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Sample records for affect thermal comfort

  1. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles.

  2. Occupant thermal comfort evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiardi, Gena L.

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

  3. Radiant heat and thermal comfort in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Joel M; Sayer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Infrared-reflective (IRR) treatment of automotive glass has been shown to reduce air temperature in vehicle cabins, thereby increasing fuel economy and occupant comfort. Its effect on radiant heat, however, may augment these benefits. In this study, the hypothesis that radiant heat affects subjective comfort ratings in a vehicle was tested. IRR films were systematically applied to the driver-side window of an outdoor stationary vehicle. In Phase 1, cabin air temperature was controlled while participants rated their thermal comfort. In Phase 2, air temperature was adjusted according to participants' responses. Results in Phase 1 showed that the IRR treatment improved thermal comfort on the left forearm, which was exposed to direct solar irradiance, but not whole-body thermal comfort. In Phase 2, participants indicated that they were comfortable at a higher air temperature (mean of 2.5 degrees F [1.4 degrees C]) with the IRR treatment than in the untreated condition. The results indicate that reducing radiant heat via IRR treatment affects subjective assessments of thermal comfort and allows occupants to maintain the same level of comfort in a warmer vehicle cabin. Applications of this research include future implementations of IRR treatment on automotive glass that may lead to greater fuel economy savings and occupant comfort than have previously been estimated.

  4. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research.

  5. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. PMID:26171688

  6. Thermal comfort in tropical classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, A.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper examines the comfort criteria of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 for their applicability in tropical classrooms. A field study conducted in Hawaii used a variety of methods to collect the data: survey questionnaires, physical measurements, interviews, and behavioral observations. A total of 3,544 students and teachers completed questionnaires in 29 naturally ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms in six schools during two seasons. The majority of classrooms failed to meet the physical specifications of the Standard 55 comfort zone. Thermal neutrality, preference, and acceptability results are compared with other field studies and the Standard 55 criteria. Acceptability votes by occupants of both naturally ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms exceeded the standard`s 80% acceptability criteria, regardless of whether physical conditions were in or out of the comfort zone. Responses from these two school populations suggest not only a basis for separate comfort standards but energy conservation opportunities through raising thermostat set points.

  7. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice

    PubMed Central

    Fanger, P. O.

    1973-01-01

    Fanger, P. O. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 313-324. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice. A review is given of existing knowledge regarding the conditions for thermal comfort. Both physiological and environmental comfort conditions are discussed. Comfort criteria are shown diagrammatically, and their application is illustrated by numerous practical examples. Furthermore, the effect on the comfort conditions of age, adaptation, sex, seasonal and circadian rhythm, and unilateral heating or cooling of the body is discussed. The term `climate monotony' is considered. A method is recommended for the evaluation of the quality of thermal environments in practice. Images PMID:4584998

  8. Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

  9. Understanding the adaptive approach to thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.A.; Nicol, J.F.

    1998-10-01

    This paper explains the adaptive approach to thermal comfort, and an adaptive model for thermal comfort is presented. The model is an example of a complex adaptive system (Casti 1996) whose equilibria are determined by the restrictions acting upon it. People`s adaptive actions are generally effective in securing comfort, which occurs at a wide variety of indoor temperatures. These comfort temperatures depend upon the circumstances in which people live, such as the climate and the heating or cooling regime. The temperatures may be estimated from the mean outdoor temperature and the availability of a heating or cooling plant. The evaluation of the parameters of the adaptive model requires cross-sectional surveys to establish current norms and sequential surveys (with and without intervention) to evaluate the rapidity of people`s adaptive actions. Standards for thermal comfort will need revision in the light of the adaptive approach. Implications of the adaptive model for the HVAC industry are noted.

  10. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  11. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  12. [Thermal comfort in perioperatory risk's evaluation].

    PubMed

    Masia, M D; Dettori, M; Liperi, G; Deriu, G M; Posadino, S; Maida, G; Mura, I

    2009-01-01

    Studies till now conducted about operating rooms' microclimate have been focused mainly on operators' thermal comfort, considering that uneasiness conditions may compromise their working performance. In last years, nevertheless, the anesthesiologic community recalled attention on patients' risks determined by perioperatory variations of normothermia, underlining the necessity of orientating studies to individuate microclimate characteristics act to guarantee thermal comfort of the patient too. Looking at these considerations, a study has been conducted in the operating rooms of the hospital-university Firm and the n.1 USL of Sassari, finalized, on one hand, to determinate microclimate characteristics of the operating blocks and to evaluate operators' and patients' thermal comfort, on the other to individuate, through a software simulation, microclimate conditions that ensure contemporarily thermal comfort for both the categories. Results confirm the existence of a thermal "gap" among operators and patients, these last constantly submitted to "cold-stress", sometimes very accentuated. So, we underline microclimate's importance in operating rooms, because there are particular situations that can condition perioperatory risks. Moreover it can be useful to integrate risk's classes of the American Society of Anestesiology (ASA) with a score attributed to the PMV/PPD variation, reaching more real operatory risk indicators. PMID:19798902

  13. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  14. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2014-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous ‘components’. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].1 The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.1 Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude. PMID:27226992

  15. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous 'components'. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].(1) The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.(1) Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude.

  16. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous ‘components’. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].1 The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.1 Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude. PMID:27226992

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  18. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  19. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. PMID:23590514

  20. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  1. Thermal comfort requirements: A study of people with multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, L.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Hodder, S.G.

    1999-07-01

    Existing specifications for thermal comfort in built environments are coming under increased criticism for failing to consider the requirements of specific populations. People with physical disabilities are an example of one such population. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort requirements of 32 people with multiple sclerosis. Subjects were exposed to three conditions: 18.5 C, PMV = {minus}1.5, slightly cool to cool; 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral; 29 C, PMV = +1.5, slightly warm to warm. Results indicate that people with multiple sclerosis have a wide range of responses to the three experimental conditions. The actual percentage dissatisfied was much higher than predicted by Fange's (1970) predicted percentage dissatisfied. Their preferred environment is slightly warmer than 23 C, PMV = 0, neutral. A subgroup of the population prefers an environment that is slightly cooler than 23 C. Further work is needed to qualify if their preferred environments match that of PMV+1 and PMV{minus}1 and to identify if any of the factors such as age, duration of disability, and medication affect the actual mean vote.

  2. Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.

    2005-06-01

    The objects of this report are to: (1) increase national energy security by reducing fuel use for vehicle climate control systems; (2) show/demonstrate technology that can reduce the fuel used by LD vehicles' ancillary systems; and (3) develop tools to evaluate the effectiveness of energy-efficient systems including--comfort, cost, practicality, ease-of-use, and reliability.

  3. Opportunities for energy conservation through thermal comfort control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Singh, H.

    1997-06-01

    The primary function of a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is either (1) the generation and maintenance of comfort for occupants in a conditioned space; or (2) the supplying of a set of environmental conditions (high humidity, etc.) for a process or product within a space. To achieve these objectives HVAC systems typically consume energy. For building occupants the level of thermal comfort is the result of interactions between factors such as the thermal, visual, and acoustic environments as well as with the indoor air quality. Fanger and others have shown that thermal comfort is correlated with six factors, four environmental and two personal. The environmental factors include: (1) ambient air temperature, (2) humidity, (3) air velocity near the skin surface, and (4) amount of radiant heat exchange between the body and nearby surfaces. The personal factors include the insulation value of the occupants clothing (clo value) and the metabolic rate associated with an activity (met rate). While trying to maintain comfort conditions, typically HVAC systems only attempt to control the room air temperature, ignoring the interactions and influence of the remaining five thermal comfort variables. If a more comprehensive approach is taken to thermal comfort control that simultaneously considers all of the factors then energy consumption can potentially be reduced.

  4. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

  5. Thermal comfort of patients in hospital ward areas.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Rae, A.

    1977-01-01

    The patient is identified as being of prime importance for comfort standards in hospital ward areas, other ward users being expected to adjust their dress to suit the conditions necessary for patients comfort. A study to identify the optimum steady state conditions for patients comfort is then described. Although this study raises some doubts as to the applicability of the standard thermal comfort assessment techniques to ward areas, it is felt that its results give a good indication of the steady-state conditions preferred by the patients. These were an air temperature of between 21-5 degrees and 22 degrees C and a relative humidity of between 30% and 70%, where the air velocity was less than 0-1 m/s and the mean radiant temperature was close to air temperature. PMID:264497

  6. Air movement and thermal comfort in tropical schools

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, A.G.

    1997-12-31

    Comfort standards (ASHRAE 55, ISO 7730) specify exact physical criteria for producing acceptable thermal environments, which include temperature, air movement, and humidity limits that are often difficult to comply with, particularly in hot and humid tropical climates such as Hawaii`s. Are these temperate climate, air-conditioning based standards appropriate to situations in tropical climates? During two seasons, thermal comfort experiments conducted in Hawaii in both naturally-ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms polled responses from 3,544 students and teachers, while they simultaneously measured indoor climate variables. Results indicated that more than 75% of the classrooms were not within comfort zone prescriptions. Air-conditioned classrooms were overcooled, causing half of the occupants to experience cool thermal sensations. Although many naturally-ventilated classrooms were 3--4 C warmer than comfort zone requirements, occupants found conditions acceptable. Occupants generally preferred more air movement, even though measured air velocities met the Standard`s criteria. Comfort responses are discussed in terms of comparisons to ASHRAE Standard 55-92.

  7. Dynamic indoor thermal comfort model identification based on neural computing PMV index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Homod, R. Z.; Eng, Y. K.

    2013-06-01

    This paper focuses on modelling and simulation of building dynamic thermal comfort control for non-linear HVAC system. Thermal comfort in general refers to temperature and also humidity. However in reality, temperature or humidity is just one of the factors affecting the thermal comfort but not the main measures. Besides, as HVAC control system has the characteristic of time delay, large inertia, and highly nonlinear behaviour, it is difficult to determine the thermal comfort sensation accurately if we use traditional Fanger's PMV index. Hence, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been introduced due to its ability to approximate any nonlinear mapping. Using ANN to train, we can get the input-output mapping of HVAC control system or in other word; we can propose a practical approach to identify thermal comfort of a building. Simulations were carried out to validate and verify the proposed method. Results show that the proposed ANN method can track down the desired thermal sensation for a specified condition space.

  8. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  9. Effect of neck warming and cooling on thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Chambers, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The potential use of local neck cooling in an area superficial to the cerebral arteries was evaluated by circulating cold or hot water through two copper disks held firmly against the neck. Subjective responses indicated that neck cooling improves the thermal comfort in a hot environment.

  10. Thermal comfort assessment in Moscow during the summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, Elizaveta; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Biometeorological indices are used to asses thermal comfort conditions and evaluate the influence of the weather on the human organism and health. Despite of the fact, that some biometeorological indices are already used in weather forecast, the assessment of these indices is especially important during the extreme weather conditions like continuous heat or cold waves. One of the very urgent issues in the applied climatology is the assessment of thermal comfort conditions in the urban areas, because nowadays more than half population of the planet lives there. Especially important is to study thermal comfort conditions in biggest and, thus, densely populated cities, because the effect of heat waves becomes stronger by the urban heat island effect. In July and August 2010 in the biggest city in Russia - Moscow, where more than 11 million people live, the longest and the strongest heat wave as well as the warmest day (29th of July 2010) were recorded since the meteorological observations in Russian capital were started. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the thermal comfort conditions of the warmest day in Moscow. For that purpose several biometeorological indices, particularly PET (physiological equivalent temperature), were analyzed and calculated for the warmest day in Russian capital. The calculations were done for the certain city canyon on the territory of the Moscow State University as well as for the places with natural vegetation. The results were compared with each other and, thus, the complex thermal comfort assessment was done. Also, the results of the calculations for the 29th of July 2010 were compared with the mean meteorological data for this period.

  11. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone: Including thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Boris Rm; Frijns, Arjan Jh; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  12. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone: Including thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Boris Rm; Frijns, Arjan Jh; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached.

  13. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-03-07

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment.

  14. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  15. The effect of human-mattress interface's temperature on perceived thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Califano, R; Naddeo, A; Vink, P

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, methods that allow for an objective evaluation of perceived comfort, in terms of postural, physiological, cognitive and environmental comfort, have received a great deal of attention from researchers. This paper focuses on one of the factors that influences physiological comfort perception: the temperature difference between users and the objects with which they interact. The first aim is to create a measuring system that does not affect the perceived comfort during the temperatures' acquisition. The main aim is to evaluate how the temperature at the human-mattress interface can affect the level of perceived comfort. A foam mattress has been used for testing in order to take into account the entire back part of the human body. The temperature at the interface was registered by fourteen 100 Ohm Platinum RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) placed on the mattress under the trunk, the shoulders, the buttocks, the legs, the thighs, the arms and the forearms of the test subject. 29 subjects participated in a comfort test in a humidity controlled environment. The test protocol involved: dress-code, anthropometric-based positioning on mattress, environment temperature measuring and an acclimatization time before the test. At the end of each test, each of the test subject's thermal sensations and the level of comfort perception were evaluated using the ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) scale. The data analyses concerned, in the first instance, correlations between the temperature at the interface and comfort levels of the different parts of the body. Then the same analyses were performed independently of the body parts being considered. The results demonstrated that there was no strong correlation among the studied variables and that the total increase of temperature at interface is associated with a reduction in comfort.

  16. The effect of human-mattress interface's temperature on perceived thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Califano, R; Naddeo, A; Vink, P

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, methods that allow for an objective evaluation of perceived comfort, in terms of postural, physiological, cognitive and environmental comfort, have received a great deal of attention from researchers. This paper focuses on one of the factors that influences physiological comfort perception: the temperature difference between users and the objects with which they interact. The first aim is to create a measuring system that does not affect the perceived comfort during the temperatures' acquisition. The main aim is to evaluate how the temperature at the human-mattress interface can affect the level of perceived comfort. A foam mattress has been used for testing in order to take into account the entire back part of the human body. The temperature at the interface was registered by fourteen 100 Ohm Platinum RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) placed on the mattress under the trunk, the shoulders, the buttocks, the legs, the thighs, the arms and the forearms of the test subject. 29 subjects participated in a comfort test in a humidity controlled environment. The test protocol involved: dress-code, anthropometric-based positioning on mattress, environment temperature measuring and an acclimatization time before the test. At the end of each test, each of the test subject's thermal sensations and the level of comfort perception were evaluated using the ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) scale. The data analyses concerned, in the first instance, correlations between the temperature at the interface and comfort levels of the different parts of the body. Then the same analyses were performed independently of the body parts being considered. The results demonstrated that there was no strong correlation among the studied variables and that the total increase of temperature at interface is associated with a reduction in comfort. PMID:27633230

  17. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (athletic park), named "Serafeio Athletic and Cultural Centre," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  19. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  20. Analysis of human thermal comfort and its tendencies in Budapest (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Akos; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the fact that the evaluation of the thermal conditions in the urban areas is extremely important and timely, in Budapest (capital of Hungary) very few studies were performed in this direction until now. The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences and changes of the thermal comfort conditions in the last half century (1961-2010) by comparing measurements of two meteorological stations located in different environments of Budapest: one in the central urban area (Local Climate Zone 2 - 'compact midrise') and the other in the suburbs (between Local Climate Zones 6 - 'open lowrise' and A - 'dense trees'). The thermal comfort was characterized by two human bioclimatological comfort indices, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), for four characteristic times of the day in the examined period. Then the thermal comfort differences between the stations according to two climatic normal periods (1961-1990 and 1981-2010), and the tendencies detected among the periods were also under investigation. For the last decade, 2001-2010, hourly-resolution investigations were carried out. The results indicate that the central area is affected by a higher degree of hot stress and less cold stress. Additionally, the warm stress has become more frequent, however, the cold heat load decreased in both examined area at each time.

  1. Thermal comfort and thermoregulation in manned space flight.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Fei, Jin-Xue; Yu, Xue-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to thermal environment is one of the main concerns for manned space exploration. By focusing on the works performed on thermoregulation at microgravity or simulated microgravity, we endeavored to review the investigation on space thermal environmental physiology. First of all, the application of medical requirements for the crew module design from normal thermal comfort to accidental thermal emergencies in a space craft will be addressed. Then, alterations in the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation caused by the effect of weightlessness both in space flight and its simulation on the ground are also discussed. Furthermore, countermeasures like exercise training, simulated natural ventilation, encouraged drink, etc., in the protection of thermoregulation during space flight is presented. Finally, the challenge of space thermal environment physiology faced in the future is figured out.

  2. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces

  3. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces.

  4. Experimental study of the influence of anticipated control on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y; Feng, C; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether occupants' anticipated control of their thermal environment can influence their thermal comfort and to explain why the acceptable temperature range in naturally ventilated environments is greater than that in air-conditioned environments, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in which the thermal environment remained the same but the psychological environment varied. The results of the experiments show that the ability to control the environment can improve occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Specifically, occupants' anticipated control decreased their thermal sensation vote (TSV) by 0.4-0.5 and improved their thermal comfort vote (TCV) by 0.3-0.4 in neutral-warm environment. This improvement was due exclusively to psychological factors. In addition, having to pay the cost of cooling had no significant influence on the occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort in this experiment. Thus, having the ability to control the thermal environment can improve occupants' comfort even if there is a monetary cost involved.

  5. Climate change and thermal comfort in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Shing Calvin; Hart, Melissa Anne

    2014-03-01

    Thermal comfort is a major issue in cities and it is expected to change in the future due to the changing climate. The objective of this paper is to use the universal thermal comfort index (UTCI) to compare the outdoor thermal comfort in Hong Kong in the past (1971-2000) and the future (2046-2065 and 2081-2100). The future climate of Hong Kong was determined by the general circulation model (GCM) simulations of future climate scenarios (A1B and B1) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Three GCMs were chosen, GISS-ER, GFDL-CM2.1 and MRI-CGCM2.3.2, based on their performance in simulating past climate. Through a statistical downscaling procedure, the future climatic variables were transferred to the local scale. The UTCI is calculated by four predicted climate variables: air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. After a normalisation procedure, future UTCI profiles for the urban area of Hong Kong were created. Comparing the past UTCI (calculated by observation data) and future UTCI, all three GCMs predicted that the future climate scenarios have a higher mode and a higher maximum value. There is a shift from 'No Thermal Stress' toward 'Moderate Heat Stress' and 'Strong Heat Stress' during the period 2046-2065, becoming more severe for the later period (2081-2100). Comparing the two scenarios, B1 exhibited similar projections in the two time periods whereas for A1B there was a significant difference, with both the mode and maximum increasing by 2°C from 2046-2065 to 2081-2100.

  6. Climate change and thermal comfort in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi Shing Calvin; Hart, Melissa Anne

    2014-03-01

    Thermal comfort is a major issue in cities and it is expected to change in the future due to the changing climate. The objective of this paper is to use the universal thermal comfort index (UTCI) to compare the outdoor thermal comfort in Hong Kong in the past (1971-2000) and the future (2046-2065 and 2081-2100). The future climate of Hong Kong was determined by the general circulation model (GCM) simulations of future climate scenarios (A1B and B1) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Three GCMs were chosen, GISS-ER, GFDL-CM2.1 and MRI-CGCM2.3.2, based on their performance in simulating past climate. Through a statistical downscaling procedure, the future climatic variables were transferred to the local scale. The UTCI is calculated by four predicted climate variables: air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. After a normalisation procedure, future UTCI profiles for the urban area of Hong Kong were created. Comparing the past UTCI (calculated by observation data) and future UTCI, all three GCMs predicted that the future climate scenarios have a higher mode and a higher maximum value. There is a shift from `No Thermal Stress' toward `Moderate Heat Stress' and `Strong Heat Stress' during the period 2046-2065, becoming more severe for the later period (2081-2100). Comparing the two scenarios, B1 exhibited similar projections in the two time periods whereas for A1B there was a significant difference, with both the mode and maximum increasing by 2 °C from 2046-2065 to 2081-2100.

  7. Climate change and thermal comfort in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Shing Calvin; Hart, Melissa Anne

    2014-03-01

    Thermal comfort is a major issue in cities and it is expected to change in the future due to the changing climate. The objective of this paper is to use the universal thermal comfort index (UTCI) to compare the outdoor thermal comfort in Hong Kong in the past (1971-2000) and the future (2046-2065 and 2081-2100). The future climate of Hong Kong was determined by the general circulation model (GCM) simulations of future climate scenarios (A1B and B1) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Three GCMs were chosen, GISS-ER, GFDL-CM2.1 and MRI-CGCM2.3.2, based on their performance in simulating past climate. Through a statistical downscaling procedure, the future climatic variables were transferred to the local scale. The UTCI is calculated by four predicted climate variables: air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. After a normalisation procedure, future UTCI profiles for the urban area of Hong Kong were created. Comparing the past UTCI (calculated by observation data) and future UTCI, all three GCMs predicted that the future climate scenarios have a higher mode and a higher maximum value. There is a shift from 'No Thermal Stress' toward 'Moderate Heat Stress' and 'Strong Heat Stress' during the period 2046-2065, becoming more severe for the later period (2081-2100). Comparing the two scenarios, B1 exhibited similar projections in the two time periods whereas for A1B there was a significant difference, with both the mode and maximum increasing by 2°C from 2046-2065 to 2081-2100. PMID:23150088

  8. A possible connection between thermal comfort and health

    SciTech Connect

    Stoops, John L.

    2004-05-20

    It is a well-established fact that cardiovascular health requires periodic exercise during which the human body often experiences significant physical discomfort. It is not obvious to the exerciser that the short-term pain and discomfort has a long-term positive health impact. Many cultures have well-established practices that involve exposing the body to periodic thermal discomfort. Scandinavian saunas and American Indian sweat lodges are two examples. Both are believed to promote health and well-being. Vacations often intentionally include significant thermal discomfort as part of the experience (e.g., sunbathing, and downhill skiing). So people often intentionally make themselves thermally uncomfortable yet the entire foundation of providing the thermal environment in our buildings is done to minimize the percentage of people thermally dissatisfied. We must provide an environment that does not negatively impact short-term health and we need to consider productivity but are our current thermal comfort standards too narrowly defined and do these standards actually contribute to longer-term negative health impacts? This paper examines the possibility that the human body thermoregulatory system has a corollary relationship to the cardiovascular system. It explores the possibility that we have an inherent need to exercise our thermoregulatory system. Potential, physiological, sociological and energy ramifications of these possibilities are discussed.

  9. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities.

  10. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  11. An investigation of thermal comfort at high humidities

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, M.E.; Arens, E. Xu, T.; Bauman, F.S.; Oguru, Masayuki

    1999-07-01

    Climate chamber experiments were performed to investigate thermal comfort at high humidities. Subjective reports were recorded for a total of 411 subjects at frequent intervals during the three-hour experiments with 65 selected subjects equipped with instrumentation to record skin wettedness and skin temperature. The exposures ranged from 20 C/60% RH to 26 C/90% RH with two clothing levels, 0.5 and 0.9 clo, and three levels of metabolic activity, 1.2, 1.6, and 4 met. Clear differences in humidity response were not found for sedentary subjects; however, non-sedentary activities produced differences on several subjective scales. These differences, though, are dictated via heat balance and thermoregulation and cannot be separated from humidity-related effects. For metabolic rates 1.6 met and above, these data suggest that no practical limit on humidity will lower the percent dissatisfied below 25%.

  12. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Thermal Comfort in High-Performance Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop recommendations on HVAC system design and operating conditions to achieve optimal thermal comfort in high-performance homes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed recommendations to help residential heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) designers select optimal supply inlet size and system operating conditions to maintain good thermal comfort in low heating and cooling load homes. This can be achieved by using high sidewall supply air jets to create proper combinations of air temperature and air motion in the occupied zone of the conditioned space. The design of air distribution systems for low-load homes is an integral part of residential system research and development in systems integration. As American homes become more energy efficient, space conditioning systems will be downsized. The downsizing will reach the point where the air flow volumes required to meet the remaining heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing, which can affect thermal comfort. NREL researchers performed a detailed study evaluating the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, supply air velocity, and supply inlet size. They found that in heating mode, low and intermediate supply temperatures of 95 F (308 K) and 105 F (314 K) maintained acceptable comfort levels at lower fan powers than can be achieved at 120 F (322 K) supply temperatures. For the high supply temperature of 120 F (322 K), higher fan powers (supply velocities) were required to overcome buoyancy effects and reach a good mixing in the room. In cooling mode, a supply temperature of 55 F (286 K) provided acceptable comfort levels. A small supply inlet of 8-in. (0.2 m) x 1-in. (0.025 m) is recommended in both heating and cooling modes. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model heat transfer and airflow in the room

  13. Influence of evapotranspiration on thermal comfort in central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbach, A.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    In future, more and more people will be exposed to the negative thermal effects of urban climate, which will be exacerbated by predicted climate change. In regard to urban climate studies, it is necessary to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies tailored to the problem area and to include them in the local planning process. Urban green spaces or water bodies could help to mitigate the radiation and air temperature. For this purpose eddy-covariance technique has been carried out in Oberhausen (Germany; 51° N, 6° E) between 15 August 2010 and 14 August 2011 to quantify turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in areas with various types of urban land use. The results show that sensible heat flux (QH) is 20 % higher, latent heat flux (QE) 90 % lower at the urban (URB) site compared to the suburban one (SUB). Furthermore, partition of the turbulent heat fluxes (QH/Q* resp. QE/Q*) clearly depends on plan area density (λP). The human-biometeorological thermal index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), demonstrates that green spaces counteract growing thermal stress on city-dwellers due to improving thermal comfort. Aside from the positive effect of shading, inner-city green spaces can only be effective if an adequate water supply is ensured. Otherwise, the positive thermal effects of green spaces resulting from transpiration will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely, which is confirmed by the measured values. Additional planning recommendations for urban planners within cities located at mid-latitudes derived from measuring results are given.

  14. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  15. Thermal Comfort: An Index for Hot, Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sensation of thermal comfort is determined by a combination of air temperature, humidity of the air, rate of movement of the air, and radiant heat. This digest is intended to assist architects to design educational facilities that are as thermally comfortable as is possible without recourse to mechanical air conditioning. A nomogram is…

  16. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    PubMed

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  17. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  18. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  19. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced ( P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence ( P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  20. An Open Source “Smart Lamp” for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called “Smart Lamp”, useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment. PMID:26959035

  1. Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in Ourmieh Lake, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajzadeh, Hassan; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Research in developing countries concerning the relationship of weather and climate conditions with tourism shows a high importance not only because of financial aspects but also an important part of the region's tourism resource base. Monthly mean air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, vapor pressure, wind velocity, and cloud cover for the period 1985-2005 data collected from four meteorological stations Tabriz, Maragheh, Orumieh, and Khoy were selected. The purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable months for human thermal comfort in Ourmieh Lake, a salt sea in the northwest of Iran. To achieve this, the cooling power and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) calculated by the RayMan model and the Climate Tourism/Transfer Information Scheme (CTIS) were used. The results based on cooling power indicate that the most favorable period for tourism, sporting, and recreational activities in Ourmieh Lake is between June and October and based on PET between June to September. In addition, the CTIS shows a detailed quantification of the relevant climate-tourism factors.

  2. Thermal comfort of various building layouts with a proposed discomfort index range for tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Lee, Yee Yong; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Iwao, Kenzo; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity.

  3. Thermal comfort of various building layouts with a proposed discomfort index range for tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Lee, Yee Yong; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Iwao, Kenzo; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity. PMID:24679966

  4. Thermal Comfort in the Hot Humid Tropics of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, C. H.

    1963-01-01

    Day and night comfort votes were recorded from Caucasian residents at Weipa, a mission station in the hot humid tropics of North Queensland, Australia. The limit of day comfort for more than 50% of the men was 81·5°F. (27·5°C.) “normal” corrected effective temperature; the night limit was 78·0°F. (25·5°C.). Day comfort limits correlated well with air conditions at which sweat was apparent: night limits correlated with the amount of bed covering. Evidence of a change over 14 days in day comfort limit was found. Limitations in the effective temperature scale for expressing the “oppressive nature” of night air conditions are pointed out. Criticism is voiced of the use of dry bulb temperature instead of the effective temperature scale in conditions of high wet bulb temperatures with high relative humidity, such as in the hot humid tropics. PMID:14002126

  5. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots.

  6. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi

    2016-09-01

    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  7. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    PubMed

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. PMID:25626476

  8. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    PubMed

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions.

  9. Thermal sensations and comfort investigations in transient conditions in tropical office.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Nur Dalilah; Gital, Yakubu Yau

    2016-05-01

    The study was done to identify affective and sensory responses observed as a result of hysteresis effects in transient thermal conditions consisting of warm-neutral and neutral - warm performed in a quasi-experiment setting. Air-conditioned building interiors in hot-humid areas have resulted in thermal discomfort and health risks for people moving into and out of buildings. Reports have shown that the instantaneous change in air temperature can cause abrupt thermoregulation responses. Thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) assessments as a consequence of moving through spaces with distinct thermal conditions were conducted in an existing single-story office in a hot-humid microclimate, maintained at an air temperature 24 °C (± 0.5), relative humidity 51% (± 7), air velocity 0.5 m/s (± 0.5), and mean radiant temperature (MRT) 26.6 °C (± 1.2). The measured office is connected to a veranda that showed the following semi-outdoor temperatures: air temperature 35 °C (± 2.1), relative humidity 43% (± 7), air velocity 0.4 m/s (± 0.4), and MRT 36.4 °C (± 2.9). Subjective assessments from 36 college-aged participants consisting of thermal sensations, preferences and comfort votes were correlated against a steady state predicted mean vote (PMV) model. Local skin temperatures on the forehead and dorsal left hand were included to observe physiological responses due to thermal transition. TSV for veranda-office transition showed that no significant means difference with TSV office-veranda transition were found. However, TCV collected from warm-neutral (-0.24, ± 1.2) and neutral-warm (-0.72, ± 1.3) conditions revealed statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05). Sensory and affective responses as a consequence of thermal transition after travel from warm-neutral-warm conditions did not replicate the hysteresis effects of brief, slightly cool, thermal sensations found in previous laboratory experiments. These findings also indicate that

  10. Thermal sensations and comfort investigations in transient conditions in tropical office.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Nur Dalilah; Gital, Yakubu Yau

    2016-05-01

    The study was done to identify affective and sensory responses observed as a result of hysteresis effects in transient thermal conditions consisting of warm-neutral and neutral - warm performed in a quasi-experiment setting. Air-conditioned building interiors in hot-humid areas have resulted in thermal discomfort and health risks for people moving into and out of buildings. Reports have shown that the instantaneous change in air temperature can cause abrupt thermoregulation responses. Thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) assessments as a consequence of moving through spaces with distinct thermal conditions were conducted in an existing single-story office in a hot-humid microclimate, maintained at an air temperature 24 °C (± 0.5), relative humidity 51% (± 7), air velocity 0.5 m/s (± 0.5), and mean radiant temperature (MRT) 26.6 °C (± 1.2). The measured office is connected to a veranda that showed the following semi-outdoor temperatures: air temperature 35 °C (± 2.1), relative humidity 43% (± 7), air velocity 0.4 m/s (± 0.4), and MRT 36.4 °C (± 2.9). Subjective assessments from 36 college-aged participants consisting of thermal sensations, preferences and comfort votes were correlated against a steady state predicted mean vote (PMV) model. Local skin temperatures on the forehead and dorsal left hand were included to observe physiological responses due to thermal transition. TSV for veranda-office transition showed that no significant means difference with TSV office-veranda transition were found. However, TCV collected from warm-neutral (-0.24, ± 1.2) and neutral-warm (-0.72, ± 1.3) conditions revealed statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05). Sensory and affective responses as a consequence of thermal transition after travel from warm-neutral-warm conditions did not replicate the hysteresis effects of brief, slightly cool, thermal sensations found in previous laboratory experiments. These findings also indicate that

  11. A fundamental model of the human thermal system for prediction of thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Takemori, Toshikazu; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Shoji, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    The authors have developed a fundamental model of the human thermal system (AVA model) for the prediction of thermal comfort. The distinguishing feature of this model is a more precise description of heat transfer by blood flow (that is, it includes arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA) of the extremities and a dual vascular network) that conventional models of human thermal systems. The following results were obtained: (1) the experimental verification under three different steady thermal conditions (22, 28 and 34 C) and an unsteady thermal condition (28.1 C {r_arrow} 47.1 {r_arrow} 28.3 C) which suggests that the AVA model can simulate body-temperature profiles well; (2) the visualized results of the model predictions demonstrate that the calculated tissue-temperature and blood-temperature distributions are physiologically plausible.

  12. Thermal face protection delays finger cooling and improves thermal comfort during cold air exposure.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N

    2011-12-01

    When people dress for cold weather, the face often remains exposed. Facial cooling can decrease finger blood flow, reducing finger temperature (T (f)). This study examined whether thermal face protection limits finger cooling and thereby improves thermal comfort and manual dexterity during prolonged cold exposure. T (f) was measured in ten volunteers dressed in cold-weather clothing as they stood for 60 min facing the wind (-15°C, 3 m s(-1)), once while wearing a balaclava and goggles (BAL), and once with the balaclava pulled down and without goggles (CON). Subjects removed mitts, wearing only thin gloves to perform Purdue Pegboard (PP) tests at 15 and 50 min, and Minnesota Rate of Manipulation (MRM) tests at 30 and 55 min. Subjects rated their thermal sensation and comfort just before the dexterity tests. T (f) decreased (p < 0.05 for time × trial interaction) by 15 min of cold exposure during CON (33.6 ± 1.4-28.7 ± 2.0°C), but not during BAL (33.2 ± 1.4-30.6 ± 3.2°C); and after 30 min T (f) remained warmer during BAL (23.3 ± 5.9°C) than CON (19.2 ± 3.5); however, by 50 min, T (f) was no different between trials (14.1 ± 2.7°C). Performance on PP fell (p < 0.05) by 25% after 50 min in both trials; MRM performance was not altered by cold on either trial. Subjects felt colder (p < 0.05) and more uncomfortable (p < 0.05) during CON, compared to BAL. Thermal face protection was effective for maintaining warmer T (f) and thermal comfort during cold exposure; however, local cooling of the hands during manual dexterity tests reduced this physiological advantage, and performance was not improved.

  13. Evaporative cooling: Thermal comfort and its energy implications in California climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tengfang

    1998-09-01

    Evaporative cooling is more energy efficient than conventional air conditioning for comparable cooling, especially in arid areas such as Arizona, Colorado and Utah. In California, designers have not widely accepted the technology largely because of concerns about comfort and health. There is little actual quantitative information about thermal comfort in evaporatively cooling buildings. To advance the technology, it is necessary to address thermal comfort under the elevated humidities in such buildings. The objectives of this study are to (1) measure the occupant's reactions to the thermal conditions within evaporatively cooled buildings in California, (2) quantify acceptability limits applicable to evaporatively cooled spaces, (3) predict the indoor conditions and energy consumption of a prototypical evaporatively cooled building under different California climates, and (4) draw conclusions about the potential of the technology. The primary approach was to carry out field studies of thermal comfort in evaporatively cooled office and classroom buildings in inland California. The indoor environmental conditions were measured and compared to occupants' subjective votes of comfort and acceptability. These were compared with current ASHRAE comfort standards, and used to test the validity of the comfort zones' boundaries. Field results were generalized by using the DOE-2 program to simulate both the indoor conditions and energy savings produced by evaporative cooling in three climates. The field studies find little impact of humidity on building occupants' thermal comfort. The limit of 60% relative humidity was clearly too restrictive for these evaporatively cooled spaces, and a looser limit is needed. The humidities measured in this study were however not high enough to verify the appropriateness of the 20sb°C wet-bulb temperature limit in ASHRAE Standard 55-1995. Adaptive opportunities of achieving thermal comfort were discovered, suggesting a possible wider zone of

  14. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  15. The effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chupo; Fan, Jintu; Newton, Edward; Au, Raymond

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation on the effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on clothing comfort measured in terms of thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance. Four T-shirts in four different sizes (S, M, L, XL) were cut under the traditional sizing method while another (F-1) was cut with specially added fullness to create a 'flared' drape. A thermal manikin 'Walter' was used to measure the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the T-shirts in a chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The tests included four conditions: manikin standing still in the no-wind and windy conditions and walking in the no-wind and windy condition. It was found that adding fullness in the T-shirt design (F-1) to create the 'flared' drape can significantly reduce the T-shirt's thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under walking or windy conditions. Heat and moisture transmission through the T-shirt can be further enhanced by creating small apertures on the front and back of the T-shirt with specially added fullness. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The thermal comfort of the human body is one of the key issues in the study of ergonomics. When doing exercise, a human body will generate heat, which will eventually result in sweating. If heat and moisture are not released effectively from the body, heat stress may occur and the person's performance will be negatively affected. Therefore, contemporary athletic T-shirts are designed to improve the heat and moisture transfer from the wearer. Through special cutting, such athletic T-shirts can be designed to improve the ventilation of the wearer.

  16. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  17. A comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in the terms of thermal comfort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fanger’s PMV equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air velocity, humidity, activity level and clothing insulation. Methods This paper contains a comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in terms of thermal comfort, Fanger’s PMV equation. Studies were processed in the winter for an office, which locates in Ankara, Turkey. The office was partitioned to fifty square cells. Humidity, relative air velocity, air temperature and mean radiant temperature were measured on the centre points of these cells. Thermal comfort analyses were processed for suit dressing (Icl = 1 clo) and summer clothing (Icl = 0.5 clo). Results Discomfort/comfort in an environment for different clothing types can be seen in this study. The relationship between indoor thermal comfort distribution and clothing type was discussed. Graphics about thermal comfort were sketched according to cells. Conclusions Conclusions about the thermal comfort of occupants were given by PMV graphics. PMID:24355097

  18. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    PubMed

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions. PMID:27280378

  19. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    PubMed

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions.

  20. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China.

  1. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China. PMID:26451532

  2. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people in outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2007-05-01

    Current thermal comfort indices do not take into account the effects of wind and body movement on the thermal resistance and vapor resistance of clothing. This may cause public health problem, e.g. cold-related mortality. Based on the energy balance equation and heat exchanges between a clothed body and the outdoor environment, a mathematical model was developed to determine the air temperature at which an average adult, wearing a specific outdoor clothing and engaging in a given activity, attains thermal comfort under outdoor environment condition. The results indicated low clothing insulation, less physical activity and high wind speed lead to high air temperature prediction for thermal comfort. More accurate air temperature prediction is able to prevent wearers from hypothermia under cold conditions.

  3. Thermal Analysis--Human Comfort--Indoor Environments. NBS Special Publication 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Billy W., Ed.; Hill, James E., Ed.

    Included in these proceedings are 11 formal papers presented by leading researchers in the field of thermal comfort and heat stress at a symposium held for the purpose of exploring new aspects of indoor thermal environments, caused primarily by the impact of energy conservation in new and existing buildings. The contributed papers were from…

  4. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  5. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  6. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    PubMed

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension. PMID:25683544

  7. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    PubMed

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension.

  8. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  9. Thermal comfort investigation on a naturally ventilated two- storey residential house in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, N. A.; Khairuddin, M. H.; Rosli, M. F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a case study to investigate the human thermal comfort on a naturally ventilated two-storey residential house in Malaysia. Three parameters were investigated in this study, namely the air temperature, air velocity and air humidity. These parameters were measured using the appropriate measuring device to obtain the actual data and compared with simulation results. The level of thermal comfort in the house was found to be poor as the parameters measured are over the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. Simulation on the model of the house was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code, FLUENT to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The error between these two sets of data was acceptable and thus the simulation used in this study was validated. Comparison was also made in the CFD simulation to see the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the house and without ceiling fan. The level of thermal comfort was poor in both cases as it did not satisfy the standards set by ASHRAE but more uniform temperature distribution inside the house was found when the ceiling fan was turned on. The thermal comfort level became critical in the afternoon as during this period, the house receives direct sunlight which causes the temperature inside the house to increase. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help to improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers to further improve the level of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated residential houses.

  10. Automatic control of human thermal comfort with a liquid-cooled garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Water cooling in a liquid-cooled garment is used to maintain the thermal comfort of crewmembers during extravehicular activity. The feasibility of a simple control that will operate automatically to maintain the thermal comfort is established. Data on three test subjects are included to support the conclusion that heat balance can be maintained well within allowable medical limits. The controller concept was also successfully demonstrated for ground-based applications and shows potential for any tasks involving the use of liquid-cooled garments.

  11. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system.

  12. Thermal comfort of diving dry suit with the use of the warp-knitted fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenfeldova, I.; Hes, L.; Annayeva, M.

    2016-07-01

    Achievement of a good level of thermal comfort of under-suits for dry suit diving which enable also the required mobility of the diver in water is inevitable not only for the scuba sport and commercial diving people but also for safety and activities of people who make research under water. The aim of this work is to verify whether selected knitted structures (which are not waterproof) can substitute the currently used textile materials (nonwovens). This dry-suit innovation is intended to increase the properties which correspond to the perception of thermal comfort of the diver in water. To achieve this objective, the Alambeta thermal tester was used in the study for experimental determination of thermal resistance of spacer warp knitted fabric at varying contact pressure. The studied textiles were expected to be very suitable for the intended application due to their low compressibility which yields relatively high thickness a hence increased thermal insulation.

  13. Effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement on thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Shinichi; Kimura, Kenichi

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement on thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions with a view toward energy conservation. Recently, ASHRAE published a new comfort envelope in Standard 55-1992. In that standard, the upper limit of relative humidity (RH) was wet at 60%. In hot and humid regions, humidity levels higher than 60% may often be observed. This upper limit of humidity is discussed based on their subjective data. In addition, the results show that under hot and humid conditions, air movement may be one of the least expensive methods of providing thermal comfort. The effect of air movement is also described in this paper.

  14. Short-term airing by natural ventilation - implication on IAQ and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Heiselberg, P; Perino, M

    2010-04-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings. Practical Implications This study gives the necessary background and in-depth knowledge of the performance of window airing by single-sided natural ventilation necessary for the development of control strategies for window airing (length of opening period and opening frequency) for optimum IAQ and thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings.

  15. The influence of thermal insulation position in building exterior walls on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yu, W.; Zhao, X.; Dai, W.; Ruan, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper focused on the influence of using position of thermal insulation materials in exterior walls on the indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption of residential building in Chongqing. In this study, four (4) typical residential building models in Chongqing were established, which have different usage of thermal insulation layer position in exterior walls. Indoor thermal comfort hours, cooling and heating energy consumption of each model were obtained by using a simulation tool, Energyplus. Based on the simulation data, the influence of thermal insulation position on indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption in each season was analyzed. The results showed that building with internal insulation had the highest indoor thermal comfort hours and least cooling and heating energy consumption in summer and winter. In transitional season, the highest indoor thermal comfort hours are obtained when thermal insulation is located on the exterior side.

  16. Understanding and Evaluating Human Thermal Comfort at Tertiary Level Using a Computer-Based Laboratory Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Phase changes in water are experienced in everyday life but students often struggle to understand mechanisms that regulate them. Human thermal comfort is closely related to humidity, evaporative heat loss and heat transfer. The purpose of the present study is to assist students in the evaluation of human thermal comfort. Such a goal is achievable…

  17. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects (n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  18. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  19. System and method of providing quick thermal comfort with reduced energy by using directed spot conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Mingyu; Kadle, Prasad S.; Ghosh, Debashis; Zima, Mark J.; Wolfe, IV, Edward; Craig, Timothy D

    2016-10-04

    A heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and a method of controlling a HVAC system that is configured to provide a perceived comfortable ambient environment to an occupant seated in a vehicle cabin. The system includes a nozzle configured to direct an air stream from the HVAC system to the location of a thermally sensitive portion of the body of the occupant. The system also includes a controller configured to determine an air stream temperature and an air stream flow rate necessary to establish the desired heat supply rate for the sensitive portion and provide a comfortable thermal environment by thermally isolating the occupant from the ambient vehicle cabin temperature. The system may include a sensor to determine the location of the sensitive portion. The nozzle may include a thermoelectric device to heat or cool the air stream.

  20. The CFD Simulation on Thermal Comfort in a library Building in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Y. H.; Ghazali, N. N. N.; Badarudin, A.; Goh, F. C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analysis for thermal comfort in a library. The room model includes library layout, equipment and peripheral positions as well as the positions of inlet and outlet air for IAQ controls. Cold clean air is supplied to the room through ceiling-mounted air grilles and exhausted through air grilles situated on the same ceiling. A commercial CFD package was used in this study to achieve solutions of the distribution of airflow velocity and temperature. Using high quality meshes is vital to the overall accuracy of the results. Simulation results show a good agreement with experimental data from the literature. This study has thoroughly analysed the indoor thermal conditions and airflow characteristics of the building. In addition, verification of the CFD program with experimental data showed that the program can provide reasonable and reliable predictions on thermal comfort performance with the help of precise boundary conditions.

  1. The CFD Simulation on Thermal Comfort in a library Building in the Tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Y. H.; Ghazali, N. N. N.; Badarudin, A.; Goh, F. C.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analysis for thermal comfort in a library. The room model includes library layout, equipment and peripheral positions as well as the positions of inlet and outlet air for IAQ controls. Cold clean air is supplied to the room through ceiling-mounted air grilles and exhausted through air grilles situated on the same ceiling. A commercial CFD package was used in this study to achieve solutions of the distribution of airflow velocity and temperature. Using high quality meshes is vital to the overall accuracy of the results. Simulation results show a good agreement with experimental data from the literature. This study has thoroughly analysed the indoor thermal conditions and airflow characteristics of the building. In addition, verification of the CFD program with experimental data showed that the program can provide reasonable and reliable predictions on thermal comfort performance with the help of precise boundary conditions.

  2. Neural computing thermal comfort index PMV for the indoor environment intelligent control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Yifei

    2013-03-01

    Providing indoor thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of indoor environmental control system. An intelligent comfort control system by combining the intelligent control and minimum power control strategies for the indoor environment is presented in this paper. In the system, for realizing the comfort control, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is designed as the control goal, and with chastening formulas of PMV, it is controlled to optimize for improving indoor comfort lever by considering six comfort related variables. On the other hand, a RBF neural network based on genetic algorithm is designed to calculate PMV for better performance and overcoming the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation better. The formulas given in the paper are presented for calculating the expected output values basing on the input samples, and the RBF network model is trained depending on input samples and the expected output values. The simulation result is proved that the design of the intelligent calculation method is valid. Moreover, this method has a lot of advancements such as high precision, fast dynamic response and good system performance are reached, it can be used in practice with requested calculating error.

  3. Modular liquid-cooled helmet liner for thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Shitzer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A modular liquid-cooled helmet liner made of eight form-fitting neoprene patches was constructed. The liner was integrated into the sweatband of an Army SPH-4 helicopter aircrew helmet. This assembly was tested on four subjects seated in a hot (47 C), humid (40%) environment. Results indicate a marked reduction in the rate of increase of physiological body functions. Rectal temperature, weight loss, heart rate, and strain indices are all reduced to approximately 50% of uncooled levels. The cooling liner removed from 10% to 30% of total metabolic heat produced. This study also demonstrated the technical feasilibity of using a cooling liner in conjunction with a standard hard helmet. Potential applications of the cooling liner in thermally stressful environments are numerous, notably for helicopter and other aircrews.

  4. Effect of human behavior on economizer efficacy and thermal comfort in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, TIghe Glennon

    California has set a zero net-energy conservation goal for the residential sector that is to be achieved by 2020 (California Energy Commission 2011). To reduce energy consumption in the building sector, modern buildings should fundamentally incorporate sustainable performance standards, involving renewable systems, climate-specific strategies, and consideration of a variety of users. Building occupants must operate in concert with the buildings they inhabit in order to maximize the potential of the building, its systems, and their own comfort. In climates with significant diurnal temperature swings, environmental controls designed to capitalize on this should be considered to reduce cooling-related loads. One specific strategy is the air-side economizer, which uses daily outdoor temperature swings to reduce indoor temperature swings. Traditionally a similar effect could be achieved by using thermal mass to buffer indoor temperature swings through thermal lag. Economizers reduce the amount of thermal mass typically required by naturally ventilated buildings. Fans are used to force cool nighttime air deep into the building, allowing lower mass buildings to take advantage of nighttime cooling. Economizers connect to a thermostat, and when the outdoor temperature dips below a programmed set-point the economizer draws cool air from outside, flushing out the warmed interior air. This type of system can be simulated with reasonable accuracy by energy modeling programs; however, because the system is occupant-driven (as opposed to a truly passive mass-driven system) any unpredictable occupant behavior can reduce its effectiveness and create misleading simulation results. This unpredictably has helped prevent the spread of economizers in the residential market. This study investigated to what extent human behavior affected the performance of economizer-based HVAC systems, based on physical observations, environmental data collections, and energy simulations of a residential

  5. Modelling occupants' personal characteristics for thermal comfort prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldi, Frédéric; Robinson, Darren

    2011-09-01

    Based on results from a field survey campaign conducted in Switzerand, we show that occupants' variations in clothing choices, which are relatively unconstrained, are best described by the daily mean outdoor temperature and that major clothing adjustments occur rarely during the day. We then develop an ordinal logistic model of the probability distribution of discretised clothing levels, which results in a concise and informative expression of occupants' clothing choices. Results from both cross-validation and independent verification suggest that this model formulation may be used with confidence. Furthermore, the form of the model is readily generalisable, given the requisite calibration data, to environments where dress codes are more specific. We also observe that, for these building occupants, the prevailing metabolic activity levels are mostly constant for the whole range of surveyed environmental conditions, as their activities are relatively constrained by the tasks in hand. Occupants may compensate for this constraint, however, through the consumption of cold and hot drinks, with corresponding impacts on metabolic heat production. Indeed, cold drink consumption was found to be highly correlated with indoor thermal conditions, whilst hot drink consumption is best described by a seasonal variable. These variables can be used for predictive purposes using binary logistic models.

  6. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  7. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon. PMID:26041385

  8. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  9. Use of infrared thermography in detection, remediation, and commissioning of thermal comfort problems in office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    2001-03-01

    Thermal comfort complaints within work places are one of the leading causes of workforce productivity loss within office environments. Generally, mechanical systems are relied on to provide adequate indoor environments. In many situations, these systems cannot provide suitable work environments due to unacceptable asymmetrical radiant temperature conditions found in exterior zones of building interiors. Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) has developed methodologies using infrared technology to assist building and office managers in reducing thermal comfort complaints and improve workforce productivity. Detection, verification, remediation and commissioning of solutions are easily and effectively carried out with the assistance of infrared radiometers and proper inspection and analysis procedures. This paper will outline two case studies and detail methodologies used in each case.

  10. Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, D.; Chabannes, G.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

  11. Effects of normobaric hypoxic bed rest on the thermal comfort zone.

    PubMed

    Ciuha, Ursa; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2015-01-01

    Future Lunar and Mars habitats will maintain a hypobaric hypoxic environment to minimise the risk of decompression sickness during the preparation for extra-vehicular activity. This study was part of a larger study investigating the separate and combined effects of inactivity associated with reduced gravity and hypoxia, on the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurohumoural, and thermoregulatory systems. Eleven healthy normothermic young male subjects participated in three trials conducted on separate occasions: (1) Normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement, (2) Normobaric hypoxic bedrest and (3) Normobaric normoxic bedrest. Normobaric hypoxia was achieved by reduction of the oxygen fraction in the air (FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004) within the facility, while the effects of reduced gravity were simulated by confining the subjects to a horizontal position in bed, with all daily routines performed in this position for 21 days. The present study investigated the effect of the interventions on behavioural temperature regulation. The characteristics of the thermal comfort zone (TCZ) were assessed by a water-perfused suit, with the subjects instructed to regulate the sinusoidally varying temperature of the suit within a range considered as thermally comfortable. Measurements were performed 5 days prior to the intervention (D-5), and on days 10 (D10) and 20 (D20) of the intervention. no statistically significant differences were found in any of the characteristics of the TCZ between the interventions (HAMB, HBR and NBR), or between different measurement days (D-5, D10, D20) within each intervention. rectal temperature remained stable, whereas skin temperature (Tsk) increased during all interventions throughout the one hour trial. no difference in Tsk between D-5, D10 and D20, and between HAMB, HBR and NBR were revealed. subjects perceived the regulated temperature as thermally comfortable, and neutral or warm. we conclude that regulation of thermal comfort is not compromised by

  12. Effects of normobaric hypoxic bed rest on the thermal comfort zone.

    PubMed

    Ciuha, Ursa; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2015-01-01

    Future Lunar and Mars habitats will maintain a hypobaric hypoxic environment to minimise the risk of decompression sickness during the preparation for extra-vehicular activity. This study was part of a larger study investigating the separate and combined effects of inactivity associated with reduced gravity and hypoxia, on the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurohumoural, and thermoregulatory systems. Eleven healthy normothermic young male subjects participated in three trials conducted on separate occasions: (1) Normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement, (2) Normobaric hypoxic bedrest and (3) Normobaric normoxic bedrest. Normobaric hypoxia was achieved by reduction of the oxygen fraction in the air (FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004) within the facility, while the effects of reduced gravity were simulated by confining the subjects to a horizontal position in bed, with all daily routines performed in this position for 21 days. The present study investigated the effect of the interventions on behavioural temperature regulation. The characteristics of the thermal comfort zone (TCZ) were assessed by a water-perfused suit, with the subjects instructed to regulate the sinusoidally varying temperature of the suit within a range considered as thermally comfortable. Measurements were performed 5 days prior to the intervention (D-5), and on days 10 (D10) and 20 (D20) of the intervention. no statistically significant differences were found in any of the characteristics of the TCZ between the interventions (HAMB, HBR and NBR), or between different measurement days (D-5, D10, D20) within each intervention. rectal temperature remained stable, whereas skin temperature (Tsk) increased during all interventions throughout the one hour trial. no difference in Tsk between D-5, D10 and D20, and between HAMB, HBR and NBR were revealed. subjects perceived the regulated temperature as thermally comfortable, and neutral or warm. we conclude that regulation of thermal comfort is not compromised by

  13. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design.

    PubMed

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Warland, Jon S; Gillespie, Terry J; Kenny, Natasha A

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  14. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  15. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  16. An Analysis of Some Observations of Thermal Comfort in an Equatorial Climate

    PubMed Central

    Webb, C. G.

    1959-01-01

    The analysis is introduced by a brief account of the development of work on thermal comfort. The observations, which are fully described in relation to the interior climates which were experienced, were made in Singapore in 1949-50. The climate of Singapore is typical of the equator, being warm, damp and windless; and the annual variation is almost negligible. Buildings are unheated, of an open type, and shaded from the sun and sky. A multiple regression equation has been derived, giving the thermal effect on a number of subjects of variations in the air temperature, the water vapour pressure, and the air velocity within the ranges experienced. The implications of the equation are discussed, and a climatic index is derived from it which is similar in definition to the widely used “effective temperature” scale, but shows a better correlation with thermal sensation. The new index is named the Singapore index. At a further stage the thermal sensation scale is simplified for the purpose of probit analysis. The probit regressions of discomfort due to warmth and cold are separately given in relation to the new index, and are combined to yield a thermal comfort graph from which the optimum is obtained and explored. A comfort chart for the rapid assessment of these humid climates is supplied, and an alternative form of the index equation is given which is more suitable for rapid calculation. It appears desirable in an equatorial climate to attempt to minimize discomfort by allowing to some extent for individual thermal requirements, and the benefits of a suitable climatic spread within a room are described. PMID:13843256

  17. Thermal comfort and clothing insulation of resting tent occupants at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Cena, Krzysztof; Davey, Nicole; Erlandson, Tamara

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-nine males and 18 females, in six groups, participated in six high altitude treks (each lasting 3-4 weeks and climbing up to 5500m) in the Himalaya and Karakoram. Inverse relationships between mean overnight total insulation (sleeping bag plus clothing) and air temperature in tents were recorded for all treks. Average overnight thermal sensations varied little with air temperature as the subjects modified their clothing insulation to maintain thermal sensations warmer than 'neutral' for all treks. For combined treks, subjects adjusted their mean overnight total insulation up to 7clo for thermal sensations of between 0 ('neutral') and +1 ('slightly warm') on average, measured on the standard seven-point thermal sensation scale developed for everyday low-altitude conditions. Very few subjects (3% of all daily responses, on average) reported 'cool' or 'cold' sensations. General tent discomfort increased with altitude suggesting that subjects interpreted tent comfort predominantly in terms of thermal outdoor conditions.

  18. Case study. Health hazards of automotive repair mechanics: thermal and lighting comfort, particulate matter and noise.

    PubMed

    Loupa, G

    2013-01-01

    An indoor environmental quality survey was conducted in a small private automotive repair shop during May 2009 (hot season) and February 2010 (cold season). It was established that the detached building, which is naturally ventilated and lit, had all the advantages of the temperate local climate. It provided a satisfactory microclimatic working environment, concerning the thermal and the lighting comfort, without excessive energy consumption for air-conditioning or lighting. Indoor number concentrations of particulate matter (PM) were monitored during both seasons. Their size distributions were strongly affected by the indoor activities and the air exchange rate of the building. During working hours, the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) number concentration ratio was 31 for PM0.3-1 in the hot season and 69 for the cold season. However I/O PM1-10 number concentration ratios were similar, 33 and 32 respectively, between the two seasons. The estimated indoor mass concentration of PM10 for the two seasons was on average 0.68 mg m(-3) and 1.19 mg m(-3), i.e., 22 and 36 times higher than outdoors, during the hot and the cold seasons, respectively. This is indicative that indoor air pollution may adversely affect mechanics' health. Noise levels were highly variable and the average LEX, 8 h of 69.3 dB(A) was below the European Union exposure limit value 87db (A). Noise originated from the use of manual hammers, the revving up of engines, and the closing of car doors or hoods. Octave band analysis indicated that the prevailing noise frequencies were in the area of the maximum ear sensitivity.

  19. Suitability of different comfort indices for the prediction of thermal conditions in tree-covered outdoor spaces in arid cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, María Angélica; Correa, Erica Norma

    2015-10-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort is one of the most influential factors in the habitability of a space. Thermal level is defined not only by climate variables but also by the adaptation of people to the environment. This study presents a comparison between inductive and deductive thermal comfort models, contrasted with subjective reports, in order to identify which of the models can be used to most correctly predict thermal comfort in tree-covered outdoor spaces of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area, an intensely forested and open city located in an arid zone. Interviews and microclimatic measurements were carried out in winter 2010 and in summer 2011. Six widely used indices were selected according to different levels of complexity: the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), Vinje's Comfort Index (PE), Thermal Sensation Index (TS), the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the COMFA model's energy balance (S), and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that the predictive models evaluated show percentages of predictive ability lower than 25 %. Despite this low indicator, inductive methods are adequate for obtaining a diagnosis of the degree and frequency in which a space is comfortable or not whereas deductive methods are recommended to influence urban design strategies. In addition, it is necessary to develop local models to evaluate perceived thermal comfort more adequately. This type of tool is very useful in the design and evaluation of the thermal conditions in outdoor spaces, based not only to climatic criteria but also subjective sensations.

  20. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  1. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    PubMed

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas. PMID:26349476

  2. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    PubMed

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  3. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  4. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The higher the supply flow rates the easier to reach good mixing in the space. In high performance homes, however, the flow rates required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. We used computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply for residential applications in heating and cooling modes. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions, and room dimensions. Laboratory experiments supported the study of thermal mixing in heating mode; we used the results to develop a correlation to predict high sidewall diffuser performance. For cooling mode, numerical analysis is presented. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes. It is proven that these systems can achieve good mixing and provide acceptable comfort levels. Recommendations are given on the operating conditions to guarantee occupant comfort.

  5. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  6. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI--a case study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L; Rossi, Francine A; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  7. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    PubMed

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  8. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18°C, 22°C or 26°C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s(-1) and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to just maintain overall thermal comfort, at rest or when cycling (60 W, 60 rpm). During the 30 min of the experiments, skin and rectal temperatures were continuously recorded. We hypothesized that mean body temperature should be maintained stable and the intensity of the radiant heat and the mean skin temperatures would be lower when cycling. In all conditions, mean body temperature was lower when facing winds of 3 m s(-1) than during the first 5 min, without wind. When facing winds, in all but the 26°C air, the radiant heat was statistically higher at rest than when exercising. In 26°C air mean skin temperature was lower at rest than when exercising. No other significant difference was observed. In all air temperatures, high correlation coefficients were observed between the air velocity and the radiant heat load. Other factors that we did not measure may have contributed to the constant overall thermal comfort status despite dropping mean skin and body temperatures. It is suggested that the allowance to behaviourally adjust the thermal environment increases the tolerance of cold discomfort.

  9. The Relationship between Thermal Comfort and Light Intensity with Sleep Quality and Eye Tiredness in Shift Work Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Azmoon, Hiva; Dehghan, Habibollah; Akbari, Jafar; Souri, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions such as lighting and thermal comfort are influencing factors on sleep quality and visual tiredness. The purpose of this study was the determination of the relationship between thermal comfort and light intensity with the sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift nurses. Method. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations in Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital, Iran, in 2012. Heat stress monitoring (WBGT) and photometer (Hagner Model) were used for measuring the thermal conditions and illumination intensity, respectively. To measure the sleep quality, visual tiredness, and thermal comfort, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire, and thermal comfort questionnaire were used, respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and Pearson correlation. Results. Correlation between thermal comfort which was perceived from the self-reporting of people with eye tiredness was −0.38 (P = 0.002). Pearson correlation between thermal comfort and sleep quality showed a positive and direct relationship (r = 0.241, P = 0.33) but the correlation between thermal comfort, which was perceived from the self-reporting of shift nurses, and WBGT index was a weak relationship (r = 0.019). Conclusion. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that a defect in environmental conditions such as thermal conditions and light intensity and also lack of appropriate managerial plan for night shift-work nurses are destructive and negative factors for the physical and mental health of this group of practitioners. PMID:23476674

  10. Evaluation of thermal comfort in university classrooms through objective approach and subjective preference analysis.

    PubMed

    Nico, Maria Anna; Liuzzi, Stefania; Stefanizzi, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Assessing thermal comfort becomes more relevant when the aim is to maximise learning and productivity performances, as typically occurs in offices and schools. However, if, in the offices, the Fanger model well represents the thermal occupant response, then on the contrary, in schools, adaptive mechanisms significantly influence the occupants' thermal preference. In this study, an experimental approach was performed in the Polytechnic University of Bari, during the first days of March, in free running conditions. First, the results of questionnaires were compared according to the application of the Fanger model and the adaptive model; second, using a subjective scale, a complete analysis was performed on thermal preference in terms of acceptability, neutrality and preference, with particular focus on the influence of gender. The user possibility to control the indoor plant system produced a significant impact on the thermal sensation and the acceptability of the thermal environment. Gender was also demonstrated to greatly influence the thermal judgement of the thermal environment when an outdoor cold climate occurs.

  11. Recommendations to Improve Employee Thermal Comfort When Working in 40°F Refrigerated Cold Rooms.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana; Mead, Kenneth; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee's physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing. We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing, providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems. PMID:25961447

  12. Recommendations to Improve Employee Thermal Comfort When Working in 40°F Refrigerated Cold Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana; Mead, Kenneth; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee’s physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing. We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing, providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems. PMID:25961447

  13. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  14. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, El Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The objective of the study outlined in this report is to resolve the issue that the flow rates that are required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space.and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes.

  15. Visitors' perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at the Royal Botanic Garden Melbourne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort studies have mainly examined the perception of local residents, and there has been little work on how those conditions are perceived differently by tourists, especially tourists of diverse origins. This issue is important because it will improve the application of thermal indices in predicting the thermal perception of tourists. This study aims to compare the differences in thermal perception and preferences between local and overseas visitors to the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) in Melbourne during summer. An 8-day survey was conducted in February 2014 at four sites in the garden (n = 2198), including 2 days with maximum temperature exceeding 40 °C. The survey results were compared with data from four weather stations adjacent to the survey locations. One survey location, `Fern Gully', has a misting system and visitors perceived the Fern Gully to be cooler than other survey locations. As the apparent temperature exceeded 32.4 °C, visitors perceived the environment as being `warm' or `hot'. At `hot' conditions, 36.8 % of European visitors voted for no change to the thermal conditions, which is considerably higher than the response from Australian visitors (12.2 %) and Chinese visitors (7.5 %). Study results suggest that overseas tourists have different comfort perception and preferences compared to local Australians in hot weather based at least in part on expectations. Understanding the differences in visitors' thermal perception is important to improve the garden design. It can also lead to better tour planning and marketing to potential visitors from different countries.

  16. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  17. The effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Results: Correlation between SA and sleep quality was −0.664(P < 0001), Pearson correlation between SA and thermal comfort was −0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P < 0001). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that improvement of thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses. PMID:25077165

  18. Environmental natural processes that achieve thermal comfort in multifamily buildings in hot-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Paola

    Buildings, especially in hot climates, consume a lot of energy when people want to be comfortable inside them, which translates to very expensive fees each month. The most innovative response to this problem is renewable energy, that is used, in this case, to run mechanical HVAC systems. Renewable energy is the solution for many problems, but to avoid urban heat islands when using excessive HVAC systems (powered by renewables), and to solve thermal comfort-related problems, there has to be other solution. The major challenge to find it would be to have a change of thinking process. If a building in a hot-arid region uses natural processes to emulate the functions of HVAC systems, and the proper passive strategies, then, it will provide thermal comfort to its users, diminishing the need of a mechanical system. This hypothesis will be carried out by extracting the natural processes found in a specific case in nature, applying them into a building's design, and then simulating its energy efficiency with the adequate software. There will be a comparison of the same proposed building without the natural processes, to have tangible numbers showing that these proposed strategies, in fact, work. With explanatory detailed diagrams and the energy analysis, the hypothesis could be proven correct or incorrect. The significance of this approach relies on the proximity to the natural processes that have been working in different aspects of life since the beginning of time. They have been there all the time, waiting until architects, engineers, and people in general use them, instead of making more new energy-using inventions. By having the numbers from a conventional building and the ones of the proposed building, and the right environmental diagrams, the experiment should be valid. In the near future, there should be more research focused on nature and its processes, in order to be able to reduce the use of mechanical systems, and with that, reduce the energy use and the carbon

  19. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  20. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  1. Assessment of Human Safety and Thermal Comfort in High-Temperature Environment: CFD and Human Thermoregulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuefeng, Han; Wenguo, Weng; Shifei, Shen

    2010-05-01

    The safety and the thermal comfort of victims and firefighters are important in the building fires, which are a little dependent on the occupant fatalities. In order to investigate the effects of the dangerous environment on human body in fires, numerical calculation of the heat transfer and human thermoregulation are presented in this paper. The numerical manikins coupled with human thermal models were proved as powerful tools for visualizing thermal comfort. The two-node model by Gagge and multi-code thermoregulation models were investigated, and the Gagge's model was coupled with the CFD for high-temperature environment simulation, with which a numerical manikin was built. During the simulation, temperatures of skin and core compartment of Computer Simulated Person (CPS) were recorded respectively, and the Predicted Mean Vote index values were counted. The thermal load on skin is much higher than neutral cases and the skin can be burnt in minutes if no protection and heat abstraction methods were introduced. Though existing models can predict thermal comfort in general indoor environment, they are not suitable in predicting the thermal comfort with high-temperature cases. It was suggested that more research combining CFD coupling thermoregulation models with thermal manikin experiment are needed.

  2. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet.

    PubMed

    Song, W F; Zhang, C J; Lai, D D; Wang, F M; Kuklane, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  3. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    PubMed Central

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of −0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of −6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  4. The influence of park size and form on micro climate and thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; Chi, Xiaoli; Müller, Felix; Zhang, Huiwen

    2016-04-01

    The population of urban areas will increase in the next decades and it leads to higher fraction of sealed areas, which will increase the urban heat island intensity. In addition, climate model projections also show that the frequency and the intensity of heat waves and the related heat stress will be higher in the future. Urban Parks are the best key to mitigate the urban heat island and to minimize the local climate change. Due to the lack of free spaces which can be converted to green spaces, this study investigates the influence of urban park forms on the micro climate and thermal comfort. In this study, a central big park has been compared to different numbers of small parks in terms of the cooling effect and thermal comfort. Five different park forms with the same total size have been considered. The results show that the park cooling effect depends not only on the park form, but also on the arrangement of the vegetation inside the park and wind speed and direction. Grassy areas (with 10 and 50 Cm grass), shrubs and hedges as well as trees with small and big canopies have been considered for the simulation. ENVI-MET and Rayman models have been used to simulate the cooling effect, cooled area size, PET and UTCI, respectively. The results for a hot day in Berlin on three different times during day and night will be shown and compared to each other. The effects of Sky view factor and soil humidity (irrigation) have also been discussed.

  5. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly ( P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg-1), specific cost (0.75 R kg-1), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day-1), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg-1; 1.03 R kg-1; 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day-1, and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  6. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use.

    PubMed

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg(-1)), specific cost (0.75 R$ kg(-1)), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day(-1)), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg(-1); 1.03 R$ kg(-1); 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day(-1), and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  7. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows.

  8. College Students' Comfort Level Discussing Death with Faculty and Perceptions of Faculty Support for Grief-Affected Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedman, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Students' comfort discussing death with faculty, views regarding faculty's likelihood to provide accommodations to grief-affected students, and perceived empathy of faculty were assessed. Undergraduate students (n = 371) attending a Midwestern university completed the Student Survey on Grief Issues. Twenty-six percent reported the death of at…

  9. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Trevor P.; Roesch, Etienne B.; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  10. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Trevor P; Roesch, Etienne B; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  11. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  12. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  13. Comparison of thermal comfort performance of two different types of road vehicle climate control systems.

    PubMed

    Quanten, S; Van Brecht, A; Berckmans, D

    2007-03-01

    The performance of climate control systems in vehicles becomes more and more important, especially against the background of the important relationship between compartment climate and driver mental condition and, thus, traffic safety. The performance of two different types of climate control systems, an un-air-conditioned heating/cooling device (VW) and an air-conditioning climate control unit (BMW), is compared using modern and practical evaluation techniques quantifying both the dynamic 3-D temperature distribution and the local air refreshment rate. Both systems suffer from considerable temperature gradients: temperature gradients in the U-AC (VW) car up to 8-9 degrees C are encountered, while the AC (BMW) delivers clear improvement resulting in temperature gradients of 5-6 degrees C. The experiments clearly demonstrate the effect of the presence of even a single passenger on the thermal regime, increasing the existing thermal discrepancies in the compartment with 15% independent of ventilation rate. Furthermore, in terms of air refreshment rates in the vehicle compartment, an air-conditioning unit halves the air refreshment time at all positions in the vehicle cabin, delivering a significant improvement in terms of human comfort. Similarly, extra air inlets in the back compartment of a car deliver progress in terms of cabin refreshment rate (93 s down to 50 s).

  14. Dynamic clothing insulation. Measurements with a thermal manikin operating under the thermal comfort regulation mode.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Quintela, Divo A

    2011-11-01

    The main objective of the present work is the assessment of the thermal insulation of clothing ensembles, both in static conditions and considering the effect of body movements. The different equations used to calculate the equivalent thermal resistance of the whole body, namely the serial, the global and the parallel methods, are considered and the results are presented and discussed for the basic, the effective and the total clothing insulations. The results show that the dynamic thermal insulation values are always lower than the corresponding static ones. The highest mean relative difference [(static-dynamic)/static] was obtained with the parallel method and the lowest with the serial. For I(cl) the mean relative differences varied from 0.5 to 13.4% with the serial method, from 5.6 to 14.6% with the global and from 7.2 to 17.7% with the parallel method. In addition, the dynamic tests presents the higher mean relative differences between the calculation methods. The results also show that the serial method always presents the higher values and the parallel method the lowest ones. The relative differences between the calculation methods {[(serial-global)/global] and [(parallel-global)/global]} were sometimes significant and associated to the non-uniform distribution of the clothing insulation. In fact, the ensembles with the highest thermal insulation values present the highest differences between the calculation methods.

  15. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  16. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  17. Outdoor thermal comfort study in a sub-tropical climate: a longitudinal study based in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vicky; Ng, Edward; Chan, Cecilia; Givoni, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an outdoor thermal comfort study conducted in Hong Kong using longitudinal experiments--an alternative approach to conventional transverse surveys. In a longitudinal experiment, the thermal sensations of a relatively small number of subjects over different environmental conditions are followed and evaluated. This allows an exploration of the effects of changing climatic conditions on thermal sensation, and thus can provide information that is not possible to acquire through the conventional transverse survey. The paper addresses the effects of changing wind and solar radiation conditions on thermal sensation. It examines the use of predicted mean vote (PMV) in the outdoor context and illustrates the use of an alternative thermal index--physiological equivalent temperature (PET). The paper supports the conventional assumption that thermal neutrality corresponds to thermal comfort. Finally, predictive formulas for estimating outdoor thermal sensation are presented as functions of air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation intensity and absolute humidity. According to the formulas, for a person in light clothing sitting under shade on a typical summer day in Hong Kong where the air temperature is about 28°C and relative humidity about 80%, a wind speed of about 1.6 m/s is needed to achieve neutral thermal sensation.

  18. Human thermal comfort antithesis in the context of the Mediterranean tourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis N.; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Polychroni, Iliana

    2016-04-01

    Weather and climate information are determinative factors in the decision of a touristic destination. The evaluation of the thermal, aesthetical and physical components of the climate is considered an issue of high importance in order to assess the climatic tourism potential. Mediterranean is an endowed region with respect to its temperate climate and impressive landscapes over the coastal environment and numerous islands. However, the harmony of the natural beauty is interrupted by extreme weather phenomena, such as heat and cold waves, heavy rains and stormy conditions. Thus, it is very important to know the seasonal behavior of the climate for touristic activities and recreation. Towards this objective we evaluated the antithesis in the human thermal perception as well as the sultriness, stormy, foggy, sunny and rainy days recorded in specific Greek touristic destinations against respective competitive Mediterranean resorts. Daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloudiness and precipitation, were acquired from the most well-known touristic sites over the Mediterranean for the period 1970 to present. These variables were used on one hand to estimate the human thermal burden, by means of the thermal index of Physiologically Equivalent temperature (PET) and on the other hand to interpret the physical and aesthetic components of the tourism potential, by utilizing specific thresholds of the initial and derived variables in order to quantify in a simple and friendly way the environmental footprint on desired touristic destinations. The findings of this research shed light on the climate information for tourism in Greece against Mediterranean destinations. Greek resorts, especially in the Aegean Islands appear to be more ideal with respect to thermal comfort against resorts at the western and central Mediterranean, where the heat stress within the summer season seems to be an intolerable pressure on humans. This could

  19. Modelling thermal comfort of visitors at urban squares in hot and arid climate using NN-ARX soft computing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariminia, Shahab; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Piri, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Kasra; Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Petković, Dalibor; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Visitors utilize the urban space based on their thermal perception and thermal environment. The thermal adaptation engages the user's behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects. These aspects play critical roles in user's ability to assess the thermal environments. Previous studies have rarely addressed the effects of identified factors such as gender, age and locality on outdoor thermal comfort, particularly in hot, dry climate. This study investigated the thermal comfort of visitors at two city squares in Iran based on their demographics as well as the role of thermal environment. Assessing the thermal comfort required taking physical measurement and questionnaire survey. In this study, a non-linear model known as the neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NN-ARX) was employed. Five indices of physiological equivalent temperature (PET), predicted mean vote (PMV), standard effective temperature (SET), thermal sensation votes (TSVs) and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) were trained and tested using the NN-ARX. Then, the results were compared to the artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The findings showed the superiority of the NN-ARX over the ANN and the ANFIS. For the NN-ARX model, the statistical indicators of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.53 and 0.36 for the PET, 1.28 and 0.71 for the PMV, 2.59 and 1.99 for the SET, 0.29 and 0.08 for the TSV and finally 0.19 and 0.04 for the T mrt.

  20. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-09-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

  1. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies.

    PubMed

    Krüger, E L; Minella, F O; Matzarakis, A

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature T(mrt) are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine T(mrt) is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine T(mrt) is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature T(mrt) in terms of differences to a reference condition (T(mrt) calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The T(mrt) obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for T(mrt) calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate T(mrt) when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation

  2. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  3. Ultrasonic vocalization responses of rat pups to acute separation and contact comfort do not depend on maternal thermal cues.

    PubMed

    Hofer, M A; Brunelli, S A; Shair, H N

    1993-03-01

    In order to assess the importance of maternal thermal cues in controlling the acute USV responses of rat pups to contact with her body (the contact comfort response) and to separation from her, we drastically altered maternal temperature by inducing severe hypothermia so that maternal rectal and flank temperatures averaged more than 20 degrees C below normal and 10 degrees C below ambient levels during testing. Isolated 12- to 13-day-old pups showed reductions in USV when these cold dams were presented and brisk USV accelerations when the cold dams were removed from the test chamber. These responses closely resembled those of other pups tested with warm (36 degrees C) anesthetized dams. No significant differences were found in pups' USV contact comfort responses to cold and warm dams. For acute separation, prior maternal thermal properties and other factors were found to modulate the relative intensity of the marked USV increase elicited by this event.

  4. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  5. Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Chi, Xiaoli

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the thermal comfort and its changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau over the last 50 years have been evaluated by using the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and a more complete tourism climate picture is presented by the Climate-Tourism-Information Scheme (CTIS). The results show that PET classes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover six out of the nine-point thermal sensation scale — very cold, cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm — and cold stress is prevailing throughout the year. A small number of slightly cool/warm and neutral days occur in summer months. There occur no warm, hot and very hot days. The frequency of PET classes varies among regions, depending on their altitude/latitude conditions. Xining, Lhasa and Yushu are the top three cities in terms of thermal favorability. With global warming, annual cumulative number of thermally favorable days has been increasing, and that of cold stress has been reducing. The change is more obvious in lower elevation than that in higher elevation regions. The improving thermal comfort in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau might be a glad tiding for local communities and tourists. Besides PET, CTIS can provide a number of additional bioclimatic information related to tourism and recreational activities. CTIS for Lhasa and Xining shows that sunshine is plentiful all the year round, and windy days occur frequently from late January to early May. This is a useful bioclimatic information for tourism authorities, travel agencies, resorts and tourists.

  6. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  7. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  8. Individual thermal profiles as a basis for comfort improvement in space and other environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.; Dancisak, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    , depending on their size and tissue mass content. The design of individual thermal profiles is feasible for better comfort of astronauts on long-duration missions and personnel in other extreme environments.

  9. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates-The case of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  10. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  11. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    PubMed

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. PMID:25683547

  12. Thermal Band Analysis of Agricultural Land Use and its Effects on Bioclimatic Comfort: The Case of Pasinler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdan, Uǧur; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Dagliyar, Ayse; Yigit Avdan, Zehra; Yilmaz, Sevgi

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the problems that arise due to the land use are not suitable for the purpose in the rural and urban areas most suitable for land use of parameters to be determined. Unintended and unplanned developments in the use of agricultural land in our country caused increases the losses by soil erosion. In this study, Thermal Band analysis is made in Pasinler city center with the aim of identifying bioclimatic comfort values of the different agricultural area. Satellite images can be applied for assessing the thermal urban environment as well as for defining heat islands in agricultural areas. In this context, temperature map is tried to be produced with land surface temperature (LST) analysis made on Landsat TM5 satellite image. The Landsat 5 images was obtained from USGS for the study area. Using Landsat bands of the study area was mapped by supervised classification with the maximum likelihood classification algorithm of ERDAS imagine 2011 software. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image was produced by using Landsat images. The digital number of the Landsat thermal infrared band (10.40 - 12.50 µm) is converted to the spectral radiance. The surface emissivity was calculated by using NDVI. The spatial pattern of land surface temperature in the study area is taken to characterize their local effects on agricultural land. Areas having bioclimatic comfort and ecologically urbanized, are interpreted with different graphical presentation technics. The obtained results are important because they create data bases for sustainable urban planning and provide a direction for planners and governors. As a result of rapid changes in land use, rural ecosystems and quality of life are deteriorated and decreased. In the presence of increased building density, for the comfortable living of people natural and cultural resources should be analyzed in detail. For that reason, optimal land use planning should be made in rural area.

  13. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P < 0.01) during outdoor exercise (cycling and running). The combined 5-min mean variation of the {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} RMSE was 1.5°C, with separate cycling and running giving RMSE of 1.4°C and 1.6°C, respectively, and no significant difference in residuals. Subjects' actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes displayed significant strong rank correlation with budget scores calculated using both measured and predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} ( r s = 0.507 and 0.517, respectively, P < 0.01). These results show improved predictive strength of ATS of subjects as compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  15. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75 % of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25 %, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75 % for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  16. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment.

    PubMed

    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75% of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25%, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75% for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  17. Thermal sensation and comfort in women exposed repeatedly to whole-body cryotherapy and winter swimming in ice-cold water.

    PubMed

    Smolander, Juhani; Mikkelsson, Marja; Oksa, Juha; Westerlund, Tarja; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Huttunen, Pirkko

    2004-09-30

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC; -110 degrees C) and winter swimming (WS) in ice-cold water are severe ambient cold exposures, which are voluntarily practiced by humans in minimal clothing. The purpose was to examine thermal sensation and thermal comfort associated with WBC and WS. Twenty women similar in body mass index, age, physical activity, and use of hormonal contraception were pairwise randomized either to the WBC group or the WS group. The duration of each WBC exposure was 2 min, which was repeated three times per week for 3 months (13 weeks). Similar exposure frequency was used for the WS group, but each exposure lasted 20 s in outdoor conditions. Thermal sensation and comfort were asked with standard scales. After WBC, 65% of the thermal sensation votes were 'neutral' or 'slightly cool.' After WS, 81% of the thermal sensation votes were 'warm,' 'neutral,' or 'slightly cool.' Majority of comfort votes immediately after exposures in WBC group (98%) and in the WS group (93%) were 'comfortable' or 'slightly uncomfortable.' Thermal sensation and comfort became habituated in both groups at an early stage of trials, but the changes were less conclusive in WS group due to variable conditions outdoors. In the WBC group, cold sensation was less intense already after the second exposure. In conclusion, repeated exposures to WBC and WS in healthy women were mostly well tolerated and comfortable. The results indicate that during repeated severe whole-body cold stress of short duration, thermal sensation and comfort become habituated during the first exposures. PMID:15327918

  18. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s-1), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m-2. Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  19. The Return of the Freudian Couch®: Managing Affectivity through Technologies of Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou; Staunaes, Dorthe; Ratner, Helene

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the affective "set-up" of Freud's legendary couch has been exported into modern education relations. The so-called psy-sciences from pedagogy, psychology, and psychiatry have informed self-management in school. Managing self-management has a material-affective dimension. Through affective encounters with…

  20. New methods for evaluating physical and thermal comfort properties of orthotic materials used in insoles for patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai Ting; Yick, Kit Lun; Ng, Sun Pui; Yip, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Orthotic insoles are commonly used in the treatment of the diabetic foot to prevent ulcerations. Choosing suitable insole material is vital for effective foot orthotic treatment. We examined seven types of orthotic materials. In consideration of the key requirements and end uses of orthotic insoles for the diabetic foot, including accommodation, cushioning, and control, we developed test methods for examining important physical properties, such as force reduction and compression properties, insole-skin friction, and shear properties, as well as thermal comfort properties of fabrication materials. A novel performance index that combines various material test results together was also proposed to quantify the overall performance of the insole materials. The investigation confirms that the insole-sock interface has a lower coefficient of friction and shearing stress than those of the insole-skin interface. It is also revealed that material brand and the corresponding density and cell volume, as well as thickness, are closely associated with the performance of moisture absorption and thermal comfort. On the basis of the proposed performance index, practitioners can better understand the properties and performance of various insole materials, thus prescribing suitable orthotic insoles for patients with diabetic foot.

  1. Design and optimization of personalized ventilation for overall improvement of thermal comfort, air quality, and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Ian Dominic

    This paper presents a simple and repeatable CFD-based method that can accurately predict the optimal operating conditions of personalized ventilation systems. In contrast to previous studies, the optimal performance of the PV system includes the influences of various operation characteristics (supply air velocity, PV flow rate, PV temperature, PV distance from face, turbulence intensity, relative humidity, central system flow rate, central system temperature, central system type, and PV on/off operation) on three critical performance factors: thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy savings. This method is able to predict more achievable and comprehensive operating performance of PV systems. It is found for the computer perimeter grill air terminal device that supply temperatures, central flow rate, and PV flow rate are the most influential factors on performance in terms of thermal comfort, IAQ, and energy. Using the Taguchi design of experiment and optimal performance prediction method, the computer perimeter grill personalized ventilation system is optimized in conjunction with under-floor and overhead central systems, separately.

  2. Measurements of clothing insulation with a thermal manikin operating under the thermal comfort regulation mode: comparative analysis of the calculation methods.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Quintela, Divo A

    2008-11-01

    The present work is dedicated to a comparative analysis of calculation methods about clothing insulation with a thermal manikin operating under the thermal comfort regulation mode. The serial, global, and parallel calculation methods are considered and the thermal insulation results for garments (30) and ensembles (9) are discussed. The serial and parallel methods presents the higher and lower values, respectively, and the differences were sometimes significant. Considering the results for the effective thermal insulation, the mean values of the relative differences between the serial and global methods were 25.7% for the daily wear garments, 45.2% for the cold protective garments and 38.5% for the ensembles. The corresponding mean values for the global and parallel methods were 8.7, 15.8, and 10.5%, respectively. Since any uneven clothing insulation is to be expected as a source of error, particular care must be required when the calculation methods deal with cold protective clothing.

  3. Effect of climate change on outdoor thermal comfort in humid climates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Galicia, in northwest Spain, experiences warm summers and winters. However, the higher relative humidity that prevails the whole year through and the location of the summer hot points are related to real weather heat stroke in the hottest season. However, Planet Global Heating was recently analyzed for the climate in Galicia. Climate change was found to be able to trigger effects that involve a new situation with new potential regions of risk. In this paper, 50 weather stations were selected to sample the weather conditions in this humid region, over the last 10 years. From these results, new regions with a potential for heat stroke risk in the next 20 years were identified using the humidex index. Results Results reveal that during the last 10 years, the winter season presents more comfortable conditions, whereas the summer season presents the highest humidex value. Further, the higher relative humidity throughout the whole year reveals that the humidex index clearly depends upon the outdoor temperature. Conclusions Global Planet Heating shows a definite effect on the outdoor comfort conditions reaching unbearable degrees in the really hottest zones. Therefore, this effect will clearly influence tourism and risk prevention strategies in these areas. PMID:24517127

  4. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort - an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to cold temperatures is, often, a neglected problem in prehospital care. One of the leading influences of the overall sensation of cold discomfort is the cooling of the back. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on body temperatures and thermal comfort in an experimental study. Method Data were collected during four days in November, 2011 inside and outside of a cold chamber. All participants (n = 23) participated in two trials each. In one trial, they were lying on a stretcher with a supplied heated mattress and in the other trial without a heated mattress. Outcomes were back temperature, finger temperature, core body temperature, Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), four statements from the state-trait anxiety – inventory (STAI), and short notes of their experiences of the two mattresses. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effect of the two mattresses. Results A statistical difference between the regular mattress and the heated mattress was found in the back temperature. In the heated mattress trial, the statement “I am tense” was fewer whereas the statements “I feel comfortable”, “I am relaxed” and “I feel content” were higher in the heated mattress trial. The qualitative analyses of the short notes showed that the heated mattress, when compared to the unheated mattress, was experienced as warm, comfortable, providing security and was easier to relax on. Conclusions Heat supply from underneath the body results in increased comfort and may prevent hypothermia which is important for injured and sick patients in ambulance care. PMID:25103366

  5. Analysis of the Thermal Comfort and Impact Properties of the Neoprene-Spacer Fabric Structure for Preventing the Joint Damages

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Ehsan; Hasani, Hossein; Rafeian, Homa; Hashemibeni, Batool

    2013-01-01

    Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a new structure consisting of perforated Neoprene foam attached to the spacer fabric and also compares the properties of thermal and moisture comfort and impact properties of this structure in comparison with Neoprene foam. Methods: In order to measure the factors related to the samples lateral pressure behavior, a tensile tester was used. A uniform pressure is applied to the samples and a force – displacement curve is obtained. The test continues until the maximum compression force is reached to 50 N. The area under the curve is much greater; more energy is absorbed during the impact. In order to investigate the dynamic heat and moisture transfer of fabrics, an experimental apparatus was developed. This device made the simulation of sweating of human body possible and consisted of a controlled environmental chamber, sweating guarded hot plate, and data acquisition system. Results: The findings show that the Neoprene-spacer fabric structure represents higher toughness values compared to other samples (P ≤ 0.001). Neoprene-spacer fabric structure (A3) has higher rate of moisture transport than conventional Neoprene foam; because of undesirable comfort characteristics in Neoprene. Conclusions: Results of the tests indicate full advantage of the new structure compared with the Neoprene foam for use in orthopedic textiles (P ≤ 0.001). PMID:24049594

  6. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  7. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling.

    PubMed

    Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-09-10

    Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions. PMID:22877870

  8. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise.

  9. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. PMID:25683541

  10. Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

    1989-05-01

    An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. [STRATEGY AND METHODS FOR THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL COMFORT IN THE WORKPLACE].

    PubMed

    Chirico, Francesco; Rulli, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of assessing thermal conditions in moderate working environments. We reviewed all the laws and technical standards on the focus to propose a method of evaluation by steps including a subjective assessment and technical measurements. PMID:26934807

  12. Thermal comfort in an east-west oriented street canyon in Freiburg (Germany) under hot summer conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Toudert, F.; Mayer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Field-measurements were conducted in an urban street canyon with an east-west orientation, and a height-to-width ratio H/W = 1 during cloudless summer weather in 2003 in Freiburg, Germany. This experimental work adds to the knowledge available on the microclimate of an urban canyon and its impact on human comfort. Air temperature T a , air humidity VP, wind speed v and direction dd were measured continuously. All short-wave and long-wave radiation fluxes from the 3D surroundings were also measured. The degree of comfort was defined in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). Furthermore, the data gathered within the canyon were compared to data collected by a permanent urban climate station with the aim of furthering the understanding of microclimatic changes due to street geometry. Changes in the meteorological variables T a , v and dd in the canyon in comparison to an unobstructed roof level location were found to be in good agreement with previous studies, i.e., a small increase of T a in the canyon adjacent to irradiated surfaces, and a good correlation of v and dd between canyon and roof levels. The daily dynamics of canyon facet irradiances and their impacts on the heat gained by a pedestrian were strongly dependent on street geometry and orientation. Thermal stress was mostly attributable to solar exposure. Under cloudless summer weather, a standing body was found to absorb, on average, 74% of heat in the form of long-wave irradiance and 26% as short-wave irradiance. Shading the pedestrian as well as the surrounding surfaces is, hence, the first strategy in mitigating heat stress in summer under hot conditions.

  13. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress. PMID:26374468

  14. Indoor air quality and thermal comfort-results of a pilot study in elderly care centers in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana; Pereira, Cristiana; Mendes, Diana; Aguiar, Lívia; Neves, Paula; Silva, Susana; Batterman, Stuart; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2013-01-01

    The age of the European population is rising and percentage of adults aged 65 years and older is projected to increase from 16% in 2000 to 20% in 2020. It has been estimated that older subjects spend approximately 19 to 20 h/d indoors. Older individuals may be particularly at risk for detrimental effects from pollutants, even at low concentrations, due to reduced immunological defenses and multiple underlying chronic diseases. Six Porto, Portugal, urban area elderly care centers (ECC), housing a total of 425 older persons, were studied to assess indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort (TC) in two seasons. This study presents the IAQ and TC results in 36 rooms and constitutes part of a wider and ongoing study. The study areas were all naturally ventilated, and indoor concentrations in winter were within Portuguese reference values. However, 42% of the participants were dissatisfied with indoor thermal conditions, rating it "slightly cool." In summer, the index rate of dissatisfied individuals was lower (8%). Significant differences were found between seasons in predicted percent of dissatisfied people (PPD) and predicted mean vote (PMV) indices. Fungal concentrations frequently exceeded reference levels (>500 colony-forming units [CFU]/m(3)). In addition, other pollutants occasionally exceeded reference levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Portugal to assess effects of indoor air contaminants on the health status and quality of life in older subjects living in ECC. Although IAQ and TC parameters were mostly within reference values, the results suggest a need to improve the balance between IAQ and TC in ECC, a critical environment housing a susceptible population.

  15. Implementation of human thermal comfort information in Köppen-Geiger climate classification—the example of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) is accepted and applied worldwide. The climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort (HTC) conditions or air humidity (AH) conditions directly, because they are originally based on climatic effects on vegetation, instead of that on human body directly. In addition, HTC is driven by meteorological parameters together. Thus, the objective of this study is to preliminarily implement the HTC information and the AH information in KGC. Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been chosen as the HTC index, and vapour pressure (VP) is for the quantification of AH conditions. In this preliminary study, 12 Chinese cities in total have been taken into account as the assumed representatives of 11 climate types. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-h resolution in 2000-2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been applied to calculate PET within the same time period. Each climate type has been described by frequencies of PET and frequencies of VP. For example, the Aw (Sanya) has the most frequent occurrence of thermally stressful conditions compared to other climate types: PET in 22 % points in time of the year was above 35 °C. The driest AH conditions existed in Dwc (Lhasa) and Dfb (Urumqi) with VP rarely above 18 hPa in the wettest month. Implementation of the HTC information and the additional AH information in each climate type of KGC can be helpful for the topics of human health, energy consumption, tourism, as well as urban planning.

  16. Dairy-based preexercise meal does not affect gut comfort or time-trial performance in female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Ross, Megan L; Cato, Louise E; Nana, Alisa; Knight, Emma J; Jenkins, David G; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M

    2014-10-01

    Some athletes avoid dairy in the meal consumed before exercise due to fears about gastrointestinal discomfort. Regular exclusion of dairy foods may unnecessarily reduce intake of high quality proteins and calcium with possible implications for body composition and bone health. This study compared the effects of meals that included (Dairy) or excluded (Control) dairy foods on gastric comfort and subsequent cycling performance. Well-trained female cyclists (n = 32; mean ± SD; 24.3 ± 4.1 y; VO(2peak) 57.1 ± 4.9 ml/kg/min) completed two trials (randomized cross-over design) in which they consumed a meal (2 g/kg carbohydrate and 54 kJ/kg) 2 hr before a 90-min cycle session (80 min at 60% maximal aerobic power followed by a 10-min time trial; TT). The dairy meal contained 3 servings of dairy foods providing ~1350 mg calcium. Gut comfort and palatability were measured using questionnaires. Performance was measured as maximum mean power during the TT (MMP10(min)). There was no statistical or clinical evidence of an effect of meal type on MMP10(min) with a mean difference (Dairy - Control) of 4 W (95% CI [-2, 9]). There was no evidence of an association between pretrial gut comfort and meal type (p = .15) or between gut comfort delta scores and meal type postmeal (p = .31), preexercise (p = .17) or postexercise (p = .80). There was no statistical or clinical evidence of a difference in palatability between meal types. In summary, substantial amounts of dairy foods can be included in meals consumed before strenuous cycling without impairing either gut comfort or performance.

  17. Optimum utilization of site energy sources for all-season thermal comfort in new residential construction for single-family attached (rowhouse/townhouse) designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-26

    A proposed design analysis is presented of a passive solar energy efficient system for a typical three-level, three bedroom, two story, garage-under townhouse. The design incorporates the best, most performance-proven and cost effective products, materials, processes, technologies, and sub-systems which are available today. Seven distinct categories recognized for analysis are identified as: the exterior environment; the interior environment; conservation of energy; natural energy utilization; auxiliary energy utilization; control and distribution systems; and occupant adaptation. Preliminary design features, fenestration sysems, the plenum-supply system, the thermal-storage party-fire walls, direct gain storage, the radiant comfort system, and direct passive cooling systems are briefly described. Features of the design under analysis and on which conclusions have not yet been formulated are: the energy reclamation system, auxiliary energy back-up systems, the distribution system and operating modes, the control systems, and non-comfort energy systems and inputs. (MCW)

  18. Artificial neural network models as a useful tool to forecast human thermal comfort using microclimatic and bioclimatic data in the great Athens area (Greece).

    PubMed

    Moustris, Kostas P; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Ziomas, Ioannis C; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models as a tool for the evaluation of human thermal comfort conditions in the urban environment. ANNs are applied to forecast for three consecutive days during the hot period of the year (May-September) the human thermal comfort conditions as well as the daily number of consecutive hours with high levels of thermal discomfort in the great area of Athens (Greece). Modeling was based on bioclimatic data calculated by two widely used biometereorogical indices (the Discomfort Index and the Cooling Power Index) and microclimatic data (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) from 7 different meteorological stations for the period 2001-2005. Model performance showed that the risk of human discomfort conditions exceeding certain thresholds can be successfully forecasted by the ANN models. In addition, despite the limitations of the models, the results of the study demonstrated that ANNs, when adequately trained, could have a high applicability in the area of prevention human thermal discomfort levels in urban areas, based on a series of relatively limited number of bioclimatic data values calculated prior to the period of interest.

  19. Artificial neural network models as a useful tool to forecast human thermal comfort using microclimatic and bioclimatic data in the great Athens area (Greece).

    PubMed

    Moustris, Kostas P; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Ziomas, Ioannis C; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models as a tool for the evaluation of human thermal comfort conditions in the urban environment. ANNs are applied to forecast for three consecutive days during the hot period of the year (May-September) the human thermal comfort conditions as well as the daily number of consecutive hours with high levels of thermal discomfort in the great area of Athens (Greece). Modeling was based on bioclimatic data calculated by two widely used biometereorogical indices (the Discomfort Index and the Cooling Power Index) and microclimatic data (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) from 7 different meteorological stations for the period 2001-2005. Model performance showed that the risk of human discomfort conditions exceeding certain thresholds can be successfully forecasted by the ANN models. In addition, despite the limitations of the models, the results of the study demonstrated that ANNs, when adequately trained, could have a high applicability in the area of prevention human thermal discomfort levels in urban areas, based on a series of relatively limited number of bioclimatic data values calculated prior to the period of interest. PMID:20390889

  20. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P > 0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7 ± 2.6 versus 81.8 ± 2.1, P < 0.05). RR, HR, and BTCI significantly increased over the months and were different between the periods of the day (P > 0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8 ± 0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P < 0.05). Thus, buffalo bulls reared under a humid tropical climate may have variations in thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels.

  1. Thermally affected characterization region by Barkhausen noise.

    PubMed

    Zergoug, M; Boucherrou, N; Haddad, A; Benchaala, A; Moulti, B; Tahraoui, H; Sellidj, F; Hammouda, A

    2000-07-01

    The controlling of some industrial components require the development of new and particular nondestructive testing techniques. The testing method using Barkhausen noise (BN) is a particular one which can be applied to ferromagnetic materials. It is a magnetic nondestructive evaluation method and can provide very important information about the material structure. The aim of our work is to study the material structure using this technique to characterize the region submitted to thermal processing. Samples of steel have been heated at temperatures between 650 degrees C and 1,200 degrees C with variable parameters (time processing, maintenance time, etc.). Acoustic BN processing allows an easy interpretation of results. Micrographs of samples have been obtained to confirm the results obtained by BN.

  2. The influence of indoor microclimate on thermal comfort and conservation of artworks: the case study of the cathedral of Matera (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment

  3. Fructose-maltodextrin ratio in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution differentially affects exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate, gut comfort, and performance.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Wendy J; Rowlands, David S

    2011-01-01

    Solutions containing multiple carbohydrates utilizing different intestinal transporters (glucose and fructose) show enhanced absorption, oxidation, and performance compared with single-carbohydrate solutions, but the impact of the ratio of these carbohydrates on outcomes is unknown. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 10 cyclists rode 150 min at 50% peak power, then performed an incremental test to exhaustion, while ingesting artificially sweetened water or one of three carbohydrate-salt solutions comprising fructose and maltodextrin in the respective following concentrations: 4.5 and 9% (0.5-Ratio), 6 and 7.5% (0.8-Ratio), and 7.5 and 6% (1.25-Ratio). The carbohydrates were ingested at 1.8 g/min and naturally (13)C-enriched to permit evaluation of oxidation rate by mass spectrometry and indirect calorimetry. Mean exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates were 1.04, 1.14, and 1.05 g/min (coefficient of variation 20%) in 0.5-, 0.8-, and 1.25-Ratios, respectively, representing likely small increases in 0.8-Ratio of 11% (90% confidence limits; ± 4%) and 10% (± 4%) relative to 0.5- and 1.25-Ratios, respectively. Comparisons of fat and total and endogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates between solutions were unclear. Relative to 0.5-Ratio, there were moderate improvements to peak power with 0.8- (3.6%; 99% confidence limits ± 3.5%) and 1.25-Ratio (3.0%; ± 3.7%) but unclear with water (0.4%; ± 4.4%). Increases in stomach fullness, abdominal cramping, and nausea were lowest with the 0.8- followed by the 1.25-Ratio solution. At high carbohydrate-ingestion rate, greater benefits to endurance performance may result from ingestion of 0.8- to 1.25-Ratio fructose-maltodextrin solutions. Small perceptible improvements in gut comfort favor the 0.8-Ratio and provide a clearer suggestion of mechanism than the relationship with exogenous carbohydrate oxidation.

  4. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions.

  5. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens.

    PubMed

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions. PMID:25388948

  6. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  7. Surface modification of layered silicates. II. Factors affecting thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vikas

    2012-12-01

    Different aluminosilicates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, were surface-treated with a variety of organic modifiers to quantify factors affecting the thermal stability of the modified fillers. Montmorillonites with different cation exchange capacities were also used. Thermal characterisation was carried out via high resolution thermogravimetric analysis and the results were correlated with X-ray diffraction measurements. Modified substrates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, differed in their thermal behaviour even when modified with the same surface modifiers. Phosphonium-based modifiers were the most thermally stable, compared to pyridinium and ammonium ions. Mixed brushes from the modifiers also influenced the thermal behaviour of the modified substrates. When further modified using physical adsorption or chemical reactions on the surface, the modified minerals also displayed alterations in the thermal behaviour of the fillers. The results can be used as a guide for the selection of surface modifiers in the nanocomposite synthesis process where compounding of the filler with the polymer at high temperature and shear is required.

  8. Ultrasonic vocalizations by rat pups: the primary importance of ambient temperature and the thermal significance of contact comfort.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, M S; Efimova, I V; Alberts, J R

    1992-05-01

    We investigated the effects of isolation, huddling, and air temperature on ultrasound production by rat pups. Experiment 1 showed that ultrasound production by 8- to 9-day-olds was minimal at thermoneutrality and increased in response to small deviations of air temperature on either side of the thermoneutral zone. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that suppression of ultrasound production by contact with littermates is consistent with the thermal consequences of huddling. Experiment 4 showed that, contrary to previous conclusions, ultrasound production is not independent of ambient temperature in pups older than 10 days of age. Taken as a whole, these experiments emphasize (1) the importance of ambient temperature for the elicitation of ultrasound by rat pups of all ages studied, (2) the importance of thermal factors in the suppression of ultrasound by littermate contact, and (3) the manner in which different methods can change interpretations of the behavior and physiology of infant rats.

  9. Making noise comfortable for people

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhall, H.G.; Wise, S.S.

    1998-10-01

    Typical HVAC noise may produce an uncomfortable environment, leading to the associated problems of general dissatisfaction and reduced productivity. It is not sufficient to have good thermal, lighting, and air cleanliness conditions if the noise is disturbing. In this paper, noise comfort is considered, with special emphasis on the developing criteria for low-frequency noise.

  10. Cancer patients caregivers comfort.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Lamino, Daniela; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Cross-sectional study, carried out at the outpatient clinic of an oncology hospital. Data were collected from 88 caregivers of cancer patients using the Caregiver General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ) to assess the caregivers' comfort. The caregivers' GCQ score mean was 203.9; better comfort scores was associated with age, care time and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients' physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers' spirituality. 203.9; better comfort scores were associated with age of the caregiver and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients' physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers' spirituality. Caregivers, who didn't have a paid job or leisure's activities showed a worse GCQ. The GCQ scale can help to identify factors that interfere in caregivers' comfort, as well as needs that can be modified through health professionals' interventions.

  11. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  12. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-04-25

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  13. Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah Village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for Indoor Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.

    2013-03-01

    Vernacular architecture of any settlement is characterized by architecture and construction methods developed by the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, to provide thermal comfort to users in extreme outdoor uncomfortable climatic conditions, by using locally available building materials and by adopting construction technology which both were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will highlight the climate-responsiveness in the traditional architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, having sub-tropical climatic condition. The plan of individual house, the cluster of houses and the overall settlement itself has been evolved from a process of understanding the local geo-climatic conditions which causes discomfort in both cold winter and hot summer months. Hence, the house plans were kept compact, thick adobe bricks were used for walls, pitched roof with attic and roof-covering of slate were employed and small window openings were provided with heavy timber shutter—all as a mean to retain indoor heat during cold winter months and also to prevent excessive heat-loss and heat-gains. The paper will also attempt to bring out the adaptive synchronized dynamic interactions between the various activities of inhabitants and their spatial environment, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the physical survey of this traditional hill settlement.

  14. Surface modification of layered silicates. I. Factors affecting thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vikas

    2012-12-01

    The resistance of modification molecules bound to montmorillonite platelet surfaces towards structural damage at high temperature is a major parameter guiding the formation of optimal interface between the filler and polymer phases in a nanocomposite material. As nanocomposites are generated by melt-blending of modified mineral and polymer, it is necessary to quantify the thermal resistance of the filler surface modification at the compounding conditions because different modifications differ in chain length, chemical structure, chain density, and thermal performance. A number of different alkyl ammonium modifications were exchanged on the montmorillonites with cation exchange capacities in the range 680-900 µequiv. g-1 and their thermal behaviour was characterised using high resolution thermogravimetric analysis. Quantitative comparisons between different modified minerals were achieved by comparing temperature at 10% weight loss as well peak degradation temperature. Various factors affecting thermal stability, such as length and density (or number) of alkyl chains in the modification, presence of excess modification molecules on the filler surface, the chemical structure of the surface modifications, etc. were studied. The TGA findings were also correlated with X-ray diffraction of the modified platelets.

  15. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  16. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  17. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  18. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort...

  3. Bringing comfort to Haiti.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Ronald A; Boal, Alex; Walters, Lynda; Thomas, Tim; Wells, Erica; Griswold, Jeremy; Oravec, David G

    2010-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, a devastating earthquake ravaged one of the poorest nations in the western hemisphere. A week later, the U.S. Naval Ship Comfort was anchored off Port-au-Prince to perform a mission of mercy for hundreds of critically injured victims of this disaster. The staff of the U.S. Naval Ship Comfort included military as well as civilian volunteer healthcare professionals, working as a team day and night under adverse conditions to save lives and optimize outcomes for the survivors.

  4. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  5. Comfort measures: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Reference to the concept of comfort measures is growing in the nursing and medical literature; however, the concept of comfort measures is rarely defined. For the comfort work of nurses to be recognized, nurses must be able to identify and delineate the key attributes of comfort measures. A concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method (2000) was undertaken with the goal of identifying the core attributes of comfort measures and thereby clarifying this concept. Health care literature was accessed from the CINAHL and PubMed databases. No restrictions were placed on publication dates. Four main themes of attributes for comfort measures were identified during the analysis. Comfort measures involve an active, strategic process including elements of "stepping in" and "stepping back," are both simple and complex, move from a physical to a holistic perspective and are a part of supportive care. The antecedents to comfort measures are comfort needs and the most common consequence of comfort measures is enhanced comfort. Although the concept of comfort measures is often associated with end-of-life care, this analysis suggests that comfort measures are appropriate for nursing care in all settings and should be increasingly considered in the clinical management of patients who are living with multiple, chronic comorbidities.

  6. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  7. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  8. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed. PMID:25189755

  9. Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally fluctuating temperature regimes. Both mean and fluctuation of temperature contributed to thermal acclimation and affected the transcriptome. The transcriptomic response to mean temperatures comprised modification of a major part of the transcriptome, while the response to fluctuations affected a much smaller set of genes, which was highly independent of both the response to a change in mean temperature and to the classic heat shock response. Although the independent transcriptional effects caused by fluctuations were relatively small, they are likely to contribute to our understanding of thermal adaptation. We provide evidence that environmental sensing, particularly phototransduction, is a central mechanism underlying the regulation of thermal acclimation to fluctuating temperatures. Thus, genes and pathways involved in phototransduction are likely of importance in fluctuating climates. PMID:27487917

  10. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  11. Thermal comfort and lactation yields of dairy cows grazed on farms in a pasture-based feed system in eastern New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragovich, D.

    1981-06-01

    A temperature-humidity index (THI) was used to associate varying degrees of “thermal comfort” for livestock with milk yields from dairy herds in eastern New South Wales. A pasture-based feed system was used on farms in the various environments occurring between 28°S and 37°S Lat. Low dairy cow productivity was registered in high-stress (high THI) areas, where the indirect effects of climate on pasture quality and availability compounded the direct stress on livestock; districts recording high lactation yields were located in low-stress areas, as anticipated by the biometeorological index. Fluctuations in lactation yields at THI values between the high and low stress areas were explained in terms of rainfall and temperature effects on pasture species and pasture growth patterns.

  12. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  13. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  14. Chicken soup really is good for the soul: "comfort food" fulfills the need to belong.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira

    2011-06-01

    Theories of social surrogacy and embodied cognition assume that cognitive associations with nonhuman stimuli can be affectively charged. In the current research, we examined whether the "comfort" of comfort foods comes from affective associations with relationships. Two experiments support the hypotheses that comfort foods are associated with relationships and alleviate loneliness. Experiment 1 found that the consumption of comfort foods automatically activates relationship-related concepts. Experiment 2 found that comfort foods buffer against belongingness threats in people who already have positive associations with relationships (i.e., are secure in attachment style). Implications for social surrogacy, need to belong, embodied cognition, and eating behavior are discussed. PMID:21537054

  15. Thermo-physiological comfort of soft-shell back protectors under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dotti, Francesca; Ferri, Ada; Moncalero, Matteo; Colonna, Martino

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate thermo-physiological comfort of three back protectors identifying design features affecting heat loss and moisture management. Five volunteers tested the back protectors in a climatic chamber during an intermittent physical activity. Heart rate, average skin temperature, sweat production, microclimate temperature and humidity have been monitored during the test. The sources of heat losses have been identified using infrared thermography and the participants answered a questionnaire to express their subjective sensations associated with their thermo-physiological condition. The results have shown that locally torso skin temperature and microclimate depended on the type of back protector, whose design allowed different extent of perspiration and thermal insulation. Coupling physiological measurements with the questionnaire, it was found that overall comfort was dependent more on skin wetness than skin temperature: the participants preferred the back protector with the highest level of ventilation through the shell and the lowest level of microclimate humidity.

  16. Thermo-physiological comfort of soft-shell back protectors under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dotti, Francesca; Ferri, Ada; Moncalero, Matteo; Colonna, Martino

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate thermo-physiological comfort of three back protectors identifying design features affecting heat loss and moisture management. Five volunteers tested the back protectors in a climatic chamber during an intermittent physical activity. Heart rate, average skin temperature, sweat production, microclimate temperature and humidity have been monitored during the test. The sources of heat losses have been identified using infrared thermography and the participants answered a questionnaire to express their subjective sensations associated with their thermo-physiological condition. The results have shown that locally torso skin temperature and microclimate depended on the type of back protector, whose design allowed different extent of perspiration and thermal insulation. Coupling physiological measurements with the questionnaire, it was found that overall comfort was dependent more on skin wetness than skin temperature: the participants preferred the back protector with the highest level of ventilation through the shell and the lowest level of microclimate humidity. PMID:27184322

  17. Bird population trends are linearly affected by climate change along species thermal ranges.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Ottvall, Richard; Van Turnhout, Chris; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Lindström, Ake

    2010-12-01

    Beyond the effects of temperature increase on local population trends and on species distribution shifts, how populations of a given species are affected by climate change along a species range is still unclear. We tested whether and how species responses to climate change are related to the populations locations within the species thermal range. We compared the average 20 year growth rates of 62 terrestrial breeding birds in three European countries along the latitudinal gradient of the species ranges. After controlling for factors already reported to affect bird population trends (habitat specialization, migration distance and body mass), we found that populations breeding close to the species thermal maximum have lower growth rates than those in other parts of the thermal range, while those breeding close to the species thermal minimum have higher growth rates. These results were maintained even after having controlled for the effect of latitude per se. Therefore, the results cannot solely be explained by latitudinal clines linked to the geographical structure in local spring warming. Indeed, we found that populations are not just responding to changes in temperature at the hottest and coolest parts of the species range, but that they show a linear graded response across their European thermal range. We thus provide insights into how populations respond to climate changes. We suggest that projections of future species distributions, and also management options and conservation assessments, cannot be based on the assumption of a uniform response to climate change across a species range or at range edges only.

  18. Legal and regulatory issues affecting the aquifer thermal energy storage concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1980-10-01

    A number of legal and regulatory issus that potentially can affect implementation of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) concept are examined. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  19. Covered in Comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In 1988, NASA began working with private industry to develop thermally adaptive phase-change materials that could be applied to astronauts suits and gloves for better protection against the bitter cold and scorching heat encountered in space.

  20. Synthetic garments enhance comfort, thermoregulatory response, and athletic performance compared with traditional cotton garments.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David R; Cook, Brendan M; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as "wicking," and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort and thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting-type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters, and physical performance can be affected by the garment that is used. Ten men (age: 27.5 ± 4.4 years; height: 169.3 ± 14.2 cm; weight: 80.05 ± 10.87 kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 ± 3.7 years; height: 166.6 ± 4.46 cm; weight: 64.63 ± 4.49 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group crossover counterbalanced design was used that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) and the Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed while wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on 2 occasions, once while wearing a cotton garment (C) and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater comfort in men and women after both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of P garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of P garments on anaerobic tasks and also revealed dramatic sex differences, where women seem to be much more sensitive to the benefits of P garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and anaerobic tasks, particularly in women. PMID:25463694

  1. Comfort, satisfaction, and anxiolysis in surgical patients using a patient-adjustable comfort warming system: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Denise; Greenfield, Mary Lou V H; Anderson, Jane E; Smith, Beverly A; Morris, Michelle

    2010-04-01

    Comfort warming systems aim to produce a comfortable local environment over which the individual patient has control. We studied a patient-adjustable comfort warming system using the Bair PAWS (Patient Adjustable Warming System) (Arizant Healthcare, Inc, Eden Prairie, MN), specifically to study comfort warming rather than therapeutic warming. One-hundred thirty patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized clinical trial, with 58 patients randomized to the patient warming gown, and 72 randomized to the warm blanket group. Groups were similar for gender, age, height, weight, surgical time, body surface area, and body mass index. The patient-adjustable warming system group had perceived greater control and satisfaction at 30 minutes after treatment was initiated compared with the warmed blanket control group. However, there were no differences in satisfaction levels with thermal comfort among those patients contacted one day postoperatively. Additional research is needed to improve external validity of study findings. Further refinement of a nursing definition of thermal comfort should be explored. PMID:20359643

  2. Creating high performance buildings: Lower energy, better comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brager, Gail; Arens, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Buildings play a critical role in the challenge of mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is estimated that buildings contribute 39% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1] primarily due to their operational energy use, and about 80% of this building energy use is for heating, cooling, ventilating, and lighting. An important premise of this paper is about the connection between energy and comfort. They are inseparable when one talks about high performance buildings. Worldwide data suggests that we are significantly overcooling buildings in the summer, resulting in increased energy use and problems with thermal comfort. In contrast, in naturally ventilated buildings without mechanical cooling, people are comfortable in much warmer temperatures due to shifting expectations and preferences as a result of occupants having a greater degree of personal control over their thermal environment; they have also become more accustomed to variable conditions that closely reflect the natural rhythms of outdoor climate patterns. This has resulted in an adaptive comfort zone that offers significant potential for encouraging naturally ventilated buildings to improve both energy use and comfort. Research on other forms for providing individualized control through low-energy personal comfort systems (desktop fans, foot warmed, and heated and cooled chairs) have also demonstrated enormous potential for improving both energy and comfort performance. Studies have demonstrated high levels of comfort with these systems while ambient temperatures ranged from 64-84°F. Energy and indoor environmental quality are inextricably linked, and must both be important goals of a high performance building.

  3. Creating high performance buildings: Lower energy, better comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Brager, Gail; Arens, Edward

    2015-03-30

    Buildings play a critical role in the challenge of mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is estimated that buildings contribute 39% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1] primarily due to their operational energy use, and about 80% of this building energy use is for heating, cooling, ventilating, and lighting. An important premise of this paper is about the connection between energy and comfort. They are inseparable when one talks about high performance buildings. Worldwide data suggests that we are significantly overcooling buildings in the summer, resulting in increased energy use and problems with thermal comfort. In contrast, in naturally ventilated buildings without mechanical cooling, people are comfortable in much warmer temperatures due to shifting expectations and preferences as a result of occupants having a greater degree of personal control over their thermal environment; they have also become more accustomed to variable conditions that closely reflect the natural rhythms of outdoor climate patterns. This has resulted in an adaptive comfort zone that offers significant potential for encouraging naturally ventilated buildings to improve both energy use and comfort. Research on other forms for providing individualized control through low-energy personal comfort systems (desktop fans, foot warmed, and heated and cooled chairs) have also demonstrated enormous potential for improving both energy and comfort performance. Studies have demonstrated high levels of comfort with these systems while ambient temperatures ranged from 64–84°F. Energy and indoor environmental quality are inextricably linked, and must both be important goals of a high performance building.

  4. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  5. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  6. Analysing Thermal Response Test Data Affected by Groundwater Flow and Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Imitazione, Gianmario; Chiozzi, Paolo; Orsi, Marco; Armadillo, Egidio

    2014-05-01

    Tests that record the underground temperature variation due to a constant heat injected into a borehole (or extracted from it) by means of a carrier fluid are routinely performed to infer subsurface thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which are needed to size geothermal heat pump systems. The most popular model to analyse temperature-time curves obtained from these tests is the infinite line source (ILS). This model gives appropriate estimations of thermal parameters only if particular hydro-geological conditions are fulfilled. Several flaws can however affect data interpretation with ILS, which is based on strong assumptions like those of a purely conductive heat transfer regime in a homogeneous medium, no vertical heat flow and infinite length of the borehole. Other drawbacks can arise from the difficulty in the proper thermal insulation of the test equipment, and consequently with oscillations of the carrier fluid temperature due to surface temperature changes. In this paper, we focused on the treatment of thermal response test data when both advection and periodic changes of surface temperature occur. We used a moving line source model to simulate temperature-time signals under different hypothesis of Darcy velocity and thermal properties. A random noise was added to the signal in order to mimic high frequency disturbances, possibly caused by equipment operating conditions and/or geological variability. The subsurface thermal conductivity, the Darcy velocity and the borehole thermal resistance were inferred by minimising the root mean square error between the synthetic dataset and the theoretical model. The optimisation was carried out with the Nelder-Mead algorithm, and thermal and hydraulic properties were determined by iterative reprocessing according to a trial-and-error procedure. The inferred thermal and hydraulic parameters are well consistent with the 'a priory' values, and the presence of noise in the synthetic data does not produce

  7. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Stoops, John L.

    2006-04-15

    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  8. Thermal plasticity in young snakes: how will climate change affect the thermoregulatory tactics of ectotherms?

    PubMed

    Aubret, F; Shine, R

    2010-01-15

    Climate change will result in some areas becoming warmer and others cooler, and will amplify the magnitude of year-to-year thermal variation in many areas. How will such changes affect animals that rely on ambient thermal heterogeneity to behaviourally regulate their body temperatures? To explore this question, we raised 43 captive-born tiger snakes Notechis scutatus in enclosures that provided cold (19-22 degrees C), intermediate (19-26 degrees C) or hot (19-37 degrees C) thermal gradients. The snakes adjusted their diel timing of thermoregulatory behaviour so effectively that when tested 14 months later, body temperatures (mean and maximum), locomotor speeds and anti-predator behaviours did not differ among treatment groups. Thus, the young snakes modified their behaviour to compensate for restricted thermal opportunities. Then, we suddenly shifted ambient conditions to mimic year-to-year variation. In contrast to the earlier plasticity, snakes failed to adjust to this change, e.g. snakes raised at cooler treatments but then shifted to hot conditions showed a higher mean body temperature for at least two months after the onset of the new thermal regime. Hence, thermal conditions experienced early in life influenced subsequent thermoregulatory tactics; the mean selected temperature of a snake depended more upon its prior raising conditions than upon its current thermoregulatory opportunities. Behavioural plasticity thus allows snakes to adjust to suboptimal thermal conditions but this plasticity is limited. The major thermoregulatory challenge from global climate change may not be the shift in mean values (to which our young snakes adjusted) but the increased year-to-year variation (with which our snakes proved less able to deal).

  9. Comfort over Pain in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Charles, Niamh A; Yount, Susan; Morgan, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy is often a time when chronic pain is exacerbated, or when acute pain appears. Frequently the easiest intervention within reach, for both chronic and acute pain, is a prescription. However, medication cannot correct the cause of the pain; instead it alters the person's experiential perception of the pain. In addition, medication exposes both mother and fetus to risks. To provide simple, evidence-based, holistic/alternative remedies for women who experienced nonemergent pain during pregnancy. Holistic/alternative techniques for increasing comfort were taught to the participants and individualized during three sessions. Levels of pain and comfort were measured before and after the treatment, using the validated General Comfort Questionnaire and Pain Outcomes Profile. Pain scores decreased from an average of 5.8/10 to 3.5/10 (p = .00). Comfort scores increased from an average of 17.5 to 30 (p = .00). PMID:27105573

  10. EDUCATION, CHILDREN AND COMFORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City.

    TWO SIMILAR CLASSROOMS WERE SET UP IN THE LENNOX LIVING LABORATORY, DES MOINES, IOWA, ONE FOR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND ONE FOR CONTROL GROUPS. TEMPERATURE, AIR CIRCULATION AND HUMIDITY CAN BE CONTROLLED AND MEASURED IN BOTH ROOMS. THE ROOMS ARE OF SIMILAR SIZE, LAYOUT AND CONSTRUCTION, THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT BEING THE ONLY VARIABLE. THE FOLLOWING…

  11. Comfort evaluation of maternity support garments in a wear trial.

    PubMed

    Ho, S S; Yu, W; Lao, T T; Chow, D H K; Chung, J W; Li, Y

    2008-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the wear comfort of eight commercially available maternity support garments. The thermophysiological, sensory/tactile and movement comfort were assessed in a wear trial using a 19-item questionnaire. Fourteen pregnant Chinese women aged 32.3 +/- 4.2 years were recruited from a local obstetric clinic. The results show that the tested garments generally provided greater sensory comfort than thermophysiological comfort. The thermophysiological comfort was mainly influenced by the fibre contents and breathability. Significant linear relationships were found between material appearance and hand feel (r = 0.86, p < 0.001), and between non-itchiness and no red mark (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Movement comfort was influenced by the garment type and style features. Overall, the soft, good-fit, cotton/elastane maternity brief was perceived as the best product. The findings of comfort needs in pregnant women and the effects of various garment attributes would be helpful for the development of maternity support garment design criteria that are required to satisfy critical ergonomic needs. Low back pain during pregnancy is a common and significant health problem. A maternity support garment is regarded as a convenient and safe device to stabilise the lumbar spine so as to relieve pain. However, patient compliance is likely to be affected by discomfort and inconvenience. The results of this study provide guidance for the optimal design of maternity support clothing.

  12. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  13. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting. PMID:24547668

  14. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  15. Assessing factors affecting the thermal properties of a passive thermal refuge using three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.

  16. Factors affecting the thermal shock resistance of several hafnia based composites containing graphite or tungsten. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal shock resistance of hafnia based composites containing graphite powder or tungsten fibers was investigated in terms of material properties which include thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, compressive fracture stress, modulus of elasticity, and phase stability in terms of the processing parameters of hot pressing pressure and/or density, degree of stabilization of the hafnia, and composition. All other parameters were held constant or assumed constant. The thermal shock resistance was directly proportional to the compressive fracture stress to modulus of elasticity ratio and was not affected appreciably by the small thermal expansion or thermal conductivity changes. This ratio was found to vary strongly with the composition and density such that the composites containing graphite had relatively poor thermal shock resistance, while the composites containing tungsten had superior thermal shock resistance.

  17. Advanced air distribution: improving health and comfort while reducing energy use.

    PubMed

    Melikov, A K

    2016-02-01

    Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high-quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing the risk of airborne cross-infection while reducing energy use. This study justifies the need for improving the present air distribution design in occupied spaces, and in general the need for a paradigm shift from the design of collective environments to the design of individually controlled environments. The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air distribution, and individually controlled macro-environment in general, for achieving shared values, that is, improved health, comfort, and performance, energy saving, reduction of healthcare costs and improved well-being is demonstrated. Performance criteria are defined and further research in the field is outlined.

  18. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  19. Phenotypic plasticity is not affected by experimental evolution in constant, predictable or unpredictable fluctuating thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Manenti, T; Loeschcke, V; Moghadam, N N; Sørensen, J G

    2015-11-01

    The selective past of populations is presumed to affect the levels of phenotypic plasticity. Experimental evolution at constant temperatures is generally expected to lead to a decreased level of plasticity due to presumed costs associated with phenotypic plasticity when not needed. In this study, we investigated the effect of experimental evolution in constant, predictable and unpredictable daily fluctuating temperature regimes on the levels of phenotype plasticity in several life history and stress resistance traits in Drosophila simulans. Contrary to the expectation, evolution in the different regimes did not affect the levels of plasticity in any of the traits investigated even though the populations from the different thermal regimes had evolved different stress resistance and fitness trait means. Although costs associated with phenotypic plasticity are known, our results suggest that the maintenance of phenotypic plasticity might come at low and negligible costs, and thus, the potential of phenotypic plasticity to evolve in populations exposed to different environmental conditions might be limited.

  20. Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Sam; Meagher, Daniel; Linza, Robert; Saheli, Fariborz; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Reis, Carl; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Homan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) Building 32 houses two large thermal-vacuum chambers (Chamber A and Chamber B). Within these chambers are liquid nitrogen shrouds to provide a thermal environment and helium panels which operate at 20K to provide cryopumping. Some amount of air leakage into the chambers during tests is inevitable. This causes "air fouling" of the helium panel surfaces due to the components of the air that adhere to the panels. The air fouling causes the emittance of the helium panels to increase during tests. The increase in helium panel emittance increases the heat load on the helium refrigerator that supplies the 20K helium for those panels. Planning for thermal-vacuum tests should account for this increase to make sure that the helium refrigerator capacity will not be exceeded over the duration of a test. During a recent test conducted in Chamber B a known-size air leak was introduced to the chamber. Emittance change of the helium panels and the affect on the helium refrigerator was characterized. A description of the test and the results will be presented.

  1. The psychobiology of comfort eating: implications for neuropharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E Leigh

    2012-09-01

    Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments.

  2. Simplified Ride-Comfort Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Barker, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration and noise contributions to discomfort quantified. RIDEQUL estimates passenger ride comfort within air- and surface-transportion systems. Provides engineers with reliable method of objectively predicting and evaluating vehicle ride quality. Transforms individual elements of noise and vibration characteristics of vehicle into subjective units and combines these units to produce single discomfort index. Program written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive or batch execution.

  3. Comfort Zone: Model or Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The comfort zone model is widespread within adventure education literature. It is based on the belief that when placed in a stressful situation people will respond by overcoming their fear and therefore grow as individuals. This model is often presented to participants prior to activities with a highly perceived sense of risk and challenge which…

  4. Evaluation of thermal and moisture management properties on knitted fabrics and comparison with a physiological model in warm conditions.

    PubMed

    Bedek, Gauthier; Salaün, Fabien; Martinkovska, Zuzana; Devaux, Eric; Dupont, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    This study reports on an experimental investigation of physical properties on the textile thermal comfort. Textile properties, such as thickness, relative porosity, air permeability, moisture regain, thermal conductivity, drying time and water-vapour transmission rate have been considered and correlated to the thermal and vapour resistance, permeability index, thermal effusivity and moisture management capability in order to determine the overall comfort performance of underwear fabrics. The results suggested that the fibre type, together with moisture regain and knitted structure characteristics appeared to affect some comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Additionally, thermal sensations, temperature and skin wetness predicted by Caseto® software for three distinct activity levels were investigated. Results show that the data obtained from this model in transient state are correlated to the thermal conductivity for the temperature and to Ret, moisture regain and drying time for the skin wetness. This provides potential information to determine the end uses of these fabrics according to the selected activity level.

  5. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  6. Behavioural Responses to Thermal Conditions Affect Seasonal Mass Change in a Heat-Sensitive Northern Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    van Beest, Floris M.; Milner, Jos M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Methodology/Principal Findings Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance

  7. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable.

  8. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  9. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  10. Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

  11. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  12. Thermoregulatory responses during exercise and a hot water immersion and the affective responses to peripheral thermal stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, K.

    1986-03-01

    Tympanic (Tty), mean skin (¯Tsk) and mean body (¯Tb) temperatures and heart rate (HR) increased more in low Vo2 max group (LG) than in high Vo2 max group (HG) during exercise. The regression coefficient of body temperatures (Tty and ¯Tb) on HR and the increased rate of heat storage were larger in LG than in HG during exercise. The local sweat rate (per min/cm2) during a hot water bath exhibited a considerable large quantity in comparison with the amount during exercise. Internal and skin temperatures during a hot water bath increased more immediately than those during exercise. The levels of comfort sensation during the preovulatory phase in women and pre-exercise period in men were higher at 40‡C than at 20‡C as peripheral thermal stimulus. The levels during the postovulatory and post-exercise phases in the same subjects were higher with the cool stimuli than with the warm stimuli. Above results suggest that thermoregulatory responses during submaximal exercise are different according to physical fitness and that these responses are different from those during hot water immersion. In addition, these suggest that the scores of thermal sensation with warm and cool stimuli are different during the pre- and post-ovulatory phases and the pre- and post-exercise periods.

  13. Identification and analysis of factors affecting thermal shock resistance of ceramic materials in solar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselman, D. P. H.; Singh, J. P.; Satyamurthy, K.

    1980-07-01

    An analysis was conducted of the possible modes of thermal stress failure of brittle ceramics for potential use in point-focussing solar receivers. The pertinent materials properties which control thermal stress resistance were identified for conditions of steady-state and transient heat flow, convective and radiative heat transfer, thermal buckling and thermal fatigue as well as catastrophic crack propagation. Selection rules for materials with optimum thermal stress resistance for a particular thermal environment were identified. Recommendations for materials for particular components were made. The general requirements for a thermal shock testing program quantitatively meaningful for point-focussing solar receivers were outlined. Recommendations for follow-on theoretical analyses were made.

  14. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors. PMID:23600166

  15. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  16. Comfort, sustainability, and workflow improved.

    PubMed

    Seeney, Brett

    2015-02-01

    Brett Seeney, BEng Hons, CEng, FIHEEM, MCIBSE, an associate at WSP in Melbourne reports, in an article first published in the IFHE Digest 2014, on a major redevelopment scheme at the Echuca Regional Health Hospital in Australia's northern Victoria. The project innovatively harnessed the latest building services engineering technology to help the hospital operate more in a more sustainable and efficient way, while simultaneously improving comfort for patients, visitors, and staff.

  17. Bringing comfort to the masses: a novel evaluation of comfort agent solution properties.

    PubMed

    White, Charles J; Thomas, Calvin R; Byrne, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    Ocular comfort agents are molecules that relieve ocular discomfort by augmenting characteristics of the tear film to stabilize and retain tear volume and lubricate the ocular surface. While a number of clinical comparisons between ocular comfort agent solutions are available, very little work has been done correlating the properties of specific comfort agents (species, molecular weight, and water retention) and solution properties (concentration, viscosity, zero shear viscosity, and surface tension) to the performance and effectiveness of comfort agent solutions. In this work, comfort-promoting properties related strongly to comfort agent concentration and molecular weight, the first objective demonstration of this relationship across diverse comfort agent species and molecular weights. The comfort agents with the greatest comfort property contributions (independent of specific molecular weight and concentration considerations) were hyaluronic acid (HA), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), respectively. The observed, empirical relationships between comfort property contribution and comfort agent species, solution properties, comfort agent molecular weight, and solution concentration was used to develop novel comfort agent index values. The comfort agent index values provided much insight and understanding into the results of experimental studies and/or clinical trials and offer potential resolution to numerous conflicting reports within the literature by accounting for the difference in comfort agent performance due to molecular weight and concentration of comfort agents. The index values provide the first objective, experimental validation and explanation of numerous general trends suggested by clinical data.

  18. Edge shape and comfort of rigid lenses.

    PubMed

    La Hood, D

    1988-08-01

    One of the main factors determining the comfort of a rigid contact lens is the shape of the edge. The comfort of four different contact lens edge shapes was assessed with four unadapted subjects in a randomized masked trial. Lenses with well rounded anterior edge profiles were found to be significantly more comfortable than lenses with square anterior edges. There was no significant difference in subjective comfort between a rounded and square posterior edge profile. The results suggest that the interaction of the edge with the eyelid is more important in determining comfort than edge effects on the cornea, when lenses are fitted according to a corneal alignment philosophy. PMID:3177585

  19. Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-05-19

    Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.

  20. Depth of artificial Burrowing Owl burrows affects thermal suitability and occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Rathbun, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have installed artificial burrows to help bolster local Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations. However, occupancy probability and reproductive success in artificial burrows varies within and among burrow installations. We evaluated the possibility that depth below ground might explain differences in occupancy probability and reproductive success by affecting the temperature of artificial burrows. We measured burrow temperatures from March to July 2010 in 27 artificial burrows in southern California that were buried 15–76 cm below the surface (measured between the surface and the top of the burrow chamber). Burrow depth was one of several characteristics that affected burrow temperature. Burrow temperature decreased by 0.03°C per cm of soil on top of the burrow. The percentage of time that artificial burrows provided a thermal refuge from above-ground temperature decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 50% and 58% among burrows. The percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for incubating females also decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 27% and 100% among burrows. However, the percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for unattended eggs increased with burrow depth and ranged between 11% and 95% among burrows. We found no effect of burrow depth on reproductive success across 21 nesting attempts. However, occupancy probability had a non-linear relationship with burrow depth. The shallowest burrows (15 cm) had a moderate probability of being occupied (0.46), burrows between 28 and 40 cm had the highest probability of being occupied (>0.80), and burrows >53 cm had the lowest probability of being occupied (<0.43). Burrowing Owls may prefer burrows at moderate depths because these burrows provide a thermal refuge from above-ground temperatures, and are often cool enough to allow females to leave eggs unattended before the onset of full-time incubation, but not too cool for incubating females that

  1. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  2. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort. PMID:26400090

  3. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort.

  4. Tecnology innovation related to comfort on commercial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Martini, M; Ferrero, D

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this article is to show the Iveco activity in terms of comfort improvement in all its product Portfolio, focusing on innovation research and realization of tools to get better the life of the driver on commercial vehicles. Comfort related to the ergonomics, thermal, vibrational comfort and after-treatment system in order to improve the life of driver and passengers. It is to remember that Commercial vehicles have different use from a car. For example an heavy truck cabin is not only a place where to drive 8 hours a day, but it is at the same time, an office, a place where to eat, where to sleep and to have a rest. The effort in the last 10 years of Iveco is to improve the comfort of the life of the drivers, utilizing continuous research in standards and innovative systems in order to increase the security and life improvement, focusing also on worldwide legislation as a partner in European committees for health and safety. PMID:23213810

  5. Comfort studies of rail passengers

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, J. F.; Doré, C.; Weiner, J. S.; Lee, D. E.; Prestidge, S. P.; Andrews, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Nicol, J. F., Doré, C., Weiner, J. S., Lee, D. E., Prestidge, S. P., and Andrews, M. J. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 325-334. Comfort studies of rail passengers. A short series of trials is described in which a specimen car of the new High Density Rolling Stock was laden with passengers at different densities and under different environmental constraints, designed to simulate `shut-down' conditions. The results suggest that the limit for comfort, 21·8°C corrected effective temperature (CET), proposed by Bell and Watts (1971) is reasonable but that temperatures some 3 or 4°C higher can be tolerated without undue discomfort. The physiological limit for safety recommended by Bell and Watts is a CET of 30·6°C. This will be reached in less than 20 minutes if there is a power failure in warm conditions in crowded trains. An undesirable, possibly dangerous, level of discomfort will be experienced by passengers in ventilated but crowded trains after 30 minutes. In any case it is recommended that the globe temperature in a carriage should not exceed 30°C. Images PMID:4753715

  6. Simulator studies and psychophysical ride comfort models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary psychophysical model to predict ride comfort was developed using flight and simulator data where subjects were exposed to six degrees of freedom. The model presumes that the comfort response is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus above some threshold stimulus. In order to verify this concept of comfort modeling, it was necessary to obtain ride comfort data for single degree of freedom random motions and for combinations of random motions. Accordingly, a simulator program was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure subjective comfort response ratings using one degree of freedom, two degrees of freedom, three degrees of freedom, and six degrees of freedom. An analysis of the single degree of freedom and two degrees of freedom data is presented. Preliminary models of ride comfort response for single degree of freedom random motions and for certain combinations of two degrees of freedom random motions were developed.

  7. Metabolic rate, latitude and thermal stability of roosts, but not phylogeny, affect rewarming rates of bats.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Allyson K; Webber, Quinn M R; Baloun, Dylan E; McGuire, Liam P; Muise, Kristina A; Coté, Damien; Tinkler, Samantha; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-10-01

    Torpor is an adaptation that allows many endotherms to save energy by abandoning the energetic cost of maintaining elevated body temperatures. Although torpor reduces energy consumption, the metabolic heat production required to arouse from torpor is energetically expensive and can impact the overall cost of torpor. The rate at which rewarming occurs can impact the cost of arousal, therefore, factors influencing rewarming rates of heterothermic endotherms could have influenced the evolution of rewarming rates and overall energetic costs of arousal from torpor. Bats are a useful taxon for studies of ecological and behavioral correlates of rewarming rate because of the widespread expression of heterothermy and ecological diversity across the >1200 known species. We used a comparative analysis of 45 bat species to test the hypothesis that ecological, behavioral, and physiological factors affect rewarming rates. We used basal metabolic rate (BMR) as an index of thermogenic capacity, and local climate (i.e., latitude of geographic range), roost stability and maximum colony size as ecological and behavioral predictors of rewarming rate. After controlling for phylogeny, high BMR was associated with rapid rewarming while species that live at higher absolute latitudes and in less thermally stable roosts also rewarmed most rapidly. These patterns suggests that some bat species rely on passive rewarming and social thermoregulation to reduce costs of rewarming, while others might rely on thermogenic capacity to maintain rapid rewarming rates in order to reduce energetic costs of arousal. Our results highlight species-specific traits associated with maintaining positive energy balance in a wide range of climates, while also providing insight into possible mechanisms underlying the evolution of heterothermy in endotherms.

  8. Metabolic rate, latitude and thermal stability of roosts, but not phylogeny, affect rewarming rates of bats.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Allyson K; Webber, Quinn M R; Baloun, Dylan E; McGuire, Liam P; Muise, Kristina A; Coté, Damien; Tinkler, Samantha; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-10-01

    Torpor is an adaptation that allows many endotherms to save energy by abandoning the energetic cost of maintaining elevated body temperatures. Although torpor reduces energy consumption, the metabolic heat production required to arouse from torpor is energetically expensive and can impact the overall cost of torpor. The rate at which rewarming occurs can impact the cost of arousal, therefore, factors influencing rewarming rates of heterothermic endotherms could have influenced the evolution of rewarming rates and overall energetic costs of arousal from torpor. Bats are a useful taxon for studies of ecological and behavioral correlates of rewarming rate because of the widespread expression of heterothermy and ecological diversity across the >1200 known species. We used a comparative analysis of 45 bat species to test the hypothesis that ecological, behavioral, and physiological factors affect rewarming rates. We used basal metabolic rate (BMR) as an index of thermogenic capacity, and local climate (i.e., latitude of geographic range), roost stability and maximum colony size as ecological and behavioral predictors of rewarming rate. After controlling for phylogeny, high BMR was associated with rapid rewarming while species that live at higher absolute latitudes and in less thermally stable roosts also rewarmed most rapidly. These patterns suggests that some bat species rely on passive rewarming and social thermoregulation to reduce costs of rewarming, while others might rely on thermogenic capacity to maintain rapid rewarming rates in order to reduce energetic costs of arousal. Our results highlight species-specific traits associated with maintaining positive energy balance in a wide range of climates, while also providing insight into possible mechanisms underlying the evolution of heterothermy in endotherms. PMID:27317837

  9. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men.

  10. Advanced thermally stable jet-fuel development program annual report. Volume 2. Compositional factors affecting thermal degradation of jet fuels. Final report, Jul 90-Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Eser, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.; Coleman, M.M.

    1992-05-01

    This project focuses on the compositional factors affecting jet fuel thermal stability at high temperatures. The chemical composition of the four jet fuel samples (JP-8C, JP-8P, JP-7P, Jet A1) and Wilsonville middle distillates was characterized by using selective ion monitoring technique in GC-MS analysis. The thermal treatment tests have been performed on jet fuels and a series of model compounds including tetralin, decalin, ethylcyclohexane, butylcyclohexane, n-butylbenzene, t-butylbenzene, n-octane, n-decane, and n-tetradecane. Deposit samples from an actual aircraft fuel stem as well as those produced from jet fuels and model compounds in microautoclaves were characterized by FTIR and polarized-light microscopy. Experiments were conducted to find the optimum amount of antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol necessary to minimize the solid formation upon thermal stressing of JP8 neat and Jet A-1 fuel samples. The chemistry of thermal degradation of the fuel and antioxidant mixtures was studied by using FTIR to characterize the liquid products from thermal stressing.

  11. Thermal syneresis affected by heating schedule and moisture level in surimi gels.

    PubMed

    Park, Y D; Yoon, K S; Lee, C M

    2008-03-01

    The extent of thermal syneresis in protein gelation is indicative of thermal and freeze-thaw stability as well as the network integrity of a protein gel. Thermal syneresis in Alaska pollock surimi gels was examined under different heating schedules (40 degrees C/20 min to 90 degrees C/30 min, 60 degrees C/20 min to 90 degrees C/30 min, and 90 degrees C/20 min to 90 degrees C/20 min) at varying moisture levels (80%, 82%, and 84%). The extent of syneresis and gel firming was monitored by centrifugation expressible moisture and penetration force, respectively. The occurrence of 2 distinct peaks as a function of time for both thermal syneresis and gel firming suggests that a multistage aggregation is involved in the formation of gel network. All syneresis preceded gel firming upon protein aggregation. Increasing the moisture content in the gel delayed the 2nd stage of protein aggregation. The 60 degrees C/20 min preheating followed by 90 degrees C/30 min postheating resulted in significantly greater thermal syneresis and gel weakening compared to 40 and 90 degrees C preheating. Changes of gel structure clearly reflected thermal syneresis when the size of water pores became smaller with initiation of network formation and progressively larger upon further heating. Thermal syneresis history during protein gelation can be used to predict thermal and freeze-thaw stability.

  12. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met.

  13. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development. PMID:19936799

  14. Spatial variability of chilling temperature in Turkey and its effect on human comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toros, H.; Deniz, A.; Şaylan, L.; Şen, O.; Baloğlu, M.

    2005-03-01

    Air temperature, absolute humidity and wind speed are the most important meteorological parameters that affect human thermal comfort. Because of heat loss, the human body feels air temperatures different to actual temperatures. Wind speed is the most practical element for consideration in terms of human comfort. In winter, due to the strong wind speeds, the sensible temperature is generally colder than the air temperature. This uncomfortable condition can cause problems related to tourism, heating and cooling. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of cooling temperatures and Wind Chill Index (WCI) are analyzed for Turkey, and their effect on the human body is considered. In this paper, monthly cooling temperatures between October and March in the years 1929 to 1990 are calculated by using measured temperature and wind speed at 79 stations in Turkey. The influence of wind chill is especially observed in the regions of the Aegean, west and middle Black Sea and east and central Anatolia. The wind chill in these regions has an uncomfortable effect on the human body. Usually, the WCI value is higher in western, northern and central Anatolia than in other regions.

  15. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.

  16. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-11-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15-25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  17. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  18. Geological Processes Affecting the Thermal Structures of Shallow Seafloor: An Example from offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Wu, Shao-Kai; Liu, Char-Shine; Lu, Chia-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Fluid migration pattern is important for understanding the structural features of a mountain belt and for hydrocarbon exploration. However, these patterns are difficult to measure on the seafloor. Using phase properties of the gas hydrates, we studied the fluid flow patterns offshore southwestern Taiwan. Seismic explorations in this region show wide spreading bottom-simulating-reflectors (BSR), which is interpreted as the bottom of the gas hydrate stability zone. It provides us an opportunity to study possible fluid flow patterns at several hundred meters sub-bottom depths of the marine sediments. First, we used BSR-based geothermal gradient patterns to derive 1D vertical fluid flow models by analyzing the Péclet numbers. We found the regional fluid flow rates ranges from 6 cm/yr to 43 cm/yr, then we also discovered several prospect sites to examine the fluid migration pattern in the environs of active, passive and deformation front. Next, we forward 2D steady-state temperature fields of these sites to account for the topographic effects to compare with the BSR-based temperature. The discrepancy between the 2D conductive thermal model and the BSR-based temperature was interpreted as a result of fluid migration. And furthermore, we built 3D steady-state temperature fields, for comparing with BSR-based temperatures, to detail describe the regional temperature discrepancy with the structure evolution in 3D seismic data. We discovered our interpreted fluid migration patterns are consistent with the regional structure. The BSR-based temperatures in Yung-An Ridge, which is in active margin, are higher than the conduction model near faults and chimney zones, we interpret that it is possible active dewatering inside the accretionary prism to allow fluid to migrate upward here. For the upper reach of Peng-Hu Canyon, which is across deformation front, we found the disequilibrium temperature field probably induced by the recently landslide. For the Formosa Ridge in passive

  19. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, M A; Yanar, N M; Pettit, F S; Taylor, T A; Meier, G H

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  20. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  1. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  2. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  3. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualism is an often-complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and in exchange protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40°C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0°C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  4. Auralization studies on talker comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jessica; Torres, Rendell R.

    2003-10-01

    Although much research has focused on determining optimal acoustical environments for students in classrooms, relatively little has addressed the classroom as an acoustical workspace for teachers, who may suffer from stress and vocal strain due in part to poor acoustical environments. Although the primary problem is typically the background noise level (whether due to ventilation or students), it is also interesting to study systematically how controlling early reflections may improve the audible ``room response'' at the teacher's speaking location without inordinately increasing the reverberant level of the background noise. Moreover, the room response at the talker's position may help reduce the perceived need to strain the voice, as long as the reflections are not so delayed as to be disturbing. In this study approximately ten configurations of absorptive and reflective surfaces in a ``typical-sized'' classroom are auralized in real time. For each room condition, subjects rate the ``talker comfort'' in terms of perceived loudness of their speech, possible disturbance from echoes or increased background noise, and other factors. The primary descriptive physical parameter is essentially the relative amplitude and delay of clusters of early reflections, which are not always well characterized by the classical room-acoustics descriptors. Initial results of the modeling and subject testing will be presented.

  5. Behavior of Avirulent Yersinia pestis in Liquid Whole Egg as Affected by Antimicrobials and Thermal Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia spp. is a psychrotrophic bacterium that can grow at temperatures as low as minus two degrees Celsius, and is known to contaminate shell eggs in the United States and shell eggs and liquid egg in South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia...

  6. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  7. Noise and vibration ride comfort criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A program is underway at Langley Research Center to develop a comprehensive ride quality model based upon the various physical and psychological factors that most affect passenger ride comfort. Two of the most important factors, namely, vibration and noise were studied to (1) determine whether composite or separate noise and vibration criteria are needed for the prediction of ride quality, (2) determine a noise correction for the previously-defined vibration criteria of the ride quality model, (3) assess whether these noise corrections depend on the nature of the vibration stimuli, i.e., deterministic as opposed to random, and (4) specify noise-vibration criteria for this combined environment. The stimuli for the study consisted of octave bands of noise centered at 500 or 2000 Hz and vertical vibrations composed of either 5 Hz sinusoidal vibration or random vibrations centered at 5 Hz and with a 5 Hz bandwidth. The noise stimuli were presented at levels ranging from ambient to 95 dB(A) and the vibrations at levels ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 g-rms.

  8. Relief of the occluded ear sensation to improve earmold comfort.

    PubMed

    French-Saint George, M; Barr-Hamilton, R M

    1978-01-01

    Earmold comfort is an important factor in the overall satisfaction a hearing-impaired person has with a hearing aid system. Recent research into the subjective effects of earmold venting indicates that, for the naive hearing-aid user, the solid mold produces a "closed" and "blocked" sensation that is relieved to a degree, depending on the vent diameter. To improve earmold comfort, all earmolds should be vented. However, there are certain types of hearing loss where conventional venting techniques would be undesirable, in particular, cases of severe to profound hearing loss where venting would not only adversely affect the desired frequency response characteristics of the hearing aid but would also lead to serious acoustic feedback problems. For this reason a simple system has been developed with sintered filters in the vent line, thus allowing all earmolds to be vented to relieve the occluded ear sensation although retaining the acoustic characteristics of the closed earmold.

  9. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products.

  10. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  11. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    PubMed

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  12. Differences in comfort perception in relation to local and whole body skin wettedness.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Takako; Havenith, George

    2009-05-01

    Relevance of local skin wettedness (w (local)) to general thermal comfort while wearing clothing was investigated in eight males. In the experiments, skin wettedness of the whole body (w (body)) was controlled to be around the thermal comfort limit, while w (local) in different target locations of equal area (anterior and dorsal torso, arms, and thighs) was pushed beyond the comfort limit using special test garments. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 4.5 km h(-1) under 22 degrees C 50% RH. Arms and thighs were thermally in discomfort when their w (local) exceeded 0.32. On the other hand, discomfort in the anterior and dorsal torso was initiated when their w (local) arrived at 0.42 and 0.45. That is, the relation of the local comfort limit with w (local) differed depending upon the location. It was observed; however, that general discomfort was not induced when w (body) remained below 0.36 even if w (local) was higher than its local comfort limit.

  13. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza Mansouri; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient ( R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  14. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient (R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  15. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  16. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  17. Modeling phase transformation behavior during thermal cycling in the heat-affected zone of stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; Iskander, Y.S.; David, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    An implicit finite-difference analysis was used to model the diffusion-controlled transformation behavior in a ternary system. The present analysis extends earlier work by examining the transformation behavior under the influence of multiple thermal cycles. The analysis was applied to the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system to simulate the microstructural development in austenitic stainless steel welds. The ferrite-to-austenite transformation was studied in an effort to model the response of the heat-affected zone to multiple thermal cycles experienced during multipass welding. Results show that under some conditions, a transformation ``inertia`` exists that delays the system`s response when changing from cooling to heating. Conditions under which this ``inertia`` is most influential were examined. It was also found that under some conditions, the transformation behavior does not follow the equilibrium behavior as a function of temperature. Results also provide some insight into effect of composition distribution on transformation behavior.

  18. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  19. Ammonium in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: processes affecting speciation and isotope fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, J.M.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Böhlke, J.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Ball, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen, largely in reduced form (NH4(T)≈NH4(aq)++NH3(aq)o), has been documented in thermal waters throughout Yellowstone National Park, with concentrations ranging from a few micromolar along the Firehole River to millimolar concentrations at Washburn Hot Springs. Indirect evidence from rock nitrogen analyses and previous work on organic compounds associated with Washburn Hot Springs and the Mirror Plateau indicate multiple sources for thermal water NH4(T), including Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks, Eocene lacustrine deposits, and glacial deposits. A positive correlation between NH4(T) concentration and δ18O of thermal water indicates that boiling is an important mechanism for increasing concentrations of NH4(T) and other solutes in some areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved NH4(T) is highly variable (δ15N = −6‰ to +30‰) and is positively correlated with pH values. In comparison to likely δ15N values of nitrogen source materials (+1‰ to +7‰), high δ15N values in hot springs with pH >5 are attributed to isotope fractionation associated with NH3(aq)o loss by volatilization. NH4(T) in springs with low pH typically is relatively unfractionated, except for some acid springs with negative δ15N values that are attributed to NH3(g)o condensation. NH4(T) concentration and isotopic variations were evident spatially (between springs) and temporally (in individual springs). These variations are likely to be reflected in biomass and sediments associated with the hot springs and outflows. Elevated NH4(T) concentrations can persist for 10s to 1000s of meters in surface waters draining hot spring areas before being completely assimilated or oxidized.

  20. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870

  1. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  2. Stress analysis of thermally affected rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2016-04-01

    Based on the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch, thermo-elastic fields within rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties subjected to a thermal field are explicitly examined. Accounting for the surface energy effect, the nonclassical boundary conditions are enforced in the cases of fixed-free and free-free conditions. The effects of variation of material properties, temperature of the environment, angular velocity, and radius of the outer radius on the radial displacement, hoop and radial stresses are investigated. In all performed studies, the role of the surface effect on the thermo-elastic field of the nanostructure is methodically discussed.

  3. Thermal-induced residual stresses affect the fractographic patterns of zirconia-veneer dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Veneer fractures in dental zirconia-veneer prostheses are more frequent clinically than in conventional metal-ceramic systems. This is thought to be due to the increased residual stresses generated within the veneer during fabrication when zirconia is the infrastructure material. This investigation aimed to analyze the fractographic features of fractured zirconia-veneer dental crowns submitted to a load-to-failure test and to a more clinically relevant in vitro chewing simulation fatigue test. As-sintered and sandblasted zirconia copings were veneered with glass-ceramic with different coefficients of thermal expansion and cooled following two cooling rates, creating, this way, different levels of stresses within the veneer. Crowns with different thermal mismatch combinations and different cooling rates were hypothesized to present particular fracture patterns. A careful examination of >1000 scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces was conducted in search of characteristic fractographic markings of fracture mechanisms connected to the stress state of the veneer. Distinctive structural features could be observed between groups veneered with the two different glass-ceramics and between fractured crowns under static and cyclic loading. The presence/absence of residual stresses zones within the veneer have shown to play the major role in the fracture pattern of zirconia-veneer dental prostheses. For the fatigue crowns, the zirconia core was never exposed, either for sandblasted and as-sintered groups.

  4. The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takashi; Kim, Joohwan; Hoffman, David M.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increased usage of stereo displays has been accompanied by public concern about potential adverse effects associated with prolonged viewing of stereo imagery. There are numerous potential sources of adverse effects, but we focused on how vergence–accommodation conflicts in stereo displays affect visual discomfort and fatigue. In one experiment, we examined the effect of viewing distance on discomfort and fatigue. We found that conflicts of a given dioptric value were slightly less comfortable at far than at near distance. In a second experiment, we examined the effect of the sign of the vergence–accommodation conflict on discomfort and fatigue. We found that negative conflicts (stereo content behind the screen) are less comfortable at far distances and that positive conflicts (content in front of screen) are less comfortable at near distances. In a third experiment, we measured phoria and the zone of clear single binocular vision, which are clinical measurements commonly associated with correcting refractive error. Those measurements predicted susceptibility to discomfort in the first two experiments. We discuss the relevance of these findings for a wide variety of situations including the viewing of mobile devices, desktop displays, television, and cinema. PMID:21778252

  5. The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takashi; Kim, Joohwan; Hoffman, David M; Banks, Martin S

    2011-01-01

    Recent increased usage of stereo displays has been accompanied by public concern about potential adverse effects associated with prolonged viewing of stereo imagery. There are numerous potential sources of adverse effects, but we focused on how vergence-accommodation conflicts in stereo displays affect visual discomfort and fatigue. In one experiment, we examined the effect of viewing distance on discomfort and fatigue. We found that conflicts of a given dioptric value were slightly less comfortable at far than at near distance. In a second experiment, we examined the effect of the sign of the vergence-accommodation conflict on discomfort and fatigue. We found that negative conflicts (stereo content behind the screen) are less comfortable at far distances and that positive conflicts (content in front of screen) are less comfortable at near distances. In a third experiment, we measured phoria and the zone of clear single binocular vision, which are clinical measurements commonly associated with correcting refractive error. Those measurements predicted susceptibility to discomfort in the first two experiments. We discuss the relevance of these findings for a wide variety of situations including the viewing of mobile devices, desktop displays, television, and cinema.

  6. [Proposal for recognition of the comfort pattern in clients with pemphigus vulgaris using Fuzzy Logic].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; dos Santos, Iraci; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Moreira, Augusto Júnior

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to propose the use of Fuzzy Logic for recognition of comfort patterns in people undergoing a technology of nursing care because of pemphigus vulgaris, a rare mucocutaneous disease that affects mainly adults. The proposal applied experimental methods, with subjects undergoing a qualitative-quantitative comparison (taxonomy/relevance) of the comfort patterns before and after the intervention. A record of a chromatic scale corresponding to the intensity of each attribute was required: pain, mobility and impaired self-image. The Fuzzy rules established by an inference engine set the standard for comfort in maximum, median and minimum discomfort, reflecting the effectiveness of nursing care. Although rarely used in the area of nursing, this logic enabled viable research without a priori scaling of the number of subjects depending on the estimation of population parameters. It is expected to evaluate the pattern of comfort in the client with pemphigus, before the applied technology, in a personalized way, leading to a comprehensive evaluation.

  7. Interracial Social Comfort and Its Relationship to Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Scott D.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of interracial social comfort on college adjustment for 45 Black and 82 White students at a predominantly-White university. Black students reporting more comfort with Whites, regardless of level of comfort with Blacks, experienced better college adjustment. Furthermore, more social comfort with Blacks…

  8. Algal symbiont type affects gene expression in juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis exposed to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Harii, Saki; Hidaka, Michio

    2012-05-01

    Reef-building corals harbor symbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium spp., which are currently divided into several clades. The responses of corals associated with different Symbiodinium clades to thermal stress are not well understood, especially at a gene expression level. Juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis inoculated with different algal types (clade A or D) were exposed to thermal stress and the expression levels of four putative stress-responsive genes, including genes coding green and red fluorescent proteins, an oxidative stress-responsive protein, and an ascorbic acid transporter, were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of the four genes decreased at high temperatures if juveniles were associated with clade A symbionts but increased if the symbionts were in clade D. The intensity of green fluorescence increased with temperature in clade D symbionts harboring juveniles, but not in juveniles associated with clade A symbionts. The present results suggest that genotypes of endosymbiotic algae affect the thermal stress responses of the coral juveniles.

  9. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple

  10. Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Kolcaba, Katharine; DiMarco, Marguerite A

    2005-01-01

    Although written protocols currently are directed more to pain relief than to the comfort of each child, there is increasing interest in pediatric literature about comforting strategies for children and their families. However, pediatric nurses/researchers currently utilize measures of discomfort that designate a neutral sense of comfort as in the absence of a specific discomfort. Assessing comfort as a positive, holistic outcome is important for measuring effectiveness of comforting strategies. Comfort Theory (Kolcaba, 2003), with its inherent emphasis on physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, and environmental aspects of comfort, will contribute to a proactive and multifaceted approach to care. The framework of Comfort Theory for pediatric practice and research is easy to understand and implement. The application of the theory is strengthening and satisfying for pediatric patients/families and nurses, and benefits institutions where a culture of comfort is valued. Moreover, comfort is a transcultural and interdisciplinary concern.

  11. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  12. Starch, functional properties, and microstructural characteristics in chickpea and lentil as affected by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Esteban, Rosa M; Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2009-11-25

    Changes in starch, functional, and microstructural characteristics that occurred in chickpea and lentil under soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration processing were evaluated. Available starch in raw legumes represented 57-64%, and resistant starch (RS) is a significant component. As a result of cooking, available starch contents of soaked chickpea and lentil were significantly increased (21 and 12%, respectively) and RS decreased (65 and 49%, respectively) compared to raw flours. A similar trend was exhibited by dehydration, being more relevant in lentil (73% of RS decrease). The minimum nitrogen solubility of raw flours was at pH 3, and a high degree of protein insolubilization (80%) was observed in dehydrated flours. The raw legume flours exhibited low oil-holding capacities, 0.95-1.10 mL/g, and did not show any change by thermal processing, whereas water-holding capacities rose to 4.80-4.90 mL/g of sample. Emulsifying activity and foam capacity exhibited reductions as a result of cooking and industrial dehydration processing. The microstructural observations were consistent with the chemical results. Thus, the obtained cooked and dehydrated legume flours could be considered as functional ingredients for food formulation.

  13. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. PMID:26064101

  14. Thermal conditions experienced during differentiation affect metabolic and contractile phenotypes of mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Little, Alex G; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Central pathways regulate metabolic responses to cold in endotherms to maintain relatively stable internal core body temperatures. However, peripheral muscles routinely experience temperatures lower than core body temperature, so that it would be advantageous for peripheral tissues to respond to temperature changes independently from core body temperature regulation. Early developmental conditions can influence offspring phenotypes, and here we tested whether developing muscle can compensate locally for the effects of cold exposure independently from central regulation. Muscle myotubes originate from undifferentiated myoblasts that are laid down during embryogenesis. We show that in a murine myoblast cell line (C2C12), cold exposure (32°C) increased myoblast metabolic flux compared with 37°C control conditions. Importantly, myotubes that differentiated at 32°C compensated for the thermodynamic effects of low temperature by increasing metabolic rates, ATP production, and glycolytic flux. Myotube responses were also modulated by the temperatures experienced by "parent" myoblasts. Myotubes that differentiated under cold exposure increased activity of the AMP-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK), which may mediate metabolic changes in response cold exposure. Moreover, cold exposure shifted myosin heavy chains from slow to fast, presumably to overcome slower contractile speeds resulting from low temperatures. Adjusting thermal sensitivities locally in peripheral tissues complements central thermoregulation and permits animals to maintain function in cold environments. Muscle also plays a major metabolic role in adults, so that developmental responses to cold are likely to influence energy expenditure later in life. PMID:27385733

  15. Thermal stress and tropical cyclones affect economic production in Central America and Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Surface temperatures and tropical cyclones have large impacts on economic production. Local cyclone energy dissipation reduces output in agriculture and tourism, while stimulating output in construction. High surface temperatures reduce output in several labor-intensive industries; a 1° C increase for two consecutive years results in production losses of ˜13%. The response is greatest during the hottest season and is non-linear, with high temperature days contributing the most to production losses. The structure of this response matches results from a large ergonomics literature, supporting the hypothesis that thermal stress reduces human performance, driving macroeconomic fluctuations. This large response of non-agricultural sectors suggests that current estimates underestimate the scale and scope of economic vulnerabilities to climate change. Responses of each industry to surface temperature, tropical cyclones and rainfall. Estimates represent the change of value-added in the industry in response to each atmospheric variables during the year of production (L=0) and the years prior (L≥1). The responses to surface temperature are triangles, tropical cyclones are squares and rainfall are crosses. Estimates are grey if none of the annual responses are significant at the α = 0.1 level. Whiskers indicate 95% confidence intervals. Tourism receipts displays the five years prior (L=1-5) because of the long response of that industry to cyclones. Agriculture per worker is also plotted as circles when estimated a second time excluding mainland countries from the sample. Units are: temperature- percent change in output per 0.33°C; cyclones- percent changes in output per 1 standard deviation of tropical cyclone energy; rainfall- percent change in output per 2 cm/month.

  16. Thermal conditions during juvenile development affect adult dispersal in a spider.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Dries; Travis, Justin M J; De Clercq, Nele; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Lens, Luc

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of dispersal is a prerequisite for the effective management of natural populations. Rather than treating dispersal as a fixed trait, it should be considered a plastic process that responds to both genetic and environmental conditions. Here, we consider how the ambient temperature experienced by juvenile Erigone atra, a spider inhabiting crop habitat, influences adult dispersal. This species exhibits 2 distinct forms of dispersal, ballooning (long distance) and rappelling (short distance). Using a half-sib design we raised individuals under 4 different temperature regimes and quantified the spiders' propensity to balloon and to rappel. Additionally, as an indicator of investment in settlement, we determined the size of the webs build by the spiders following dispersal. The optimal temperature regimes for reproduction and overall dispersal investment were 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Propensity to perform short-distance movements was lowest at 15 degrees C, whereas for long-distance dispersal it was lowest at 30 degrees C. Plasticity in dispersal was in the direction predicted on the basis of the risks associated with seasonal changes in habitat availability; long-distance ballooning occurred more frequently under cooler, spring-like conditions and short-distance rappelling under warmer, summer-like conditions. Based on these findings, we conclude that thermal conditions during development provide juvenile spiders with information about the environmental conditions they are likely to encounter as adults and that this information influences the spider's dispersal strategy. Climate change may result in suboptimal adult dispersal behavior, with potentially deleterious population level consequences. PMID:18974219

  17. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis affects myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle growth in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Piestun, Yogev; Yahav, Shlomo; Halevy, Orna

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of 39.5°C applied during mid-embryogenesis (embryonic d 7 to 16) has been proven to promote muscle development and enhance muscle growth and meat production in meat-type chickens. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular basis for this effect. Continuous TM or intermittent TM (for 12 h/d) increased myoblast proliferation manifested by higher (25 to 48%) myoblast number in the pectoral muscles during embryonic development but also during the first week posthatch. Proliferation ability of the pectoral-muscle-derived myoblasts in vitro was significantly higher in the TM treatments until embryonic d 15 (intermittent TM) or 13 (continuous TM) compared to that of controls, suggesting increased myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle. However, the proliferation ability of myoblasts was lower in the TM treatments vs. control during the last days of incubation. This coincided with higher levels of myogenin expression in the muscle, indicating enhanced cell differentiation in the TM muscle. A similar pattern was observed posthatch: Myoblast proliferation was significantly higher in the TM chicks relative to controls during the peak of posthatch cell proliferation until d 6, followed by lower cell number 2 wk posthatch as myoblast number sharply decreases. Higher myogenin expression was observed in the TM chicks on d 6. This resulted in increased muscle growth, manifested by significantly higher relative weight of breast muscle in the embryo and posthatch. It can be concluded that temperature elevation during mid-term embryogenesis promotes myoblast proliferation, thus increasing myogenic progeny reservoir in the muscle, resulting in enhanced muscle growth in the embryo and posthatch.

  18. Short-Term Thermal-Humidity Shock Affects Point-of-Care Glucose Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Mandy; Curtis, Corbin M.; Ferguson, William J.; Vy, John H.; Truong, Anh-Thu; Sumner, Stephanie L.; Kost, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of short-term (≤1 hour) static high temperature and humidity stresses on the performance of point-of-care (POC) glucose test strips and meters. Glucose meters are used by medical responders and patients in a variety of settings including hospitals, clinics, homes, and the field. Reagent test strips and instruments are potentially exposed to austere environmental conditions. Glucose test strips and meters were exposed to a mean relative humidity of 83.0% (SD = 8.0%) and temperature of 42°C (107.6°F, SD = 3.2) in a Tenney BTRC environmental chamber. Stressed and unstressed glucose reagent strips and meters were tested with spiked blood samples (n = 40 measurements per time point for each of 4 trials) after 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of exposure. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test was applied to compare measurements test strip and meter measurements to isolate and characterize the magnitude of meter versus test strip effects individually. Stressed POC meters and test strips produced elevated glucose results, with stressed meter bias as high as 20 mg/dL (17.7% error), and stressed test strip bias as high as 13 mg/dL (12.2% error). The aggregate stress effect on meter and test strips yielded a positive bias as high as 33 mg/dL (30.1% error) after 15 minutes of exposure. Short-term exposure (15 minutes) to high temperature and humidity can significantly affect the performance of POC glucose test strips and meters, with measurement biases that potentially affect clinical decision making and patient safety. PMID:24876542

  19. Thermal and Colloid Related Processes and Uncertainty Affecting Plutonium Transport in NTS Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfsberg, A. V.; Lu, G.; Glascoe, L. G.; McGraw, M. M.; Olson, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    Field observations of plutonium migration away from the BENHAM underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have raised concerns regarding how much of the post-test inventory may actually be mobile and how far it can be expected to move. There are two key issues associated with the field observations. First, the highest concentration of plutonium was found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500 m above the BENHAM emplacement location. Second, plutonium is generally believed to be immobile in groundwater as a result of reactions with immobile minerals. To address the first issue, we simulate non-isothermal flow and transport in the collapsed cavity/chimney system that forms following an underground explosion. With this model, we demonstrate the feasibility of thermally induced, vertical migration of colloids to the upper aquifer in which plutonium was detected. The second component addresses the migration of plutonium in the fractured volcanic host rock between the source and the observation wells. The reactive transport model includes solute-colloid reactions, solute reactions with fracture coating minerals, diffusion of solutes from fractures into matrix material, and solute reactions with matrix minerals. With this model, we demonstrate that very low concentrations of plutonium at the observation well are feasible when colloid-facilitated solute transport processes are considered. However, this study also highlights a very large range in model result uncertainty resulting from uncertainty in aquifer properties and transport parameters. Uncertain parameters having the greatest impact on prediction uncertainty include fracture mineral reactive surface area, groundwater oxidation/reduction potential, reactive site concentration on colloids, kinetic rates of Pu-colloid reactions, and fracture porosity. This presentation will provide comparisons of the net impact of reducing uncertainty for several primary parameters. This work was performed

  20. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

  1. The effect of structures on indoor humidity--possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality.

    PubMed

    Simonson, C J; Salonvaara, M; Ojanen, T

    2002-12-01

    The research presented in this paper shows that moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic building structures can generally improve indoor humidity conditions. This is important because the literature shows that indoor humidity has a significant effect on occupant comfort, perceived air quality (PAQ), occupant health, building durability, material emissions, and energy consumption. Therefore, it appears possible to improve the quality of life of occupants when appropriately applying hygroscopic wood-based materials. The paper concentrates on the numerical investigation of a bedroom in a wooden building located in four European countries (Finland, Belgium, Germany, and Italy). The results show that moisture transfer between indoor air and the hygroscopic structure significantly reduces the peak indoor humidity. Based on correlations from the literature, which quantify the effect of temperature and humidity on comfort and PAQ for sedentary adults, hygroscopic structures can improve indoor comfort and air quality. In all the investigated climates, it is possible to improve the indoor conditions such that, as many as 10 more people of 100 are satisfied with the thermal comfort conditions (warm respiratory comfort) at the end of occupation. Similarly, the percent dissatisfied with PAQ can be 25% lower in the morning when permeable and hygroscopic structures are applied.

  2. Calculation of Level of Comfort of the Micro-Climate in Buildings During the Estimation of the Energy-Saving Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prorokova, M. V.; Bukhmirov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the method of valuation of comfort of microclimate of residen-tial, public and administrative buildings. The method is based on calculation of the coefficient of thermal comfort of a person in the room. Further amendments are introduced to the asym-metry of the thermal radiation, radiation cooling and air quality. The method serves as the basis for a computer program.

  3. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems.

  4. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Birru, Dagnachew; Wen, Yao-Jung; Rubinstein, Francis M.; Clear, Robert D.

    2013-10-28

    developed technology, and it would require at least a full solstice-to-solstice cycle to ruinously quantify the performance, which was not possible within the project timeframe. There are certain limitations inherited from the operational assumptions, which could potentially affect the effectiveness and applicability of the developed control technologies. The system takes a typical ceiling-mounting approach for the photosensor locations, and therefore, the control performance relies on proper commissioning or the built-in intelligence of the photosensor for pertinent task light level estimations. For spaces where daylight penetration diminishes significantly deeper into the zone, certain modification to the control algorithms is required to accommodate multiple lighting control subzones and the corresponding sensors for providing a more uniform light level across the entire zone. Integrated control of visual and thermal comfort requires the lighting control zone and thermal control zone to coincide with each other. In other words, the area illuminated by a lighting circuit needs to be the same area served by the thermostat. Thus, the original zoning will potentially constrain the applicability of this technology in retrofitting projects. This project demonstrated the technical feasibility of a zone-based integrated control technology. From the simulation results and testbed implementations, up to 60% lighting energy savings in daylit areas relative to a “no-controls” case can easily be achieved. A 20% reduction of whole building energy consumption is also attainable. In the aspect of occupant comfort, the testbed demonstrated the ability to maintain specified light level on the workplane while promptly mitigate daylight glare 90% of the time. The control system also managed to maintain the thermal environment at a comfortable level 90% of the time. The aspect of system scalability was guaranteed by the system architecture design, based on which the testbeds were

  5. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort cooling certificate and... § 3280.511 Comfort cooling certificate and information. (a) The manufactured home manufacturer shall permanently affix a “Comfort Cooling Certificate” to an interior surface of the home that is readily...

  6. The Role of Interpersonal Comfort in Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Day, Rachel; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This research examined interpersonal comfort as a potential mediating mechanism in mentoring relationships. Results indicated that interpersonal comfort mediated the relationship between gender similarity and protege reports of career and psychosocial mentoring. Contrary to prediction, interpersonal comfort did not mediate relationships involving…

  7. Walking after Stroke: Comfortable versus Maximum Safe Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This study attempted to (1) determine whether stroke patients (n=20) can safely increase their walking speed above that of comfortable walking; (2) describe the relationship between comfortable and maximum safe walking speed; and (3) examine correlations between maximum and comfortable speeds and a functional walking score. Subjects were able to…

  8. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    PubMed Central

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  9. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    PubMed

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others.

  10. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    PubMed

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others. PMID:25190840

  11. How "Does" the Comforting Process Work? An Empirical Test of an Appraisal-Based Model of Comforting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susanne M.; Wirtz, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Burleson and Goldsmith's (1998) comforting model suggests an appraisal-based mechanism through which comforting messages can bring about a positive change in emotional states. This study is a first empirical test of three causal linkages implied by the appraisal-based comforting model. Participants (N=258) talked about an upsetting event with a…

  12. Workplace characteristics associated with health and comfort concerns in three office buildings in Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Nelson, C.J.; Dunteman, G.

    1991-01-01

    Nearly 4000 employees of a Federal Agency in Washington, DC were surveyed in March of 1989 to determine their health symptoms, comfort concerns, and reports of odor during the previous year. Their personal characteristics and perceptions of workplace conditions were also determined. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that the workplace variable affecting the largest number of health symptoms and comfort/odor concerns was dust. Perceptions of hot stuffy air and the odor of paint, carpet cleaning, and other chemicals were also associated with a number of health symptoms. Other workplace variables associated with comfort and odor concerns included glare, noise, and nearby water leaks. In most cases, individual air handling units could not be associated with health symptoms. Areas with new carpet reported higher frequency of throat problems. It was concluded that improved maintenance, better recirculation and filtration of air, and glare screens were desirable to improve employee health and productivity.

  13. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  14. Comfort with motherhood in late pregnancy facilitates maternal role attainment in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuka; Takeishi, Yoko; Ito, Naoko; Ito, Mizuki; Atogami, Fumi; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life, comfort, and wellbeing during pregnancy are essential for every country in the world. Pregnancy is considered a preparation period for becoming a mother. Maternal role development, including confidence and satisfaction as a mother, is important in the transition to motherhood. Negative psychosocial affect, such as increased anxiety and distress, during pregnancy adversely influences the childbirth experience and childcare, which contributes to postpartum depression. However, the impact of positive feelings on the maternal role development remains unclear. Therefore, the study purpose was to clarify the relationship between comfort in late pregnancy and maternal role attainment and childcare during early postpartum. We designed a descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study by using the Prenatal Comfort Scale, the Postpartum Maternal Role Confidence Scale, and the Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Among 339 participants who had received care at a university hospital located in Sendai city in Japan, 215 subjects completed the longitudinal study by answering a questionnaire for the respective Scale late in their pregnancy or during early postpartum. The subjects consisted of 114 primipara (32.0 ± 5.4 years) and 101 multipara (33.4 ± 4.9 years). In primipara, comfort with motherhood was significantly correlated with maternal confidence regarding knowledge and childcare skills and maternal satisfaction. In multipara, comfort in late pregnancy was related to maternal confidence and satisfaction. Positive affect was related to maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction in early postpartum. Therefore, a prenatal nursing intervention helps women become more comfortable with impending motherhood, thereby promoting maternal role attainment after delivery. PMID:25744529

  15. Measured and perceived environmental comfort: field monitoring in an Italian school.

    PubMed

    De Giuli, Valeria; Zecchin, Roberto; Corain, Livio; Salmaso, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Microclimatic conditions were recorded in an Italian school and Fanger's indexes PMV and PPD were calculated under different conditions. Students' sensations were investigated four times by means of two surveys, one related to actual microclimatic conditions and one on overall satisfaction, interaction occupant-building and reactions to discomfort. Pupils' classroom position was considered to look for possible influence on thermal comfort: a difference emerged from PMV and the survey, but the results obtained from the two approaches differ for both the entity of discomfort and its distribution within each classroom. Innovative multivariate nonparametric statistical techniques were applied to compare and rank the classrooms in accordance with students' subjective perceptions; a global ranking has been also calculated, considering thermal and visual comfort and air quality. Comparing pupil-sensation-based ranking with environmental parameters no clear correspondence was found, except for mid-season, where PMV, CO2 concentration and desk illuminance were similar in all the classrooms. PMID:24462473

  16. The social comfort of wearable technology and gestural interaction.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Lucy E; Profita, Halley; Zeagler, Clint; Clawson, James; Gilliland, Scott; Do, Ellen Yi-Luen; Budd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The "wearability" of wearable technology addresses the factors that affect the degree of comfort the wearer experiences while wearing a device, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. While the physical and psychological aspects of wearing technology have been investigated since early in the development of the field of wearable computing, the social aspects of wearability have been less fully-explored. As wearable technology becomes increasingly common on the commercial market, social wearability is becoming an ever-more-important variable contributing to the success or failure of new products. Here we present an analysis of social aspects of wearability within the context of the greater understanding of wearability in wearable technology, and focus on selected theoretical frameworks for understanding how wearable products are perceived and evaluated in a social context. Qualitative results from a study of social acceptability of on-body interactions are presented as a case study of social wearability.

  17. The thermal consequences of river-level variations in an urban groundwater body highly affected by groundwater heat pumps.

    PubMed

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñe, Enric; Schneider, Eduardo Garrido; Sánchez-Navarro, José Ángel; Mateo-Lázaro, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    The extensive implementation of ground source heat pumps in urban aquifers is an important issue related to groundwater quality and the future economic feasibility of existent geothermal installations. Although many cities are in the immediate vicinity of large rivers, little is known about the thermal river-groundwater interaction at a kilometric-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the thermal impact of river water recharges induced by flood events into an urban alluvial aquifer anthropogenically influenced by geothermal exploitations. The present thermal state of an urban aquifer at a regional scale, including 27 groundwater heat pump installations, has been evaluated. The thermal impacts of these installations in the aquifer together with the thermal impacts from "cold" winter floods have also been spatially and temporally evaluated to ensure better geothermal management of the aquifer. The results showed a variable direct thermal impact from 0 to 6 °C depending on the groundwater-surface water interaction along the river trajectory. The thermal plumes far away from the riverbed also present minor indirect thermal impacts due to hydraulic gradient variations.

  18. Effect of parallax distribution and crosstalk on visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-05-01

    Although autostereoscopic display is considered to be mainstream in the three-dimensional (3-D) display market for the near future, practical quality problems still exist due to various challenges such as the accommodation-vergence conflict and crosstalk. A number of studies have shown that these problems reduce the visual comfort and reliability of the perceived workload. We present two experiments for investigating the effect of parallax distribution, which affects the behavior of the accommodation and vergence responses and crosstalk on visual comfort in autostereoscopic display. We measured the subjective visual scores and perceived depth position for watching under various conditions that include foreground parallax, background parallax, and crosstalk levels. The results show that the viewers' comfort is significantly influenced by parallax distribution that induces a suitable conflict between the accommodation and vergence responses of the human visual system. Moreover, we confirm that crosstalk changes significantly affect visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display. Consequently, the results can be used as guidelines to produce or adjust the 3-D image in accordance with the characteristics of parallax barrier autostereoscopic display.

  19. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal's housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  20. Frontal Brain Activity and Behavioral Indicators of Affective States are Weakly Affected by Thermal Stimuli in Sheep Living in Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative), intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive). We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g., locomotor activity, aversive behaviors), and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements, and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found. PMID:26664938

  1. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  2. Comfort air temperature influence on heating and cooling loads of a residential building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, C.; Șoriga, I.; Gheorghian, A. T.; Stanciu, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the thermal behavior and energy loads of a two-level residential building designed for a family of four, two adults and two students, for different inside comfort levels reflected by the interior air temperature. Results are intended to emphasize the different thermal behavior of building elements and their contribution to the building's external load. The most important contributors to the building thermal loss are determined. Daily heating and cooling loads are computed for 12 months simulation in Bucharest (44.25°N latitude) in clear sky conditions. The most important aspects regarding sizing of thermal energy systems are emphasized, such as the reference months for maximum cooling and heating loads and these loads’ values. Annual maximum loads are encountered in February and August, respectively, so these months should be taken as reference for sizing thermal building systems, in Bucharest, under clear sky conditions.

  3. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    PubMed

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  4. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience.

    PubMed

    Vink, P; Bazley, C; Kamp, I; Blok, M

    2012-03-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet trip reports and 153 passenger interviews were used to gather opinions about aspects which need to be improved in order to design a more comfortable aircraft interior. The results show clear relationships between comfort and legroom, hygiene, crew attention and seat/personal space. Passengers rate the newer planes significantly better than older ones, indicating that attention to design for comfort has proven effective. The study also shows that rude flight attendants and bad hygiene reduce the comfort experience drastically and that a high comfort rating is related to higher "fly again" values.

  5. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    This document contains Appendix A, B, and C. In Appendix A, we are working as part of a research project with King Monkut's Institute of Technology, Thonburi, and the University of California, Berkeley (USA) to determine how people respond to the thermal environment inside buildings. We have prepared a short questionnaire which will survey thermal comfort. Our plan is to survey each building during each of three seasons over this year (e.g. hot, rainy, and cool seasons). Appendix B contains supporting technical documentation on conservation potential and Appendix C contains documentation on utility impacts.

  6. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously.

  7. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously. PMID:26360222

  8. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  9. Passenger comfort response times as a function of aircraft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinalducci, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between a passenger's response time of changes in level of comfort experienced as a function of aircraft motion was examined. The aircraft used in this investigation was capable of providing a wide range of vertical and transverse accelerations by means of direct lift flap control surfaces and side force generator surfaces in addition to normal control surfaces. Response times to changes in comfort were recorded along with the passenger's rating of comfort on a five point scale. In addition, a number of aircraft motion variables including vertical and transverse accelerations were also recorded. Results indicate some relationship between human comfort response times to reaction time data.

  10. A Systematic Literature Review Toward the Characterization of Comfort.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sara; Caldeira, Sílvia; Martins, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Comfort integrates the taxonomies and the classifications of nursing knowledge. Its meaning is not yet clear, although it is an important construct from which theories are developed. This article aims to analyze comfort in nursing scientific literature. The results highlight a particular interest in comfort at crisis situations such as illness, palliative care, or intensive care. Comforting seems to be a complex intervention. More studies are needed to achieve its operational assimilation and implementation in clinical practice, as well as the evaluation of its efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:26633722

  11. Adaptation to local thermal regimes by crustose coralline algae does not affect rates of recruitment in coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Evenhuis, Christian; Logan, Murray; Motti, Cherie A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are well known for their ability to induce settlement in coral larvae. While their wide distribution spans reefs that differ substantially in temperature regimes, the extent of local adaptation to these regimes and the impact they have on CCA inductive ability are unknown. CCA Porolithon onkodes from Heron (southern) and Lizard (northern) islands on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (separated by 1181 km) were experimentally exposed to acute or prolonged thermal stress events and their thermal tolerance and recruitment capacity determined. A sudden onset bleaching model was developed to determine the health status of CCA based on the rate of change in the CCA live surface area (LSA). The interaction between location and temperature was significant ( F (2,119) = 6.74, p = 0.0017), indicating that thermally driven local adaptation had occurred. The southern population remained healthy after prolonged exposure to 28 °C and exhibited growth compared to the northern population ( p = 0.022), with its optimum temperature determined to be slightly below 28 °C. As expected, at the higher temperatures (30 and 32 °C) the Lizard Island population performed better that those from Heron Island, with an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Lizard Island CCA displayed the lowest bleaching rates at 30 °C, while levels consistently increased with temperature in their southern counterparts. The ability of those CCA deemed thermally tolerant (based on LSA) to induce Acropora millepora larval settlement was then assessed. While spatial differences influenced the health and bleaching levels of P. onkodes during prolonged and acute thermal exposure, thermally tolerant fragments, regardless of location, induced similar rates of coral larval settlement. This confirmed that recent thermal history does not influence the ability of CCA to induce settlement of A. millepora larvae.

  12. Local thermal unpleasantness and discomfort prediction in the vicinity of thermoneutrality.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, Nicolas; Deschuyteneer, Anne; Candas, Victor

    2004-09-01

    This work emphasizes a better understanding of the origin of human thermal discomfort under heterogeneous but steady environments, in subjects in the vicinity of physiological and sensory thermoneutrality. The knowledge of skin temperatures allows a psychophysiological study aiming at linking the body thermal state (local and global) to thermal sensation (perceptive and affective judgements). By using two driving simulators, 345 subjects were exposed to different thermal environments, modulated by factors such as the air distribution in the automotive cockpit or the clothing insulation (winter or summer). This work shows that consideration of the local thermal state is essential for the evaluation of thermal comfort in the case of non-uniform environments. Our experimental conditions point out that the overall sensation of discomfort is quantitative, with local unpleasantness needing to be felt for a certain number of body surfaces. A local origin is suggested for cold discomfort, in opposition to the global characteristics of warm discomfort.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  14. The End-State Comfort Effect in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adalbjornsson, Carola F.; Fischman, Mark G.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The end-state comfort effect has been observed in recent studies of grip selection in adults. The present study investigated whether young children also exhibit sensitivity to end-state comfort. The task was to pick up an overturned cup from a table, turn the cup right side up, and pour water into it. Two age groups (N = 20 per group) were…

  15. Passenger ride comfort technology for transport aircraft situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Jacobsen, I. D.

    1976-01-01

    A brief overview is given of NASA research in ride comfort and of the resultant technology. Three useful relations derived from the technology are presented together with five applications of these relations to illustrate their effectiveness in addressing various ride comfort situations of passenger transports.

  16. The Digital Divide in Classrooms: Teacher Technology Comfort and Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornisch, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A disconnect exists between students' comfort with using technology for learning and teachers' comfort in using technology for teaching. Students report the desire for more engaging technology-based assignments. Teachers cite multiple reasons for their hesitancy to use technology in their teaching. The current study investigates whether…

  17. The Relationship of Empathy to Comforting Behavior Following Film Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates differences in comforting behavior that are associated with dimensions of empathy and exposure to film. Finds that fictional involvement and empathic concern were important predictors of comforting behavior and that, after accounting for the influence of these dimensions of empathy, film condition explained further differences in…

  18. Evaluation of Peer Comforting Strategies by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ruth Anne; MacGeorge, Erina L.; Robinson, Lakesha

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of social support across the lifespan and extensive research on supportive communication between adults, little is known about how children or adolescents respond to the comforting efforts of their peers. The current study was designed to examine how 5th, 7th, and 9th graders evaluate six peer comforting strategies…

  19. Performance criteria for dynamic window systems using nanostructured behaviors for energy harvesting and environmental comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andow, Brandon C.; Krietemeyer, Bess; Stark, Peter R. H.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary commercial building types continue to incorporate predominantly glazed envelope systems, despite the associated challenges with thermal regulation, visual comfort, and increased energy consumption. The advantage of window systems that could adaptively respond to changes in the environment while meeting variable demands for building energy use and occupant comfort has led to considerable investment towards the advancement of dynamic window technologies. Although these technologies demonstrate cost warranting improvements in building energy performance, they face challenges with visible clarity, color variability and response time. Furthermore, they remain challenged with respect to their ability to adequately control important qualitative criteria for daylighting such as glare and balanced light redistribution within occupied spaces. The material dependent limitations of advanced glazing technologies have initiated a search for new thin film solutions, with new device possibilities emerging across many fields. Idealized window performance has traditionally been defined as the dynamic control of solar transmittance, glare, solar gain and daylighting at any time to manage energy, comfort and view. However, in the context of wider goals towards building energy self-sufficiency through the achievement of on-site net zero energy, emerging material systems point towards other physical phenomena for achieving transparency modulation and energy harvesting, demanding a broader range of criteria for advanced glazing controls that allow the glazed building envelope to exist as a transfer function that can address and potentially accommodate the following five principal criteria: 1. Thermal management; 2. Daylighting harvesting and modulation; 3. Maintenance of views; 4. Active power capture, transfer, storage and redistribution; 5. Information Display. Building upon the existing set of performance requirements for high-performance glazing, this paper prescribes

  20. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO{sub 2} and comfort assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-07-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO{sub 2} concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO{sub 2} concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants.

  1. Applying outdoor environment to develop health, comfort, and energy saving in the office in hot-humid climate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2-23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  2. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  3. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX....

  4. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people.

    PubMed

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was 'cool' (75%) followed by 'slightly cool' (7%), 'slightly cold' (5%) and 'cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors 'cool', 'slightly cool', 'neither', 'slightly warm', and 'warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where 'cool' and 'slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was 'higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and 'higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, 'lower than 15°C' for Japanese and 'lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor 'cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  5. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  6. The effects of videotape modeling and daily feedback on residential electricity conservation, home temperature and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Winett, R A; Hatcher, J W; Fort, T R; Leckliter, I N; Love, S Q; Riley, A W; Fishback, J F

    1982-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with daily feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded temperature and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean temperature of about 62 degrees F when home and about 59 degrees F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75 degrees F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or daily feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal temperature change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior

  7. The effects of videotape modeling and daily feedback on residential electricity conservation, home temperature and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer

    PubMed Central

    Winett, Richard A.; Hatcher, Joseph W.; Fort, T. Richard; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Love, Susan Q.; Riley, Anne W.; Fishback, James F.

    1982-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with daily feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded temperature and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean temperature of about 62°F when home and about 59°F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75°F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or daily feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal temperature change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior change, and energy

  8. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies. PMID:26657745

  9. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies.

  10. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant’s functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies. PMID:26657745

  11. A Comparison of Helping, Sharing, Comforting, Honesty, and Civic Awareness for Home Care, Day Care, and Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; And Others

    In a study designed to determine whether experience in day care or preschool affects children's knowledge and enactment of prosocial behaviors, 59 children in day care, preschool, and home care were pre- and post-tested concerning: (1) their understanding of helping, sharing, comforting, honesty, and civic awareness; (2) their definitions of…

  12. Analytical and experimental evaluation of proposed ride comfort criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinje, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of indices proposed by different investigators to relate vehicle vibrations to passenger comfort. The indices considered included criteria for sinusoidal vibrations, unweighted and weighted amplitude exceedance counts, the integral of the unweighted and weighted power spectral density and absorbed power. These functions were initially examined analytically to determine the manner in which they each weighed vibration amplitude and frequency. Similarities among them are noted. Index values were then computed from measured vibrations and compared with the associated comfort ratings. The data for these comparisons were obtained from ride comfort evaluations of passenger trains.

  13. Does Thermal Breathing Affect Collision Cross Sections of Gas-Phase Peptide Ions? An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Robert; Petrone, Alessio; Laszlo, Kenneth J; Bush, Matthew F; Li, Xiaosong; Tureček, František

    2016-07-21

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) with density functional theory (DFT) was applied to explore conformational motions and collision cross sections (Ω) of folded (2) and extended (7) conformers of doubly charged peptide ions, (Ala-Ala-Leu-Arg + 2H)(2+), in the gas phase at 300 and 473 K. The experimental Ω of (Ala-Ala-Leu-Arg +2H)(2+) was measured as 149 ± 1.2 Å(2) at 298 K. Thermally distributed mean values of Ω for 2 and 7 at 300 and 473 K were only 0.8-1.1% larger than for the equilibrium 0 K structures. Long (>10 ps) trajectory calculations indicated entropy-driven conformational change of 2 to 7 that occurred at random within a ∼ 4 ps time window. The experimental Ω was found to fit the calculated population averaged values for 2 and 7, indicating a rapid conformer interconversion. Overall, thermal breathing had only a minor effect on the peptide ion collision cross sections.

  14. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

    2012-06-01

    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  15. Effect of sealant application and thermal cycling on bond strength of tissue conditioners to acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Francisca Neta Cruz Soares; Pinto, José Renato Ribeiro; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sealer application and thermal cycling on the bond strength between tissue conditioners and acrylic resin, and to observe the type of bond failure. Two hundred eighty-eight specimens (10x16x3 mm) were made of an acrylic resin (Lucitone 500, Dentsply) using a metal muffle. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the tissue conditioner (Coe-Comfort, GC or Dentusoft, Densell) used and whether or not a sealer (Eversoft Soft Liner Sealer, Myerson) was applied. Each of the four groups was subdivided into other six subgroups (n=12) to undergo thermocycling for 45, 90, 135, 180 or 210 cycles with a dwell time of 60 s, or to be left non thermocycled (control). Tensile bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Sealant application had no effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin, regardless of the tissue conditioner used (Coe-Comfort: p=0.306 and Dentusoft: p=0.1501). The number of thermal cycles had a significant effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin (Coe-Comfort: p=0.002 and Dentusoft: p<0.001). Both tissue conditioners presented similar bond strength to acrylic resin. For both tissue conditioners, sealer coatings had no influence on bond strength, while different numbers of thermal cycles affected that mechanical property.

  16. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    PubMed

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. A series of new copper iodobismuthates: structural relationships, optical band gaps affected by dimensionality, and distinct thermal stabilities.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wen-Xiang; Wu, Li-Ming; Li, Jun-Qian; Chen, Ling

    2007-10-15

    Three new copper iodobismuthates, red tetranuclear [n-Bu(4)N][Cu(2)(CH(3)CN)(2)Bi(2)I(10)] (1), dark-red infinite linear [Et(4)N](2n)[Cu(2)Bi(2)I(10)](n) (2), and black polymeric ladderlike [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](2n)[Cu(2)Bi(2)I(10)](n) (3), crystallize from solutions of BiI3 and CuI in the presence of different cations. A regular structural relationship from 0-D (1) to 1-D linear anion chains (2) to 1-D ladderlike anion chains (3) is observed. The self-assembly of the basic building unit Cu(2)Bi(2)I(10) as altered by different cations is proposed to be the driving force for their formation. The optical band gaps exhibit a structure-related decrease from 1 to 2/3, in agreement with their color changes and the density functional theory (DFT) calculation results. The electronic structures and the relationship with corresponding monobismuth analogues and the Ag-Bi isotypes are discussed on the basis of DFT calculations. In spite of their structural similarities, the compounds are distinctive thermally: 2 is stable to 230 degrees C, 1 undergoes a solvent loss at 85 degrees C to form a new phase that is thermally stable to 230 degrees C, and 3 releases a solvent molecule and decomposes at 80 degrees C into BiI(3) and CuI. The essential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:17845032

  18. Effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive with caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength in total-etch versus self-etch adhesive systems in caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty class II cavities were prepared on extracted proximally carious human mandibular first molars and were divided into two groups: Group I — self-etch adhesive system restorations and Group II — total-etch adhesive system restorations. Group I and II were further divided into sub-groups A (Without thermal and mechanical loading) and B (With thermal and mechanical loading of 5000 cycles, 5 ± 2°C to 55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 seconds, and 150,000 cycles at 60N). The gingival margin of the proximal box was evaluated at 200X magnification for marginal adaptation in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. The restorations were sectioned, perpendicular to the bonded surface, into 0.8 mm thick slabs. All the specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. The marginal adaptation was analyzed using descriptive studies, and the bond strength data was analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results and Conclusions: The total-etch system performed better under thermomechanical loading. PMID:21691507

  19. Nurses' fear of death and comfort level with dying patients.

    PubMed

    Hare, J; Pratt, C C

    1989-01-01

    This study examined differences in nurses' fear of death and level of comfort with patients having a poor prognosis for survival, as a function of the nurses' occupational level, work setting, and level of exposure to such patients. In addition, the relationship among the multidimensional aspects of fear of death and level of comfort with patients' poor prognosis was assessed. The sample included 312 professional and paraprofessional nurses who worked in hospitals and nursing homes. Level of comfort with working with dying patients was found to differ significantly by exposure to such patients and by occupational role. Fear of death for significant others was found to differ significantly by work setting. Finally, a significant inverse relationship was found between comfort working with dying patients and overall fear of death. Suggestions for future research are presented.

  20. 67. Smart view recreation area comfort station, reflecting Appalachian Architecture, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Smart view recreation area comfort station, reflecting Appalachian Architecture, was completed by the summer of 1940 by era crews. View to the south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. Ride quality evaluation. I. [aircraft passenger comfort assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents, the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.

  2. Ride quality evaluation 1: Questionnaire studies of airline passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents; the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.

  3. 68. Smart view recreation area comfort station with postandrail fence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Smart view recreation area comfort station with post-and-rail fence reflecting Appalachian culture. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  5. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  6. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  7. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  8. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  9. Total Phenolic, Phenolic Acid, Anthocyanin, Flavan-3-ol, and Flavonol Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Pinto and Black Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as Affected by Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2009-06-10

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes at atmospheric and high pressures on the phenolic components and antioxidant properties of pinto and black beans were investigated. In comparison to the original raw beans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) values in both pinto and black beans. Steaming processing resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values than the boiling processes in both pinto and black beans. To further investigate how thermal processing affected phenolic compositions and to elucidate the contribution of individual phenolic compounds to antioxidant properties, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All thermal processing significantly (p < 0.05) affected individual phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced total phenolic acid contents in both pinto and black beans and total flavonol contents in pinto beans, and dramatically reduced anthocyanin contents in black beans. Phenolic acids and flavonols may play important roles on the overall antioxidant activities of pinto beans, while anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols may play important roles on the overall antioxidant activities of black beans.

  10. How does alteration of hepatic blood flow affect liver perfusion and radiofrequency-induced thermal lesion size in rabbit liver?

    PubMed

    Aschoff, A J; Merkle, E M; Wong, V; Zhang, Q; Mendez, M M; Duerk, J L; Lewin, J S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that decreasing liver perfusion in rabbits results in an increase in thermal lesion size and that these effects can be accurately monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We additionally tested the hypothesis that the increase in thermal lesion size would depend on the particular vessel or vessels occluded (hepatic artery, portal vein, or both). Using an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved protocol, 20 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (five in each group): control and ligation of portal vein (PV), hepatic artery (HA), or both PV and HA (HAPV). Surgical ligation of the appropriate vessel was performed under general anesthesia. Immediately after ligation, the rabbits were placed in a 0.2-T open MR system, and an 18-G copper radiofrequency (RF) electrode with a 2-cm exposed tip was inserted into the liver. RF was applied for 10 minutes with the tip temperature maintained at 90 degrees +/- 2 degrees C. Before and after ablation, perfusion data were obtained for 90 seconds using 30 3-second sequential single oblique-slice fast imaging with steady-state progression (FISP) acquisitions after injection of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) via the inferior vena cava. Postablation scanning included axial and oblique turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted (T2w), STIR, and Gd-enhanced T1w sequences. Lesion size was determined perpendicular to the RF electrode using software calipers on the imager. The rabbits were sacrificed after completion of the post-therapy scans, and their livers were harvested for histologic analysis. The liver showed a mean increase in signal amplitude (SA) of 76% 24 seconds after Gd contrast injection in the control group. After contrast injection, the SA increased to a mean of only 66% in the group with ligated hepatic arteries, with no difference in the time to peak compared with the control group. No significant

  11. Short-Term Thermal-Humidity Shock Affects Point-of-Care Glucose Testing: Implications for Health Professionals and Patients.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mandy; Louie, Richard F; Curtis, Corbin M; Ferguson, William J; Vy, John H; Truong, Anh-Thu; Sumner, Stephanie L; Kost, Gerald J

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of short-term (≤1 hour) static high temperature and humidity stresses on the performance of point-of-care (POC) glucose test strips and meters. Glucose meters are used by medical responders and patients in a variety of settings including hospitals, clinics, homes, and the field. Reagent test strips and instruments are potentially exposed to austere environmental conditions. Glucose test strips and meters were exposed to a mean relative humidity of 83.0% (SD = 8.0%) and temperature of 42°C (107.6°F, SD = 3.2) in a Tenney BTRC environmental chamber. Stressed and unstressed glucose reagent strips and meters were tested with spiked blood samples (n = 40 measurements per time point for each of 4 trials) after 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of exposure. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was applied to compare measurements test strip and meter measurements to isolate and characterize the magnitude of meter versus test strip effects individually. Stressed POC meters and test strips produced elevated glucose results, with stressed meter bias as high as 20 mg/dL (17.7% error), and stressed test strip bias as high as 13 mg/dL (12.2% error). The aggregate stress effect on meter and test strips yielded a positive bias as high as 33 mg/dL (30.1% error) after 15 minutes of exposure. Short-term exposure (15 minutes) to high temperature and humidity can significantly affect the performance of POC glucose test strips and meters, with measurement biases that potentially affect clinical decision making and patient safety. PMID:24876542

  12. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating behavior. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor in 29 of these women. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. PMID:22579988

  13. How Were Southwest Pacific Pelagic Ecosystems Affected by Extreme Global Warming During the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, C. J.; Crouch, E. M.; Dickens, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Four sections in eastern New Zealand provide the only South Pacific record of the initial Eocene thermal maximum (IETM): a siliciclastic outer shelf section (Tawanui, Hawkes Bay) and three pelagic-hemipelagic sections forming an outer shelf-upper slope transect across a carbonate ramp (Muzzle, Dee and Mead Streams, Clarence Valley). Although the rocks are too indurated to yield reliable oxygen isotope data, the IETM is identified by bulk carbonate carbon isotopes as a sharp negative excursion followed by gradual recovery over 0.6 to 4.0 m. In all sections, the excursion is mirrored by terrigenous sediment concentration, due to reduced biogenic (carbonate and silica) input and increased terrigenous input. Increased precipitation under warm humid conditions appears to have increased terrestrial discharge, recorded by deposition of smectitic marl in pelagic settings and illite/kaolinite-bearing smectitic mudstone in neritic settings. Eutrophic conditions are inferred for the IETM interval at Tawanui based on dysoxia, carbonate dissolution, an acme for the peridinioid dinocyst Apectodinium and abundant Toweius spp in nannofossil assemblages. Continued abundance of Toweius and replacement of Apectodinium by peridinioids of the Deflandrea complex suggests that eutrophic, albeit cooler, conditions persisted for at least 0.5 Ma after the IETM. In contrast, the IETM in Clarence Valley is marked by reduced biogenic silica content but little change in carbonate, and no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Sparse, poorly preserved palynomorphs assemblages suggest organic matter was oxidised under fully oxic conditions. Reduced numbers of upwelling indicators in the siliceous microfossil assemblage and common warm-water planktic foraminifera (Morozovella spp.), nannoplankton (Discoaster spp.) and radiolarians (e.g. Podocyrtis and Theocorys spp.) signal a switch from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions and significant warming of near-surface waters. A progressive increase in

  14. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    PubMed

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P < 0.05) in the venous blood of TM than in that of control chickens, suggesting long-term respiratory adaptation. At slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P < 0.05) by thermal treatments. The heat challenge increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in controls (P < 0.05) but not in TM birds, possibly reflecting a lower stress status in TM chickens. Interestingly, broiler chickens had moderate heritability estimates for the plasma triiodothyronine/thyroxine concentration ratio at d 28 and comb temperature during the heat challenge on d 34 (h(2) > 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long

  15. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiener, Michael; Green, Peter; Ahuna, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role "comfortability" plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple…

  16. Human comfort response to random motions with a dominant longitudinal motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Subjective ride comfort response ratings were measured on the Langley Visual Motion Simulator with longitudinal acceleration inputs with various power spectra shapes and magnitudes. The results show only little influence of spectra shape on comfort response. The effects of magnitude on comfort response indicate the applicability of psychophysical precepts for comfort modeling.

  17. Human comfort response to random motions with a dominant transverse motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Subjective ride comfort response ratings were measured on the Langley Visual Motion Simulator with transverse acceleration inputs with various power spectra shapes and magnitudes. The results show only little influence of spectra shape on comfort response. The effects of magnitude on comfort response indicate the applicability of psychophysical precepts for comfort modeling.

  18. End-state comfort and joint configuration variance during reaching.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J; Rosenbaum, David A; Scholz, John P; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2013-03-01

    This study joined two approaches to motor control. The first approach comes from cognitive psychology and is based on the idea that goal postures and movements are chosen to satisfy task-specific constraints. The second approach comes from the principle of motor abundance and is based on the idea that control of apparently redundant systems is associated with the creation of multi-element synergies stabilizing important performance variables. The first approach has been tested by relying on psychophysical ratings of comfort. The second approach has been tested by estimating variance along different directions in the space of elemental variables such as joint postures. The two approaches were joined here. Standing subjects performed series of movements in which they brought a hand-held pointer to each of four targets oriented within a frontal plane, close to or far from the body. The subjects were asked to rate the comfort of the final postures, and the variance of their joint configurations during the steady state following pointing was quantified with respect to pointer endpoint position and pointer orientation. The subjects showed consistent patterns of comfort ratings among the targets, and all movements were characterized by multi-joint synergies stabilizing both pointer endpoint position and orientation. Contrary to what was expected, less comfortable postures had higher joint configuration variance than did more comfortable postures without major changes in the synergy indices. Multi-joint synergies stabilized the pointer position and orientation similarly across a range of comfortable/uncomfortable postures. The results are interpreted in terms conducive to the two theoretical frameworks underlying this work, one focusing on comfort ratings reflecting mean postures adopted for different targets and the other focusing on indices of joint configuration variance. PMID:23288326

  19. End-state comfort and joint configuration variance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J.; Rosenbaum, David A.; Scholz, John P.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    This study joined two approaches to motor control. The first approach comes from cognitive psychology and is based on the idea that goal postures and movements are chosen to satisfy task-specific constraints. The second approach comes from the principle of motor abundance and is based on the idea that control of apparently redundant systems is associated with the creation of multi-element synergies stabilizing important performance variables. The first approach has been tested by relying on psychophysical ratings of comfort. The second approach has been tested by estimating variance along different directions in the space of elemental variables such as joint postures. The two approaches were joined here. Standing subjects performed series of movements in which they brought a hand-held pointer to each of four targets oriented within a frontal plane, close to or far from the body. The subjects were asked to rate the comfort of the final postures, and the variance of their joint configurations during the steady state following pointing was quantified with respect to pointer endpoint position and pointer orientation. The subjects showed consistent patterns of comfort ratings among the targets, and all movements were characterized by multi-joint synergies stabilizing both pointer endpoint position and orientation. Contrary to what was expected, less comfortable postures had higher joint configuration variance than did more comfortable postures without major changes in the synergy indices. Multi-joint synergies stabilized the pointer position and orientation similarly across a range of comfortable/uncomfortable postures. The results are interpreted in terms conducive to the two theoretical frameworks underlying this work, one focusing on comfort ratings reflecting mean postures adopted for different targets and the other focusing on indices of joint configuration variance. PMID:23288326

  20. Impact of three biological decontamination methods on filtering facepiece respirator fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Novak, Debra A; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), moist heat incubation (MHI), or microwave-generated steam (MGS) decontamination affects the fitting characteristics, odor, comfort, or donning ease of six N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models. For each model, 10 experienced test subjects qualified for the study by passing a standard OSHA quantitative fit test. Once qualified, each subject performed a series of fit tests to assess respirator fit and completed surveys to evaluate odor, comfort, and donning ease with FFRs that were not decontaminated (controls) and with FFRs of the same model that had been decontaminated. Respirator fit was quantitatively measured using a multidonning protocol with the TSI PORTACOUNT Plus and the N95 Companion accessory (designed to count only particles resulting from face to face-seal leakage). Participants' subjective appraisals of the respirator's odor, comfort, and donning ease were captured using a visual analog scale survey. Wilcoxon signed rank tests compared median values for fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease for each FFR and decontamination method against their respective controls for a given model. Two of the six FFRs demonstrated a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in fit after MHI decontamination. However, for these two FFR models, post-decontamination mean fit factors were still ≥ 100. One of the other FFRs demonstrated a relatively small though statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in median odor response after MHI decontamination. These data suggest that FFR users with characteristics similar to those in this study population would be unlikely to experience a clinically meaningful reduction in fit, increase in odor, increase in discomfort, or increased difficulty in donning with the six FFRs included in this study after UVGI, MHI, or MGS decontamination. Further research is needed before decontamination of N95 FFRs for purposes of reuse can be

  1. An initial assessment of the bioclimatic comfort in an outdoor public space in Lisbon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sandra; Andrade, Henrique

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the application of a methodology designed to analyse the relationship between climatic conditions and the perception of bioclimatic comfort. The experiment consisted of conducting simultaneous questionnaire surveys and weather measurements during 2 sunny spring days in an open urban area in Lisbon. The results showed that under outdoor conditions, thermal comfort can be maintained with temperatures well above the standard values defined for indoor conditions. There seems to be a spontaneous adaptation in terms of clothing whenever the physiological equivalent temperature threshold of 31 degrees C is surpassed. The perception of air temperature is difficult to separate from the perception of the thermal environment and is modified by other parameters, particularly wind. The perception of solar radiation is related to the intensity of fluxes from various directions (i.e. falling upon both vertical and horizontal surfaces), weighted by the coefficients of incidence upon the human body. Wind was found to be the most intensely perceived variable, usually negatively. Wind perception depends largely on the extreme values of wind speed and wind variability. Women showed a stronger negative reaction to high wind speed than men. The experiment proved that this methodology is well-suited to achieving the proposed objectives and that it may be applied in other areas and in other seasons.

  2. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-05-01

    In many parts of North America residential HVAC systems are installed outside conditioned space. This leads to significant energy losses and poor occupant comfort due to conduction and air leakage losses from the air distribution ducts. In addition, cooling equipment performance is sensitive to air flow and refrigerant charge that have been found to be far from manufacturers specifications in most systems. The simulation techniques discussed in this report were developed in an effort to provide guidance on the savings potentials and comfort gains that can be achieved by improving ducts (sealing air leaks) and equipment (correct air-flow and refrigerant charge). The simulations include the complex air flow and thermal interactions between duct systems, their surroundings and the conditioned space. They also include cooling equipment response to air flow and refrigerant charge effects. Another key aspect of the simulations is that they are dynamic to account for cyclic losses from the HVAC system and the effect of cycle length on energy and comfort performance. To field test the effect of changes to residential HVAC systems requires extensive measurements to be made for several months for each condition tested. This level of testing is often impractical due to cost and time limitations. Therefore the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at LBNL developed a computer simulation tool that models residential HVAC system performance. This simulation tool has been used to answer questions about equipment downsizing, duct improvements, control strategies and climate variation so that recommendations can be made for changes in residential construction and HVAC installation techniques that would save energy, reduce peak demand and result in more comfortable homes. Although this study focuses on California climates, the simulation tool could easily be applied to other climates. This report summarizes the simulation tool and discusses the significant developments that allow

  3. An Arena of Comfort during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has consistently shown parents' nurturance, acceptance, affection, support, and attention to be positively related to their children's self-esteem. Absent in these investigations of the relationship between parental nurturance and self-esteem, however, has been a consideration of whether the nurturance bases upon which these "reflected…

  4. Repeated forced swim stress enhances CFA-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and affects the expressions of pCREB and c-Fos in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Kaneoke, Y

    2014-02-14

    Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term changes in multiple neural systems. Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces lasting hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and c-Fos in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in the rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced an increase in the expression of pCREB and c-Fos in the anterior IC (AIC). CFA injection into the hindpaw after the FS shows significantly enhanced thermal hyperalgesia and induced a decrease in the expression of c-Fos in the AIC and the posterior IC (PIC). Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the left AIC and PIC were significantly lower in the FS+CFA group (L AIC, 95.9±6.8; L PIC, 181.9±23.1) than those in the naive group (L AIC, 151.1±19.3, p<0.05; L PIC, 274.2±37.3, p<0.05). These findings suggest a neuroplastic change in the IC after FS, which may be involved in the enhancement of CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system.

  5. COMFORT: evaluating a new communication curriculum with nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty face increasing instructional demands to keep pace with mounting knowledge and competency requirements for student nurses. In the context of nursing practice, tasks and time pressures detract from the high skill and aptitude expectation of communication. The communication, orientation and opportunity, mindful presence, family, openings, relating, and team (COMFORT) curriculum, an acronym that represents 7 basic nursing communication principles, has been introduced into the communication module of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, which currently provides the only standardized undergraduate and graduate nurse training in hospice and palliative care. This study examines the potential efficacy of the COMFORT curriculum for everyday communication challenges experienced by members of the Georgia Organization of Nurse Leaders. Participants were prompted to describe communication barriers and then apply an aspect of the COMFORT curriculum to this barrier. Responses revealed primary communication barriers with co-workers and patient/families. Nurses predominantly identified directly correlating components in the COMFORT framework (C-communication, F-family) as solutions to the topics described as barriers. Based on confirmation of extant literature addressing generalist nurse communication challenges, there is support for the inclusion of COMFORT across the nursing curriculum to efficiently and effectively teach communication strategies to nurses. PMID:24267933

  6. COMFORT: evaluating a new communication curriculum with nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty face increasing instructional demands to keep pace with mounting knowledge and competency requirements for student nurses. In the context of nursing practice, tasks and time pressures detract from the high skill and aptitude expectation of communication. The communication, orientation and opportunity, mindful presence, family, openings, relating, and team (COMFORT) curriculum, an acronym that represents 7 basic nursing communication principles, has been introduced into the communication module of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, which currently provides the only standardized undergraduate and graduate nurse training in hospice and palliative care. This study examines the potential efficacy of the COMFORT curriculum for everyday communication challenges experienced by members of the Georgia Organization of Nurse Leaders. Participants were prompted to describe communication barriers and then apply an aspect of the COMFORT curriculum to this barrier. Responses revealed primary communication barriers with co-workers and patient/families. Nurses predominantly identified directly correlating components in the COMFORT framework (C-communication, F-family) as solutions to the topics described as barriers. Based on confirmation of extant literature addressing generalist nurse communication challenges, there is support for the inclusion of COMFORT across the nursing curriculum to efficiently and effectively teach communication strategies to nurses.

  7. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  8. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  9. Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support.

    PubMed

    Franz, M; Durt, A; Zenk, R; Desmet, P M A

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a neck-/headrest to increase car comfort. Two studies were undertaken to create a new comfortable headrest with neck support. In experiment one, neck- and headrest data were gathered using 35 test subjects. The pressure distribution, stiffness of the foam material and position of the head and neck support were determined. In experiment two a full adjustable final headrest with adjustable neck support was constructed and tested with 12 subjects using a new adjustable headrest under virtual reality driving conditions. Experiment two showed that the headrest with the new/adjustable neck support was favoured by the majority of the subjects. 83% were satisfied with the stiffness of the material. 92% were satisfied with the size of the neck- and headrest. All subjects mentioned that the neck support is a comfort benefit in calm traffic conditions or on the motorway.

  10. Assessment of comfort of various hearing protection devices (HPD).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Tripathi, S R; Kashyap, S K

    1993-12-01

    To evaluate the comfort of hearing protection devices, two models of ear plugs and five models of ear muffs were tested. The psychophysical method of 'single stimuli' was applied on a group of 30 subjects with or without wearing the devices for a short duration of 15 min under noise condition of 100 dBa in the acoustic chamber as also on a group of 10 weavers with the protection devices worn for longer durations of 1 h, 4 h and 8 h under noise exposure of 102-104 dBA in the weaving shed. Each subject performed 8 trials with each type of device on different days. Application force and tightness of spring were also evaluated. The results yielded a comfort grading for hearing protection devices. The comfort grading, however, depended on several factors in addition to application force and tightness of spring, which has been discussed.

  11. Postural sway and perceived comfort in pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J; Rosenbaum, David A; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2014-05-21

    In this study, we explored relations between indices of postural sway and perceived comfort during pointing postures performed by standing participants. The participants stood on a force plate, grasped a pointer with the dominant (right) hand, and pointed to targets located at four positions and at two distances from the body. We quantified postural sway over 60-s intervals at each pointing posture, and found no effects of target location or distance on postural sway indices. In contrast, comfort ratings correlated significantly with indices of one of the sway components, trembling. Our observations support the hypothesis that rambling and trembling sway components involve different neurophysiological mechanisms. They also suggest that subjective perception of comfort may be more important than the actual posture for postural sway. PMID:24686189

  12. Postural sway and perceived comfort in pointing tasks

    PubMed Central

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Pazin, Nemanja; Coelho, Chase J.; Rosenbaum, David A.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored relations between indices of postural sway and perceived comfort during pointing postures performed by standing participants. The participants stood on a force plate, grasped a pointer with the dominant (right) hand, and pointed to targets located at four positions and at two distances from the body. We quantified postural sway over 60-s intervals at each pointing posture, and found no effects of target location or distance on postural sway indices. In contrast, comfort ratings correlated significantly with indices of one of the sway components, trembling. Our observations support the hypothesis that rambling and trembling sway components involve different neurophysiological mechanisms. They also suggest that subjective perception of comfort may be more important than the actual posture for postural sway. PMID:24686189

  13. Alternating pressure mattresses: comfort and quality of sleep.

    PubMed

    Grindley, A; Acres, J

    Comfort is particularly important for patients with terminal illness where the priority is to maximize quality of life. Equally important is effective pressure area care, as such patients are at high risk of developing pressure sores because of their poor general condition (Bale and Regnard, 1995). The present randomized controlled study set in a hospice focused on the development of methodology for assessing patient comfort and quality of sleep and used this to compare two widely used, alternating air pressure mattresses (the Nimbus II and the Pegasus Airwave). The Nimbus II mattress performed consistently better than the Pegasus Airwave in terms of patient comfort and quality of sleep. Features of the Nimbus II that may explain its better performance include less extreme changes in pressure, lower peak inflation pressures and the ability to automatically vary the pressure to suit the patient's position and weight.

  14. A review of ride comfort studies in the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    United Kingdom research which is relevant to the assessment of vehicle ride comfort was reviewed. The findings reported in approximately 80 research papers are outlined, and an index to the areas of application of these studies is provided. The data obtained by different research groups are compared, and it is concluded that, while there are some areas of general agreement, the findings obtained from previous United Kingdom research are insufficient to define a general purpose ride comfort evaluation procedure. The degree to which United Kingdom research supports the vibration evaluation procedure defined in the current International Standard on the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration is discussed.

  15. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms. PMID:17202022

  16. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms.

  17. A laboratory validation study of comfort and limit temperatures of four sleeping bags defined according to EN 13537 (2002).

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yen; Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar; Zhao, Mengmeng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we validated comfort and limit temperatures of four sleeping bags with different levels of insulation defined according to EN 13537. Six male subjects and four female subjects underwent totally 20 two-hour exposures in four sleeping bags at four intended testing temperatures: 11.2, 3.8, 2.1 and -9.0 °C. The subjective perceptions and physiological responses of these subjects were reported and analyzed. It was found that the EN 13537 defined comfort temperature and limit temperature were underestimated for sleeping bags MA3, HAG and MAM. The predictions are so conservative that further revision may be required to meet the requirements of both manufacturers and consumers. In contrast, for the sleeping bag MA0 with a low level of insulation, the limit temperature defined by EN 13537 was slightly overestimated. In addition, two individual case studies (-28.0 and -32.0 °C) demonstrated that low toe temperatures were widely observed among the male and female subjects, although the mean skin temperatures were almost within the thermoneutrality range (32.0-34.0 °C). It seems that the IREQ model (ISO 11079) overestimated both the comfort and limit temperatures of the sleeping bags. Finally, traditional sleeping bags may be required to be re-designed to provide consumers both whole body comfort as well as local thermal comfort at feet/toes or users need to be made aware of the higher need for their insulation.

  18. Effects of respirator ambient air cooling on thermophysiological responses and comfort sensations.

    PubMed

    Caretti, David M; Barker, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation assessed the thermophysiological and subjective impacts of different respirator ambient air cooling options while wearing chemical and biological personal protective equipment in a warm environment (32.7 ± 0.4°C, 49.6 ± 6.5% RH). Ten volunteers participated in 90-min heat exposure trials with and without respirator (Control) wear and performed computer-generated tasks while seated. Ambient air cooling was provided to respirators modified to blow air to the forehead (FHC) or to the forehead and the breathing zone (BZC) of a full-facepiece air-purifying respirator using a low-flow (45 L·min(-1)) mini-blower. An unmodified respirator (APR) trial was also completed. The highest body temperatures (TTY) and least favorable comfort ratings were observed for the APR condition. With ambient cooling over the last 60 min of heat exposure, TTY averaged 37.4 ± 0.6°C for Control, 38.0 ± 0.4°C for APR, 37.8 ± 0.5°C for FHC, and 37.6 ± 0.7°C for BZC conditions independent of time. Both the FHC and BZC ambient air cooling conditions reduced facial skin temperatures, reduced the rise in body temperatures, and led to more favorable subjective comfort and thermal sensation ratings over time compared to the APR condition; however statistical differences among conditions were inconsistent. Independent of exposure time, average breathing apparatus comfort scores with BZC (7.2 ± 2.5) were significantly different from both Control (8.9 ± 1.4) and APR (6.5 ± 2.2) conditions when ambient cooling was activated. These findings suggest that low-flow ambient air cooling of the face under low work rate conditions and mild hyperthermia may be a practical method to minimize the thermophysiological strain and reduce perceived respirator discomfort. PMID:24730706

  19. Experimental and computational results on exciton/free-carrier ratio, hot/thermalized carrier diffusion, and linear/nonlinear rate constants affecting scintillator proportionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. T.; Grim, Joel Q.; Li, Qi; Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G. A.; Kerisit, S.; Gao, Fei; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E.; Rowe, E.; Buliga, V. M.; Burger, A.

    2013-09-01

    Models of nonproportional response in scintillators have highlighted the importance of parameters such as branching ratios, carrier thermalization times, diffusion, kinetic order of quenching, associated rate constants, and radius of the electron track. For example, the fraction ηeh of excitations that are free carriers versus excitons was shown by Payne and coworkers to have strong correlation with the shape of electron energy response curves from Compton-coincidence studies. Rate constants for nonlinear quenching are implicit in almost all models of nonproportionality, and some assumption about track radius must invariably be made if one is to relate linear energy deposition dE/dx to volume-based excitation density n (eh/cm3) in terms of which the rates are defined. Diffusion, affecting time-dependent track radius and thus density of excitations, has been implicated as an important factor in nonlinear light yield. Several groups have recently highlighted diffusion of hot electrons in addition to thermalized carriers and excitons in scintillators. However, experimental determination of many of these parameters in the insulating crystals used as scintillators has seemed difficult. Subpicosecond laser techniques including interband z scan light yield, fluence-dependent decay time, and transient optical absorption are now yielding experimental values for some of the missing rates and ratios needed for modeling scintillator response. First principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations can fill in additional parameters still unavailable from experiment. As a result, quantitative modeling of scintillator electron energy response from independently determined material parameters is becoming possible on an increasingly firmer data base. This paper describes recent laser experiments, calculations, and numerical modeling of scintillator response.

  20. Teaching Children about Aspects of Comfort in the Built Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.; Filho, Francisco Borges; Labaki, Lucila C.; Pina, Silvia A. Mikami G.; Bernardi, Nubia

    2004-01-01

    This article presents specific teaching material for the primary school level that introduces basic concepts of environmental comfort. The authors developed 2 booklets to make children aware of the built environment. Following a postoccupancy evaluation of state schools in the city of Campinas, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the research team…

  1. Beyond the Comfort Zone: Lessons of Intercultural Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urraca, Beatriz; Ledoux, Michael; Harris, James T., III

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an international service-learning project in Bolivia undertaken by faculty and students from Widener University. The authors examine characteristics of the student group, trip preparation, and lessons learned from the experience. The article discusses the American cultural biases that emphasize personal comfort and…

  2. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience.

  3. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience. PMID:26557798

  4. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  5. A novel medical bandage with enhanced clothing comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oğlakcioğlu, N.; Sari, B.; Bedez Üte, T.; Marmarali, A.

    2016-07-01

    Compression garments are special textile products which apply a pressure on needed body zones for supporting medical, sport or casual activities. Medical bandages are a group of these garments and they have a very common usage for compression effect on legs or arms. These bandages are generally produced by using synthetic raw materials such as polyamide or polyester fibres. Medical bandages are in contact with skin. Even if the synthetic fibres are used, they may cause both comfort and health problems like allergies. Nowadays in textile sector, the expectations of clients include using of natural fibres as far as possible in all garments. Natural fibres have good advantages such as breathability, softness, moisture management ability, non-allergenic and ecologic structure and these characteristics present optimum utilization conditions. In this study, tubular medical bandages were manufactured by using core spun yarns (sheath fibres are selected as tencel, bamboo and cotton, core material is elastane) and their pressure and comfort (air and water vapour permeability) characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that the bandages have good comfort abilities beside adequate pressure values for compression effect. These garments can constitute a new production field for medical bandages with their comfort properties in addition to pressure characteristics.

  6. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  7. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience. PMID:26557798

  8. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... such air conditioners are rated at 0.3 inch water column static pressure or greater for the cooling air... following shall be supplied in the Comfort Cooling Certificate: Air Conditioner Manufacturer Air Conditioner... Conditioner Manufacturer Certified Capacity ___ BTU/Hr. in accordance with the appropriate Air......

  9. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX, to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless minisplit heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  10. Acoustical comfort of vehicles: A combination of sound and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schutte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, Andre

    2005-09-01

    As vehicles become more and more quiet, the customer's sensitivity to acoustical comfort increases. The acoustical comfort is not independent of the vibrations the driver can feel in the seat and at the steering. The passenger of a vehicle must be regarded as part of a vibro-acoustic system. Correspondingly, the subjective judgement which passengers make about their impression of levels of acoustic comfort encompasses both sound and vibration. Achievement in this field depends on obtaining knowledge about the interaction between sound and vibration and how these factors impact subjective evaluation. To save time and money prediction tools for the estimation of sound and vibration contributions into the vehicle cabin are very important in order to simulate the final comfort with respect to sound and vibration. Based on the binaural transfer path analysis in combination with the binaural transfer path synthesis a sound and vibration reproduction in a so-called SoundCar can be realized with a very good simulation of a real situation of a car. First research tests completed for the European research project OBELICS (Objective Evaluation of Interior Car Sound) have shown that the use of SoundCar may result in more reliable sound characteristic and quality evaluation.

  11. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  12. Two hospitals join forces to sponsor "A Woman's Comfort Day".

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Two Baton Rouge, La., hospitals--usually strong competitors--decided to join forces and collaborate on a special event for the women of the community. "A Woman's Comfort Day," now in its third year, was the successful result. If they're feeling good about themselves, can the Super Bowl be far behind?

  13. A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba's comfort theory to cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Krinsky, Robin; Murillo, Illouise; Johnson, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Nursing approaches to care as based on Katharine Kolcaba's (2003) middle range nursing theory of comfort are discussed in reference to patients' suffering from symptoms related to the discomfort from cardiac syndromes. The specific intervention of "quiet time" is described for its potential use within this population as a comfort measure that addresses Kolcaba's four contexts of comfort: physical, psychospiritual, environmental and sociocultural. Without realizing it, many nurses may practice within Kolcaba's theoretical framework to promote patient comfort. Explicit applications of comfort theory can benefit nursing practice. Using comfort theory in research can provide evidence for quiet time intervention with cardiac patients.

  14. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian® Homes constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  15. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian(R) Homes(R) constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  16. Static lung load and posture effects on pulmonary mechanics and comfort in underwater exercise.

    PubMed

    Derion, T; Reddan, W G; Lanphier, E H

    1992-03-01

    Static lung load (SLL), or transrespiratory pressure gradient, imposed by underwater breathing apparatus can affect breathing comfort and mechanics, especially during exertion. We examined the effects of body position and SLL on two factors known to affect or limit exertion: a) tidal flow-volume limitation, i.e., the percentage of the tidal volume that meets the boundary of the maximum expiratory flow-volume curve; and b) breathing discomfort. Eight healthy male scuba divers (28 +/- 4 yr) performed cycle ergometry to exhaustion during immersion in each of four combinations of body position and SLL: upright, prone, +10 cmH2O, -10 cmH2O. SLL was referenced to the sternal notch. Tidal flow-volume limitation was significantly greater with the negative SLL (P less than 0.05). In the prone position, higher expiratory flows were achieved (P less than 0.01) and flow limitation was not significantly increased. Respiratory discomfort was quantified with a psychophysical rating scale and increased significantly as exercise intensity increased (P less than 0.01). No effect of posture or SLL on discomfort was found. We conclude that, although respiratory comfort is unaffected, positive static lung loading and the prone body position minimize adverse changes in respiratory mechanics during exercise in immersion.

  17. Stability of fatty acid composition after thermal, high pressure, and microwave processing of cow milk as affected by polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Alonso, L; Fontecha, J

    2014-12-01

    Interest has been increasing to enhance the contents of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in milk. However, trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can be altered after thermal processing and high pressures disrupt the milk fat globule membrane, exposing the lipid core and helping its oxidation. The objective of the present research was to study whether processing can alter the fatty acid composition of milk and if these changes are affected by PUFA concentration as previous studies suggest. Two cow milk batches (500 L each), one naturally enriched in PUFA, were processed to obtain pasteurized; high temperature, short time; UHT; high pressure; and microwave pasteurized samples. The detailed fatty acid composition was analyzed with special attention to trans fatty acids and CLA isomers. Results showed that after high temperature, short time processing, total CLA content increased in both milk batches, whereas sterilization resulted in a sigmatropic rearrangement of C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 to C18:2 trans-9,trans-11. The extent of these effects was greater in milks naturally enriched in PUFA.

  18. Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Extruded Instant Functional Rice Porridge Powder as Affected by the Addition of Soybean or Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mayachiew, Pornpimon; Charunuch, Chulaluck; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-12-01

    Legumes contain protein, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds, which provide various health benefits. In this study, soybean or mung bean was mixed in rice flour to produce by extrusion instant functional legume-rice porridge powder. The effects of the type and percentage (10%, 20%, or 30%, w/w) of legumes on the expansion ratio of the extrudates were first evaluated. Amino acid composition, color, and selected physicochemical (bulk density, water absorption index, and water solubility index), thermal (onset temperature, peak temperature, and transition enthalpy), and pasting (peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity) properties of the powder were determined. The crystalline structure and formation of amylose-lipid complexes and the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the powder were also measured. Soybean-blended porridge powder exhibited higher TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, amino acid, and fat contents than the mung bean-blended porridge powder. Incorporating either legume affected the product properties by decreasing the lightness and bulk density, while increasing the greenness and yellowness and the peak temperature and transition enthalpy. Expansion capacity of the extrudates increased with percentage of mung bean in the mixture but decreased as the percentage of soybean increased. Amylose-lipid complexes formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis results. Addition of soybean or mung bean resulted in significant pasting property changes of the porridge powder. PMID:26523755

  19. Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Extruded Instant Functional Rice Porridge Powder as Affected by the Addition of Soybean or Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mayachiew, Pornpimon; Charunuch, Chulaluck; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-12-01

    Legumes contain protein, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds, which provide various health benefits. In this study, soybean or mung bean was mixed in rice flour to produce by extrusion instant functional legume-rice porridge powder. The effects of the type and percentage (10%, 20%, or 30%, w/w) of legumes on the expansion ratio of the extrudates were first evaluated. Amino acid composition, color, and selected physicochemical (bulk density, water absorption index, and water solubility index), thermal (onset temperature, peak temperature, and transition enthalpy), and pasting (peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity) properties of the powder were determined. The crystalline structure and formation of amylose-lipid complexes and the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the powder were also measured. Soybean-blended porridge powder exhibited higher TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, amino acid, and fat contents than the mung bean-blended porridge powder. Incorporating either legume affected the product properties by decreasing the lightness and bulk density, while increasing the greenness and yellowness and the peak temperature and transition enthalpy. Expansion capacity of the extrudates increased with percentage of mung bean in the mixture but decreased as the percentage of soybean increased. Amylose-lipid complexes formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis results. Addition of soybean or mung bean resulted in significant pasting property changes of the porridge powder.

  20. High pressure homogenization processing, thermal treatment and milk matrix affect in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics in apple, grape and orange juice to different extents.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Tao, Yadan; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The effects of high pressure homogenization processing (HPHP), thermal treatment (TT) and milk matrix (soy, skimmed and whole milk) on the phenolic bioaccessibility and the ABTS scavenging activity of apple, grape and orange juice (AJ, GJ and OJ) were investigated. HPHP and soy milk diminished AJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility 29.3%, 26.3%, respectively, whereas TT and bovine milk hardly affected it. HPHP had little effect on GJ's and OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility, while TT enhanced them 27.3-33.9%, 19.0-29.2%, respectively, and milk matrix increased them 26.6-31.1%, 13.3-43.4%, respectively. Furthermore, TT (80 °C/30 min) and TT (90 °C/30 s) presented the similar influences on GJ's and OJ's phenolic bioaccessibility. Skimmed milk showed a better enhancing effect on OJ's total phenolic bioaccessibility than soy and whole milk, but had a similar effect on GJ's as whole milk. These results contribute to promoting the health benefits of fruit juices by optimizing the processing and formulas in the food industry.

  1. Mutations of two transmembrane cysteines of hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A H3N2 virus affect HA thermal stability and fusion activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shun; Zhou, Jianqiang; Liu, Kang; Liu, Qiliang; Xue, Chunyi; Li, Xiaoming; Zheng, Jing; Luo, Dongyu; Cao, Yongchang

    2013-08-01

    Influenza A H3N2 virus caused 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic, and has since been one of the most prevalent seasonal influenza viruses in global populations, representing a credible pandemic candidate in future. Previous studies have established that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the predominant antigen and executes receptor binding and membrane fusion. Homologous sequence analysis of all HA subtypes of influenza viruses revealed that two cysteine residues (540 and 544) are uniquely present in the transmembrane domain (TM) of HA proteins from all influenza A H3N2 viruses. However, the functions of these two cysteines have not been fully studied. Here, we generated three mutants (C540S, C544L, and 2C/SL) to investigate the effects of the two TM cysteines on the biological functions of H3 HA. We herein presented evidences that the mutations of one or two of the cysteines did not affect the proper expressions of HA proteins in cells, and more importantly all mutant H3 HAs showed decreased thermal stability but increased fusion activity in comparison with wildtype HA. Our results taken together demonstrated that the two TM cysteines are important for the biological functions of H3 HA proteins.

  2. Children undergoing cancer treatment describe their experiences of comfort in interviews and drawings.

    PubMed

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Norberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Children with cancer often undergo a long course of treatment, described as painful, and associated with feelings of discomfort and need of comfort. The aim of this descriptive interview study was to investigate how children, aged 3 to 9 years, undergoing cancer treatment describe their experience of comfort. The children were interviewed and asked to make drawings. Data were content analyzed and four themes were constructed--enduring discomfort, expressing discomfort, finding comfort, and comforting others. The findings show that the children endured discomfort during treatment, and were sometimes able to express it. They found comfort especially from their family and from hospital staff. The children also described that they comforted family members. The findings are in accordance with previous research about children's and adults' accounts of comfort. An incidental finding is that parents were surprised when they listened to the children's accounts of their experience of discomfort and comfort and achieved a better understanding of their children.

  3. Features of determining the nonmanufacturing premises comfort level by the integrated microclimate quality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhmirov, V. V.; Prorokova, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The method of determining a microclimate comfort level have been developed, taking into account the main parameters influencing the microclimate in residential, public and administration buildings, their mutual influence on the comfort level, and air quality.

  4. Electrical vestibular stimuli to enhance vestibulo-motor output and improve subject comfort.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Geers, Anoek M; Vlaar, Martijn P; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be enhanced by increasing the stimulus amplitude, subjects often perceive these higher intensity electrical stimuli as noxious or painful. Here, we developed multisine vestibular stimulation (MVS) signals that include precise frequency contributions to increase signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of stimulus-evoked muscle and motor responses. Subjects were exposed to three different MVS stimuli to establish that: 1) MVS signals evoke equivalent vestibulo-motor responses compared to SVS while improving subject comfort and reducing experimentation time, 2) stimulus-evoked vestibulo-motor responses are reliably estimated as a linear system and 3) specific components of the cumulant density time domain vestibulo-motor responses can be targeted by controlling the frequency content of the input stimulus. Our results revealed that in comparison to SVS, MVS signals increased the SNR 3-6 times, reduced the minimum experimentation time by 85% and improved subjective measures of comfort by 20-80%. Vestibulo-motor responses measured using both EMG and force were not substantially affected by nonlinear distortions. In addition, by limiting the contribution of high frequencies within the MVS input stimulus, the magnitude of the medium latency time domain motor output response was increased by 58%. These results demonstrate that MVS stimuli can be designed to target and enhance vestibulo-motor output responses while simultaneously improving subject comfort, which should prove beneficial for both research and clinical applications. PMID:24392130

  5. Electrical vestibular stimuli to enhance vestibulo-motor output and improve subject comfort.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Geers, Anoek M; Vlaar, Martijn P; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vestibular stimulation is often used to assess vestibulo-motor and postural responses in both clinical and research settings. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is a recently established technique with many advantages over its square-wave counterpart; however, the evoked muscle responses remain relatively small. Although the vestibular-evoked responses can be enhanced by increasing the stimulus amplitude, subjects often perceive these higher intensity electrical stimuli as noxious or painful. Here, we developed multisine vestibular stimulation (MVS) signals that include precise frequency contributions to increase signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of stimulus-evoked muscle and motor responses. Subjects were exposed to three different MVS stimuli to establish that: 1) MVS signals evoke equivalent vestibulo-motor responses compared to SVS while improving subject comfort and reducing experimentation time, 2) stimulus-evoked vestibulo-motor responses are reliably estimated as a linear system and 3) specific components of the cumulant density time domain vestibulo-motor responses can be targeted by controlling the frequency content of the input stimulus. Our results revealed that in comparison to SVS, MVS signals increased the SNR 3-6 times, reduced the minimum experimentation time by 85% and improved subjective measures of comfort by 20-80%. Vestibulo-motor responses measured using both EMG and force were not substantially affected by nonlinear distortions. In addition, by limiting the contribution of high frequencies within the MVS input stimulus, the magnitude of the medium latency time domain motor output response was increased by 58%. These results demonstrate that MVS stimuli can be designed to target and enhance vestibulo-motor output responses while simultaneously improving subject comfort, which should prove beneficial for both research and clinical applications.

  6. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF <0.3) typically exhibit less frequent hot conditions during summer, while enduring longer periods of cold discomfort in winter than moderately shaded areas (0.3< SVF <0.5) and slightly shaded areas (SVF >0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  7. Analysis of behaviour patterns and thermal responses to a hot-arid climate in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Haiyan; Yang, Liu; Zheng, Wuxing; He, Wenfang; Li, Daoyi

    2016-07-01

    Climate can greatly affect building design, life style and thermal perception for all groups of people; however, this phenomenon has not yet been rigorously evaluated in China's hot-arid climate. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a thermal comfort survey by evaluating the influence of the hot-arid climate upon the behavioural patterns and thermal comfort responses of 160 residents in 65 traditional vernacular houses in Turfan, China, in 2011. In this survey, there were 206 sets of effective data, and the features of the traditional residential buildings and the human behaviour patterns in Turfan were described and analysed. The results showed that the diversified courtyards and shade spaces were the most obvious features of traditional houses in Turfan. People here typically spend most of their time in one of two spaces for eating, resting, and entertaining. It was found that the preferred temperature was 26.5°C. The preferred air velocity occurred at 0.62m/s. A suitable air velocity range of 0.15-1.24m/s was suggested in Turfan. Moreover, the neutral temperature of the local people was 30.1°C (tg or to). The upper limits of the 80% acceptable zone by using the direct and indirect acceptability method were 32.7 and 33.8°C, respectively. The neutral temperature and upper limit of the acceptable zone in Turfan were higher than those of the adaptive standards. Attention should be paid to the role of thermal comfort in influencing building design by using simple passive cooling strategies. The above results are believed to be potentially valuable for the design and evaluation of residential buildings located in hot-arid climate.

  8. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  9. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  10. The multicultural workplace: comfort, safety and migrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D

    1996-09-01

    The changing composition of Australian society has resulted in the reality of a multicultural workplace. With this comes the need to examine issues related to cultural wellbeing within an occupational setting. Migrant women nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds participated in this phenomenological study, which examined their experiences working as nurses within the New South Wales health care system. Participants described traumatic experiences around entering the nursing work environment. Familiar and comfortable roles such as being a woman, a colleague and a nurse were altered and made uncomfortable by the imposition of disturbing and unfamiliar roles. This discomfort was compounded by what was experienced as an uncomfortable and perilous work environment. The task for these women became one of finding sanctuary and comfort and finally, of establishing a place for themselves. This paper will take the reader on the journey from being a stranger to finding a place and will raise issues for discussion surrounding culture and safety in the nursing workplace.

  11. Cold hands, warm hearth?: Climate, net takeback, household comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, P.M.; Taylor, T.N.

    1995-12-31

    Insulation reduces marginal heating costs and may lead to a takeback effect of higher wintertime thermostat settings, with a consequent dilution of energy savings. Alternatively, additional insulation could permit a lower thermostat setting by reducing drafts and radiation while increasing moisture retention, thereby enhancing comfort. This paper evaluates thermostat net takeback, the difference between takeback and enhanced comfort. Evidence supports the existence of both effects, with net takeback at the low end of literature estimates. Net thermostat takeback is on the order of 0.05{degrees}F, leading to an energy takeback that ranges from 1-3% of potential energy savings, depending on climate and house size. Other significant determinants of thermostat are heating energy price and the presence of elderly or young occupants. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. 108. Doughton Park Recreation Area Comfort Station. Instead of trying ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Doughton Park Recreation Area Comfort Station. Instead of trying to hide this building, it was decided to let it be seen. A salt box design reflecting a mountain building was chosen, it had a sloping split shingle roof matching the hill side with a front porch placed on the lower side. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin

    2015-03-01

    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  14. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  15. Comfortable and leisurely: Old women on style and dress.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article uses wardrobe interviews with women in the ages of 62-94 to explore transitions and continuities during the life course. During interviews the women have defined their style preferences. One categorization favored by several of them was comfortable. Different meanings were attached to this concept. Practical and convenient outfits were described as increasingly important when aging. Garments that did not expose the body-and its changes with aging-were preferred. The informants talked about the importance of feeling at ease, appropriately dressed for the occasion and situation. They were concerned with feeling nice in their outfits but also stressed becoming more laid-back and prioritizing convenience in their later years. All of these examples had to do with comfort and being comfortable. Uncomfortable clothes were too tight, deemed wrong for the occasion, and unwanted sources of self-consciousness and visibility. Transitions in their style of dress had been gradual, slowly adapting to changes in everyday life as well as in their bodies. PMID:26713964

  16. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output. PMID:26819580

  17. Wear/comfort Pareto optimisation of bogie suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milad Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed; Berbyuk, Viktor; Persson, Rickard

    2016-08-01

    Pareto optimisation of bogie suspension components is considered for a 50 degrees of freedom railway vehicle model to reduce wheel/rail contact wear and improve passenger ride comfort. Several operational scenarios including tracks with different curve radii ranging from very small radii up to straight tracks are considered for the analysis. In each case, the maximum admissible speed is applied to the vehicle. Design parameters are categorised into two levels and the wear/comfort Pareto optimisation is accordingly accomplished in a multistep manner to improve the computational efficiency. The genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to perform the multi-objective optimisation. Two suspension system configurations are considered, a symmetric and an asymmetric in which the primary or secondary suspension elements on the right- and left-hand sides of the vehicle are not the same. It is shown that the vehicle performance on curves can be significantly improved using the asymmetric suspension configuration. The Pareto-optimised values of the design parameters achieved here guarantee wear reduction and comfort improvement for railway vehicles and can also be utilised in developing the reference vehicle models for design of bogie active suspension systems.

  18. Comfortable synchronization of cyclic drawing movements with a metronome.

    PubMed

    Repp, Bruno H

    2011-02-01

    Continuous circle drawing is considered a paragon of emergent timing, whereas the timing of finger tapping is said to be event-based. Synchronization with a metronome, however, must to some extent be event-based for both types of movement. Because the target events in the movement trajectory are more poorly defined in circle drawing than in tapping, circle drawing shows more variable asynchronies with a metronome than does tapping. One factor that may have contributed to high variability in past studies is that circle size, drawing direction, and target point were prescribed and perhaps outside the comfort range. In the present study, participants were free to choose most comfortable settings of these parameters for two continuously drawn shapes, circles and infinity signs, while synchronizing with a regular or intermittently perturbed metronome at four different tempi. Results showed that preferred circle sizes were generally smaller than in previous studies but tended to increase as tempo decreased. Synchronization results were similar for circles and infinity signs, and similar to earlier results for circles drawn within a fixed template (Repp & Steinman, 2010). Comparison with tapping data still showed drawing to exhibit much greater variability and persistence of asynchronies as well as slower phase correction in response to phase shifts in the metronome. With comfort level ruled out as a factor, these differences can now be attributed more confidently to differences in event definition and/or movement dynamics.

  19. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output. PMID:26819580

  20. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  1. Identifying factors of bicycle comfort: An online survey with enthusiast cyclists.

    PubMed

    Ayachi, F S; Dorey, J; Guastavino, C

    2015-01-01

    Racing bicycles have evolved significantly over the past decades as technology and cyclists' comfort have become a critical design issue. Although ample research has been conducted on comfort for other means of transportation, cyclists' perception of dynamic comfort has received scant attention in the scientific literature. The present study investigates how enthusiast cyclists conceptualize comfort using an online survey with 244 respondents. The purpose is to determine which factors contribute to comfort when riding a bicycle, to identify situations in which comfort is relevant and to determine the extent to which vibrations play a role in comfort evaluations. We found that comfort is influenced by factors related to bicycle components (specifically the frame, saddle and handlebar), as well as environmental factors (type or road, weather conditions) and factors related to the cyclist (position, adjustments, body parts). Respondents indicated that comfort is a concern when riding a bicycle in most situations and they believed that comfort is compatible with performance. The PCA analysis shows that for the perception "human factor-body parts" are put in evidence, and the "cyclist's comfort" evaluation is mainly based on certain qualities related to the bicycle components, then the road and external conditions (e.g. weather, temperature).

  2. Comfortable loudness level: stimulus effects, long-term reliability, and predictability.

    PubMed

    Cox, R M

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of investigations of comfortable loudness levels with particular reference to their application to hearing aid gain prescriptions. Experiment 1 studied the effects of several stimulus waveforms, bandwidths, and durations on comfortable loudness levels for normal and hearing impaired listeners. Speech band comfort levels were found to be significantly higher than equal-duration noise band or warble tone comfort levels. Comfortable loudness levels were found to be independent of warble tone modulation parameters and of stimulus bandwidth (stimuli did not exceed critical bandwidths). In Experiment 2, reliability of comfortable loudness levels was evaluated in hearing-impaired subjects over two consecutive 1-year periods. Results indicated that comfortable loudness levels were slightly less reliable than thresholds. In addition, the results were consistent with a hypothesis that exposure to amplified sound produces a small increase in comfortable loudness levels. In Experiment 3, data from 67 hearing-impaired subjects were used to develop regression equations for prediction of comfortable loudness levels. Thresholds at the test frequencies were combined with comfortable loudness data at 500 Hz and 4,000 Hz. The prediction method was then evaluated using a new group of 25 subjects. Accuracy of predictions of comfort levels was substantially better with the new method than with an older method that relied exclusively on threshold data. Relevance of the outcomes to hearing aid fitting procedures is discussed.

  3. The reliability and validity of the comfort level method of setting hearing aid gain.

    PubMed

    Walden, B E; Schuchman, G I; Sedge, R K

    1977-11-01

    The comfort level method (Carhart, 1946) probably is the most widely used procedure for setting the acoustic gain of hearing aids. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the test-retest reliability of the comfort level method and the relationship between the comfort settings established in a clinical test suite and the comfort settings utilized in more realistic daily listening situations. Adults with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairments were subjects. The results suggest that the comfort level method has good test-retest reliability for most clinical purposes. Further, clinically established comfort settings may accurately represent typical daily-use settings if the input level used to establish the comfort settings in the clinical environment is 70 dB SPL.

  4. Aspects to improve cabin comfort of wheel loaders and excavators according to operators.

    PubMed

    Kuijt-Evers, L F M; Krause, F; Vink, P

    2003-05-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in interior design of earth moving equipment. Although research has been conducted on vehicle interiors of wheel loaders and excavators, hardly any information is known about the operator's opinion. In this study a questionnaire was completed by machine operators to get their opinion about aspects which need to be improved in order to design a more comfortable vehicle interior. The results show that almost half of the operators rate the comfort of their cabin "average" or "poor". According to the operators, cab comfort of wheel loaders can be increased by improving seat comfort. Besides improving seat comfort, cabin comfort of excavators can be improved by changing the cab design (including dimensions, ingress/egress), view, reliability, and climate control.

  5. Numerical simulation of diurnally varying thermal environment in a street canyon under haze-fog conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-10-01

    The impact of haze-fog on surface temperature, flow pattern, pollutant dispersion and pedestrian thermal comfort are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on a three-dimensional street canyon model under different haze-fog conditions. In this study, light extinction coefficient (Kex) is adopted to represent haze-fog pollution level. Numerical simulations are performed for different Kex values at four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST). The numerical results suggest that the surface temperature is strongly affected by the haze-fog condition. Surface heating induced by the solar radiation is enhanced by haze-fog, as higher surface temperature is observed under thicker haze-fog condition. Moreover, the temperature difference between sunlit and shadow surfaces is reduced, while that for the two shadow surfaces is slightly increased. Therefore, the surface temperature among street canyon facets becomes more evenly distributed under heavy haze-fog conditions. In addition, flow patterns are considerably altered by different haze-fog conditions, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST) case, in which thermal-driven flow has opposite direction as that of the wind-driven flow direction. Consequently, pollutants such as vehicular emissions will accumulate at pedestrian level, and pedestrian thermal comfort may lower under thicker haze-fog condition.

  6. Thermal metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Dodd, Robert T.

    Most chondrites have experienced thermal metamorphism, resulting in changes in texture, mineralogy and possibly chemical composition. The physical conditions for metamorphism range from approximately 400 to 1000 C at low lithostatic pressure. Metamorphism may have resulted from decay of short-lived radionuclides, electromagnetic induction or accretion of hot materials. Several thermal models for chondrite parent bodies have been proposed. The least metamorphosed type-3 chondrites probably carry the most information about the early solar system, but even these have been affected to some degree by thermal processing.

  7. Regional thermal specialisation in a mammal: temperature affects power output of core muscle more than that of peripheral muscle in adult mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    James, Rob S; Tallis, Jason; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In endotherms, such as mammals and birds, internal organs can specialise to function within a narrow thermal range. Consequently, these organs should become more sensitive to changes in body temperature. Yet, organs at the periphery of the body still experience considerable fluctuations in temperature, which could select for lower thermal sensitivity. We hypothesised that the performance of soleus muscle taken from the leg would depend less on temperature than would the performance of diaphragm muscle taken from the body core. Soleus and diaphragm muscles were isolated from mice and subjected to isometric and work-loop studies to analyse mechanical performance at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Across this thermal range, soleus muscle took longer to generate isometric force and longer to relax, and tended to produce greater normalised maximal force (stress) than did diaphragm muscle. The time required to produce half of maximal force during isometric tetanus and the time required to relax half of maximal force were both more sensitive to temperature in soleus than they were in diaphragm. However, thermal sensitivities of maximal force during isometric tetani were similar for both muscles. Consistent with our hypothesis, power output (the product of speed and force) was greater in magnitude and more thermally sensitive in diaphragm than it was in soleus. Our findings, when combined with previous observations of muscles from regionally endothermic fish, suggest that endothermy influences the thermal sensitivities of power output in core and peripheral muscles.

  8. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  9. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, JuYoun; Choi, Jeongwha

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  10. Hugging My Uncle: The Impact of a Parent Training on Children’s Comfort Interacting with Persons Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Beatrice J.; Godfrey, Christopher C.; O’Day, Joanne; Freidin, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective HIV-related stigma affects not only persons living with HIV (PLwHIV) but also their communities and families including children. This study aimed to determine whether an interactive training administered to community parents significantly increases their children’s reported comfort interacting with PLwHIV. Methods A randomized clinical trial with random-quota dwelling unit sampling and a random invitation to treatment had 238 parent and 238 child participants. Results For children of trained parents, significant increases in comfort were obtained, baseline to 6-month follow-up, on 14 of 22 reported daily activities with PLwHIV. For children who recently interacted with a person living with HIV, this comfort predicted the number of recent activities, even after controlling for closeness to the person living with HIV and for the number of persons with HIV known, living or deceased. Conclusions Training parents to be HIV health educators of their children significantly impacts youth and shows promise for reducing HIV-related stigma and social isolation. PMID:16452647

  11. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  12. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  13. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variabl