in rev.), Interaction of thermal and mechanical processes in steep permafrost rock walls: a conceptual approach, Geomorphology. Krautblatter, M., and D. Draebing (2013), Pseudo 3D - P-wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 2012JF002638.

  13. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Birru, Dagnachew; Wen, Yao-Jung; Rubinstein, Francis M.; Clear, Robert D.

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  14. Identifying factors of bicycle comfort: An online survey with enthusiast cyclists.

    PubMed

    Ayachi, F S; Dorey, J; Guastavino, C

    2015-01-01

    Racing bicycles have evolved significantly over the past decades as technology and cyclists' comfort have become a critical design issue. Although ample research has been conducted on comfort for other means of transportation, cyclists' perception of dynamic comfort has received scant attention in the scientific literature. The present study investigates how enthusiast cyclists conceptualize comfort using an online survey with 244 respondents. The purpose is to determine which factors contribute to comfort when riding a bicycle, to identify situations in which comfort is relevant and to determine the extent to which vibrations play a role in comfort evaluations. We found that comfort is influenced by factors related to bicycle components (specifically the frame, saddle and handlebar), as well as environmental factors (type or road, weather conditions) and factors related to the cyclist (position, adjustments, body parts). Respondents indicated that comfort is a concern when riding a bicycle in most situations and they believed that comfort is compatible with performance. The PCA analysis shows that for the perception "human factor-body parts" are put in evidence, and the "cyclist's comfort" evaluation is mainly based on certain qualities related to the bicycle components, then the road and external conditions (e.g. weather, temperature). PMID:25128204

  15. Development and experimental evaluation of a thermography measurement system for real-time monitoring of comfort and heat rate exchange in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, G. M.; Sabbatini, E.; Arnesano, M.

    2012-03-01

    A measurement system based on infrared (IR) thermovision technique (ITT) is developed for real-time estimation of room thermal variations and comfort conditions in office-type environment as a part of a feasibility study in the EU FP7 project ‘INTUBE’. An IR camera installed on the ceiling allows thermal image acquisition and post-processing is performed to derive mean surface temperatures, number of occupants and presence of other heat sources (e.g. computer) through detecting algorithms. A lumped parameter model of the room, developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, receives as input the information extracted from image processing to compute room exchanged heat rate, air temperature and thermal comfort (PMV). The aim is to provide in real time the room thermal balance and comfort information for energy-saving purposes in an improved way with respect to traditional thermostats. Instantaneous information can be displayed for the users or eventually used for automatic HVAC control. The system is based on custom adaptation of a surveillance low-cost IR system with dedicated radiometric calibration. Experimental results show average absolute discrepancies in the order of 0.4 °C between calculated and measured air temperature during a time period of a day. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to identify main uncertainty sources.

  16. High pressure homogenization processing, thermal treatment and milk matrix affect in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics in apple, grape and orange juice to different extents.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Tao, Yadan; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The effects of high pressure homogenization processing (HPHP), thermal treatment (TT) and milk matrix (soy, skimmed and whole milk) on the phenolic bioaccessibility and the ABTS scavenging activity of apple, grape and orange juice (AJ, GJ and OJ) were investigated. HPHP and soy milk diminished AJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility 29.3%, 26.3%, respectively, whereas TT and bovine milk hardly affected it. HPHP had little effect on GJ's and OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility, while TT enhanced them 27.3-33.9%, 19.0-29.2%, respectively, and milk matrix increased them 26.6-31.1%, 13.3-43.4%, respectively. Furthermore, TT (80 °C/30 min) and TT (90 °C/30 s) presented the similar influences on GJ's and OJ's phenolic bioaccessibility. Skimmed milk showed a better enhancing effect on OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility than soy and whole milk, but had a similar effect on GJ's as whole milk. These results contribute to promoting the health benefits of fruit juices by optimizing the processing and formulas in the food industry. PMID:26830567

  17. Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Extruded Instant Functional Rice Porridge Powder as Affected by the Addition of Soybean or Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mayachiew, Pornpimon; Charunuch, Chulaluck; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-12-01

    Legumes contain protein, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds, which provide various health benefits. In this study, soybean or mung bean was mixed in rice flour to produce by extrusion instant functional legume-rice porridge powder. The effects of the type and percentage (10%, 20%, or 30%, w/w) of legumes on the expansion ratio of the extrudates were first evaluated. Amino acid composition, color, and selected physicochemical (bulk density, water absorption index, and water solubility index), thermal (onset temperature, peak temperature, and transition enthalpy), and pasting (peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity) properties of the powder were determined. The crystalline structure and formation of amylose-lipid complexes and the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the powder were also measured. Soybean-blended porridge powder exhibited higher TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, amino acid, and fat contents than the mung bean-blended porridge powder. Incorporating either legume affected the product properties by decreasing the lightness and bulk density, while increasing the greenness and yellowness and the peak temperature and transition enthalpy. Expansion capacity of the extrudates increased with percentage of mung bean in the mixture but decreased as the percentage of soybean increased. Amylose-lipid complexes formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis results. Addition of soybean or mung bean resulted in significant pasting property changes of the porridge powder. PMID:26523755

  18. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  19. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF <0.3) typically exhibit less frequent hot conditions during summer, while enduring longer periods of cold discomfort in winter than moderately shaded areas (0.3< SVF <0.5) and slightly shaded areas (SVF >0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  20. Analysis of behaviour patterns and thermal responses to a hot-arid climate in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Haiyan; Yang, Liu; Zheng, Wuxing; He, Wenfang; Li, Daoyi

    2016-07-01

    Climate can greatly affect building design, life style and thermal perception for all groups of people; however, this phenomenon has not yet been rigorously evaluated in China's hot-arid climate. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a thermal comfort survey by evaluating the influence of the hot-arid climate upon the behavioural patterns and thermal comfort responses of 160 residents in 65 traditional vernacular houses in Turfan, China, in 2011. In this survey, there were 206 sets of effective data, and the features of the traditional residential buildings and the human behaviour patterns in Turfan were described and analysed. The results showed that the diversified courtyards and shade spaces were the most obvious features of traditional houses in Turfan. People here typically spend most of their time in one of two spaces for eating, resting, and entertaining. It was found that the preferred temperature was 26.5°C. The preferred air velocity occurred at 0.62m/s. A suitable air velocity range of 0.15-1.24m/s was suggested in Turfan. Moreover, the neutral temperature of the local people was 30.1°C (tg or to). The upper limits of the 80% acceptable zone by using the direct and indirect acceptability method were 32.7 and 33.8°C, respectively. The neutral temperature and upper limit of the acceptable zone in Turfan were higher than those of the adaptive standards. Attention should be paid to the role of thermal comfort in influencing building design by using simple passive cooling strategies. The above results are believed to be potentially valuable for the design and evaluation of residential buildings located in hot-arid climate. PMID:27264894

  1. Vehicle/guideway interaction and ride comfort in maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S. S.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1993-09-01

    The importance of vehicle/guideway dynamics in maglev systems is discussed. The particular interest associated with modeling vehicle guide-way interactions and explaining response characteristics of maglev systems for a multicar, multiload vehicle traversing on a single- or double-span flexible guideway are considered, with an emphasis on vehicle/guideway coupling effects, comparison of concentrated and distributed loads, and ride comfort. Coupled effects of vehicle/guideway interactions over a wide range of vehicle speeds with various vehicle and guideway parameters are investigated, and appropriate critical vehicle speeds or crossing frequencies are identified.

  2. Vehicle/guideway interaction and ride comfort in maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-01

    The importance of vehicle/guideway dynamics in maglev systems is discussed. The particular interest associated with modeling vehicle guide-way interactions and explaining response characteristics of maglev systems for a multicar, multiload vehicle traversing on a single- or double-span flexible guideway are considered, with an emphasis on vehicle/guideway coupling effects, comparison of concentrated and distributed loads, and ride comfort. Coupled effects of vehicle/guideway interactions over a wide range of vehicle speeds with various vehicle and guideway parameters are investigated, and appropriate critical vehicle speeds or crossing frequencies are identified.

  3. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  4. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency. PMID:26448740

  5. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency. PMID:26448740

  6. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  7. The end-state comfort effect facilitates joint action.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Koning, Arno; van Uem, Janet; G J Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-03-01

    Motor experts can accurately predict the future actions of others by observing their movements. This report describes three experiments that investigate such predictions in everyday object manipulations and test whether these predictions facilitate responses to the actions of others. Observing video excerpts showing an actor reaching for a vertically mounted dial, participants in Experiment 1 needed to predict how the actor would rotate it. Their predictions were specific to the direction and extent of the dial rotation and improved proportionate to the length of the video clip shown. Testing whether such predictions facilitate responses, in the subsequent experiments responders had to undo an actor's actions, back-rotating a dial (Exp 2) and a bar (Exp 3). The responders' actions were initiated faster when the actors' movements obeyed the so-called end-state comfort principle than when they did not. Our experiments show that humans exploit the end-state comfort effect to tweak their predictions of the future actions of others. The results moreover suggest that the precision of these predictions is mediated by perceptual learning rather than by motor simulation. PMID:22321453

  8. Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Akşit, Kaan; Niaki, Amir Hossein Ghanbari; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2014-12-15

    Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema. PMID:25503026

  9. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin

    2015-03-01

    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  10. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  11. Measurement of clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance using a novel perspiring fabric thermal manikin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Chen, Y. S.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal manikins are necessary instruments for measuring the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of clothing systems, which are important parameters relevant to clothing thermal comfort. Although many thermal manikins have been developed since the first example in the 1940s, simulation of human perspiration in thermal manikins remains a challenge. This paper reports on a novel perspiring fabric thermal manikin, which simulates gaseous perspiration by moisture transfer through a `skin' made of a breathable fabric. The manikin has been used to measure the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistances of clothing ensembles, and demonstrated high accuracy and reproducibility.

  12. Self-Perceptions of Knowledge and Comfort: Which Measure Is More Sensitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karriker, Katherine J.; Spaite, Daniel W.

    Self-perception measures often suffer from inflation factors. This study compared a Likert-type scale measuring comfort (1="not at all comfortable" to 5="very comfortable") to one assessing knowledge (1="I do not know anything about this", 2="I don't know enough about this to fully understand it", 3="I'm not sure whether or not I know enough about…

  13. It Costs to Be Clean and Fit: Energetics of Comfort Behavior in Breeding-Fasting Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Viblanc, Vincent A.; Mathien, Adeline; Saraux, Claire; Viera, Vanessa M.; Groscolas, René

    2011-01-01

    Background Birds may allocate a significant part of time to comfort behavior (e.g., preening, stretching, shaking, etc.) in order to eliminate parasites, maintain plumage integrity, and possibly reduce muscular ankylosis. Understanding the adaptive value of comfort behavior would benefit from knowledge on the energy costs animals are willing to pay to maintain it, particularly under situations of energy constraints, e.g., during fasting. We determined time and energy devoted to comfort activities in freely breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), seabirds known to fast for up to one month during incubation shifts ashore. Methodology/Principal Findings A time budget was estimated from focal and scan sampling field observations and the energy cost of comfort activities was calculated from the associated increase in heart rate (HR) during comfort episodes, using previously determined equations relating HR to energy expenditure. We show that incubating birds spent 22% of their daily time budget in comfort behavior (with no differences between day and night) mainly devoted to preening (73%) and head/body shaking (16%). During comfort behavior, energy expenditure averaged 1.24 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the corresponding energy cost (i.e., energy expended in excess to RMR) was 58 kJ/hr. Energy expenditure varied greatly among various types of comfort behavior, ranging from 1.03 (yawning) to 1.78 (stretching) times RMR. Comfort behavior contributed 8.8–9.3% to total daily energy expenditure and 69.4–73.5% to energy expended daily for activity. About half of this energy was expended caring for plumage. Conclusion/Significance This study is the first to estimate the contribution of comfort behavior to overall energy budget in a free-living animal. It shows that although breeding on a tight energy budget, king penguins devote a substantial amount of time and energy to comfort behavior. Such findings underline the importance of comfort behavior for

  14. Fundamental Study on the Effect of High Frequency Vibration on Ride Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Chizuru; Shimamune, Ryohei; Watanabe, Ken; Suzuki, Erimitsu

    To develop a more suitable method of evaluating ride comfort of high speed trains, a fundamental study was conducted on sensitivity of passengers to various frequencies of vibration with respect to ride comfort. Experiments were performed on 55 subjects using an electrodynamic vibration system that can generate vibrations in the frequency range of 1 to 80 Hz in the vertical direction. Results of experiments indicated that the subjects tend to experience greater discomfort when exposed to high frequency vibrations than that presumed by the conventional Japanese ride comfort assessment method, the "Ride Comfort Level."

  15. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. PMID:26192221

  16. Development of embrittlement prediction models for U.S. power reactors and the impact of the heat-affected zone to thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.A.

    1998-05-01

    The NRC Regulatory Guide 1.99 Revision 2 was based on 177 surveillance data points and the EPRI data base, where 76% of 177 data points and 60% of EPRI data base were from Westinghouse`s data. Therefore, other vendors` radiation environment may not be properly characterized by R.G. 1.99`s prediction. To minimize scatter from the influences of the irradiation temperature, neutron energy spectrum, displacement rate, and plant operation procedures on embrittlement models, improved embrittlement models based on group data that have similar radiation environments and reactor design and operation criteria are examined. A total of 653 shift data points from the current FR-EDB, including 397 Westinghouse data, 93 B and W data, 37 CE data, and 106 GE data, are used. A nonlinear least squares fitting FORTRAN program, incorporating a Monte Carlo procedure with 35% and 10% uncertainty assigned to the fluence and shift data, respectively, was written for this study. In order to have the same adjusted fluence value for the weld and plate material in the same capsule, the Monte Carlo least squares fitting procedure has the ability to adjust the fluence values while running the weld and plate formula simultaneously. Six chemical components, namely, copper, nickel, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, and molybdenum, were considered in the development of the new embrittlement models. The overall percentage of reduction of the 2-sigma margins per delta RTNDT predicted by the new embrittlement models, compared to that of R.G. 1.99, for weld and base materials are 42% and 36%, respectively. Currently, the need for thermal annealing is seriously being considered for several A302B type RPVs. From the macroscopic view point, even if base and weld materials were verified from mechanical tests to be fully recovered, the linking heat affected zone (HAZ) material has not been properly characterized. Thus the final overall recovery will still be unknown. The great data scatter of the HAZ metals may

  17. American style or Turkish chair: the triumph of bodily comfort.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Gülen

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the reciprocal influence of Ottoman Turkish and American interiors in the development of seating furniture. Seating furniture is unique because it involves a direct and physical interaction between the piece of furniture and the body, while at the same time it is part of a public space where social interactions occur. I will argue that the interactions between the Ottoman Turks and Americans are reflected in the way these traditions modified their seating furniture as they sought to mediate cultural, political and social differences between them. The concept of bodily comfort will serve as a common thread in understanding the origin of the expression "American style" (Amerikan stili or Amerikan tarzı) in modern Turkish language, the "Turkish chairs" in Victorian America in the late nineteenth century and the English language use of words such as sofa, ottoman and divan. PMID:21114093

  18. Desiccant-assisted air conditioner improves IAQ and comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a system which offers the advantage of downsizing the evaporator coil and condensing unit capacities for comparable design loads, which in turn provides numerous benefits. Airborne microorganisms, which are responsible for many acute diseases, infections, and allergies, are well protected indoors by the moisture surrounding them. While the human body is generally the host for various bacteria and viruses, fungi can grow in moist places. It has been concluded that an optimum relative humidity (RH) range of 40 to 60 percent is necessary to minimize or eliminate the bacterial, viral, and fungal growth. In addition, humidity also has an effect on air cleanliness--it reduces the presence of dust particles--and on the deterioration of the building structure and its contents. Therefore, controlling humidity is a very important factor to human comfort in minimizing adverse health effects and maximizing the structural longevity of the building.

  19. Sound source information to improve cardiothoracic patients' comfort.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Jamie; Cain, Rebecca; Jennings, Paul; England, Michelle

    Hospital sound has been well documented through acoustic measurement and the classification of its adverse effects on patients and nurses. However, little consideration has been given to how the perception of these unavoidable soundscapes can be improved. For instance, does a better understanding of the variety of sounds improve patients' feeling? This paper begins to answer this and documents a pilot questionnaire-based study looking at the effects and potential benefits of sound source information (SSI) on patients' subjective reactions to a ward soundscape. The study was carried out from July to September 2011 with 31 patients in a cardiothoracic ward. Although strong inferences were not made, it was found that this simple intervention created a 21-26% positive change perception (p<0.05). The paper discusses the results in relation to nursing practice, concluding that SSI could be beneficial in helping patients to feel more comfortable. PMID:23588015

  20. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, W.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology is overviewed. Several useful relations derived from the technology are: input environments to the vehicle; aircraft operations; and aircraft configurations. Input environments which influence the ride motion environment consist of naturally occuring phenomena such as gusts or turbulence and man generated phenomena such as trailing vortex wakes or runway roughness. Aircraft operations influence ride environments in the form of motions caused by maneuvers, of pressure changes caused by rapid descents, or of too high temperature. Aircraft configurations influence the ride environment by size and shape of external surfaces which generate aerodynamic perturbing forces; by onboard equipment, such as power plant noise and vibrations; and by passive equipment which directly interfaces the passengers such as marginal size seats with limited elbowroom and legroom.

  1. Comforts of Home: Home Care of the Terminally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Jacqueline

    1990-01-01

    When a terminal illness is diagnosed, it is appropriate for the family physician to take a primary role in future management. Care goals change from being disease-focused and cure-directed to being person-focused and comfort-targeted. The patient and family comprise the unit of care. Care of the terminally ill in the home requires good planning, teamwork, excellent symptom management, and a commitment by the family physician to be available or provide alternate coverage. Death in the home should be an option for the patient and family whenever feasible. Caring for patients until death and supporting their families and friends are rewarding and positive parts of family practice. PMID:21233972

  2. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  3. Deceit and dishonesty as practice: the comfort of lying.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melody

    2016-07-01

    Lying and deceit are instruments of power, used by social actors in the pursuit of their practices as they seek to maintain social order. All social actors, nurses included, have deceit and dishonesty within their repertoire of practice. Much of this is benign, well intentioned and a function of being sociable and necessary in the pursuit of social order in the healthcare environment. Lying and deceit from a sociological point of view, is a reflection of the different modes of domination that exist within a social space. French philosopher Pierre Bourdieu theorized about the way that symbolic power works within social space. The social structures and the agency of individual actors moving within it are interrelated and interdependent. Bourdieu's ideas will be used to theorize about real clinical experiences where acts of deceit can be identified and a case example will be presented. Nurses are actors in the social space of clinical care, and their world is complex, challenging, and often fraught with the contradictory demands and choices that reflect and influence their behaviours. An exploration of lying and deceit in nursing as an instrument in the modes of domination that persist enables us to challenge some of the assumptions that are made about the motives that cause or tempt nurses to lie as well as to understand the way on which they are sometimes lied to, according to the acts of domination that exist in the field. Lying or acting dishonestly is a powerful act that is intent on retaining stability and social order and could be seen to be a justification of lying and deceit. However, we need to pause and consider, in whose interests are we striving to create social order? Is it in the end about the comfort of patients or for the comfort of professionals? PMID:27197791

  4. A survey of current perianesthesia nursing practice for pain and comfort management.

    PubMed

    Krenzischek, Dina A; Windle, Pamela; Mamaril, Myrna

    2004-06-01

    Widespread dissemination of information and high-profile press coverage about pain and comfort management has resulted in heightened awareness among health care professionals and the public of the need for improvements in the way pain and comfort are managed. Despite significant advances in treatment options for pain relief and comfort, studies show that both phenomena continue to be poorly managed and undertreated. Providing pain relief and comfort to patients are important fundamental components of good nursing care; however, no studies have been performed to evaluate these responsibilities in perianesthesia nursing practice. Therefore, a descriptive survey was undertaken to assess the current practices for pain and comfort management among perianesthesia nurses. A convenience sample of 220 perianesthesia nurses working in preoperative and postoperative settings in rural and urban hospitals, outpatient centers, and freestanding facilities completed a questionnaire survey. The survey asked 10 questions that addressed various aspects of pain and comfort care, including assessment in different settings, discharge criteria, and obstacles in the management of pain and comfort. Findings showed that perianesthesia nurses assessed pain at a frequency of 58% and comfort at a frequency of 56% on admission. Preoperative assessment of patients' desired level of pain relief and comfort occurred at frequencies of 21% and 20%, respectively. Pain was assessed most often with self-report pain ratings and ordinal descriptions such as "no pain" to "severe pain." A moderate pain level was used most often as a discharge criterion. Inappropriate and inadequate physicians' orders were cited as two of the most common obstacles to managing pain and comfort. Findings of this study can be used to increase awareness of the need to evaluate and improve pain and comfort management education and practices in the perianesthesia settings. ASPAN will also use the results as baseline data as it

  5. A pooled analysis of overall survival in COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II, 2 randomized phase III trials of ruxolitinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Gotlib, Jason; Cervantes, Francisco; Mesa, Ruben A.; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Peng, Wei; Sandor, Victor; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Hmissi, Abdel; Stalbovskaya, Viktoriya; Gupta, Vikas; Harrison, Claire; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Ruxolitinib, a potent Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor, resulted in rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and disease-related symptoms in the 2 phase III COMFORT studies. In addition, ruxolitinib was associated with prolonged survival compared with placebo (COMFORT-I) and best available therapy (COMFORT-II). We present a pooled analysis of overall survival in the COMFORT studies using an intent-to-treat analysis and an analysis correcting for crossover in the control arms. Overall, 301 patients received ruxolitinib (COMFORT-I, n=155; COMFORT-II, n=146) and 227 patients received placebo (n=154) or best available therapy (n=73). After a median three years of follow up, intent-to-treat analysis showed that patients who received ruxolitinib had prolonged survival compared with patients who received placebo or best available therapy [hazard ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.46–0.90; P=0.01]; the crossover-corrected hazard ratio was 0.29 (95%CI: 0.13–0.63). Both patients with intermediate-2– or high-risk disease showed prolonged survival, and patients with high-risk disease in the ruxolitinib group had survival similar to that of patients with intermediate-2–risk disease in the control group. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at week 144 was 78% in the ruxolitinib arm, 61% in the intent-to-treat control arm, and 31% in the crossover-adjusted control arm. While larger spleen size at baseline was prognostic for shortened survival, reductions in spleen size with ruxolitinib treatment correlated with longer survival. These findings are consistent with previous reports and support that ruxolitinib offers a survival benefit for patients with myelofibrosis compared with conventional therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: COMFORT-I, NCT00952289; COMFORT-II, NCT00934544) PMID:26069290

  6. Effects of stocking density on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, F X; Shao, D F; Li, S L; Wang, Y J; Azarfar, A; Cao, Z J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different stocking densities of 82 (0.82 cows per freestall and feed bin), 100, and 129% on behavior, productivity, and comfort indices of lactating Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-seven lactating cows (15 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments, which were balanced for parity, milk yield, days in milk, and body weight in a 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. After 7 d of adaptation to the treatments, lying time and bouts were recorded at 1-min intervals for 3 d, DMI and feeding time were monitored electronically by feed bins, and rumination time was quantified at 2-h periods for 5 d during each period. The cow comfort index, stall standing index, stall perching index, and stall use index (SUI) were calculated using 10-min scan samples of video recording from d 8 to 10 of each period. Milk yield was recorded from d 8 to 12 and milk composition was determined from composite samples on d 12 in each period. Daily lying time, lying bouts, and bout duration did not differ among the stocking densities. The ratio of lying time ≥12 h/d (the number of cows with daily lying time ≥12 h/d divided by number of cows per pen) was higher for cows housed at 82% stocking density compared with those housed at 100% stocking density, with stocking density of 129% intermediate. Hourly lying time was lower at 100% stocking density compared with 82 and 129% stocking densities during the peak period (2300-0400 h), determined based on diurnal pattern of lying time. Daily dry matter intake, feeding time, and feeding rate were not affected by stocking density. After morning milking, dry matter intake and feeding time was reduced at 129 versus 82% stocking density during peak feeding time (0600-0800 h), determined based on diurnal patterns of feeding behavior. Stocking density had no effect on rumination time, milk yield and milk composition. The ratio of SUI ≥85% (mean of the number of SUI

  7. Communication Comforting Strategies and Social Bereavement: Verbal and Nonverbal Planning and Appropriateness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Lance R.

    1998-01-01

    Based on Applegate's hierarchy of comforting strategies, this study assessed the effects of verbal and nonverbal planning on the perceived appropriateness of comforting communication in hypothetical scenarios. Results are discussed in terms of reflection-enhancing relational strategies and the bereavement counselors' perspectives of the effects on…

  8. Comfortable Loudness Level: Stimulus Effects, Long-Term Reliability, and Predictability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn M.

    1989-01-01

    Three studies investigated comfortable loudness levels with particular reference to their application to hearing aid gain prescriptions. The studies, involving 33 normal hearing adults and 77 adults with hearing impairments, suggest that comfortable loudness levels for continuous speech bands can be estimated rather accurately, quickly, and with…

  9. An Examination of Middle School Counselors' Comfort with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Patricia Christina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the differences in comfort with technology in middle school counselors in South Carolina. The researcher's goal was to determine the effects of years of experience, technology training, gender, and age on middle school counselors' comfort with technology. After a review of literature,…

  10. The Reliability and Validity of the Comfort Level Method of Setting Hearing Aid Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Brian E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Investigated in a series of experiments with 40 adults (20- to 70-years-old) having bilateral sensorineural hearing impairments was the test-retest reliability of the comfort level method for setting the acoustic gain of hearing aids, and the relationship between the comfort settings utilized in more realistic daily listening situations.…

  11. 43 CFR 8365.2-5 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.2-5 Section 8365.2-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.2-5 Public health, safety and comfort. On developed recreation sites and areas, unless...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.2-5 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.2-5 Section 8365.2-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.2-5 Public health, safety and comfort. On developed recreation sites and areas, unless...

  13. Indoor air quality and work-environment study. Library of Congress, Madison Building. Volume 3. Association between health and comfort concerns and environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    A systematic study was designed to assess the nature and spatial distribution of employee health symptoms and comfort concerns in the Madison Building of the Library of Congress (LOC), Washington, DC. This report presented the multivariate analyses of all the study results. The primary associations observed in all the gathered data both in consistency and magnitude, were observed between health symptoms and both the perception of thermal comfort and the perception of odors. Few associations were demonstrated between symptom occurrence and objective environmental measurements. No environmental contaminants were identified at levels above any relevant criteria or standards with the exception of one location at which an elevated level of fungi was detected. A variety of workstation risk factors were identified for symptoms associated with ergonomic stresses. These included uncomfortable chairs, hours working at video display terminals, and inadequate lighting. Several recommendations are made to improve building maintenance and ventilation, and reduce job stress.

  14. Social categorization and cooperation in motor joint action: evidence for a joint end-state comfort.

    PubMed

    Dötsch, Dominik; Schubö, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated to what extent group membership affects an actor's representation of their partner's task in cooperative joint action. Participants performed a joint pick-and-place task in a naturalistic, breakfast-table-like paradigm which allowed the demonstration of varying degrees of cooperation. Participants transported a wooden cup from one end of a table to the other, with one actor moving it to an intermediate position from where their partner transported it to a goal position. Hand and finger movements were recorded via 3D motion tracking to assess actors' cooperative behavior. Before the joint action task was performed, participants were categorized as belonging to the same or to different groups, supposedly based on an assessment of their cognitive processing styles. Results showed that the orientation of the actors' fingers when picking up the cup was affected by its required angle at the goal position. When placing the cup at the intermediate position, most actors adapted the rotation of the cup's handle to the joint action goal, thereby facilitating the partner's subsequent movement. Male actors demonstrated such cooperative behavior only when performing the task together with an ingroup partner, while female actors demonstrated cooperative behavior irrespective of social categorization. These results suggest that actors tend to represent a partner's end-state comfort and integrate it into their own movement planning in cooperative joint action. However, social factors like group membership may modulate this tendency. PMID:25963752

  15. Three experiments to support the design of lightweight comfortable vehicle seats.

    PubMed

    Vink, P; Franz, M; Kamp, I; Zenk, R

    2012-01-01

    Seats need to be more lightweight for airplanes, cars, busses and even trains to contribute to a better environment and to reduce energy consumption. However, a reduction in comfort due to weight reduction is not preferable, which opens a new area of research: improving comfort with a minimum of material or with lightweight materials and systems. In this paper three experiments are performed to test the effects of light weight seats and parts of a seat on comfort. The first experiment shows that a new developed light weight massage system improves comfort and reduces muscle activity. The second experiment shows that the automatic seat adjustment without motors improves the comfort as well. The third experiment showed that a light weight seat following closely the human body contour is experienced on many aspects in the same way as current more heavy seats. More research and models will be needed in this ergonomic field which needs more attention. PMID:22316923

  16. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images. PMID:27410090

  17. Thermal modeling, analysis and control of a space suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Anthony Bruce

    The thermal dynamics of two space suits, the Space Shuttle EMU and the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit, are considered as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. The activities documented in this dissertation cover three related areas, modeling, analysis, and control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the operational Space Shuttle EMU is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the system with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are next considered. A transient model of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit design is developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink, to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space Suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed. The observations and insights about the thermal dynamics of a space suit are then applied to the automatic thermal comfort control of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit. Automatic thermal comfort control for the Advanced Space Suit is investigated using three proposed strategies. These strategies use a transient thermal comfort definition based on body heat storage. The first strategy is measurement based using a proposed body heat storage estimation method to determine the astronaut's thermal state. The second strategy

  18. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS

  19. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  20. On the transition thermal discomfort to heat stress as a function of the PMV value.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    ISO 15265 Standard - Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Risk assessment strategy for the prevention of stress or discomfort in thermal working conditions - can be considered as a key document for helping responsible for the health protection and prevention of working situations. According to the SOBANE strategy, this standard provides a three-step protocol aimed to the prevention, elimination or reduction of risks affecting the workplaces. Although both methods and procedures suggested by ISO 15265 appear very clear, this standard could bring in confusion both beginners and not specialists in occupational health concerning Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) threshold values consistent with comfort - hot discomfort and the discomfort - hot stress transitions. In this work such matter has been extensively discussed showing a certain difficulty in the definition of an unambiguous PMV threshold value for each working situation in any microclimate. PMID:23385432

  1. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  2. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  3. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  4. Software augmented buildings: Exploiting existing infrastructure to improve energy efficiency and comfort in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bharathan

    Commercial buildings consume 19% of energy in the US as of 2010, and traditionally, their energy use has been optimized through improved equipment efficiency and retrofits. Beyond improved hardware and infrastructure, there exists a tremendous potential in reducing energy use through better monitoring and operation. We present several applications that we developed and deployed to support our thesis that building energy use can be reduced through sensing, monitoring and optimization software that modulates use of building subsystems including HVAC. We focus on HVAC systems as these constitute 48-55% of building energy use. Specifically, in case of sensing, we describe an energy apportionment system that enables us to estimate real-time zonal HVAC power consumption by analyzing existing sensor information. With this energy breakdown, we can measure effectiveness of optimization solutions and identify inefficiencies. Central to energy efficiency improvement is determination of human occupancy in buildings. But this information is often unavailable or expensive to obtain using wide scale sensor deployment. We present our system that infers room level occupancy inexpensively by leveraging existing WiFi infrastructure. Occupancy information can be used not only to directly control HVAC but also to infer state of the building for predictive control. Building energy use is strongly influenced by human behaviors, and timely feedback mechanisms can encourage energy saving behavior. Occupants interact with HVAC using thermostats which has shown to be inadequate for thermal comfort. Building managers are responsible for incorporating energy efficiency measures, but our interviews reveal that they struggle to maintain efficiency due to lack of analytical tools and contextual information. We present our software services that provide energy feedback to occupants and building managers, improves comfort with personalized control and identifies energy wasting faults. For wide

  5. Impact of an educational intervention on provider knowledge, attitudes, and comfort level regarding counseling women ages 40–49 about breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Teresa J; Estrada, Carlos A; Castiglioni, Analia; Snyder, Erin D

    2015-01-01

    .7 to 4.3 (P<0.001); and the comfort level with discussing cancer risks and screening preferences with patients increased from 3.2 to 4.3 (P<0.001). (The comfort levels measurements were assessed by using a Likert scale, for which 1= not comfortable and 5= very comfortable.) Conclusion Most clinicians in the US Department of Veterans Affairs ambulatory practices in Alabama reported that they routinely discuss mammography benefits but not potential harms with patients. An educational intervention detailing recommendations and counseling methods affected the knowledge and attitudes about breast cancer screening. Participants expressed greater likelihood of discussing screening options in the future. PMID:25999731

  6. Speakers' comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-García, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-07-01

    Teachers adjust their voice levels under different classroom acoustics conditions, even in the absence of background noise. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to understand further this relationship and to determine optimum room acoustic conditions for speaking. Under simulated acoustic environments, talkers do modify their voice levels linearly with the measure voice support, and the slope of this relationship is referred to as room effect. The magnitude of the room effect depends highly on the instruction used and on the individuals. Group-wise, the average room effect ranges from -0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to -0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as -1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak in than their healthy colleagues. PMID:22779474

  7. Thermographic method for evaluation of thermal influence of exterior surface colour of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Li, Deying; Jin, Rendong; Liu, Li; Bai, Jiabin; Feng, Jianming

    2008-12-01

    Architecture colour is an important part in urban designing. It directly affects the expressing and the thermal effect of exterior surface of buildings. It has proved that four factors affect the sign visibility, graphics, colour, lighting condition and age of the observers, and colour is the main aspect. The best method is to prevent the exterior space heating up in the first place, by reflecting heat away room the exterior surface.The colour of paint to coat building's exterior wall can have a huge impact on energy efficiency. While the suitable colour is essential to increasing the energy efficiency of paint colour during the warm summer months, those products also help paint colour efficiency and reduce heat loss from buildings during winter months making the interior more comfortable all year long. The article is based on analyzing the importance of architecture color design and existing urban colour design. The effect of external surface colour on the thermal behaviour of a building has been studied experimentally by Infrared Thermographic method in University of Science and technology Beijing insummer.The experimental results showed that different colour has quietly different thermal effect on the exterior surface of buildings. The thermal effect of carmine and fawn has nearly the same values. The main factor which is color express, give some suggest ting about urban color design. The investigation reveals that the use of suitable surface colour can dramatically reduce maximum the temperatures of the exterior wall. Keywords: architectural colour, thermal, thermographic

  8. PESTICIDE SPRAY PENETRATION AND THERMAL COMFORT OF PROTECTIVE APPAREL FOR PESTICIDE APPLICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of protective apparel to serve as a barrier from dermal exposure is considered vital for providing some measure of protection for those who work with and around pesticides. his research is aimed at ultimately providing recommendations for types of protective apparel for p...

  9. Thermal comfort analysis: A case study of LIG housing in Chhattisgarh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netam, Nisha; Sanyal, Shubhashis; Bhowmick, Shubhankar

    2016-07-01

    The present work reports the evaluation of temperature distribution inside a Low Income Group (LIG) house located in the city of Raipur, Chhattisgarh, using a Agros2D which is multi-platform C++ application capable of higher-order finite element formulation with h, p and hp adaptivity for the solution of differential equations based on the Hermes library. Variation of room air temperature along the length (x) of the house is calculated at different altitudes viz. 0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, 2m, 2.5m, and 3m. 2D model is generated for all the respective altitudes which show the temperature distribution inside the building.

  10. Using Hand Grip Force as a Correlate of Longitudinal Acceleration Comfort for Rapid Transit Trains

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Beiyuan; Gan, Weide; Fang, Weining

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal acceleration comfort is one of the essential metrics used to evaluate the ride comfort of train. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using hand grip force as a correlate of longitudinal acceleration comfort of rapid transit trains. In the paper, a motion simulation system was set up and a two-stage experiment was designed to investigate the role of the grip force on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. The results of the experiment show that the incremental grip force was linearly correlated with the longitudinal acceleration value, while the incremental grip force had no correlation with the direction of the longitudinal acceleration vector. The results also show that the effects of incremental grip force and acceleration duration on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains were significant. Based on multiple regression analysis, a step function model was established to predict the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains using the incremental grip force and the acceleration duration. The feasibility and practicably of the model was verified by a field test. Furthermore, a comparative analysis shows that the motion simulation system and the grip force based model were valid to support the laboratory studies on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. PMID:26147730

  11. A qualitative study on the comfort and fit of ladies' dress shoes.

    PubMed

    Au, Emily Yim Lee; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2007-11-01

    The perceived differences between comfortable and uncomfortable shoes and the fit preferences in the different regions of ladies' shoes were explored. Twenty Hong Kong Chinese females participated in the study. Each participant wore and rated the different aspects of their own comfortable and uncomfortable shoes. The Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed significant differences in ten perceived characteristics between the comfortable and uncomfortable shoes. Among the ten were tactile, auditory and olfactory sensations. The ten items reliably (Cronbach alpha>0.9) distinguished between comfortable and uncomfortable shoes. There were no significant differences between comfortable and uncomfortable shoes for aesthetic-related characteristics. Further analysis on the fit ratings showed a significant impact on the fit preferences in the Toe region (p<0.0001), Metatarsophalangeal (MPJ) region (p<0.0001), Arch region (p=0.002) and Ingress/egress opening (p<0.001). Knowing the preferred type of fit can help establish a specification for comfortable shoes and also brings out the criteria that a comfortable shoe does not necessarily have the same perceived fit in every region of a shoe. PMID:17353001

  12. Effect of Three Interventions on Contact Lens Comfort in Symptomatic Wearers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Navascues-Cornago, Maria; Morgan, Philip B.; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether carrying out various interventions part way through the day influences comfort in symptomatic daily disposable (DD) contact lens wearers. Methods A subject-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in thirty symptomatic soft lens wearers who wore their habitual DD contact lenses bilaterally for 12 h on two separate days. Five hours after lens application, one of the following three interventions or a control was performed on each eye: replacing the existing lens with a new lens; removing and reapplying the same lens; performing a ‘scleral swish’; and no action (control). Comfort scores were recorded using SMS text messages every hour following lens application using a 0 (causes pain) to 100 (excellent comfort) scale. Comfort scores before lens application, at 6 mins post-application, and at 6 mins post-intervention were also recorded. Results There was a significant reduction in comfort from pre-lens application to 6 mins post-application for all groups (all p<0.05). Comfort gradually decreased from 6 mins to 5 h after lens application for each group (p<0.0001) with no significant difference between groups over the 5-h period (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in comfort 6 mins post-intervention for any group (all p>0.05). After the intervention, comfort continued to decline (p<0.0001) with slightly lower mean scores for the control group compared to the new lens group (p = 0.003). Change in comfort relative to pre-intervention (5 h) was similar for all groups (p = 0.81). There was no difference in comfort at 12 h between groups (p = 0.83). Conclusion This work has confirmed that comfort shows a continual and significant decline over a 12-h wearing period in symptomatic DD contact lens wearers. None of the interventions investigated had any significant impact on end-of-day comfort. These data suggest discomfort in lens wearers is more heavily influenced by changes to the ocular environment rather

  13. Air Dispersion Characteristics and Thermal Comparison of Traditional and Fabric Ductwork using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulou, Areti

    This thesis research compares the air dispersion and thermal comfort characteristics of conventional diffuser and fabric-based ductwork systems. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings produce and regulate airflow traveling through ductwork. The performance characteristics of conventional ductwork are compared with recent advancements in fabric-based ductwork. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, thermal and air distribution flow patterns are compared between the two types of ductwork and preliminary thermal comfort and efficiency conclusions are drawn. Results of the Air Distribution Performance Index (ADPI) for both ducting systems reflect that, under the given test conditions, the fabric duct system is approximately 23% more comfortable than the traditional diffuser system in terms of air speed flow uniformity into the space, while staying within the Effective Draft Temperature comfort zone of -3 to +2°F.

  14. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  15. Occupant perception of indoor air and comfort in four hospitality environments.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, D J; Chu, P

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of customer and staff perceptions of indoor air quality at two restaurants, a billiard hall, and a casino. The survey was conducted at each environment for 8 days: 2 weekend days on 2 consecutive weekends and 4 weekdays. Before and during the survey, each hospitality environment satisfied ventilation requirements set in ASHRAE Standard 62-1999, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air. An objective of this study was to test the hypothesis: If a hospitality environment satisfies ASHRAE ventilation requirements, then the indoor air is acceptable, that is, fewer than 20% of the exposed occupants perceive the environment as unacceptable. A second objective was to develop a multiple regression model that predicts the dependent variable, the environment is acceptable, as a function of a number of independent perception variables. Occupant perception of environmental, comfort, and physical variables was measured using a questionnaire. This instrument was designed to be efficient and unobtrusive; subjects could complete it within 3 min. Significant differences of occupant environment perception were identified among customers and staff. The dependent variable, the environment is acceptable, is affected by temperature, occupant density, and occupant smoking status, odor perception, health conditions, sensitivity to chemicals, and enjoyment of activities. Depending on the hospitality environment, variation of independent variables explains as much as 77% of the variation of the dependent variable. PMID:11843426

  16. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort—a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  17. Public health assessment for Alcoa (Point Comfort)/Lavaca Bay, Point Comfort, Calhoun County, Texas, Region 6. Cerclis No. TXD008123168. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The ALCOA (Point Comfort)/Lavaco Bay National Priorities List (NPL) site is in Calhoun County, Texas, approximately 1.5 miles south of Point Comfort and four miles northeast of Port Lavaca. Fish sampling data indicate that levels of mercury in fish are elevated. Mercury has been detected throughout the site in surface soil, shallow groundwater, air, bay sediments, fish and crabs. Other contaminants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and lead, have been detected in shallow groundwater. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in a limited number of sediment, fish, and oyster samples.

  18. The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... home for children with serious illnesses and their families. Meet Channing O'Halloran. Before she was 1 ...

  19. Human comfort response to random motions with a dominant vertical motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Subjective ride comfort response ratings were measured on the Langley Visual Motion Simulator with vertical acceleration inputs with various power spectra shapes and magnitudes. The data obtained are presented.

  20. Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to design a comfortable automotive driver seat.

    PubMed

    Kolich, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Given enough time and use, all designs will fail. There are no fail-free designs. This is especially true when it comes to automotive seating comfort where the characteristics and preferences of individual customers are many and varied. To address this problem, individuals charged with automotive seating comfort development have, traditionally, relied on iterative and, as a result, expensive build-test cycles. Cost pressures being placed on today's vehicle manufacturers have necessitated the search for more efficient alternatives. This contribution aims to fill this need by proposing the application of an analytical technique common to engineering circles (but new to seating comfort development), namely Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA). An example is offered to describe how development teams can use this systematic and disciplined approach to highlight potential seating comfort failure modes, reduce their risk, and bring capable designs to life. PMID:24529532

  1. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed. PMID:25728881

  2. An Active Suspension Controller Achieving the Best Ride Comfort at Any Specified Location on A Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshiaki

    In this paper, a new active suspension control scheme is developed so that ride comfort becomes best at any specified location on vehicle body. To achieve this end, two ideal vehicles are designed in which ride comfort becomes best at each different location. Then, linearly combining the two ideal vehicles, a combined ideal vehicle is constructed. It should be noted that we can easily force ride comfort at a specified location become best in the proposed combined ideal vehicle by setting only one design parameter. To achieve the good property stated above in actual vehicles, a robust tracking controller is proposed. It is shown by carrying out numerical simulations that ride comfort at a specified location can be easily improved in the closed loop system using the proposed combined ideal vehicle.

  3. The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families Past ... Story by Melanie Modlin Photography by Veronika Lukasova The Children's Inn at NIH is a unique homeaway- ...

  4. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness. PMID:20028192

  5. Validation of standard ASTM F2732 and comparison with ISO 11079 with respect to comfort temperature ratings for cold protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuansi; Lin, Li-Yen; Halder, Amitava; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    American standard ASTM F2732 estimates the lowest environmental temperature for thermal comfort for cold weather protective clothing. International standard ISO 11079 serves the same purpose but expresses cold stress in terms of required clothing insulation for a given cold climate. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the temperature ratings using human subject tests at two levels of metabolic rates (2 and 4 MET corresponding to 116.4 and 232.8 W/m(2)). Nine young and healthy male subjects participated in the cold exposure at 3.4 and -30.6 °C. The results showed that both standards predict similar temperature ratings for an intrinsic clothing insulation of 1.89 clo and for 2 MET activity. The predicted temperature rating for 2 MET activity is consistent with test subjects' thermophysiological responses, perceived thermal sensation and thermal comfort. For 4 MET activity, however, the whole body responses were on the cold side, particularly the responses of the extremities. ASTM F2732 is also limited due to its omission and simplification of three climatic variables (air velocity, radiant temperature and relative humidity) and exposure time in the cold which are of practical importance. PMID:25042791

  6. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  7. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Loccufier, Mia; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand-arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle-cyclist contact points.

  8. Effects of individual sound sources on the subjective loudness and acoustic comfort in underground shopping streets.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Meng, Qi; Jin, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that human evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort depends on a series of factors in a particular situation rather than only on sound pressure levels. In the present study, a large-scale subjective survey has been undertaken on underground shopping streets in Harbin, China, to determine how individual sound sources influence subjective loudness and acoustic comfort evaluation. Based on the analysis of case study results, it has been shown that all individual sound sources can increase subjective loudness to a certain degree. However, their levels of influence on acoustic comfort are different. Background music and the public address system can increase acoustic comfort, with a mean difference of 0.18 to 0.32 and 0.21 to 0.27, respectively, where a five-point bipolar category scale is used. Music from shops and vendor shouts can decrease acoustic comfort, with a mean difference of -0.11 to -0.38 and -0.39 to -0.62, respectively. The feasibility of improving acoustic comfort by changing certain sound sources is thus demonstrated. PMID:22846767

  9. Are pressure measurements effective in the assessment of office chair comfort/discomfort? A review.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Roland; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the majority of jobs in the western world involves sitting in an office chair. As a result, a comfortable and supported sitting position is essential for employees. In the literature, various objective methods (e.g. pressure measurements, measurements of posture, EMG etc.) have been used to assess sitting comfort/discomfort, but their validity remains unknown. This review therefore examines the relationship between subjective comfort/discomfort and pressure measurements while sitting in office chairs. The literature search resulted in eight papers that met all our requirements. Four studies identified a relationship between subjective comfort/discomfort and pressure distribution parameters (including correlations of up to r = 0.7 ± 0.13). However, the technique for evaluating subjective comfort/discomfort seems to play an important role on the results achieved, therefore placing their validity into question. The peak pressure on the seat pan, the pressure distribution on the backrest and the pressure pattern changes (seat pan and backrest) all appear to be reliable measures for quantifying comfort or discomfort. PMID:25683554

  10. Energy and visual comfort performance of electrochromic windowswith overhangs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Tavil, A.

    2005-11-03

    DOE-2 building energy simulations were conducted to determine if there were practical architectural and control strategy solutions that would enable electrochromic (EC) windows to significantly improve visual comfort without eroding energy-efficiency benefits. EC windows were combined with overhangs since opaque overhangs provide protection from direct sun which EC windows are unable to do alone. The window wall was divided into an upper and lower aperture so that various combinations of overhang position and control strategies could be considered. The overhang was positioned either at the top of the upper window aperture or between the upper and lower apertures. Overhang depth was varied. EC control strategies were fully bleached at all times, modulated based on incident vertical solar radiation limits, or modulated to meet the design work plane illuminance with daylight. The EC performance was compared to a state-of-the-art spectrally selective low-e window with the same divided window wall, window size, and overhang as the EC configuration. The reference window was also combined with an interior shade which was manually deployed to control glare and direct sun. Both systems had the same daylighting control system to dim the electric lighting. Results were given for south-facing private offices in a typical commercial building. In hot and cold climates such as Houston and Chicago, EC windows with overhangs can significantly reduce the average annual daylight glare index (DGI) and deliver significant annual energy use savings if the window area is large. Total primary annual energy use was increased by 2-5% for moderate-area windows in either climate but decreased by 10% in Chicago and 5% in Houston for large-area windows. Peak electric demand can be reduced by 7-8% for moderate-area windows and by 14-16% for large-area windows in either climate. Energy and peak demand reductions can be significantly greater if the reference case does not have exterior shading or

  11. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  12. Solution of the Krook kinetic equation model and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a rarefied gas affected by a non-linear thermal radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abourabia, Aly Maher; Wahid, Taha Zakaraia Abdel

    2011-05-01

    A new approach for studying the influence of a thermal radiation field upon a rarefied neutral gas is introduced. We insert the radiation field effect in the force term of the Boltzmann equation. In a frame co-moving with the fluid, the BGK (Bhatnager-Gross-Krook) model kinetic equation is applied analytically. The one-dimensional steady problem is studied using the Liu-Lees model. We apply the moment method to follow the behavior of the macroscopic properties of the gas, such as the temperature and concentration. They are substituted into the corresponding two-stream Maxwellian distribution functions, permitting the investigation of the non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system (gas + heated plate). The entropy, entropy flux, entropy production, thermodynamic forces and the kinetic coefficients are obtained. We verify the celebrated Onsager reciprocity relations for the system. The ratios between the different contributions of the internal energy changes based upon the total derivatives of the extensive parameters are estimated via the Gibbs formula. The results are applied to the Helium gas for various radiation field intensities due to different plate temperatures. Figures illustrating the calculated variables are drawn to predict their behavior and the results are discussed.

  13. Does patient comfort influence the choice of tonometer for the measurement of intraocular pressure?

    PubMed

    Ugalahi, Mary O; Seidu, Mukaila A; Olusanya, Bolutife A; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patient comfort and preference between the use of Icare tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). This was a prospective study carried out at the Eye clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan on volunteers aged 18 years and above. Demographic information of the participants was collected using a proforma. All participants had Icare tonometry and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) performed on them in sequence within a 15-min period. After the measurements, participants were asked to report their assessment of the level of comfort with each method and to state their preferred choice for IOP measurement. One hundred subjects participated in the study; 45 (45 %) were males, and the mean age was 47.1 (± 17.4) years. Forty-three subjects (43 %) reported that Icare was either much more comfortable or more comfortable than GAT, while 31 (31 %) stated that Goldmann applanation was either much more or more comfortable. Twenty-six participants (26 %) reported that the level of comfort was the same with the two instruments. With regard to which of the instruments will be preferred for IOP check at another clinic visit, 53 (53 %) of the respondents preferred the Goldmann applanation tonometer. Some of the participants preferred GAT because they believed it was more sophisticated, while the main reported reason for preferring Icare was the stinging sensation of the anesthetic eye drop when using GAT. Although more participants reported the Icare tonometer to be more comfortable, the Goldmann tonometer was preferred by majority of the respondents. PMID:26471789

  14. Efficacy of Wrist/Palm Warming as an EVA Countermeasure to Maintain Finger Comfort in Cold Conditions During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Trevino, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of local wrist/palm warming as a potential countermeasure for providing finger comfort during extended duration EVA. Methods: Six subjects (5 males and 1 female) were evaluated in a sagitally divided liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) with modified liquid cooling/warming (LCW) gloves in three different experimental conditions. Condition 1: Stage 1- no LCWG; chamber adaptation with LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCW glove inlet water temperature cooled to 8 C; Stage 3-LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 2: Stage1-LCWG and LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet temperature cooled to 31 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG inlet water temperature remains at 31 C, LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 3: Stage l -LCWG and LCW gloves 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet water temperature cooled to 28 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG remains at 28 C, LCW glove water temperature warmed to 45 C. Results: Wrist/palm area warming significantly increased finger temperature (Tfing) and blood perfusion in Stage 3 compared to Stage 2. The LCW gloves were most effective in increasing Stage 3 Tfing in Condition 1; and in increasing blood perfusion in Conditions 1 and 2 compared to Condition 3. Ratings of subjective perception of heat in the hand and overall body heat were higher at Stage 3 than Stage 2, with no significant differences across Conditions. Conclusions: Local wrist/palm warming was effective in increasing blood circulation to the distal extremities, suggesting the potential usefulness of this technique for increasing astronaut thermal comfort during EVA while decreasing power requirements. The LCW gloves were effective in heating the highly cooled fingers when the overall body was in a mild heat deficit.

  15. Effects of Thermal History and Microstructure on Segregation of Phosphorus and Alloying Elements in the Heat-Affected Zone of a Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Miyahara, Yuichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    The grain boundary segregation of phosphorus and alloying elements in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a low alloy steel was studied quantitatively with atom probe tomography. Non-equilibrium segregation mainly occurred during welding and subsequent fast cooling, leading to remarkable segregation of P, C, Mn, and Mo. The segregation of these four types of solutes showed similar microstructure-dependence at this stage, in which the segregation levels are higher in coarse-grained HAZ and intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ than in fine-grained HAZ. After simulated aging, P and Mn showed further enrichment at grain boundaries through equilibrium segregation, while desegregation was observed for C and Mo. In addition, it seems that precipitation of Mo at dislocations was greatly promoted during aging, which probably also contributed to the increase of P and Mn at grain boundaries.

  16. Effects of Thermal History and Microstructure on Segregation of Phosphorus and Alloying Elements in the Heat-Affected Zone of a Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Miyahara, Yuichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The grain boundary segregation of phosphorus and alloying elements in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a low alloy steel was studied quantitatively with atom probe tomography. Non-equilibrium segregation mainly occurred during welding and subsequent fast cooling, leading to remarkable segregation of P, C, Mn, and Mo. The segregation of these four types of solutes showed similar microstructure-dependence at this stage, in which the segregation levels are higher in coarse-grained HAZ and intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ than in fine-grained HAZ. After simulated aging, P and Mn showed further enrichment at grain boundaries through equilibrium segregation, while desegregation was observed for C and Mo. In addition, it seems that precipitation of Mo at dislocations was greatly promoted during aging, which probably also contributed to the increase of P and Mn at grain boundaries.

  17. Social marketing meets health literacy: Innovative improvement of health care providers’ comfort with patient interaction

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Bui, Thuy; Fertman, Carl I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective It is essential to train health care providers to deliver care sensitive to the needs of diverse individuals with varying degrees of health literacy. We aimed to evaluate an innovative, theory-based, educational intervention involving social marketing and health literacy. Methods In 2006 at a large medical school, all first-year students were exposed to the intervention. They completed pre- and post-test anonymous surveys including demographic data, covariates, and key outcome variables. Paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were used to evaluate the intervention and to determine independent associations among the key outcome variables. Results Post-intervention scores were significantly higher than pre-intervention scores for social marketing (3.31 versus 1.90, p < 0.001), health literacy (3.41 versus 2.98, p < 0.001), and comfort in brochure development (3.11 versus 2.52, p < 0.001) (N = 83). After controlling for demographic and covariate data, health literacy and comfort in brochure development were independent predictors of comfort interacting with diverse populations. Conclusion A brief intervention involving social marketing and health literacy can improve skills that improve medical students’ comfort with patients of diverse backgrounds. Practice implications Health care providers can be taught educational principles and skills involved in developing effective patient education materials. These skills may improve providers’ comfort with direct patient interaction. PMID:17418522

  18. The relationship between psychological comfort space and self-esteem in people with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuko; Nakajima, Kazuo; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Tomotake, Masahito

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a causal model of the sense of having psychological comfortable space that is call 'ibasho' in Japanese and self-esteem in people with mental disorders who had difficulty in social activities. The subjects were 248 schizophrenia patients who were living in the community and receiving day care treatment. Data were collected from December 2007 to April 2009 using the Scale for the Sense of ibasho for persons with mentally ill (SSI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and analyzed for cross-validation of construct validity by conducting covariance structure analysis. A relationship between the sense of having comfortable space and self-esteem was investigated. Multiple indicator models of the sense of having psychological comfortable space and self-esteem were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the SSI scores were compared between the high- and low-self-esteem groups. The path coefficient from the sense of having comfortable space to self-esteem was significant (0.80). High-self-esteem group scored significantly higher in the SSI subscales, 'the sense of recognizing my true self' and 'the sense of recognizing deep person-to-person relationships' than the low-self-esteem group. It was suggested that in order to help people with mental disorders improve self-esteem, it might be useful to support them in a way they can enhance the sense of having comfortable space. PMID:21372487

  19. WESBES: A Wireless Embedded Sensor for Improving Human Comfort Metrics using Temporospatially Correlated Data

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Hewlett; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2012-08-01

    When utilized properly, energy management systems (EMS) can offer significant energy savings by optimizing the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, difficulty often arises due to the constraints imposed by the need to maintain an acceptable level of comfort for a building’s occupants. This challenge is compounded by the fact that human comfort is difficult to define in a measurable way. One way to address this problem is to provide a building manager with direct feedback from the building’s users. Still, this data is relative in nature, making it difficult to determine the actions that need to be taken, and while some useful comfort correlations have been devised, such as ASHRAE’s Predicted Mean Vote index, they are rules of thumb that do not connect individual feedback with direct, diverse feedback sensing. As they are a correlation, quantifying effects of climate, age of buildings and associated defects such as draftiness, are outside the realm of this correlation. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is the Wireless Embedded Smart Block for Environment Sensing (WESBES); an affordable wireless sensor platform that allows subjective human comfort data to be directly paired with temporospatially correlated objective sensor measurements for use in EMS. The described device offers a flexible research platform for analyzing the relationship between objective and subjective occupant feedback in order to formulate more meaningful measures of human comfort. It could also offer an affordable and expandable option for real world deployment in existing EMS.

  20. Young people's comfort receiving sexual health information via social media and other sources.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan Sc; Vella, Alyce; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Hellard, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    Social media are growing in popularity and will play a key role in future sexual health promotion initiatives. We asked 620 survey participants aged 16 to 29 years about their time spent using social media and their comfort in receiving information about sexual health via different channels. Median hours per day spent using social network sites was two; 36% spent more than 2 hours per day using social network sites. In multivariable logistic regression, being aged less than 20 years and living in a major city (compared to rural/regional Australia) were associated with use of social media more than 2 hours per day. Most participants reported being comfortable or very comfortable accessing sexual health information from websites (85%), followed by a doctor (81%), school (73%), and the mainstream media (67%). Fewer reported being comfortable getting information from social media; Facebook (52%), apps (51%), SMS (44%), and Twitter (36%). Several health promotion programmes via social media have demonstrated efficacy; however, we have shown that many young people are not comfortable with accessing sexual health information through these channels. Further research is needed to determine how to best take advantage of these novel opportunities for health promotion. PMID:24616114

  1. Kinematics and thermal conditions in the permafrost-affected rockwalls of the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l., Mont Blanc massif, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Grangier, Germain; Weber, Samuel; Beutel, Jan; Magnin, Florence; Gruber, Stefan; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Processes that control climate-dependent rockfall from permafrost-affected rock slopes are still poorly understood. In this study, we present the results of a Wireless Sensor Network, integrated within the Swiss project PermaSense and developed in 2012, to measure rock temperature and geotechnical parameters in the steep rockwalls of the Aiguille du Midi (AdM, 3842 m a.s.l., Mont Blanc massif, France). Accessible year round by cable car, the AdM comprises two main peaks: (i) the Piton Nord with the cable car arrival station, where 4 crack-meters are placed on four major fractures, and (ii) the Piton Central with many touristic infrastructure, equipped with three 10-m-deep boreholes with 15 temperatures sensors since 2009, and where 2 crack-meters are installed along a major fracture. Three major kinematic regimes are observed: (i) opening of clefts when the rock temperature becomes positive, followed by closing during the cold period, (ii) summer opening continued by a winter opening, and (iii) closing during the warm period followed by opening in winter.

  2. Thermal effects on microbial composition and microbiologically induced corrosion and mineral precipitation affecting operation of a geothermal plant in a deep saline aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lerm, Stephanie; Westphal, Anke; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Alawi, Mashal; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-03-01

    The microbial diversity of a deep saline aquifer used for geothermal heat storage in the North German Basin was investigated. Genetic fingerprinting analyses revealed distinct microbial communities in fluids produced from the cold and warm side of the aquifer. Direct cell counting and quantification of 16S rRNA genes and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes by real-time PCR proved different population sizes in fluids, showing higher abundance of bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in cold fluids compared with warm fluids. The operation-dependent temperature increase at the warm well probably enhanced organic matter availability, favoring the growth of fermentative bacteria and SRB in the topside facility after the reduction of fluid temperature. In the cold well, SRB predominated and probably accounted for corrosion damage to the submersible well pump and iron sulfide precipitates in the near wellbore area and topside facility filters. This corresponded to lower sulfate content in fluids produced from the cold well as well as higher content of hydrogen gas that was probably released from corrosion, and maybe favored growth of hydrogenotrophic SRB. This study reflects the high influence of microbial populations for geothermal plant operation, because microbiologically induced precipitative and corrosive processes adversely affect plant reliability. PMID:23358731

  3. Segregation behavior of phosphorus in the heat-affected zone of an A533B/A182 dissimilar weld joint before and after simulated thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Miyahara, Yuichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The segregation behavior of phosphorus (P) in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of an A533B/A182 dissimilar weld joint before and after step cooling was investigated with atom probe tomography. At grain/packet boundaries, the final P segregation level consisted of non-equilibrium segregation that occurred during cooling after welding and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) and equilibrium segregation that occurred during step cooling. In both processes, higher P coverage was observed in the coarse-grained and intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ than in the fine-grained HAZ and base material. The cooling after welding and PWHT seemed to have a pronounced impact on P segregation in the subsequent aging process. In addition, P segregation also occurred at the precipitate/matrix interfaces of cementite, Mo2C and Al-Si rich precipitates. The evolution of P coverage at these two types of sites suggested increasing risks of embrittlement with an increase in aging time.

  4. Factors related to nurse comfort when caring for families experiencing perinatal loss: evidence for bereavement program enhancement.

    PubMed

    Rondinelli, June; Long, Kathleen; Seelinger, Connie; Crawford, Cecelia L; Valdez, Regina

    2015-01-01

    As nurses provide holistic support, their own comfort in caring for parents and families experiencing perinatal loss must be considered. Study results showed that, although education is essential, experience independently predicted comfort in delivering perinatal bereavement care. Evidence from this study promotes the discussion of how nurse educators can structure professional development programs to best transfer the experience and confidence of perinatal nurses who are already comfortable with bereavement care to nurses who are not. PMID:25993455

  5. Comfort in High-Performance Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, A.; Beach, R.

    2016-01-01

    IBACOS monitored 37 homes during the late summer and early fall of 2014 in a hot and humid climate to better understand indoor comfort conditions. These homes were constructed in the last several years by four home builders that offered a comfort and performance guarantee for the homes. The homes were located in one of four cities: Tampa, Florida; Orlando, Florida; Houston, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. Temperature and humidity data were collected from the thermostat and each room of the house using small, battery-powered data loggers. To understand system runtime and its impact on comfort, supply air temperature also was measured on a 1-minute interval. Overall, the group of homes only exceeded a room-to-room temperature difference of 6 degrees Fahrenheit for 5% of the time.

  6. The continuous end-state comfort effect: weighted integration of multiple biases.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V

    2012-05-01

    The grasp orientation when grasping an object is frequently aligned in anticipation of the intended rotation of the object (end-state comfort effect). We analyzed grasp orientation selection in a continuous task to determine the mechanisms underlying the end-state comfort effect. Participants had to grasp a box by a circular handle-which allowed for arbitrary grasp orientations-and then had to rotate the box by various angles. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed both that the rotation's direction considerably determined grasp orientations and that end-postures varied considerably. Experiments 3 and 4 further showed that visual stimuli and initial arm postures biased grasp orientations if the intended rotation could be easily achieved. The data show that end-state comfort but also other factors determine grasp orientation selection. A simple mechanism that integrates multiple weighted biases can account for the data. PMID:21499901

  7. A review of the combined effects of thermal and noise conditions on human performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso, Richard A.; Wang, Lily M.; Musser, Amy

    2001-05-01

    Human perception and annoyance due to background noise has been the subject of much research. A great deal of work has also been done to identify conditions that produce an acceptable thermal environment for building occupants. The experience of occupants in indoor environments, however, is much more complex than can be represented by thermal comfort or the acoustic environment in isolation. Occupants normally experience a mix of thermal, auditory, visual, and olfactory stimuli that combines to form an impression of the environment. This paper is specifically interested in how building occupants trade off between acoustic and thermal comfort. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems in buildings are often adjusted by building users to arrive at a more comfortable temperature, but this change may also produce more noise. Previous studies on the interaction effects between temperature and noise on human performance are reviewed in this presentation, followed by a discussion of the authors' current work in this area.

  8. Weld heat-affected zone in Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Part 1: Computer simulation of the effect of weld variables on the thermal cycles in the HAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.K.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Gopinathan, V.; Krishnan, R.

    1995-09-01

    The weld thermal cycles encountered in the HAZ of titanium alloys have been characterized using modified Rosenthal equations. The results are shown in the form of axonometric plots depicting the effect of two weld variables keeping the other variables fixed. Computer simulation results show that the heat input and the plate thickness are the major variables affecting the thermal cycles in the HAZ. The effects of changes in welding speed are reflecting in the variation in the heat input. The electrode radius has minimal effect and can be termed as the minor variable. Preheat or interpass temperatures have an intermediate effect. An increase in electrode radius or decrease in plate thickness requires large apparent displacement of the heat source above the plate surface to be incorporated in the analytical solutions. The melt pool width increases sharply with an increase in the heat input (a/v) or a decrease in plate thickness (d); however, preheat temperature (T{sub 0}) has negligible effect. The effect of weld variables on the effective heat input is also similar. The t{sub 8/5} parameter increases sharply with reducing plate thickness or increasing heat input.

  9. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  10. Dental vs. Medical Students' Comfort with Smoking Cessation Counseling: Implications for Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Allen, Staci Robinson; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if dental and medical students have similar feelings of professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence with counseling patients about smoking cessation during their clinical years. All third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical (N=580) and dental students (N=144) at Western University of Health Sciences were invited to participate in a survey in April-July 2014, either electronically or in person, regarding their perceived professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence in counseling smokers about quitting and major constraints against counseling smokers about quitting. Respondents' demographic characteristics, smoking history, and history of living with a smoker were also assessed. Response rates were 21% (124/580) for medical and 82% (118/144) for dental students. Most of the responding medical (99.2%) and dental (94.9%) students reported feeling it was their professional responsibility to counsel patients about smoking cessation. Medical student respondents were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling patients about smoking cessation than dental student respondents (p<0.001). Students in the third year were just as comfortable and confident counseling patients about smoking cessation as students in the fourth year (p>0.10). There were no differences by age, but students who were former smokers were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling about smoking cessation than were nonsmokers (p=0.001). While almost all of the responding students reported feeling responsible for counseling patients about smoking cessation, the medical students and former smokers were more comfortable and confident performing this counseling. These results suggest the need for additional training in counseling techniques for dental students and nonsmokers. Future studies should assess the impact of medical and dental students' smoking cessation counseling. PMID:27480707

  11. Psychiatrists' Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Farifteh F; Fochtmann, Laura J; Clarke, Diana E; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K; Plovnick, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists' Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists' comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted. PMID:26667248

  12. Thermal and Energy Performance of Conditioned Building Due To Insulated Sloped Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Suhandi Syiful; Ahmed, Azni Zain; Zakaria, Nor Zaini; Ibrahim, Norhati

    2010-07-01

    For low-rise buildings in equatorial region, the roof is exposed to solar radiation longer than other parts of the envelope. Roofs are to be designed to reject heat and moderate the thermal impact. These are determined by the design and construction of the roofing system. The pitch of roof and the properties of construction affect the heat gain into the attic and subsequently the indoor temperature of the living spaces underneath. This finally influences the thermal comfort conditions of naturally ventilated buildings and cooling load of conditioned buildings. This study investigated the effect of insulated sloping roof on thermal energy performance of the building. A whole-building thermal energy computer simulation tool, Integrated Environmental Solution (IES), was used for the modelling and analyses. A building model with dimension of 4.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m was designed with insulated roof and conventional construction for other parts of the envelope. A 75 mm conductive insulation material with thermal conductivity (k-value) of 0.034 Wm-1K-1 was installed underneath the roof tiles. The building was modelled with roof pitch angles of 0° , 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and simulated for the month of August in Malaysian climate conditions. The profile for attic temperature, indoor temperature and cooling load were downloaded and evaluated. The optimum roof pitch angle for best thermal performance and energy saving was identified. The results show the pitch angle of 0° is able to mitigate the thermal impact to provide the best thermal condition with optimum energy savings. The maximum temperature difference between insulated and non-insulted roof for attic (AtticA-B) and indoor condition (IndoorA-B) is +7.8 °C and 0.4 °C respectively with an average energy monthly savings of 3.9 %.

  13. Facilitating comfort for hospitalized patients using non-pharmacological measures: preliminary development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne M; Davies, Anne; Griffiths, Gareth

    2009-06-01

    Nurses often use non-pharmacological measures to facilitate comfort for patients within the hospital setting. However, guidelines for use of these measures are commonly inadequate or absent. This paper presents 12 clinical practice guidelines that were developed from the findings of a literature review into non-pharmacological measures that are thought to facilitate patient comfort. The non-pharmacological measures addressed in these guidelines are: Aromotherapy, Distraction, Guided Imagery, Laughter, Massage, Music, Reiki, Heat or Cold, Meditation, Reflexology, Reposition and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. These are preliminary guidelines for the use of non-pharmacological measures and further research and development of such guidelines is recommended. PMID:19531072

  14. The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P

    1999-10-01

    With considerably increased coverage of weather information in the news media in recent years in many countries, there is also more demand for data that are applicable and useful for everyday life. Both the perception of the thermal component of weather as well as the appropriate clothing for thermal comfort result from the integral effects of all meteorological parameters relevant for heat exchange between the body and its environment. Regulatory physiological processes can affect the relative importance of meteorological parameters, e.g. wind velocity becomes more important when the body is sweating. In order to take into account all these factors, it is necessary to use a heat-balance model of the human body. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is based on the Munich Energy-balance Model for Individuals (MEMI), which models the thermal conditions of the human body in a physiologically relevant way. PET is defined as the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting (without wind and solar radiation), the heat budget of the human body is balanced with the same core and skin temperature as under the complex outdoor conditions to be assessed. This way PET enables a layperson to compare the integral effects of complex thermal conditions outside with his or her own experience indoors. On hot summer days, for example, with direct solar irradiation the PET value may be more than 20 K higher than the air temperature, on a windy day in winter up to 15 K lower. PMID:10552310

  15. Lactating performance, water and feed consumption of rabbit does reared under a Mediterranean summer circadian cycle of temperature v. comfort temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakr, M H; Tusell, L; Rafel, O; Terré, M; Sánchez, J P; Piles, M

    2015-07-01

    The general aim of this research was to study the effect of high ambient temperature on the performance of does during lactation, specifically the following factors: average daily feed (ADFI) and water (ADWI) intakes, daily milk yield (DMY); milk composition: dry matter (DM), CP and gross energy (GE); doe BW (DW); individual kit weaning weight (IWW) and litter survival rate during lactation (SR). The study was undertaken comparing the performance of two groups of contemporary does reared under the same management, feeding regime and environmental conditions, except the environmental temperature and humidity. A total of 80 females were randomly allocated, at 60 days of age, into two identical and continuous rooms. In one room, the temperature was maintained permanently within the thermo-neutral zone (between 18°C to 22°C); thus, environmental conditions in this room were considered as comfort conditions. In the second room, the environmental temperature pattern simulated the daily temperature cycles that were characteristic of the summer in Mediterranean countries (24°C at 0800 h, increasing up to 29°C until 1100 h; maintenance at 29°C to 31°C for 4 h and decreasing to about 24°C to 26°C around 1700 h until 0800 h of the following day), which were considered as thermal stress conditions. Females followed a semi-intensive reproductive rhythm, first artificial insemination at 4.5 months of age, with subsequent 42-day reproductive cycles. Traits were recorded from a total of 138 lactations. Does were controlled up to the 5th lactation. Data were analyzed using linear and linear mixed models. High ambient temperature led to a lower ADFI (-9.4%), DW (-6.2%) and IWW (-8%), but it did not affect ADWI. No significant difference was found either for DMY, milk composition (DM, CP and GE) and SR during the lactation period. Heat stress was moderate, and does were able to adapt to it behaviorally by decreasing feed intake (to reduce heat production), but also live

  16. Effects of a thermal-insulating mouse pad on temperature of forearm and hand during computer tasks.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eline M; Formanoy, Margriet A G; Visser, Bart; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2006-07-15

    This laboratory experiment studied the effects of a thermal-insulating mouse pad on arm temperature and comfort during computer work. Fourteen subjects performed two 20-min computer tasks (a mouse task and a combined task alternating keyboard and mouse use), under three conditions, namely with: 1) a thermal-insulating pad; 2) a placebo pad; 3) no pad (desktop). The temperatures of the forearm, wrist, hand and fingers were measured with four thermocouples. Comfort and discomfort were determined by two visual analogue scales. No arm temperature differences were found between the experimental conditions after performing the combination task in any location. After the mouse task, however, arm temperature decreased significantly less with the thermal-insulating mouse pad than with the placebo pad. The thermal-insulating pad was rated as more comfortable and less uncomfortable than a regular desktop during mouse tasks. A large size is recommended for the thermal-insulating pad. PMID:16801230

  17. Managing childhood fever and pain--the comfort loop.

    PubMed

    Clinch, Jacqui; Dale, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents can transmit their anxiety to their child, and just as children can pick up on parental anxiety, they can also respond to a parent's ability to stay calm in stressful situations. Therefore, when treating children, it is important to address parental anxiety and to improve their understanding of their child's ailment. Parental understanding and management of both pain and fever - common occurrences in childhood - is of utmost importance, not just in terms of children's health and welfare, but also in terms of reducing the economic burden of unnecessary visits to paediatric emergency departments. Allaying parental anxiety reduces the child's anxiety and creates a positive feedback loop, which ultimately affects both the child and parentIn this review, the integral role of parental perception of the child's condition and the efficacy of treatment in the management of childhood fever and pain will be discussed. PMID:17678550

  18. Morphology of pedestrian roads and thermal responses during summer, in the urban area of Bucheon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gook-Sup; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of urban morphology representing sky view factor (SVF) on urban microclimate and on human thermal responses. The physical environments and the changes in body temperatures as well as psychological responses were investigated in summer in Bucheon, Korea. The dry bulb temperature ranged from 31.5 °C at SVF 0.082 site to 35.7 °C at SVF 0.922 site. Most of the environmental elements were statistically correlated to the SVF: the dry bulb temperature R 2 = 0.602, UVB R 2 = 0.556 and the illumination level R 2 = 0.609. The mean skin temperature increased up to 36.0 °C at the SVF 0.940 site and decreased to 33.9 °C at the SVF 0.082 site. The mean skin temperature was statistically correlated to the SVF ( p = 0.005). However, the core body temperature was not correlated to SVF because of time delay effect to the previously exposed thermal environment. In the investigation of thermal acceptability, only 5 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road that was covered with plentiful trees; in contrast, approximately 50 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road with poor solar obstacles in the summer. The thermal stress was affected by the urban morphology, and the plentiful urban greening improved thermal comfort.

  19. Morphology of pedestrian roads and thermal responses during summer, in the urban area of Bucheon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gook-Sup; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of urban morphology representing sky view factor (SVF) on urban microclimate and on human thermal responses. The physical environments and the changes in body temperatures as well as psychological responses were investigated in summer in Bucheon, Korea. The dry bulb temperature ranged from 31.5 °C at SVF 0.082 site to 35.7 °C at SVF 0.922 site. Most of the environmental elements were statistically correlated to the SVF: the dry bulb temperature R 2 = 0.602, UVB R 2 = 0.556 and the illumination level R 2 = 0.609. The mean skin temperature increased up to 36.0 °C at the SVF 0.940 site and decreased to 33.9 °C at the SVF 0.082 site. The mean skin temperature was statistically correlated to the SVF (p = 0.005). However, the core body temperature was not correlated to SVF because of time delay effect to the previously exposed thermal environment. In the investigation of thermal acceptability, only 5 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road that was covered with plentiful trees; in contrast, approximately 50 % of subjects were dissatisfied with the road with poor solar obstacles in the summer. The thermal stress was affected by the urban morphology, and the plentiful urban greening improved thermal comfort.

  20. A foreground object features-based stereoscopic image visual comfort assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, G.; Ying, H.; Yu, M.; Ding, S.; Peng, Z.; Shao, F.

    2014-11-01

    Since stereoscopic images provide observers with both realistic and discomfort viewing experience, it is necessary to investigate the determinants of visual discomfort. By considering that foreground object draws most attention when human observing stereoscopic images. This paper proposes a new foreground object based visual comfort assessment (VCA) metric. In the first place, a suitable segmentation method is applied to disparity map and then the foreground object is ascertained as the one having the biggest average disparity. In the second place, three visual features being average disparity, average width and spatial complexity of foreground object are computed from the perspective of visual attention. Nevertheless, object's width and complexity do not consistently influence the perception of visual comfort in comparison with disparity. In accordance with this psychological phenomenon, we divide the whole images into four categories on the basis of different disparity and width, and exert four different models to more precisely predict its visual comfort in the third place. Experimental results show that the proposed VCA metric outperformance other existing metrics and can achieve a high consistency between objective and subjective visual comfort scores. The Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are over 0.84 and 0.82, respectively.