Science.gov

Sample records for affect time spent

  1. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one-third of ICU ... among former ICU patients are three to four times higher than in the general population, according to ...

  2. How Time Is Spent in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak V.

    2015-01-01

    The Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) provides valuable information on how time is spent in elementary classrooms. Some of the major topics are: the average minutes per day which students spend engaged in reading and math activities, student engagement rates in different settings (that is, teacher-led settings versus seatwork) and…

  3. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  4. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  5. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  6. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  7. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551.422 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling....

  8. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  9. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  10. Time Spent Eating and Its Implications for Americans' Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Stevens, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The upward trend in Americans' weight has precipitated research aimed at identifying its underlying causes. In this paper we examine trends in Americans' time spent eating in an attempt to gain a better understanding of Americans' changing eating habits and their predictors. Data used in the analyses come from four national time use surveys…

  11. 5 CFR 551.426 - Time spent in charitable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent in charitable activities. 551.426 Section 551.426 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  12. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention. 551.425 Section 551.425 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  13. High-Ability Students' Time Spent outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makel, Matthew C.; Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Wai, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study considered how three groups of academically talented high school students--those who attended an academic summer program (TIP), those who qualified for the program but chose not to attend (QNA), and those who did not qualify (DNQ)--spent time outside the classroom. These groupings differentiated students by ability (QNA vs. DNQ) and…

  14. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  15. Use of electronic clinical documentation: time spent and team interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vawdrey, David K; Fred, Matthew R; Bostwick, Susan B

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure the time spent authoring and viewing documentation and to study patterns of usage in healthcare practice. Design Audit logs for an electronic health record were used to calculate rates, and social network analysis was applied to ascertain usage patterns. Subjects comprised all care providers at an urban academic medical center who authored or viewed electronic documentation. Measurement Rate and time of authoring and viewing clinical documentation, and associations among users were measured. Results Users spent 20–103 min per day authoring notes and 7–56 min per day viewing notes, with physicians spending less than 90 min per day total. About 16% of attendings' notes, 8% of residents' notes, and 38% of nurses' notes went unread by other users, and, overall, 16% of notes were never read by anyone. Viewing of notes dropped quickly with the age of the note, but notes were read at a low but measurable rate, even after 2 years. Most healthcare teams (77%) included a nurse, an attending, and a resident, and those three users' groups were the first to write notes during an admission. Limitations The limitations were restriction to a single academic medical center and use of log files without direct observation. Conclusions Care providers spend a significant amount of time viewing and authoring notes. Many notes are never read, and rates of usage vary significantly by author and viewer. While the rate of viewing a note drops quickly with its age, even after 2 years inpatient notes are still viewed. PMID:21292706

  16. Achievement as a Function of Time Spent in Learning and Time Needed for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth

    1984-01-01

    The causal effects of time spent in learning (TSL) and time needed for learning (TTL) on the reading and spelling achievement of 171 fourth and fifth grade students were investigated. TTL contributed significantly to achievement, and its direct effect was greater than TSL. Results also support a Carroll's learning model. (Author/BS)

  17. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Johnson, Dayna A; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-10-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331 healthy adolescents (ages 14-17 years). Heavy Internet use was defined as ≥ 2 hr/day, moderate use as <2 hr/day and ≥ 5 days/week, and light use as < 2 hr/day and ≤ 4 days/week. Elevated BP was defined as systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 90 th percentile. Heavy Internet users had statistically significantly higher odds of elevated BP compared to light Internet users. School nurses can play an important role in preventing high BP through assessment of BP and other health behaviors including Internet use, and health teaching to individuals, student groups, faculty, and parents to increase awareness of the relationship between Internet use and health. PMID:25377931

  18. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  19. The Effect of Time Spent Online on Student Achievement in Online Economics and Finance Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calafiore, Pablo; Damianov, Damian S.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the determinants of academic achievement in online courses in economics and finance. The authors use the online tracking feature in Blackboard (Campus Edition) to retrieve the real time that each student spent in the course for the entire semester and to analyze the impact of time spent online, prior grade point average (GPA),…

  20. Time Spent on Homework, Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from a US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Sheridan, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of time spent on homework and mathematics anxiety on mathematics achievement. Data from a nationally representative US sample consisting of 4,978 cases was used to predict mathematics achievement from time spent on homework and mathematics anxiety while controlling for demographic differences such as gender,…

  1. 48 CFR 852.271-72 - Time spent by counselee in counseling process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... counseling process. 852.271-72 Section 852.271-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 852.271-72 Time spent by counselee in counseling process. As prescribed in 871.212, insert the following clause: Time Spent by Counselee in Counseling Process (APR 1984) The contractor agrees that...

  2. Opinions of Teachers and Parents about Time Spent by Students at School, Lesson Hours, Break Times, Holidays and School Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Feyyat

    2012-01-01

    Amount of time spent at school is one of the mostly discussed educational matters. The present study was carried out to put forward the relationship between the time spent at school and learning acquisitions. In the study, 52 parents living in Bursa and 59 teachers were asked for their opinions. According to the data, while nearly half of the…

  3. Could Lots of Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157953.html Could Lots of Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression? Study did not prove ... The more time young adults spend using popular social media, the greater the link to depression, new research ...

  4. Estimation of sensitivity depending on sojourn time and time spent in preclinical state.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongho; Wu, Dongfeng

    2016-04-01

    The probability model for periodic screening was extended to provide statistical inference for sensitivity depending on sojourn time, in which the sensitivity was modeled as a function of time spent in the preclinical state and the sojourn time. The likelihood function with the proposed sensitivity model was then evaluated with simulated data to check its reliability in terms of the mean estimation and the standard error. Simulation results showed that the maximum likelihood estimates of the proposed model have little bias and small standard errors. The extended probability model was further applied to the Johns Hopkins Lung Project data using both maximum likelihood estimation and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo. PMID:23129110

  5. Productivity in dental care for children. Factors influencing the time spent delivering dental care.

    PubMed

    Wang, N J

    1994-12-01

    The cost of dental services is related to their productivity. The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing productivity, measured as time spent providing dental care per child under care, per year, in public dental clinics. The time was expected to vary with characteristics of the patients, the personnel and the clinics. Time spent by dentists and dental hygienists delivering dental care for children aged three to 18 years was obtained from 137 public dental clinics. The data showed substantial variation in productivity between clinics. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the time spent per child was associated with interval between examinations, proportion of male dentists, ratio of dental assistants to dentists, proportion of child treatment time given by dental hygienists and proportion of all treatment time spent on child patients. These variables explained 43 per cent of the variance in the total time spent by dentists and hygienists and 41 per cent of the variance in dentists' time. Individual dentists and hygienists may reduce the mean time spent per child by extending recall intervals. On an administrative level, dentists' time per child may be reduced by employing more dental assistants or dental hygienists and allowing dentists to treat patient groups other than children. It is concluded that productivity in dental care for children in the public dental services may be influenced in several ways, both by clinical and administrative decisions. PMID:7850642

  6. Traditional Sex Role Development and Amount of Time Spent Watching Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Terry; McGhee, Paul E.

    1975-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching television would be significantly related to the strength of traditional sex role development. Subjects were 80 kindergarten and elementary school children. (SDH)

  7. Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. Purpose To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008–2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent <1 hour/day, 1–2 hours/day, and >2 hours/day on food preparation and clean-up. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011–2013. Results Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending less than 1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. Conclusions The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. PMID:25245799

  8. Leisure Time Spent Sitting in Relation to Total Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Alpa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Deka, Anusila; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Campbell, Peter T.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Thun, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is attributed in part to reduced physical activity. Evidence supports that reducing time spent sitting, regardless of activity, may improve the metabolic consequences of obesity. Analyses were conducted in a large prospective study of US adults enrolled by the American Cancer Society to examine leisure time spent sitting and physical activity in relation to mortality. Time spent sitting and physical activity were queried by questionnaire on 53,440 men and 69,776 women who were disease free at enrollment. The authors identified 11,307 deaths in men and 7,923 deaths in women during the 14-year follow-up. After adjustment for smoking, body mass index, and other factors, time spent sitting (≥6 vs. <3 hours/day) was associated with mortality in both women (relative risk = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.44) and men (relative risk = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.24). Relative risks for sitting (≥6 hours/day) and physical activity (<24.5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week) combined were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70, 2.20) for women and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.65) for men, compared with those with the least time sitting and most activity. Associations were strongest for cardiovascular disease mortality. The time spent sitting was independently associated with total mortality, regardless of physical activity level. Public health messages should include both being physically active and reducing time spent sitting. PMID:20650954

  9. Teacher time spent on student health issues and school nurse presence.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-06-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The school nurses were surveyed regarding the impact of their presence on early releases due to illness. Study findings related to teacher perceptions indicate with school nurse presence there are fewer early releases, increased communication, less time spent on health issues, students with chronic illnesses are safer, and there is a resource available for health information. The data provide the groundwork for discussions to improve the communication of the nurses' schedules, increase teacher confidence in consistent nurse hours at their school and aid the nurse in protecting valuable on-site school hours from other interferences or commitments. PMID:22140140

  10. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands

  11. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other than that selected by the agency, shall be credited with the lesser of: (1) The actual travel time which is hours of work under this section; or (2) The estimated travel time which would have been... Administration (41 CFR 300-3.1)....

  12. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other than that selected by the agency, shall be credited with the lesser of: (1) The actual travel time which is hours of work under this section; or (2) The estimated travel time which would have been... Administration (41 CFR 300-3.1)....

  13. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other than that selected by the agency, shall be credited with the lesser of: (1) The actual travel time which is hours of work under this section; or (2) The estimated travel time which would have been... Administration (41 CFR 300-3.1)....

  14. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other than that selected by the agency, shall be credited with the lesser of: (1) The actual travel time which is hours of work under this section; or (2) The estimated travel time which would have been... Administration (41 CFR 300-3.1)....

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including 'cooking, washing up'. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  16. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  17. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress

    PubMed Central

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and “addiction” to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Methods Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon’s MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10–15 minute survey. Results Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Discussion Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site. PMID:26551906

  18. Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection

    PubMed Central

    Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2012-01-01

    Involvement with friends carries many advantages for adolescents, including protection from the detrimental effects of being rejected by peers. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which friendships may serve their protective role at this age, or the potential benefit of these friendships as adolescents transition to adulthood. As such, this investigation tested whether friend involvement during adolescence related to less neural sensitivity to social threats during young adulthood. Twenty-one adolescents reported the amount of time they spent with friends outside of school using a daily diary. Two years later they underwent an fMRI scan, during which they were ostensibly excluded from an online ball-tossing game by two same-age peers. Findings from region of interest and whole brain analyses revealed that spending more time with friends during adolescence related to less activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula—regions previously linked with negative affect and pain processing—during an experience of peer rejection 2 years later. These findings are consistent with the notion that positive relationships during adolescence may relate to individuals being less sensitive to negative social experiences later on. PMID:21183457

  19. Determining Spent Nuclear Fuel's Plutonium Content, Initial Enrichment, Burnup, and Cooling Time

    SciTech Connect

    Cheatham, Jesse R; Francis, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative is examining nondestructive assay techniques to determine the total plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel. The goal of this research was to develop new techniques that can independently verify the plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly without relying on an operator's declarations. Fundamentally this analysis sought to answer the following questions: (1) do spent fuel assemblies contain unique, identifiable isotopic characteristics as a function of their burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment; (2) how much variation can be seen in spent fuel isotopics from similar and dissimilar reactor power operations; and (3) what isotopes (if any) could be used to determine burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment? To answer these questions, 96,000 ORIGEN cases were run that simulated typical two-cycle operations with burnups ranging from 21,900 to 72,000 MWd/MTU, cooling times from 5 to 25 years, and initial enrichments between 3.5 and 5.0 weight percent. A relative error coefficient was determined to show how numerically close a reference solution has to be to another solution for the two results to be indistinguishable. By looking at the indistinguishable solutions, it can be shown how a precise measurement of spent fuel isotopics can be inconclusive when used in the absence of an operator's declarations. Using this Method of Indistinguishable Solutions (MIS), we evaluated a prominent method of nondestructive analysis - gamma spectroscopy. From this analysis, a new approach is proposed that demonstrates great independent forensic examination potential for spent nuclear fuel by examining both the neutron emissions of Cm-244 and the gamma emissions of Cs-134 and Eu-154.

  20. 5 CFR 551.424 - Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions. 551.424 Section 551.424 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of...

  1. Cut-Off: How We Spent Our Time in a Residential School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the ways in which both pupils and care staff spent their time in a residential school for children with physical disabilities and mild learning disabilities in the 1960s. It is told from the perspective of the author, who worked at the school as an assistant housemother, and two of her co-workers who responded to an…

  2. 5 CFR 551.424 - Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work... shall be considered hours of work. (b) “Official time” granted an employee by an agency to perform... hours of work. This includes time spent by an employee performing such functions during regular...

  3. The Relationship between a Counselor's Education and Experience and the Time Spent on Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Dan C.; Strauser, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived percentage of time spent on rehabilitation counseling responsibilities and the possession of an educational degree, certification as a rehabilitation counselor, and years worked for a state or federal vocational rehabilitation agency. A national study was conducted…

  4. 5 CFR 551.423 - Time spent in training or attending a lecture, meeting, or conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles in Relation to Other Activities § 551.423 Time spent in training or attending a... training under the Veterans Recruitment Act (5 CFR part 307) outside regular working hours shall not...

  5. Re-Examining Gender Differences in Video Game Play: Time Spent and Feelings of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that, among children, boys tend to play video games more than girls do. There are several theories addressing this phenomenon, including that stereotypes and lack of opportunity leave girls feeling inadequate with certain types of technology. No research has yet examined the interactive relationships between time spent playing…

  6. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  7. Away-from-reactor storage of spent nuclear fuel: factors affecting demand

    SciTech Connect

    Dinneen, P.M.; Solomon, K.A.; Triplett, M.B.

    1980-10-01

    This report analyzes factors that affect the magnitude and timing of demand for government AFRs, relative to the demand for other storage options, to assist policymakers in predicting this demand. Past predictions of AFT demand range widely and often appear to conflict. This report helps to explain the apparent conflicts among existing demand predictions by demonstrating their sensitivity to changes in key assumptions. Specifically, the report analyzes factors affecting the demand for government AFR storage facilities; illustrates why demand estimates may vary; and identifies actions that may be undertaken by groups, within and outside the government, to influence the level and timing of demands.

  8. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

  9. Hold it! Memory affects attentional dwell time.

    PubMed

    Parks, Emily L; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2008-12-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this effect depended on the ongoing memory context. Specifically, items that were unique in terms of memory status demanded more resources, as measured by a protracted AB. The present findings suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of memory's effects on attention can be obtained by accounting for an item's memorial context, as well as its individual item memory strength. Our results provide new evidence that item memory and memory context play a significant role in the temporal allocation of attention. PMID:19001579

  10. Relation between time spent outdoors and exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hee; Wiggs, Janey L.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation between time spent outdoors at various life periods and risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect. Design Retrospective cohort study in the United States. Methods Participants (49,033 women in the Nurses Health Study and 20,066 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study) were 60+ years old, free of glaucoma and cataract, reported eye exams and completed questions about time spent outdoors in direct sunlight at mid-day at 3 life periods: high school to age 24 years, age 25-35 years, and age 36-59 years (asked in 2006 in women and 2008 in men). Participants were followed biennially with mailed questionnaires from 1980 (women) / 1986 (men) to 2010. Incident cases (223 women and 38 men) were confirmed with medical records. Cohort-specific multivariable-adjusted rate ratios from Cox proportional hazards models were estimated and pooled with meta-analysis. Results Although no association was observed with greater time spent outdoors in the ages of 25-35 or ages 36-59 years, the pooled multivariable-adjusted rate ratios for ≥11 hours per week spent outdoors in high school to age 24 years compared with ≤5 hours per week was 2.00 (95% confidence interval=1.30, 3.08; p for linear trend=0.001). In women, this association was stronger in those who resided in the southern geographic tier in young adulthood (p for interaction = 0.07). Conclusions Greater time spent outdoors in young adulthood was associated with risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect, supporting an etiologic role of early exposures to climatic factors. PMID:24857689

  11. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  12. Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges: a logical approach for interpreting the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, Matteo; Weyermann, Céline; Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Taroni, Franco

    2013-03-01

    Estimating the time since discharge of a spent cartridge or a firearm can be useful in criminal situations involving firearms. The analysis of volatile gunshot residue remaining after shooting using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography (GC) was proposed to meet this objective. However, current interpretative models suffer from several conceptual drawbacks which render them inadequate to assess the evidential value of a given measurement. This paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a logical approach based on the assessment of likelihood ratios. A probabilistic model was thus developed and applied to a hypothetical scenario where alternative hypotheses about the discharge time of a spent cartridge found on a crime scene were forwarded. In order to estimate the parameters required to implement this solution, a non-linear regression model was proposed and applied to real published data. The proposed approach proved to be a valuable method for interpreting aging-related data. PMID:23380061

  13. Breast IMRT Reduces Time Spent with Acute Dermatitis For Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Gary M; Li, Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen, Yan; Ma, Charlie C-M; Anderson, Penny R

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and methods The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 – 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n=405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n=399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, grade 0; 34%, grade 1; 61%, grade 2; and 2%, grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, grade 0/1, and 52%, grade 2/3, for IMRT, and 25%, grade 0/1, and 75%, grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p<0.0001). IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p<0.0001). Further, the time spent with grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p=0.0015), medium (p<0.0001), and large (p<0.0001) breasts. Conclusions Breast IMRT is associated with both a significant decrease in the time spent during treatment with grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with conventional radiation regardless of breast size. PMID:19362779

  14. Human mobility and time spent at destination: impact on spatial epidemic spreading.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Chiara; Tizzoni, Michele; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-12-01

    Host mobility plays a fundamental role in the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Previous theoretical works based on the integration of network theory into the metapopulation framework have shown that the heterogeneities that characterize real mobility networks favor the propagation of epidemics. Nevertheless, the studies conducted so far assumed the mobility process to be either Markovian (in which the memory of the origin of each traveler is lost) or non-Markovian with a fixed traveling time scale (in which individuals travel to a destination and come back at a constant rate). Available statistics however show that the time spent by travelers at destination is characterized by wide fluctuations, ranging from a single day up to several months. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the chance and duration of mixing events among hosts and may therefore have a strong impact on the spread of an emerging disease. Here, we present an analytical and a computational study of epidemic processes on a complex subpopulation network where travelers have memory of their origin and spend a heterogeneously distributed time interval at their destination. Through analytical calculations and numerical simulations we show that the heterogeneity of the length of stay alters the expression of the threshold between local outbreak and global invasion, and, moreover, it changes the epidemic behavior of the system in case of a global outbreak. Additionally, our theoretical framework allows us to study the effect of changes in the traveling behavior in response to the infection, by considering a scenario in which sick individuals do not leave their home location. Finally, we compare the results of our non-Markovian framework with those obtained with a classic Markovian approach and find relevant differences between the two, in the estimate of the epidemic invasion potential, as well as of the timing and the pattern of its spatial spread. These results highlight the importance of

  15. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  16. Labor time spent in foodservice activities in one hospital: a 12-year profile.

    PubMed

    Matthews, M E; Zardain, M V; Mahaffey, M J

    1986-05-01

    Labor minutes per meal equivalent and percentage of time spent in direct work, indirect work, delay time, and total time were determined in an annual study of foodservice workers in a community hospital. Twelve activity sampling studies (from 1973 through 1984) were conducted for 7 days (Monday through Sunday), usually during the second week of February. The conventional foodservice, with the cook/hot-hold method of food production and service, averaged about 10 minutes for direct work, 1 minute for indirect work, 2 minutes for delay time, and 13 total labor minutes per meal equivalent for the 12 years. The data were similar to those of the study in the 1960s, of conventional hospital foodservices, with high productivity, which averaged about 11 minutes for direct work, 1 minute for indirect work, 2 minutes for delay time, and 14 total labor minutes per meal equivalent. Data averaged from the 1973 through 1984 studies compared with the data from the 1960s study showed that transportation, cleaning, and service required the most labor time (total of 58% in this study and total of 62% in the 1960s study). Methods reported in this article may be applied in other foodservices to identify labor time spent in work and delay activities to establish productivity guidelines for a foodservice department. PMID:3700926

  17. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J.; Biddle, Stuart J.H.; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m2). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p < 0.001), and during working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p < 0.001) on workdays. Drivers spent less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26844184

  18. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Clemes, Stacy A

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p < 0.001), and during working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p < 0.001) on workdays. Drivers spent less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26844184

  19. Time Spent Walking and Risk of Diabetes in Japanese Adults: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Goto, Atsushi; Kato, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yumi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Isogawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Manami; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between time spent walking and risk of diabetes was investigated in a Japanese population-based cohort. Methods Data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Diabetes cohort were analyzed. The surveys of diabetes were performed at baseline and at the 5-year follow-up. Time spent walking per day was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire (<30 minutes, 30 minutes to <1 hour, 1 to <2 hours, or ≥2 hours). A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 26 488 adults in the baseline survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between time spent walking and the presence of unrecognized diabetes. We then performed a longitudinal analysis that was restricted to 11 101 non-diabetic adults who participated in both the baseline and 5-year surveys. The association between time spent walking and the incidence of diabetes during the 5 years was examined. Results In the cross-sectional analysis, 1058 participants had unrecognized diabetes. Those with time spent walking of <30 minutes per day had increased odds of having diabetes in relation to those with time spent walking of ≥2 hours (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02–1.48). In the longitudinal analysis, 612 participants developed diabetes during the 5 years of follow-up. However, a significant association between time spent walking and the incidence of diabetes was not observed. Conclusions Increased risk of diabetes was implied in those with time spent walking of <30 minutes per day, although the longitudinal analysis failed to show a significant result. PMID:26725285

  20. Time to care? Health of informal older carers and time spent on health related activities: an Australian survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the time spent on specific health related activities by older adult informal carers who assist people with chronic illness. Research has not yet addressed the association between carer health status and their care demands. Such information could inform policy and health system efforts to manage chronic illness. Methods We conducted an Australia wide survey using recall questionnaires to record time use. The study asked how much time is spent on “most days” for the most common activities like taking medication, self-treatment and testing, and how much time in the last month on less common activities like attending a physician or shopping associated with health needs. The survey was mailed to 5,000 members of National Seniors Australia; 2,500 registrants on the National Diabetes Services Scheme; and 3,100 members of the Australian Lung Foundation. A total of 2519 people responded, including 313 people who identified as informal carers. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Stata 11. Standard errors and confidence intervals were derived using bootstrapping techniques within Stata 11. Results Most carers (96.2%) had chronic illness themselves, and those with greater numbers of chronic illnesses were those who faced the greatest overall time demands. The top decile of carers devoted between 8.5 and 10 hours a day to personal and caring health related activities. Informal carers with chronic illness spent more time managing their own health than people with chronic illness who were not informal carers. These carers spent more time on caring for others than on caring for their own health. High levels of caring responsibility were associated with poorer reported carer health. Conclusions Policy and health care services will need to adapt to recognise and reduce the time burden on carers who themselves have chronic illness. More carefully targeted investment in the social infrastructure of formal care would free up carers for other

  1. Unobtrusive in-home detection of time spent out-of-home with applications to loneliness and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Daniel; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Pavel, Misha; Hayes, Tamara L.

    2014-01-01

    Loneliness is a common condition in elderly associated with severe health consequences including increased mortality, decreased cognitive function, and poor quality of life. Identifying and assisting lonely individuals is therefore increasingly important—especially in the home setting—as the very nature of loneliness often makes it difficult to detect by traditional methods. One critical component in assessing loneliness unobtrusively is to measure time spent out-of-home, as loneliness often presents with decreased physical activity, decreased motor functioning, and a decline in activities of daily living, all of which may cause decreases in the amount of time spent outside the home. Using passive and unobtrusive in-home sensing technologies, we have developed a methodology for detecting time spent out-of-home based on logistic regression. Our approach was both sensitive (0.939) and specific (0.975) in detecting time out-of-home across over 41,000 epochs of data collected from 4 subjects monitored for at least 30 days each in their own homes. In addition to linking time spent out-of-home to loneliness (r=−0.44, p=0.011) as measured by the UCLA Loneliness Index, we demonstrate its usefulness in other applications such as uncovering general behavioral patterns of elderly and exploring the link between time spent out-of-home and physical activity (r=0.415, p=0.031), as measured by the Berkman Social Disengagement Index. PMID:25192570

  2. Unobtrusive in-home detection of time spent out-of-home with applications to loneliness and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Johanna; Austin, Daniel; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Pavel, Misha; Hayes, Tamara L

    2014-09-01

    Loneliness is a common condition in elderly associated with severe health consequences including increased mortality, decreased cognitive function, and poor quality of life. Identifying and assisting lonely individuals is therefore increasingly important-especially in the home setting-as the very nature of loneliness often makes it difficult to detect by traditional methods. One critical component in assessing loneliness unobtrusively is to measure time spent out-of-home, as loneliness often presents with decreased physical activity, decreased motor functioning, and a decline in activities of daily living, all of which may cause decrease in the amount of time spent outside the home. Using passive and unobtrusive in-home sensing technologies, we have developed a methodology for detecting time spent out-of-home based on logistic regression. Our approach was both sensitive (0.939) and specific (0.975) in detecting time out-of-home across over 41,000 epochs of data collected from four subjects monitored for at least 30 days each in their own homes. In addition to linking time spent out-of-home to loneliness, (r = -0.44, p = 0.011) as measured by the UCLA Loneliness Index, we demonstrate its usefulness in other applications such as uncovering general behavioral patterns of elderly and exploring the link between time spent out-of-home and physical activity ( r = 0.415, p = 0.031), as measured by the Berkman Social Disengagement Index. PMID:25192570

  3. Naturally occurring changes in time spent watching television are inversely related to frequency of physical activity during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Lytle, Leslie A

    2006-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with an increase in frequency of leisure-time physical activity. That relationship was strong in magnitude and independent of sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and the value participants placed on health, appearance, and achievement. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce television watching as a possible means of increasing adolescent physical activity. PMID:16338428

  4. Data Mining Techniques to Estimate Plutonium, Initial Enrichment, Burnup, and Cooling Time in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly Renee; Fugate, Michael Lynn; Tobin, Stephen Joesph

    2015-03-19

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a multi-laboratory, university, international partner collaboration to (1) detect replaced or missing pins from spent fuel assemblies (SFA) to confirm item integrity and deter diversion, (2) determine plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in SFAs, and (3) verify initial enrichment (IE), burnup (BU), and cooling time (CT) of facility declaration for SFAs. A wide variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques were researched to achieve these goals [Veal, 2010 and Humphrey, 2012]. In addition, the project includes two related activities with facility-specific benefits: (1) determination of heat content and (2) determination of reactivity (multiplication). In this research, a subset of 11 integrated NDA techniques was researched using data mining solutions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for their ability to achieve the above goals.

  5. Time Well Spent: Eight Powerful Practices of Successful, Expanded-Time Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Claire; Chan, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This report reshapes the field for expanded-time schools by outlining specific practices that can lead to dramatic increases in student achievement and preparation for success in college and the workforce. This report offers an in-depth examination of 30 expanded-time schools serving high-poverty populations with impressive track records of…

  6. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... in an on-call status shall not be considered hours of work if: (1) The employee is allowed to leave...

  7. Among Inpatients, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity Is Negatively Associated With Time Spent Walking.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Vancampfort, Davy; Tiedemann, Anne; Stubbs, Brendon; Steel, Zachary; Ward, Philip B; Berle, David; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and psychological and functional variables were associated with physical activity (PA) upon admission to an inpatient facility. PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety and stress, sleep quality, and PA participation were assessed among 76 participants (age, 47.6 ± 11.9 years; 83% male). Backward stepwise regression analyses identified variables independently associated with time spent walking and engaging in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA). No significant correlations were found between any of the variables and MVPA. Total PTSD symptoms (r = -0.39, p < 0.001), combined symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), and sleep behavior (r = -0.24, p < 0.05) were significantly and negatively associated with total walking time. Total PTSD symptoms were the only significant predictor of walking time (B = -0.03, SE = 0.008, β = -0.4; t = -3.4; p < 0.001). Results indicate that increased PTSD symptoms are associated with lower levels of walking. Results highlight the importance of considering symptoms when designing PA programs for people with PTSD. PMID:26558500

  8. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahlam A.; Ratajeski, Melissa A.; Bertolet, Marnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. Conclusions This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged. PMID:25914722

  9. Relationships of Attitudes toward Homework and Time Spent on Homework to Course Outcomes: The Case of Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Charles B.; Wall, Daniel; Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa; Vatz, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies of homework in core academic subjects, positive student attitudes toward homework were linked to higher achievement, whereas time spent on homework showed an inconsistent relationship with achievement. This study examined the generalizability of these findings to foreign language learning by analyzing 2,342 adult students'…

  10. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

  11. Does Time Spent Online Have an Influence on Student Performance? Evidence for a Large Business Studies Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkofingas, Con; Macri, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines, using regression modelling, whether a statistically significant relationship exists between the time spent by a student using the course website and the student's assessment performance for a large third year university business forecasting course. We utilise the online tracking system in Blackboard, a web-based software…

  12. Group-Based Modeling of Time Spent in Structured Activity Trajectories from Middle Childhood into Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of time spent in structured activities from middle childhood to early adolescence by using data from the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. We used latent class growth analyses and identified five trajectories (stable low, increasing high, decreasing low,…

  13. 29 CFR 516.34 - Exemption from overtime pay for time spent by certain employees receiving remedial education...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption from overtime pay for time spent by certain employees receiving remedial education pursuant to section 7(q) of the Act. 516.34 Section 516.34 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS Records Pertaining...

  14. Energy Beyond Food: Foraging Theory Informs Time Spent in Thermals by a Large Soaring Bird

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Emily L. C.; Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Wilson, Rory P.

    2011-01-01

    Current understanding of how animals search for and exploit food resources is based on microeconomic models. Although widely used to examine feeding, such constructs should inform other energy-harvesting situations where theoretical assumptions are met. In fact, some animals extract non-food forms of energy from the environment, such as birds that soar in updraughts. This study examined whether the gains in potential energy (altitude) followed efficiency-maximising predictions in the world's heaviest soaring bird, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Animal-attached technology was used to record condor flight paths in three-dimensions. Tracks showed that time spent in patchy thermals was broadly consistent with a strategy to maximise the rate of potential energy gain. However, the rate of climb just prior to leaving a thermal increased with thermal strength and exit altitude. This suggests higher rates of energetic gain may not be advantageous where the resulting gain in altitude would lead to a reduction in the ability to search the ground for food. Consequently, soaring behaviour appeared to be modulated by the need to reconcile differing potential energy and food energy distributions. We suggest that foraging constructs may provide insight into the exploitation of non-food energy forms, and that non-food energy distributions may be more important in informing patterns of movement and residency over a range of scales than previously considered. PMID:22087301

  15. Curricular Time for Physical Education? A Controlled Experiment in French Canada Asks How Much Curricular Time Should be Spent on Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A controlled experiment conducted in Canada, the Trois Rivieres regional experiment, investigated the effects of increased physical education instruction on elementary school students. Results indicate that more time can be spent in physical education and that the increased time may result in improvement in other academic areas. (CJ)

  16. Carbohydrate intake is associated with time spent in the euglycemic range in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ayano-Takahara, Shiho; Ikeda, Kaori; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Asai, Kanae; Oguri, Yasuo; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Hidemi; Shide, Kenichiro; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Greater glycemic variability and lack of predictability are important issues for patients with type 1 diabetes. Dietary factors are one of the contributors to this variability, but how closely diet is linked to glycemic fluctuation on a daily basis has not been investigated. We examined the association between carbohydrate intake and glycemic excursion in outpatients. Materials and Methods A total of 33 patients with type 1 diabetes were included in the analyses (age 44.5 ± 14.7 years, diabetes duration 15.1 ± 8.3 years, 64% female, 30% using insulin pump, glycated hemoglobin 8.1 ± 1.3%). Time spent in euglycemia (70–180 mg/dL), hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL) of consecutive 48-h periods of continuous glucose monitoring data were collected together with simultaneous records of dietary intake, insulin dose and physical activity. Correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the contribution of carbohydrate intake to time spent in the target glycemic range. Results In multiple regression analyses, carbohydrate intake (β = 0.53, P = 0.001), basal insulin dose per kg per day (β = −0.31, P = 0.034) and diabetes duration (β = 0.30, P = 0.042) were independent predictors of time spent in euglycemia. Carbohydrate intake (β = −0.51, P = 0.001) and insulin pump use (β = −0.34, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of time spent in hyperglycemia. Insulin pump use (β = 0.52, P < 0.001) and bolus insulin dose per kg per day (β = 0.46, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of time spent in hypoglycemia. Conclusions Carbohydrate intake is associated with time spent in euglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26543542

  17. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  18. Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…

  19. The Influence of Time Spent in Outdoor Play on Daily and Aerobic Step Count in Costa Rican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera Castro, Maria del Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of time spent in outdoor play (i.e., on weekday and weekend days) on daily (i.e., average step count) and aerobic step count (i.e., average moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA] during the weekdays and weekend days) in fifth grade Costa Rican children. It was hypothesized that: (a)…

  20. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Gary M. Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  1. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  2. Time well spent: the duration of foster care and early adult labor market, educational, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation. PMID:24215947

  3. Time-Varying Affective Response for Humanoid Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkina, Lilia; Arkin, Ronald C.; Lee, Jamee K.; Jung, Hyunryong

    This paper describes the design of a complex time-varying affective architecture. It is an expansion of the TAME architecture (traits, attitudes, moods, and emotions) as applied to humanoid robotics. It particular it is intended to promote effective human-robot interaction by conveying the robot’s affective state to the user in an easy-to-interpret manner.

  4. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time. PMID:26487146

  5. Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D

    2015-04-01

    Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child <13 years old participating in the 2003-2011 American Time Use Survey (n = 3622) to estimate the relationship between employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day. PMID:25451579

  6. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L.; Skelton, Dawn A.

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005–6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all p<0.001), and systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.003), but not HDL or LDL. Within the composition, the strongest positive effect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity. PMID:26461112

  7. Protective measures, personal experience, and the affective psychology of time.

    PubMed

    Peters, E; Kunreuther, H; Sagara, N; Slovic, P; Schley, D R

    2012-12-01

    We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases. However, and consistent with prior literature, the cognitive mechanism underlying this time-neglect-with-affect-richness effect seemed to be the greater use of the affect heuristic in the shorter term than the longer term. Study 2 results demonstrated that prior experience with having been burglarized amplified the interactive effect of time and affect. Greater deliberation did not attenuate this effect as hypothesized whether deliberation was measured through numeracy or manipulated through instructions. The results of Study 3 indicated that few participants are able to calculate correctly the risk numbers necessary to take time into account. Two possible solutions to encourage more purchases of protective measures in the long term are discussed. PMID:22548249

  8. Time spent in child care: How and why does it affect social development?

    PubMed

    Huston, Aletha C; Bobbitt, Kaeley C; Bentley, Alison

    2015-05-01

    Children who experience early and extensive child care, especially center-based care, are rated by teachers as having more externalizing behavior problems than are other children. This association is reduced, but not eliminated, when care is of high quality, and it varies by socioeconomic disadvantage and the type of behavior assessed. We examine the processes that may account for the quantity effect, concluding that it occurs primarily among relatively advantaged White non-Hispanic families. It appears primarily for teacher-rated behavior, especially externalizing and low self-control, but is not evident for positive behavior and peer interaction skills. Some of the processes accounting for the relation of quantity to behavior are most likely to be poor caregiver-child relationships and negative peer interactions, not reduced attachment to mothers or lowered maternal sensitivity. Many questions remain about duration of effects, developmental and individual differences, more nuanced conceptualizations of both care quality and social behavior, and variations across cultural and ethnic groups. PMID:25751096

  9. Time Spent in Child Care: How and Why Does It Affect Social Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Bobbitt, Kaeley C.; Bentley, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children who experience early and extensive child care, especially center-based care, are rated by teachers as having more externalizing behavior problems than are other children. This association is reduced, but not eliminated, when care is of high quality, and it varies by socioeconomic disadvantage and the type of behavior assessed. We examine…

  10. Daily time spent indoors in German homes--baseline data for the assessment of indoor exposure of German occupants.

    PubMed

    Brasche, Sabine; Bischof, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive time-activity studies, for use as a basis for estimates of personal exposure, are not readily available in Germany. This analysis of time spent indoors at home is based on data from "Dampness and mould in homes" (2000/ 2001)--a study of about 12,000 persons living in 5530 randomly selected apartments and houses in Germany. The results show the mean times per day people in Germany spend in their homes, classified by gender, age group, building location, city size, region, building type, owner-occupier status, number of people at home, smoking and ventilation habits, moisture emission and ill health factors such as asthma, allergy and number of acute respiratory infections per year. The overall mean time spent at home, 15.7 h per, is in accordance with results from US-American (15.6 h/day) and Canadian (15.8 h/day) human activity surveys carried out in the nineties, as well as being consistent with the German Environmental Survey (1990/92) and a small German study in 1987. PMID:16078638

  11. Noninertial coordinate time: A new concept affecting time standards, time transfers, and clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deines, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    Relativity compensations must be made in precise and accurate measurements whenever an observer is accelerated. Although many believe the Earth-centered frame is sufficiently inertial, accelerations of the Earth, as evidenced by the tides, prove that it is technically a noninertial system for even an Earth-based observer. Using the constant speed of light, a set of fixed remote clocks in an inertial frame can be synchronized to a fixed master clock transmitting its time in that frame. The time on the remote clock defines the coordinate time at that coordinate position. However, the synchronization procedure for an accelerated frame is affected, because the distance between the master and remote clocks is altered due to the acceleration of the remote clock toward or away from the master clock during the transmission interval. An exact metric that converts observations from noninertial frames to inertial frames was recently derived. Using this metric with other physical relationships, a new concept of noninertial coordinate time is defined. This noninertial coordinate time includes all relativity compensations. This new issue raises several timekeeping issues, such as proper time standards, time transfer process, and clock synchronization, all in a noninertial frame such as Earth.

  12. Time/motion observations of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an oversized truck spent-fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.; Hostick, C.J.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents actual time/motion data for an oversize truck spent-fuel shipment from its origin, Surry, Virginia to its destination, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These data include the receipt of the empty cask at the reactor, wet-loading the cask, over-the-road or in-transit data, and receipt and dry unloading of the shipping cask at the receiving facility. Occupational doses were recorded at the Surry Power Plant as well as at INEL, and public doses were calculated for the in-transit dose analysis. This shipment was one of a series performed in support of a demonstration and evaluation of dry storage at INEL. The oversized shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask loaded with three 10-yr-old pressurized water reactor assemblies. The total distance traveled was {approx}2800 miles, requiring 62 h including stops. The time required to receive and inspect the empty shipping cask and wet-load and release the shipment at the reactor was {approx}14.1 h, and the time to receive the loaded cask, dry-transfer the spent fuel to the storage cask, and release the empty cask and trailer at the INEL facility was {approx}8.2 h.

  13. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, A.; Bignan, G.; Szabo, J. L.; Arenas-Carrasco, J.; Arlt, R.; Dubreuil, A.; Esmailpur Kazerouni, K.

    2000-07-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR) coupled to a gamma transport code (MCNP) allows us to predict and interpret the experimental data from CdZnTe detectors. Particularly, bremsstrahlung contribution to the gamma spectra is suggested and modeled. Calculation results indicate a good agreement between this hypothesis and the present measurements.

  14. How Does Calibration Timing and Seasonality Affect Item Parameter Estimates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Continuously administered examination programs, particularly credentialing programs that require graduation from educational programs, often experience seasonality where distributions of examine ability may differ over time. Such seasonality may affect the quality of important statistical processes, such as item response theory (IRT) item…

  15. The Relationship of Negative Affect and Thought: Time Series Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Amy; And Others

    In recent years, the relationship between moods and thoughts has been the focus of much theorizing and some empirical work. A study was undertaken to examine the intraindividual relationship between negative affect and negative thoughts using a Box-Jenkins time series analysis. College students (N=33) completed a measure of negative mood and…

  16. The effect of food environments on fruit and vegetable intake as modified by time spent at home: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Antony; Farrell, Eddie; Vaivada, Tyler; Labetski, Anna; Selvaratnam, Inthuja; Larsen, Kristian; Pinter, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a growing body of research that investigates how the residential neighbourhood context relates to individual diet. However, previous studies ignore participants’ time spent in the residential environment and this may be a problem because time-use studies show that adults’ time-use pattern can significantly vary. To better understand the role of exposure duration, we designed a study to examine ‘time spent at home’ as a moderator to the residential food environment-diet association. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Settings City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants 2411 adults aged 25–65. Primary outcome measure Frequency of vegetable and fruit intake (VFI) per day. Results To examine how time spent at home may moderate the relationship between residential food environment and VFI, the full sample was split into three equal subgroups—short, medium and long duration spent at home. We detected significant associations between density of food stores in the residential food environment and VFI for subgroups that spend medium and long durations at home (ie, spending a mean of 8.0 and 12.3 h at home, respectively—not including sleep time), but no associations exist for people who spend the lowest amount of time at home (mean=4.7 h). Also, no associations were detected in analyses using the full sample. Conclusions Our study is the first to demonstrate that time spent at home may be an important variable to identify hidden population patterns regarding VFI. Time spent at home can impact the association between the residential food environment and individual VFI. PMID:26044756

  17. Writing Direction Affects How People Map Space Onto Time

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Benjamin K.; Chan Lau, Ting Ting

    2012-01-01

    What determines which spatial axis people use to represent time? We investigate effects of writing direction. English, like Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, is written left to right and then top to bottom. But in Taiwan, characters are written predominantly top to bottom and then right to left. Because being a fluent reader–writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one’s writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time in terms of space. In a behavioral experiment, we had native speakers of English, Mandarin Chinese from mainland China, and Mandarin Chinese from Taiwan place sets of cards in temporal order. These cards depicted stages of development of plants and animals, for instance: tadpole, froglet, frog. Results showed that English speakers always represented time as moving from left to right (LR). Mainland Chinese participants trended in the same direction, but a small portion laid the cards out from top to bottom. Taiwanese participants were just as likely to depict time as moving from LR as from top to bottom, with a large minority depicting it as moving from right to left. Native writing system affects how people represent time spatially. PMID:22514546

  18. Identifying the critical climatic time window that affects trait expression.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Martijn; Cockburn, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Identifying the critical time window during which climatic drivers affect the expression of phenological, behavioral, and demographic traits is crucial for predicting the impact of climate change on trait and population dynamics. Two widely used associative methods exist to identify critical climatic periods: sliding-window models and recursive operators in which the memory of past weather fades over time. Both approaches have different strong points, which we combine here into a single method. Our method uses flexible functions to differentially weight past weather, which can reflect competing hypotheses about time lags and the relative importance of recent and past weather for trait expression. Using a 22-year data set, we illustrate that the climatic window identified by our new method explains more of the phenological variation in a sexually selected trait than existing approaches. Our new method thus helps to better identify the critical time window and the causes of trait response to environmental variability. PMID:21508615

  19. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-13

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  20. Willingness-to-Pay to Avoid the Time Spent and Discomfort Associated with Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Daniel E.; Russell, Louise B.; Chou, Jon; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The screening colonoscopy process requires a considerable amount of time and some discomfort for patients. Objective We sought to use willingness-to-pay (WTP) to value the time required and the discomfort associated with screening colonoscopy. In addition, we aimed to explore some of the differences between and potential uses of the WTP and the human capital methods. Methods Subjects completed a diary recording time and a questionnaire including WTP questions to value the time and discomfort associated with colonoscopy. We also valued the elapsed time reported in the diaries (but not the discomfort) using the human capital method. Results 110 subjects completed the study. Mean WTP to avoid the time and discomfort was $263. Human capital values for elapsed time were greater. Linear regressions showed that WTP was influenced most by the difficulty of the preparation, which added $147 to WTP (p=0.03). Conclusions WTP values to avoid the time and discomfort associated with the screening colonoscopy process were substantially lower than most of the human capital values for elapsed time alone. The human capital method may overestimate the value of time in situations that involve an irregular, episodic series of time intervals, such as preparation for or recovery after colonoscopy. PMID:19725018

  1. Do waiting times affect health outcomes? Evidence from coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Moscelli, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Luigi; Tonei, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Long waiting times for non-emergency services are a feature of several publicly-funded health systems. A key policy concern is that long waiting times may worsen health outcomes: when patients receive treatment, their health condition may have deteriorated and health gains reduced. This study investigates whether patients in need of coronary bypass with longer waiting times are associated with poorer health outcomes in the English National Health Service over 2000-2010. Exploiting information from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), we measure health outcomes with in-hospital mortality and 28-day emergency readmission following discharge. Our results, obtained combining hospital fixed effects and instrumental variable methods, find no evidence of waiting times being associated with higher in-hospital mortality and weak association between waiting times and emergency readmission following a surgery. The results inform the debate on the relative merits of different types of rationing in healthcare systems. They are to some extent supportive of waiting times as an acceptable rationing mechanism, although further research is required to explore whether long waiting times affect other aspects of individuals' life. PMID:27299977

  2. Goal regulation across time: the effects of feedback and affect.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Judge, Timothy A

    2005-05-01

    This research focused on the processes individuals use to regulate their goals across time. Two studies examined goal regulation following task performance with 6 samples of participants in a series of 8-trial task performance experiments. The experiments involved: (a) 3 task types, (b) 2 goal types, and (c) actual or manipulated performance feedback referring to the focal participant's own performance or to the participant's performance compared with others' performance. Applying multilevel methods, the authors examined (a) how performance feedback influences subsequent goals within individuals across both negative and positive performance feedback ranges, and (b) the mediating role of affect in explaining the relationship between feedback and subsequent goal setting. Results showed that participants adjusted their goals downwardly following negative feedback and created positive goal-performance discrepancies by raising their goals following positive feedback. In each sample, affect mediated substantial proportions of the feedback-goals relationship within individuals. PMID:15910142

  3. Comparisons of HIV-Affected and Non-HIV-Affected Families Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W. Scott; Best, Karin; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study compares HIV-affected families and their non-HIV-affected neighbors’ behavioral health outcomes and family conflict. To compare two groups from the same neighborhoods at four points over 18 months, mothers with HIV (MLH) (N=167) and their school-age children (age 6 to 20) were recruited from clinical care settings in Los Angeles, CA and neighborhood control mothers (NCM) without HIV (N=204) were recruited from modal neighborhoods. In addition, children living at home who were 12 years and older were recruited. We assessed parenting behaviors, family conflict, mental health, sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV-related health behaviors over time. MLH perceived greater economic insecurity at baseline, less employment, and involvement in romantic relationships. MLH reported more emotional distress and substance use than NCM. MLH, however, reported lowered HIV transmission risk. The random regressions indicated that MLH exhibited higher levels and became significantly less depressed and less anxious over time than their non-HIV-affected neighbors. MLH also reported less initial family violence and conflict reasoning than NCM; violence decreased and conflict increased over time for MLH relative to NCM. Children of MLH decreased their marijuana use but hard drug users of MLH increased their risk, over time, compared to children of NCM. Moreover, children of MLH reported more internalizing behaviors than children of NCM. Even when compared to other families living in the same economically disadvantaged communities, MLH and their children continue to face challenges surrounding family conflict, and key behavioral health outcomes, especially with respect to substance use and mental health outcomes. These families, however, show much resilience and MLH report lowered levels of HIV transmission risk, their children report no greater levels of HIV transmission risk and levels of family violence were lower than reported by families in the same neighborhoods

  4. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53%. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57% female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  5. Factors that affect stabilisation times of canine spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E; Boden, L A; Ramsey, I K

    2016-07-23

    The objective of this retrospective study was to examine factors that may have affected the stabilisation times of 50 dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism that were being treated with fludrocortisone acetate, with particular emphasis on dosing frequency and the concurrent use of prednisolone. Stabilisation was defined as an absence of clinical signs with a sodium:potassium ratio >27:1 and both electrolyte concentrations within a laboratory reference range. It was found that the median time till stabilisation was three months. The frequency of fludrocortisone treatment (once, twice or changed from once to twice a day) had no effect on the stabilisation time. The two groups of dogs that were started and stabilised on once a day or twice a day dosing had a median stabilisation time of two months. However, dogs that failed to stabilise on once a day dosing of fludrocortisone and were then changed onto twice a day dosing then stabilised a median of one month later. Concurrent use of prednisolone resulted in significantly faster stabilisation times. It was concluded that dogs with hypoadrenocorticism should be continued on prednisolone therapy until they are stabilised. If a dog is failing to stabilise on once a day fludrocortisone acetate, a change to twice a day administration could be considered. PMID:27269282

  6. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  7. The Relation between the Time Mothers and Children Spent Together and the Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices have been shown to predict children's emotional intelligence. The time that mothers and children spend in joint activity is an important aspect of the parent-child relationship, and it has been found to be influential in different domains of children's development. However, it has not been investigated in relation…

  8. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  9. Variations in Teachers' Management of and Time Spent on Reading Instruction: Effects on Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Helen; Kirsch, Irwin

    To determine if there was variability in scheduled and engaged time in reading among classrooms and in management style among teachers and to see if these factors accounted for differences on a standardized reading achievement measure, a study was conducted involving 13 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade reading classrooms. Pretest and posttest data…

  10. Does patient time spent viewing computer-tailored colorectal cancer screening materials predict patient-reported discussion of screening with providers?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mechelle; Fiscella, Kevin; Veazie, Peter; Dolan, James G; Jerant, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    The main aim is to examine whether patients' viewing time on information about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening before a primary care physician (PCP) visit is associated with discussion of screening options during the visit. We analyzed data from a multi-center randomized controlled trial of a tailored interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) to activate patients to undergo CRC screening, deployed in primary care offices immediately before a visit. We employed usage time information stored in the IMCP to examine the association of patient time spent using the program with patient-reported discussion of screening during the visit, adjusting for previous CRC screening recommendation and reading speed.On average, patients spent 33 minutes on the program. In adjusted analyses, 30 minutes spent using the program was associated with a 41% increase in the odds of the patient having a discussion with their PCP (1.04, 1.59, 95% CI). In a separate analysis of the tailoring modules; the modules encouraging adherence to the tailored screening recommendation and discussion with the patient's PCP yielded significant results. Other predictors of screening discussion included better self-reported physical health and increased patient activation. Time spent on the program predicted greater patient-physician discussion of screening during a linked visit.Usage time information gathered automatically by IMCPs offers promise for objectively assessing patient engagement around a topic and predicting likelihood of discussion between patients and their clinician. PMID:27343254

  11. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  12. The Role of Parental Support, Parental Monitoring, and Time Spent with Parents in Adolescent Academic Achievement in Iceland: A Structural Model of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental support, parental monitoring, and time spent with parents and academic achievement among adolescent girls and boys in Iceland, a high-income per-capita Nordic country. The indirect role of school effort is also examined. Data of 7430 9th and 10th graders is analyzed in the study. Structural…

  13. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  14. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h. PMID:27034103

  15. The Influence of Young Adults' Sex, Gender Role Orientation, Ordinal Position and Time Spent with Infants on Their Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F; Paludi, Michele A.

    1989-01-01

    Identifies some characteristics of non at-risk prospective parents (239 young adults who were enrolled in introductory psychology classes) which may contribute to more accurate knowledge of infant development. Results are interpreted in terms of subjects' sex, gender role orientation, ordinal position in the family, and amount of time spent with…

  16. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-09-28

    .g. Pb stack size, neutron source location) of an LSDS for the purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Sensitivity studies were conducted that provide insight as to how the LSDS instrument can be improved by making it more sensitive to the center of the fuel assemblies. In FY2013, PNNL will continue efforts to develop and refine design requirements of an LSDS for the ultimate purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Future efforts will be directed toward more extensive experimental benchmarking of currently implemented time-spectra analysis algorithms.

  17. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  18. Reactivity and isotopic composition of spent PWR (pressurized-water-reactor) fuel as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time

    SciTech Connect

    Cerne, S.P.; Hermann, O.W.; Westfall, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    This study presents the reactivity loss of spent PWR fuel due to burnup in terms of the infinite lattice multiplications factor, k/sub infinity/. Calculations were performed using the SAS2 and CSAS1 control modules of the SCALE system. The k/sub infinity/ values calculated for all combinations of six enrichments, seven burnups, and five cooling times. The results are presented as a primary function of enrichment in both tabular and graphic form. An equation has been developed to estimate the tabulated values of k/sub infinity/'s by specifying enrichment, cooling time, and burnup. Atom densities for fresh fuel, and spent fuel at cooling times of 2, 10, and 20 years are included. 13 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. 78 FR 39781 - Consequence Study of a Beyond-Design-Basis Earthquake Affecting the Spent Fuel Pool for a U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... study compares high-density and low-density spent fuel pool loading conditions and assesses the benefits...-density configuration is safe and risk of a large release due to an accident is very low. This draft...

  20. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA).

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  1. Teaching Affective Skills to Residents in Decreased Instruction Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Elizabeth B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study to determine whether affective skills could be taught to residents in a family practice center without placing arduous constraints on their schedules is described. Residents at the University of Louisville Department of Family Practice were videotaped during a regular patient visit and then scheduled for review sessions. (MLW)

  2. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  3. Time and dose assessment of barge shipment and at-reactor handling of a CASTOR V/21 spent fuel storage cask

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J. ); Lavender, J.C. ); Wakeman, B.H. )

    1992-04-01

    This report contains the results of a time/motion analysis and a radiation dose assessment made during the receipt from barge transport and the loading of CAst iron cask for Storage and Transport Of Radioactive material (CASTOR) V/21 storage casks with spent nuclear fuel at the Surry Power Station in Virginia during 1987. The study was a cooperative effort between Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power), and was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Program Office. In this study, cask handling activities were tracked at the Surry Power Station, tracing the transfer of the empty spent fuel storage cask from an ocean-going vessel to a barge for river transport through the activities required to place the loaded storage cask at an at-reactor storage location.

  4. Temperature and curing time affect composite sorption and solubility

    PubMed Central

    de CASTRO, Fabrício Luscino Alves; CAMPOS, Bruno Barbosa; BRUNO, Kely Firmino; REGES, Rogério Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of temperature and curing time on composite sorption and solubility. Material and Methods: Seventy five specimens (8x2 mm) were prepared using a commercial composite resin (ICE, SDI). Three temperatures (10º C, 25º C and 60º C) and five curing times (5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s and 60 s) were evaluated. The specimens were weighed on an analytical balance three times: A: before storage (M1); B: 7 days after storage (M2); C: 7 days after storage plus 1 day of drying (M3). The storage solution consisted of 75% alcohol/25% water. Sorption and solubility were calculated using these three weights and specimen dimensions. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests (α=5%). Results: The results showed that time, temperature and their interaction influenced the sorption and solubility of the composite (p<0.05). At 60º C, the composite sorption showed an inverse relationship with the curing time (p<0.05). The composite cured for 5 s showed higher sorption for the 40 s or 60 s curing times when compared with all temperatures (p<0.05). Curing times of 20 s and 40 s showed similar sorption data for all temperatures (p>0.05). The 60º C composite temperature led to lower values of sorption for all curing times when compared with the 10º C temperature (p<0.05). The same results were found when comparing 10º C and 25º C (p<0.05), except that the 20 s and 40 s curing times behaved similarly (p>0.05). Solubility was similar at 40 s and 60 s for all temperatures (p>0.05), but was higher at 10º C than at 60º C for all curing times (p<0.05). When the composite was cured at 25º C, similar solubility values were found when comparing the 5 s and 10 s or 20 s and 40 s curing times (p>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, higher temperatures or longer curing times led to lower sorption and solubility values for the composite tested; however, this trend was only significant in specific combinations of temperature and

  5. How Bad Receiver Coordinates Can Affect GPS Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadsey, H.

    1996-01-01

    Many sources of error are possible when the Global Positioning System (GPS) is used for time comparisons. Some of these errors have been listed by Lewandowski. Because of the complexity of the system, an error source could have more than one effect. This paper will present theoretical and observational results by offsetting a receiver's coordinates. The calculations show how an error as small as three meters in any direction can result in a timing error of more than 10 nanoseconds. The GPS receiver must be surveyed to better than 0.2 meter accuracy for the timing error to be sub-nanosecond.

  6. Does bipolar electrocoagulation time affect vessel weld strength?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J D; Morris, D L

    1991-01-01

    The value of the bipolar electrocoagulator in the haemostasis of bleeding ulcers is controversial. We have therefore investigated the effect of different coagulation times on vessel weld strength achieved by the bipolar device. Welds were then made in vessels of known diameter using a standard 10F endoscopic haemostatic probe at coagulation times of two and 20 seconds. The intravascular temperature achieved at each time was measured. Vessel weld strength achieved by bipolar electrocoagulation was much greater at 20 seconds (approximately twice that at two seconds) and was highly significantly greater at all vessel diameters. There was a gradual reduction in weld strength with increasing vessel diameter, an effect that was seen for both two and 20 seconds of electrocoagulation. Intravascular temperature was significantly higher at 20 seconds than at two seconds. We conclude that vessel weld strength is related to coagulation time and that any future studies comparing the bipolar electrocoagulator with other haemostatic devices should use longer periods of bipolar electrocoagulation and record the coagulation time in order to optimise the clinical value of the device. PMID:1864540

  7. Irrigation timing and volume affects growth of container grown maples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container nursery production requires large inputs of water and nutrients but frequently irrigation inputs exceed plant demand and lack application precision or are not applied at optimal times for plant production. The results from this research can assist producers in developing irrigation manage...

  8. Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

  9. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  10. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  11. Processing Time Shifts Affects the Execution of Motor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Andrea J.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether time shifts in text comprehension are represented spatially. Participants read sentences involving past or future events and made sensibility judgment responses in one of two ways: (1) moving toward or away from their body and (2) pressing the toward or away buttons without moving. Previous work suggests that spatial…

  12. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing.

    PubMed

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Muñoz-Viana, Rafael; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Trejo-Arellano, Minerva S; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Köhler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  13. Perceptual Grouping Affects Pitch Judgments across Time and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchert, Elizabeth M. O.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared…

  14. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  15. Reaction time in gait initiation depends on the time available for affective processing.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Thierry; Chapus, Carole Ferrel

    2015-11-16

    Previous studies have reported that reaction time in gait initiation was affected by emotion eliciting pictures. This study examined the effect of a change in the delay between image onset and the imperative "go" on reaction time. From a standing posture, 19 young adults had to walk (several steps) toward pleasant or unpleasant images in two conditions. In the short condition, the word "go" appeared 500ms after image onset and participants were instructed to initiate gait as soon as possible after the word go appeared. In the long condition, the same procedure was used but the word "go" appeared 3000ms after image onset. Results demonstrated that motor responses were faster for pleasant pictures than unpleasant ones in the short condition. In contrast, no significant difference was found between both categories of pictures in the long condition. Moreover, we found that self ratings of valence of unpleasant pictures were less unpleasant in the long condition than in the short one whereas there was no difference for pleasant pictures between both conditions. This result reflected a change in the affective significance of unpleasant pictures in the long condition. We also found in the long condition, that the body was inclined forward and to the stance limb during the standing posture and importantly with a similar extent for pleasant and unpleasant pictures. This change clearly reflected a facilitation of the gait initiation process. Overall, results suggested that this gait facilitation when confronted to unpleasant pictures resulted from emotional regulation processes enabling to reappraise these pictures and to override the initial avoidance tendency that they caused. PMID:26455865

  16. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  17. Perceptual grouping affects pitch judgments across time and frequency.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Elizabeth M O; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared listeners' ability to detect differences in F0 between pairs of sequential or simultaneous tones that were filtered into separate, nonoverlapping spectral regions. The timbre differences induced by filtering led to poor F0 discrimination in the sequential, but not the simultaneous, conditions. Temporal overlap of the two tones was not sufficient to produce good performance; instead performance appeared to depend on the two tones being integrated into the same perceptual object. The results confirm the difficulty of comparing the pitches of sequential sounds with different timbres and suggest that, for simultaneous sounds, pitch differences may be detected through a decrease in perceptual fusion rather than an explicit coding and comparison of the underlying F0s. PMID:21077719

  18. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    PubMed

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. PMID:26301828

  19. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022... affecting timely completion of the contract work. 3052.222-70 Section 3052.222-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR)...

  20. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strikes or...

  1. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strikes or...

  2. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Strikes or...

  3. 48 CFR 3052.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely Completion of the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strikes or...

  4. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  5. Association of Environment and Policy Characteristics on Children’s Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Time Spent Sedentary in Afterschool Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Clennin, Morgan N.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Afterschool programs (ASPs) are an important setting in which to promote children’s physical activity. This study examines the association of environmental and policy characteristics on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior of children attending ASPs. Methods A total of 1,302 children attending 20 ASPs across South Carolina wore accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) for up to 4 non-consecutive days. Policy-level characteristics were evaluated using the Healthy Afterschool Program Index-Physical Activity (HAPI-PA) scale. Physical activity space was measured using a measuring wheel (indoor, ft2) and GIS (outdoor, acres). The structure (free-play or organized) of activity opportunities, was evaluated via direct observation. Time spent in MVPA and sedentary, both indoors and outdoors, was estimated using accelerometry. Results For every 5000ft2 of utilized indoor activity space an additional 2.4 and 3.3 minutes/day of sedentary behavior was observed among boys and girls, respectively. A higher ratio of free-play to organized play was associated with higher indoor sedentary behavior among boys and girls (3.9 minutes/day and 10.0 minutes/day, respectively). For every one acre of outdoor activity space used, an additional 2.7 minutes/day of MVPA was observed for boys. A higher free-play to organized play ratio was associated with higher outdoor MVPA for boys and girls (4.4 and 3.4 minutes/day increase, respectively). Policy characteristics were unrelated to MVPA levels and time spent sedentary. Conclusion Findings indicate that policies and the size of activity space had limited influence on MVPA and sedentary behavior, suggesting that programmatic structure may be a more effective option to improve MVPA levels of children attending ASPs. PMID:25251100

  6. When Time Flies: How Abstract and Concrete Mental Construal Affect the Perception of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jochim; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Time is experienced as passing more quickly the more changes happen in a situation. The present research tested the idea that time perception depends on the level of construal of the situation. Building on previous research showing that concrete rather than abstract mental construal causes people to perceive more variations in a given situation,…

  7. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

  8. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    PubMed Central

    Rawluk, Ashley A.; Crow, Gary; Legesse, Getahun; Veira, Douglas M.; Bullock, Paul R.; González, Luciano A.; Dubois, Melanie; Ominski, Kim H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The implementation of off-stream waterers (OSW) may reduce the amount of time cattle spend in riparian areas, thus minimizing impacts such as removal of vegetation, soil compaction, and deterioration in water quality. Furthermore, when used with natural barriers as a partial exclusion method, these management strategies may offer a cost-effective alternative to completely excluding cattle via streambank fencing. This study was conducted to determine the impact of OSW and barriers on animal performance and watering behavior. The presence of OSW had no significant effect on cow and calf weights averaged over the grazing season. Although the results were not consistent over the periods and locations, the data provided some indication of the efficacy of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area. Cattle watered at the OSW when available, but they did not use the OSW exclusively. The observed inconsistency may, in part, be attributed to the environmental conditions present during this field trial. Abstract A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris), Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW) with or without natural barriers on (i) amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP), (ii) watering location (OSW or stream), and (iii) animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT), OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR), and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR). Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002), 2 (p = 0.1116), and 3 (p < 0.0001) at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the

  9. Time and Money Spent on the Mass Media in an Age of New Communication Technologies: A Market Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Christine L.; Kelly, James D.

    A study surveyed 276 residents of Indianapolis, Indiana to determine how the people might be changing media use and spending habits in a time of growing interest in video cassette recorders (VCRs), backyard satellite dishes, pay-TV, and personal computers. Questions were designed to determine the degree to which people would buy into the new…

  10. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  11. Time flies: time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Susan N.; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  12. Time flies: Time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Susan N; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-10-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  13. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  14. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  15. Time Devours Things: How Impulsivity and Time Affect Temporal Decisions in Pathological Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Rattin, Andrea; Guerreschi, Cesare; Sanfey, Alan G.; Bonini, Nicolao

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards), when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25296184

  16. MONITORING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS NON-DESTRUCTIVELY AND IN NEAR-REAL-TIME USING THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, nondestructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory testing is currently under way and significant results are available. Recent experimental results, along with an overview of the method are presented.

  17. Examining Correlates of Part-Time Faculty Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Samantha Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Changes in a multitude of factors including the economy, student enrollment, university goals and policies, and the available talent pool have created an imbalance in the supply and demand for qualified part-time faculty. The unmet demand has prompted university leaders to seek an understanding of part-time faculty affective commitment, job…

  18. Modelling of time resolved and long contact time dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuel in 10 mM carbonate solution A comparison between two different models and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Trygve E.; Jonsson, Mats; Merino, Juan

    2008-04-01

    Using two different models, radiation induced dissolution of spent UO 2 fuel has been simulated. One of the models is conventional homogeneous radiolysis simulations where two different geometrical constraints were used and the second model is the recently developed steady-state model. The results of the simulations are compared to each other and to experimental results from spent fuel leaching experiments performed in carbonate containing aqueous solution under Ar-atmosphere. The influence of radiolytically produced H 2 is incorporated (on the basis of a recently suggested mechanism) in both models and this reproduces the experimentally observed inhibition of spent fuel dissolution fairly well. The conventional radiolysis model reproduces the experimental concentrations of the radiolysis products H 2 and O 2 very well while it fails to reproduce the experimental H 2O 2 concentration. The reasons for this are discussed. The general trend in uranium concentration as a function of time is reproduced by both the conventional radiolysis model and the steady-state model. The conventional radiolysis model (in which the radiation dose is homogeneously distributed in the whole liquid volume) underestimates the uranium concentration while the steady-state model, which represents the worst case scenario, overestimates the concentrations to some extent. When applying the conventional radiolysis model, assuming that all the radiation energy is deposited within 40 μm from the fuel surface, the uranium concentrations during the initial part of the experiments are reproduced quantitatively. The differences between the models and the applicability of the models are discussed in some detail.

  19. Trophallaxis in filled-crop honeybees (Apis mellifera L.): food-loading time affects unloading behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainselboim, A. J.; Farina, W. M.

    Honeybees ingested 50% w/w (1.8M) sucrose solution at a rate feeder offering either 16.5, 32.5 or 65 μl/min. While the time spent ingesting solution at the feeder decreased significantly with increasing flow of solution, bees attained maximum crop loads with this range of flows. Different parameters related to mouth-to-mouth food exchange (trophallaxis) showed important modulations as the offered flow of solution was incremented. Trophallactic transfer rate, i.e. the speed at which liquid food is transferred from donor to recipient bee, was found to increase along with increasing profitability at the rate feeder. In the present case, food source profitability could have been evaluated by foragers either by measuring the time invested in ingesting the solution, or by direct assessment of the flow rate of the feeder. Thus it seems that perception of profitability conditions at the food sourcesuffices for later representation in the hive through trophallactic contacts, independently of crop-filling state.

  20. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly; et al

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuelmore » assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.« less

  1. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  2. A Comparison of Variable Time Compressed Speech and Normal Rate Speech Based on Time Spent and Performance in a Course Taught by Self-Instructional Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Sarah Harvey

    The purpose of this study was to determine with precise measurements of time and carefully constructed posttests whether sighted students in a college course would save time and achieve higher scores when listening to cognitive information using variable time compressors as compared with students listening using normal speed tape recorders. The…

  3. Is It Time Well Spent? The Relationship between Time Management Behaviours, Perceived Effectiveness and Work-Related Morale and Distress in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Hugh; Gardiner, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high "guru-factor" in time management, few claims have been subjected to empirical investigation. This study tests the claims that people who manage their time well perceive themselves to be more effective and feel less stressed. University staff and students were utilized to investigate the relationship between time management related…

  4. Factors Affecting Time to Bony Union of Femoral Subtrochanteric Fractures Treated with Intramedullary Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yoon; Yoo, Jin-Hee; Chung, Sung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the factors affecting the bone union time and the occurrence of nonunion after intramedullary nailing of subtrochanteric femoral fractures in adults. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 31 patients (22 men and 9 women) who had undergone femoral intramedullary nailing at least 1 year post-operatively and analyzed the bone union time, nonunion rates, and factors that affected the bone union time according to the fracture classification (AO and Fielding classifications), comminution of the medial cortex, reduction method, and additional cerclage wiring. Results The average union time was 26.4 weeks. There were no differences in the bone union time according to the fracture classification, reduction method, or additional cerclage wiring. Significant differences were found in the bone union time between the medial cortex comminution and non-comminution groups. A relatively strong positive correlation was detected between the degree of post-operative displacement and the bone union time. Nonunion occurred in three cases and there was no failure of implants. Conclusion The bone union time was not affected by the reduction method nor additional cerclage wiring in intramedullary nailing of subtrochanteric femur fractures. Comminution of the medial cortex and the degree of the postoperative displacement of fractures contributed to the delayed time of union.

  5. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol. PMID:25076484

  6. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.; Weiner, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel.

  7. Team Work: Time well Spent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore Johnson, Susan; Reinhorn, Stefanie K.; Simon, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in high-poverty schools often feel stressed and fatigued. We might expect that if we ask these teachers to take on even more work by meeting regularly in collaborative improvement teams, they will respond with skepticism, even resentment. But in a study of 83 teachers in six outstanding high-poverty schools, these researchers found the…

  8. A Comparison of Variable Time-Compressed Speech and Normal Rate Speech Based on Time Spent and Performance in a Course Taught by Self-Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Sarah Harvey

    1977-01-01

    College students using variable rate controlled speech compressors as compared with normal speed tape recorders had an average time saving of 32 percent and an average grade increase of 4.2 points on post-test scores. (Author)

  9. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  10. Multilevel factor analysis of smokers' real-time negative affect ratings while quitting.

    PubMed

    Bold, Krysten W; Witkiewitz, Katie; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is a serious public health problem, and accurate real-time assessment of risk factors associated with smoking is critical to understanding smoking relapse. Negative affect is often described as a critical risk factor related to smoking relapse, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have been widely used to study real-time relations between negative affect and smoking. However, the factor structure of momentary negative affect ratings is unknown. The current investigation examined the multilevel factor structure and internal consistency of an EMA measure of negative affect. Daily assessments were collected for 1 week prequit and 3 weeks postquit from 113 adult daily smokers receiving nicotine replacement therapy and counseling to quit smoking. Results supported a 2-factor model with correlated but distinct agitation and distress factors, rather than a single-factor model of negative affect. The agitation factor was indicated by these items: impatient, tense/anxious, restless. The distress factor was indicated by these items: sad/depressed, upset, distressed. The 2-factor model had acceptable model fit and consistent factor loadings across 3 separate cessation phases: prequit, postquit with recent smoking, and postquit without recent smoking. The 2 factors were highly correlated, showed good internal consistency, and showed strong associations with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Agitation was more strongly related to urge to smoke, and distress was more strongly related to recent stress. This study provides support for a 2-factor model of an EMA measure of negative affect and highlights distinct facets that may be useful for future investigations of affect and smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27536999

  11. Seasonal time and frequency of switchgrass harvest affects biomass yield and feedstock quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal time of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) harvest affects both yield and feedstock quality and there is interest in reducing harvest frequency to improve wildlife habitat value when using Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land for biomass production. A field study in central Pennsylvania c...

  12. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strikes or...

  13. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strikes or...

  14. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strikes or...

  15. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strikes or...

  16. 48 CFR 1252.222-70 - Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-70 Strikes or picketing affecting timely completion of the contract work. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(a), insert the following clause: Strikes or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strikes or...

  17. Perinatal Depression Influences on Infant Negative Affectivity: Timing, Severity, and Co-Morbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Matthew H.; Goodman, Sherryl H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that antenatal depression predicts infants’ negative affectivity, albeit with variable effect sizes. With a prospective longitudinal design, we sought to explain that variability by addressing questions about timing of the depression across pregnancy and the early postpartum, the role of high symptom levels relative to diagnosed depression, comorbidity with anxiety, and the potential mediating role of neuroendocrine functioning. Primiparous women (n = 77) with histories of depression prior to pregnancy were assessed for cortisol levels monthly beginning by mid-pregnancy. Depression symptom levels and diagnostic status were similarly assessed monthly in pregnancy and also until infants reached three months of age, when mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire – Revised to measure infant negative affectivity. Antenatal depression symptoms and infant negative affectivity were positively associated (r = .39). Controlling for depression symptom levels in other trimesters, only second trimester depression symptoms predicted higher infant negative affectivity (β = .44). With postpartum depression symptom levels in the model, only antenatal depression symptoms predicted infant negative affectivity (β = .45). In the context of depression, neither antenatal anxiety symptoms nor anxiety disorder diagnosis were associated with infant NA scores. The hypothesized role of elevated maternal cortisol as a mechanism for the association between antenatal depression and infant NA was not supported. Our findings contribute to efforts to more precisely identify infants of perinatally depressed mothers who are at greater risk for elevated negative affectivity, suggesting a window of vulnerability in mid pregnancy and the need for further study of potential mechanisms. PMID:25459792

  18. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  19. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities. PMID:25537752

  20. An anatomy of old-age disability: Time use, affect and experienced utility.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; Ingenhaag, Michael; Maurer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Complementing the commonly used concepts of evaluative wellbeing and decision utility, emotional wellbeing and experienced utility are important welfare criteria to assess individuals' subjective wellbeing, especially for valuing health and disability. Yet, almost all empirical evidences on the link between disability and experienced wellbeing come from developed countries. This paper studies the relationship between old-age disability and experienced utility in five low- and middle-income countries. Using data on individual time use and activity-specific affective experiences from an abbreviated version of the Day Reconstruction Method, we document a strong negative association between disability and experienced utility. These differences in experienced utility by disability status are exclusively due to worse activity-specific affective experiences among persons with disabilities. By contrast, disability-related differences in time use provide small compensating effects. Interventions or technologies that facilitate daily life hold most promise to improve experienced utility among persons with disabilities in the developing world. PMID:26496227

  1. Evaluation of Dechlorinating Chemicals for Spent Membrane Cleaning Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jiyun; Parker, Wayne; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The use of dechlorinating chemicals for removal of chlorine from spent membrane cleaning solutions was investigated. Addition of calcium thiosulfate resulted in a decrease in pH at low dosages of calcium thiosulfate, but when higher dosages were used, the pH was not affected. Other dechlorinating agents (sodium bisulfite, sodium sulfite, and ascorbic acid) generated smaller pH declines than calcium thiosulfate. The declines in pH were observed after the dechlorination reaction was effectively complete and pH did not appear to influence the rate of dechlorination. The rate of dechlorination in spent cleaning solution was slower than that observed in clean water. Dechlorination with calcium thiosulfate resulted in the lowest half-life and reaction time. At lower doses (less than 565 mg/L), it was not possible to discriminate between the different dechlorinating agents. The times required for dechlorination were more sensitive to increases in dechlorination chemical dose at lower doses. PMID:27131060

  2. Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.; Eid, Michael; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances). PMID:23420604

  3. Design Factors Affecting the Reaction Time for Identifying Toilet Signs: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Sie, Cai-Cin

    2016-04-01

    This study focused on the manner in which design factors affect the reaction time for identifying toilet signs. Taiwanese university students and staff members (50 men, 50 women; M age = 23.5 year, SD = 5.7) participated in the study. The 36 toilet signs were modified on three factors (six presenting styles, two figure-ground exchanges, and three colors), and the reaction time data of all participants were collected when the signs were presented in a simulation onscreen. Participants were quickest when reading Chinese text, followed by graphics and English texts. The findings also showed that men and women had different reaction times across various design combinations. These findings can serve as a reference for practically designing toilet signs, since design factors can lead to difficulties with comprehension based on reaction time measurements. PMID:27166339

  4. Affective valence facilitates spatial detection on vertical axis: shorter time strengthens effect

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Huang, Yanli; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Wenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Affective concepts can be described in terms of space, which is known as the valence-space metaphor. Previous studies have not investigated either the specifics of this metaphor on the transverse and vertical axes or the time course of this metaphoric association. With Chinese participants, we used a spatial cue task to study the valence-space metaphor on the transverse (left-and-right; Experiment 1A) and vertical (upper-and-lower; Experiment 1B) axes. After being shown an affective word and asked to keep it in mind, the participants were given a spatial target detection task. The results revealed that the metaphoric association was only found on the vertical axis. More specifically, keeping a positive word in mind facilitated the detection of the upper target, but no such effect was found in the detection of the lower target. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, we manipulated the duration of time (100, 500, and 1000 ms) between the offset of the affective word and the onset of the spatial target (i.e., interstimulus intervals, ISI), to test the dynamic time course of the valence-space metaphor on the vertical axis. The results showed that when ISI was 100 ms, keeping a positive word in mind facilitated the detection of the upper target and keeping a negative word in mind facilitated the detection of the lower target. However, when the ISI was 500 or 1000 ms, keeping a positive word in mind facilitated the detection of the upper target and no such effect was found in the detection of the lower target, indicating that ISI might be important in the valence-space metaphoric association. In sum, we found that the processing of affective valence activated the vertical spatial axis but not the transverse axis. Further, the association might be modulated by ISI, indicating that it may be related to attention allocation. PMID:25852599

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting the timing capabilities of the MC3858 sprytron

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.; Barclay, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The switch delay time of the MC3858 sprytron was measured using a test matrix consisting of 36 different trigger circuit configurations. The test matrix allowed the measurement of switch delay times for peak trigger voltages ranging from 47 V to 1340 V and for stored trigger energies ranging from 0.023 mJ to 2.7 mJ. The average switch delay time was independent of peak trigger voltage above approximately 800 V. Similarly, the average switch delay was independent of trigger stored energy above approximately 0.5 mJ. Below these saturation values, the average switch delay increases rapidly with decreasing trigger voltage or esergy. In contrast to the average switch delay time, the shot-to-shot variability in switch delay time does not appear to be strongly affected by peak trigger voltage as long as the trigger voltage is groater than 100 V. Below 100 V, the variability in switch delay time rises rapidly due to failure of the trigger to undergo immediate high voltage breakdown when trigger voltage is applied. The effect of an abnormally-high-resistance trigger probe on switch delay time was also investigated. It was found that a high-resistance probe behaved as a second overvoltage gap in the trigger circuit. Operation with a peak trigger voltage greater than the breakdown voltage of this second gap yielded delay times comparable to operation with a normal trigger. Operation with a peak trigger voltage less than the breakdown voltage of this second gap increased the switch delay time by an amount comparable to the time required to ramp the trigger circuit output up to the breakdown voltage of the second gap. Finally, the effect that varying the bias voltage applied to the sprytron has on switch delay time was measured. The switch delay time did not appear to depend on bias voltage for bias voltages between 725 V and 2420 V.

  6. How Volatilities Nonlocal in Time Affect the Price Dynamics in Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  7. State-based metacognition: how time of day affects the accuracy of metamemory.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of research on how stimulus characteristics and encoding conditions affect metamemory, and how those effects either do or do not mirror effects on memory, there is little research on whether and how characteristics of participants' states-like mood, fatigue, or hunger-affect metamemory. The present study examined whether metamemory ability fluctuates with time of day. Specifically, we evaluated whether learners can successfully account for the effects of time of day on their memory, and whether metacognitive monitoring is more accurate at an individual's optimal time of day. Young adults studied and recalled lists of words in both the morning and the afternoon, providing various metamemory judgements during each test session. We replicated the finding that young participants recalled more words in the afternoon than in the morning. Prior to study, participants did not predict superior recall in the afternoon, but they did after they had an opportunity to study the list (but before the test on that material). We also found that item-by-item predictions were more accurate in the afternoon, suggesting that self-regulated learning might benefit from being scheduled during times of day that accord with individuals' peak arousal. PMID:23742008

  8. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  9. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines.

    PubMed

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  10. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  11. Does overall reinforcer rate affect discrimination of time-based contingencies?

    PubMed

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Blumhardt, Luca; Elliffe, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Overall reinforcer rate appears to affect choice. The mechanism for such an effect is uncertain, but may relate to reinforcer rate changing the discrimination of the relation between stimuli and reinforcers. We assessed whether a quantitative model based on a stimulus-control approach could be used to account for the effects of overall reinforcer rate on choice under changing time-based contingencies. On a two-key concurrent schedule, the likely availability of a reinforcer reversed when a fixed time had elapsed since the last reinforcer, and the overall reinforcer rate was varied across conditions. Changes in the overall reinforcer rate produced a change in response bias, and some indication of a change in discrimination. These changes in bias and discrimination always occurred quickly, usually within the first session of a condition. The stimulus-control approach provided an excellent account of the data, suggesting that changes in overall reinforcer rate affect choice because they alter the frequency of reinforcers obtained at different times, or in different stimulus contexts, and thus change the discriminated relation between stimuli and reinforcers. These findings support the notion that temporal and spatial discriminations can be understood in terms of discrimination of reinforcers across time and space. PMID:27151836

  12. Amphetamine affects the start of responding in the peak interval timing task.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathleen M; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D

    2007-02-22

    In this paper we investigate how amphetamine affects performance in a PI task by comparing two analyses of responding during peak trials. After training on 24 s fixed interval (FI-24) with 96 s peak trials, rats were given amphetamine for 4 consecutive days at doses of .5 and 1.0 mg/kg. Responses during peak trials were fitted with a Gaussian distribution to estimate the expected time of reinforcement from the peak time. A single trials analysis was also performed to determine the start time and stop time of the transition into and out of a high rate of responding on each peak trial. Amphetamine significantly decreased peak times as measured with the Gaussian curve fitting. However, in the single trials analysis, animals initiated responding significantly earlier, but did not stop responding earlier. Thus, fitting a Gaussian to the average performance across trials sometimes provides a different characterization of the timing process than does analyzing the start and stop of responding on individual trials. In the current experiment, the latter approach provided a more precise characterization of the effects of amphetamine on response timing. PMID:17222991

  13. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

  14. Atrazine exposure affects longevity, development time and body size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sarah R; Fiumera, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine is the one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States and non-target organisms may encounter it in the environment. Atrazine is known to affect male reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates but less is known about its effects on other fitness traits. Here we assessed the effects of five different chronic exposure levels on a variety of fitness traits in Drosophila melanogaster. We measured male and female longevity, development time, proportion pupated, proportion emerged, body size, female mating rate, fertility and fecundity. Atrazine exposure decreased the proportion pupated, the proportion emerged and adult survival. Development time was also affected by atrazine and exposed flies pupated and emerged earlier than controls. Although development time was accelerated, body size was actually larger in some of the exposures. Atrazine exposure had no effect on female mating rate and the effects on female fertility and fecundity were only observed in one of the two independent experimental blocks. Many of the traits showed non-monotonic dose response curves, where the intermediate concentrations showed the largest effects. Overall this study shows that atrazine influences a variety of life history traits in the model genetic system, D. melanogaster, and future studies should aim to identify the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:27317622

  15. Mutations in the clk-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans affect developmental and behavioral timing

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Boutis, P.; Hekimi, S.

    1995-03-01

    We have identified three allelic, maternal-effect mutations that affect developmental and behavioral timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. They result in a mean lengthening of embryonic and postembryonic development, the cell cycle period and life span, as well as the periods of the defecation, swimming and pumping cycles. These mutants also display a number of additional phenotypes related to timing. For example, the variability in the length of embryonic development is several times larger in the mutants than in the wild type, resulting in the occasional production of mutant embryos developing more rapidly than the most rapidly developing wild-type embryos. In addition, the duration of embryonic development of the mutants, but not of the wild type, depends on the temperature at which their parents were raised. Finally, individual variations in the severity of distinct mutant phenotypes are correlated in a counterintuitive way. For example, the animals with the shortest embryonic development have the longest defecation cycle and those with the longest embryonic development have the shortest defecation cycle. Most of the features affected by these mutations are believed to be controlled by biological clocks, and we therefore call the gene defined by these mutations clk-1, for {open_quotes}abnormal function of biological clocks.{close_quotes} 52 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; Koç, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Patients of four endoscopists at similar experience levels were retrospectively identified and categorized into the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy before colonoscopy group (group 1) or the colonoscopy only group (group 2). The demographics, clinical data and the time to achieve cecal intubation for each patient were analyzed. The mean time to achieve cecal intubation in the first group that included 319 cases was 8.4 ± 0.93 minutes and the mean time in the second group that included 1672 cases was 8.56 ± 1.16 minutes. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was also no significant difference between the Group 1 and Group 2 when compared according to which of the four endoscopists performed the procedures. Performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to colonoscopy did not affect the time to achieve cecal intubation. Considering that performing the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy prior to the colonoscopy is more advantageous in terms of patient comfort and analgesic requirement, beginning to BE with it seems more favorable. PMID:23936601

  17. Predator density and timing of arrival affect reef fish community assembly.

    PubMed

    Stier, Adrian C; Geange, Shane W; Hanson, Kate M; Bolker, Benjamin M

    2013-05-01

    Most empirical studies of predation use simple experimental approaches to quantify the effects of predators on prey (e.g., using constant densities of predators, such as ambient vs. zero). However, predator densities vary in time, and these effects may not be well represented by studies that use constant predator densities. Although studies have independently examined the importance of predator density, temporal variability, and timing of arrival (i.e., early or late relative to prey), the relative contribution of these different predator regimes on prey abundance, diversity, and composition remains poorly understood. The hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), a carnivorous coral reef fish, exhibits substantial variability in patch occupancy, density, and timing of arrival to natural reefs. Our field experiments demonstrated that effects of hawkfish on prey abundance depended on both hawkfish density and the timing of their arrival, but not on variability in hawkfish density. Relative to treatments without hawkfish, hawkfish presence reduced prey abundance by 50%. This effect increased with a doubling of hawkfish density (an additional 33% reduction), and when hawkfish arrived later during community development (a 34% reduction). Hawkfish did not affect within-patch diversity (species richness), but they increased between-patch diversity (beta) based on species incidence (22%), and caused shifts in species composition. Our results suggest that the timing of predator arrival can be as important as predator density in modifying prey abundance and community composition. PMID:23858646

  18. Alterations in affective behavior during the time course of alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Karadayian, Analía G; Busso, María J; Feleder, Carlos; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-09-15

    Alcohol hangover is a temporary state described as the unpleasant next-day effects after binge-like drinking. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. Affective behavior is impaired during the acute phase of alcohol intoxication; however, no reports indicate if similar effects are observed during withdrawal. The aim of this work was to study the time-extension and possible fluctuations in affective behavior during a hangover episode. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8g/kg BW) (hangover group). Anxiety, fear-related behavior and despair phenotype were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2h up to 20h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Also, anhedonia signs and pain perception disabilities were studied. Mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior during 4h and 14h after hangover onset when evaluated by the elevated-plus maze and open field test respectively (p<0.05). Fear-related behavior was detected in hangover animals by the increase of freezing and decrease of line crossings and rearing frequency during 16h after hangover onset (p<0.001). Depression signs were found in hangover mice during 14h (p<0.05). Hangover mice showed a significant decrease in pain perception when tested by tail immersion test at the beginning of hangover (p<0.05). Our findings demonstrate a time-extension between 14 and 16h for hangover affective impairments. This study shows the long lasting effects of hangover over the phase of ethanol intoxication. PMID:23850352

  19. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  20. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-09-02

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time.

  1. Does Time Affect Patient Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life After Reduction Mammoplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Wess A.; Homel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A total of 62,611 patients with breast hypertrophy underwent breast reduction surgery in 2013 in the United States to improve their symptoms and health-related quality of life. While multiple studies utilizing various outcome instruments demonstrate the efficacy of reductive surgery, it is presently unknown how the postoperative course affects patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life as measured by the BREAST-Q. Our objective was to determine the temporal relationship of patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life after reduction mammoplasty. Methods: Patients prospectively completed the BREAST-Q reduction mammoplasty module at 3 time points during their treatment: preoperatively, at less than 3 months postoperatively, and at more than 3 months (<12 months) postoperatively. A single surgeon (N.P.P.) performed all of the breast reduction procedures. Results: Each time point contained 20 questionnaires. Mean preoperative BREAST-Q scores were significantly lower than scores at the less than 3-month postoperative time point for the scales Satisfaction With Breasts, Psychosocial Well-being, Sexual Well-being, and Physical Well-being (P < .001). There was no significant difference in BREAST-Q scores between the postoperative time points in these measures. Conclusion: Breast reduction surgery offers a vast improvement in patients’ satisfaction and health-related quality of life that is maintained throughout the postoperative period. These findings can assist surgeons in managing patient expectations after reduction mammoplasty and help improve the probability of obtaining prior authorization for insurance coverage. PMID:26819650

  2. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage. PMID:10552497

  3. Design of a sediment data-collection program in Kansas as affected by time trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Data collection programs need to be re-examined periodically in order to insure their usefulness, efficiency, and applicability. The possibility of time trends in sediment concentration, in particular, makes the examination with new statistical techniques desirable. After adjusting sediment concentrations for their relation to streamflow rates and by using a seasonal adaptation of Kendall 's nonparametric statistical test, time trends of flow-adjusted concentrations were detected for 11 of the 38 sediment records tested that were not affected by large reservoirs. Ten of the 11 trends were toward smaller concentrations; only 1 was toward larger concentrations. Of the apparent trends that were not statistically significant (0.05 level) using data available, nearly all were toward smaller concentrations. Because the reason for the lack of statistical significance of an apparent trend may be inadequacy of data rather than absence of trend and because of the prevalence of apparent trends in one direction, the assumption was made that a time trend may be present at any station. This assumption can significantly affect the design of a sediment data collection program. Sudden decreases (step trends) in flow-adjusted sediment concentrations were found at all stations that were short distances downstream from large reservoirs and that had adequate data for a seasonal adaptation of Wilcoxon 's nonparametric statistical test. Examination of sediment records in the 1984 data collection program of the Kansas Water Office indicated 13 stations that can be discontinued temporarily because data are now adequate. Data collection could be resumed in 1992 when new data may be needed because of possible time trends. New data are needed at eight previously operated stations where existing data may be inadequate or misleading because of time trends. Operational changes may be needed at some stations, such as hiring contract observers or installing automatic pumping samplers. Implementing

  4. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening. PMID:18039047

  5. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, Cristian; Díaz, Nelson F.; Gomez, Gilda; López, María Eugenia; Iturra, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map. PMID:22888302

  6. How task complexity and stimulus modality affect motor execution: target accuracy, response timing and hesitations.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; MacMahon, Clare; Ball, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Elite sports players are characterized by the ability to produce successful outcomes while attending to changing environmental conditions. Few studies have assessed whether the perceptual environment affects motor skill execution. To test the effect of changing task complexity and stimulus conditions, the authors examined response times and target accuracy of 12 elite Australian football players using a passing-based laboratory test. Data were assessed using mixed modeling and chi-square analyses. No differences were found in target accuracy for changes in complexity or stimulus condition. Decision, movement and total disposal time increased with complexity and decision hesitations were greater when distractions were present. Decision, movement and disposal time were faster for auditory in comparison to visual signals, and when free to choose, players passed more frequently to auditory rather than visual targets. These results provide perspective on how basic motor control processes such as reaction and response to stimuli are influenced in a complex motor skill. Findings suggest auditory stimuli should be included in decision-making studies and may be an important part of a decision-training environment. PMID:25584721

  7. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  8. Use of alumina spent catalyst and RFCC wastes from petroleum refinery to substitute bauxite in the preparation of Portland clinker.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhamri, Hilal; Melghit, Khaled

    2010-07-15

    Bauxite was substituted with spent catalysts for clinker preparation. Three different clinkers were prepared: one with bauxite as a reference, one with spent alumina catalyst and another with reduced fluid cracking catalyst. Powder X-ray diffraction technique, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscope were used to characterize each clinker sample. Rietveld refinement shows that, in all clinkers prepared, alite was formed with hexagonal lattice and monoclinic belite has higher unit cell volume compared to the known beta-Ca(2)SiO(4). The physical and mechanical properties (specific area, setting time, heat of hydration, soundness and compressive strength) of the cement samples were studied. The results show that substitution of bauxite by spent catalysts gave close results in terms of chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties of the Portland clinker. Also it shows the spent catalysts do not affect the quality of the prepared cement. PMID:20395040

  9. How Does the Driver’s Perception Reaction Time Affect the Performances of Crash Surrogate Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Weng, Jinxian; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    With the merit on representing traffic conflict through examining the crash mechanism and causality proactively, crash surrogate measures have long been proposed and applied to evaluate the traffic safety. However, the driver’s Perception-Reaction Time (PRT), an important variable in crash mechanism, has not been considered widely into surrogate measures. In this regard, it is important to know how the PRT affects the performances of surrogate indicators. To this end, three widely used surrogate measures are firstly modified by involving the PRT into their crash mechanisms. Then, in order to examine the difference caused by the PRT, a comparative study is carried out on a freeway section of the Pacific Motorway, Australia. This result suggests that the surrogate indicators’ performances in representing rear-end crash risks are improved with the incorporating of the PRT for the investigated section. PMID:26398416

  10. The effect of self-affirmation in nonthreatening persuasion domains: timing affects the process.

    PubMed

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E; Gallardo, Ismael; DeMarree, Kenneth G

    2007-11-01

    Most research on self-affirmation and persuasion has argued that self-affirmation buffers the self against the threat posed by a persuasive message; thus, it increases the likelihood that participants will respond to the message favorably. Little research, in contrast, has looked at the effects of self-affirmation on persuasive messages that are not threatening to the self. This research examines mechanisms that can operate under these conditions. Consistent with the idea that self-affirmation affects confidence, the article shows that self-affirmation can decrease information processing when induced prior to message reception (Experiment 1) and can increase the use of self-generated thoughts in response to a persuasive message when induced after message reception (Experiment 2). In addition, Experiment 3 manipulates the timing of self-affirmation to replicate both effects and Experiment 4 provides direct evidence for the impact of self-affirmation on confidence. PMID:17933742

  11. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-02-22

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  12. Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia).

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Lind, Johan; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Vallin, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long-distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long-distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First-year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight-muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme. PMID:12639316

  13. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea. PMID:26613545

  14. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    PubMed

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P < 0.05). The Peleg model was predicted well the kinetic of split chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in Peleg rate constant (K1) and Peleg capacity constant (K2) at all temperatures except for K1 at 25 °C. The discrepancy for K1 was in relation to permeability characteristics of split chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures. PMID:26604418

  15. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  16. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.

    2008-08-07

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the {sup 238}U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning.

  17. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to differentiate Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle.

    PubMed

    Moré, Gastón; Schares, Susann; Maksimov, Aline; Conraths, Franz J; Venturini, María C; Schares, Gereon

    2013-10-18

    Cattle are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis hominis which use canids, felids or primates as definitive hosts (DH), respectively, and in addition of Sarcocystis sinensis from which the DH is unknown. The aims of the present study were to develop and optimize a multiplex real time PCR for a sensitive and specific differentiation of Sarcocystis spp. affecting cattle and to estimate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. The 18S rRNA genes from individual sarcocysts were amplified and cloned to serve as controls. For the amplification of bovine Sarcocystis spp. a total of 3 primers were used in combination with specific individual probes. Each assay was evaluated and optimized individually and subsequently combined in a multiplex assay (BovSarcoMultiplex real time PCR). The analytical specificity of the multiplex assay was assessed using 5 ng of DNA of heterologous Sarcocystis spp. and other apicomplexan parasites, and no positive reactions were observed other than for the species the PCR targeted. The analytical sensitivity ranged between 0.0125 and 0.125 fg of plasmid DNA (equivalent to the DNA of 2-20 plasmid DNA copies) or resembling DNA of 0.1-0.3 bradyzoites. A total of 380 DNA loin samples from Argentina were tested and 313, 29, 14 and 2 were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta and S. hominis, respectively. S. sinensis was the most prevalent species among thick walled Sarcocystis spp. in Argentinean cattle. Mixed infections were detected in 8.9% of all samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the BovSarcoMultiplex real time PCR relative to previous microscopic examination for thin and thick-walled cyst were 91.5% and 41.7%, 36.3% and 95.9% respectively. Improved DNA extraction methods may allow to further increase the specific and sensitive detection of Sarcocystis spp. in meat samples. PMID:23680541

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-02-25

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  20. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness. PMID:26388812

  1. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results. PMID:26165674

  2. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. PMID:26340855

  3. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Zabel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  4. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  5. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t. PMID:1637599

  6. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  7. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  8. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues from sprouting vegetation and the consequent abundance of invertebrate prey, although dependent on temperature, may provide supplementary environmental cues per se. This hypothesis was investigated in breeding pairs of great tits kept in outdoor aviaries. In spring, experimental pairs were provided with access to leafing birch branches and caterpillars as a visual food cue, while control pairs were provided with non-leafing branches. Observations were made on the onset of laying and on concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at regular intervals to monitor changes in reproductive function. The onset of egg laying was not advanced by the presence of leafing branches and caterpillars. LH concentrations increased during the course of the study, but phenological cues did not affect plasma LH levels in females and males. Early spring vegetation, such as the leafing of birch branches, and the appearance of caterpillar prey do not appear to play a significant role in fine-tuning the onset of egg laying in great tits. PMID:21993796

  9. Recent advances in hardware and software are to improve spent fuel measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, P.; Beddingfield, D. H.; Lestone, J. P.; Pelowitz, D. G.; Bytchkov, M.; Starovich, Z.; Harizanov, I.; Luna-Vellejo, J.; Lavender, C.

    2001-01-01

    Vast quantities of spent fuel are available for safeguard measurements, primarily in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) of the former Soviet Union. This spent fuel, much of which consists of long-cooling-time material, is going to become less unique in the world safeguards arena as reprocessing projects or permanent repositories continue to be delayed or postponed. The long cooling time of many of the spent fuel assemblies being prepared for intermediate term storage in the CIS countries promotes the possibility of increased accuracy in spent fuel assays. This improvement is made possible through the process of decay of the Curium isotopes and of fission products. An important point to consider for the future that could advance safeguards measurements for reverification and inspection would be to determine what safeguards requirements should be imposed upon this 'new' class of spent fuel, Improvements in measurement capability will obviously affect the safeguards requirements. What most significantly enables this progress in spent fuel measurements is the improvement in computer processing power and software enhancements leading to user-friendly Graphical User Interfaces (GUT's). The software used for these projects significantly reduces the IAEA inspector's time expenditure for both learning and operating computer and data acquisition systems, At the same time, by standardizing the spent fuel measurements, it is possible to increase reproducibility and reliability of the measurement data. Hardware systems will be described which take advantage of the increased computer control available to enable more complex measurement scenarios. A specific example of this is the active regulation of a spent fuel neutron coincident counter's {sup 3}He tubes high voltage, and subsequent scaling of measurement results to maintain a calibration for direct assay of the plutonium content of Fast Breeder Reactor spent fuel. The plutonium content has been successfully determined

  10. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  11. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  12. The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

  13. The timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation affects responses to platform translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavacka, F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We compared the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation applied at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 s prior to a backward platform translation on postural responses. The effect of the galvanic stimulation was largest on the final equilibrium position of the center of pressure (CoP). The largest effects occurred for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-period, when the dynamic CoP pressure changes in response to both the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation coincided. The shift in the final equilibrium position was also larger than the sum of the shifts for the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation alone for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-periods. The initial rate of change of the CoP response to the platform translation was not significantly affected in any condition. Changes in the peak CoP position could be accounted for by local interaction of CoP velocity changes induced by the galvanic and translation responses alone, but the changes in final equilibrium position could only be accounted for by a change in global body orientation. These findings suggest that the contribution of vestibulospinal information is greatest during the dynamic phase of the postural response, and that the vestibular system contributes most to the later components of the postural response, particularly to the final equilibrium position. These findings suggest that a nonlinear interaction between the vestibular signal induced by the galvanic current and the sensory stimuli produced by the platform translation occurs when the two stimuli are presented within 1 s, during the dynamic phase of the postural response to the galvanic stimulus. When presented at greater separations in time, the stimuli appear to be treated as independent events, such that no interaction occurs. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Heather S.; Howard, Aaron F.; Weiss, Martha R.

    2016-01-01

    Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult) affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt) did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage. PMID:27058038

  15. Factors Affecting the Turnover of Different Groups of Part-Time Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Jenell L.; Martin, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Past research on employee attitudes and behavior has focused mainly on full-time employees. When part-time employees have been studied, the research has concentrated on the differences between full-time and part-time employees. Recent research has suggested that part-time employees should not be viewed as a single, undifferentiated group. Instead…

  16. Spent fuel shortage: Facts booklet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a spent nuclear fuel policy where the Government would, under certain conditions, take title of and store spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors. The policy is intended to provide spent fuel storage until final disposition is available. The DOE has programs for providing safe, long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The spent fuel storage program is one element of waste management and compliments the disposal program. The costs for spent fuel services are to be fully recovered by the Government from the utilities. This will allow the utilities to confidently consider the costs for disposition of spent fuel in their rate structure. The United States would also store limited amounts of foreign spent fuel to meet nonproliferation objectives. This booklet summarizes information on many aspects of spent fuel storage.

  17. Spent fuel storage. Facts booklet

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a spent nuclear fuel policy where the Government would, under certain conditions, take title to and store spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors. The policy is intended to provide spent fuel storage until final disposition is available. DOE has programs for providing safe, long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The spent fuel storage program is one element of waste management and compliments the disposal program. The costs for spent fuel services are to be fully recovered by the Government from the utilities. This will allow the utilities to confidently consider the costs for disposition of spent fuel in their rate structure. The United States would also store limited amounts of foreign spent fuel to meet nonproliferation objectives. This booklet summarizes information on many aspects of spent fuel storage.

  18. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    transition region between fresh and saline water, captured the occurrence of strong precipitation event on the Hudson river as indicated by reduced water column salinity levels in the water column. Despite the large influx of freshwater and suspended solids originating as precipitation runoff, tidal forces dominated the net water transport and coincident suspended particle load. Such information is crucial to track the particle-driven contaminant movement in the water column. Both the FRVP and MRUP have been deployed in an active Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls Superfund site to characterize the fundamental sediment transport mechanisms affecting remedial dredging operations. A potential application of this monitoring system is in the development of an adaptive remedial operation, where activity would be adjusted to maintain conditions within threshold limits based on real time environmental observations. Further, observational REON data can be integrated with water quality and hydrodynamic models that can be used to evaluate episodic events and their subsequent impacts to the Hudson River.

  19. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  20. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  1. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  2. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  3. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida’s Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and subsequently assessed the experimental effects of the time-limited welfare policy on this group as compared to an otherwise comparable group of single-mother welfare-recipient families. For the families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit, FTP had few effects. FTP decreased mothers’ depressive symptoms, and mothers in the FTP group reported higher levels of children’s school achievement. There were no effects on parenting behavior or mothers’ reports of children’s social-emotional outcomes. PMID:19271826

  4. Losing the safety net: how a time-limited welfare policy affects families at risk of reaching time limits.

    PubMed

    Morris, Pamela A; Hendra, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit and subsequently assessed the experimental effects of the time-limited welfare policy on this group as compared to an otherwise comparable group of single-mother welfare-recipient families. For the families who were at risk of reaching the welfare time limit, FTP had few effects. FTP decreased mothers' depressive symptoms, and mothers in the FTP group reported higher levels of children's school achievement. There were no effects on parenting behavior or mothers' reports of children's social-emotional outcomes. PMID:19271826

  5. Wait Time for Counseling Affecting Perceived Stigma and Attitude toward the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Stein, Alexander; Casper, Steven; Chessler, Marcy; Beverly, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 99 undergraduates in counseling was divided into two groups based on wait time from triage to intake, "less wait time" (up to two weeks) versus "more wait time" (at least two weeks). The less wait time group showed "higher willingness to recommend the university," "higher institutional…

  6. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  7. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

  8. Virtual Characters: Visual Realism Affects Response Time and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibuma, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates agent research with a neurocognitive technique to study how character faces affect cognitive processing. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) was used to study face processing during simple decision-making tasks. Twenty-five adults responded to facial expressions (fear/neutral) presented in three designs…

  9. How Does Sequence Structure Affect the Judgment of Time? Exploring a Weighted Sum of Segments Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of…

  10. Factors Affecting Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction in the Colorado Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    How do part-time faculty members in community colleges view their roles? Data from part-time faculty responses regarding their experiences in higher education vary. Valadez and Antony (2001) analyzed data from 6,811 part-time faculty collected from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 1992-1993 National Survey of Postsecondary…

  11. Student and Institutional Variables that Affect Time to Degree Completion of Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Iris Killian

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigated student and institutional variables associated with timely degree completion of the associate degree by community college students. Along with increased community college enrollments, time to degree has also increased. Three years (150% time or six semesters) currently stands as the community college standard for…

  12. Timing Is Affected by Demands in Memory Search but Not by Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Claudette; Schweickert, Richard; Gaudreault, Remi; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that timing and tasks involving executive control processes might require the same attentional resources. This should lead to interference when timing and executive tasks are executed concurrently. This study examined the interference between timing and task switching, an executive function. In 4 experiments, memory search…

  13. Erroneous Knowledge of Results Affects Decision and Memory Processes on Timing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lawrence J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    On mental timing tasks, erroneous knowledge of results (KR) leads to incorrect performance accompanied by the subjective judgment of accurate performance. Using the start-stop technique (an analogue of the peak interval procedure) with both reproduction and production timing tasks, the authors analyze what processes erroneous KR alters. KR…

  14. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  15. Comparison of Affective Credit Attitude Scores and Credit Use of College Students at Two Points in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2002-01-01

    A study of 120 college students' use of credit in 1997 and 1999 showed that, during that time, 60 students graduated; 41 had more credit cards in 1999 than 1997; 62 had fewer; and 32 were repaying student loans. Affective credit attitude scores for those with four or more credit cards and for students who had graduated were lower in 1999 than in…

  16. Departmental Factors Affecting Time-to-Degree and Completion Rates of Doctoral Students at One Land-Grant Research Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Valero, Yaritza Ferrer

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed graduate students writing their dissertations and faculty members about factors influencing time-to-degree and completion rates in their departments. Complex findings indicated that factors related to financial support, degree requirements, departmental policies and practices, advising, and department climate affected these outcomes.…

  17. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  18. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimates of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.

  19. US Spent (Used) Fuel Status, Management and Likely Directions- 12522

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Leslie J.

    2012-07-01

    As of 2010, the US has accumulated 65,200 MTU (42,300 MTU of PWR's; 23,000 MTU of BWR's) of spent (irradiated or used) fuel from 104 operating commercial nuclear power plants situated at 65 sites in 31 States and from previously shutdown commercial nuclear power plants. Further, the Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for an additional 2458 MTU of DOE-owned defense and non defense spent fuel from naval nuclear power reactors, various non-commercial test reactors and reactor demonstrations. The US has no centralized large spent fuel storage facility for either commercial spent fuel or DOE-owned spent fuel. The 65,200 MTU of US spent fuel is being safely stored by US utilities at numerous reactor sites in (wet) pools or (dry) metal or concrete casks. As of November 2010, the US had 63 'independent spent fuel storage installations' (or ISFSI's) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission located at 57 sites in 33 states. Over 1400 casks loaded with spent fuel for dry storage are at these licensed ISFSI's; 47 sites are located at commercial reactor sites and 10 are located 'away' from a reactor (AFR's) site. DOE's small fraction of a 2458 MTU spent fuel inventory, which is not commercial spent fuel, is with the exception of 2 MTU, being stored at 4 sites in 4 States. The decades old US policy of a 'once through' fuel cycle with no recycle of spent fuel was set into a state of 'mass confusion or disruption' when the new US President Obama's administration started in early 2010 stopping the only US geologic disposal repository at the Yucca Mountain site in the State of Nevada from being developed and licensed. The practical result is that US nuclear power plant operators will have to continue to be responsible for managing and storing their own spent fuel for an indefinite period of time at many different sites in order to continue to generate electricity because there is no current US government plan, schedule or policy for taking possession of

  20. Learning Style versus Time Spent Studying and Career Choice: Which Is Associated with Success in a Combined Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…

  1. The Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Time Spent outside the Classroom for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Christina; Jolivette, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    To more effectively instruct the entire class, teachers of students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) often choose to send students who display inappropriate behavior out of the room. A multiple baseline across settings was used to evaluate the effects of increasing teacher positive verbal reinforcement on the amount of time 2 students…

  2. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration. PMID:21724950

  3. Parameters affecting image quality with Time-Resolved Optical Integrative Neutron (TRION) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Feldman, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Weierganz, M.; Brandis, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated by simulations and experimentally the parameters that affect image quality (contrast and spatial-resolution) of the fast neutron TRION detector. A scintillating fiber screen with 0.5×0.5 mm 2 square fibers, few centimeters thick, provides superior spatial-resolution to that of a slab scintillator of the same thickness. A detailed calculation of the neutron interaction processes that influence the point-spread function (PSF) in the scintillating screen has been performed using the GEANT 3.21 code. The calculations showed that neutron scattering within the screen accounts for a significant loss of image contrast. The factors that limit the spatial-resolution of the image are the cross-sectional scintillating-fiber dimensions within the screen and the spatial response of the image-intensifier. A deconvolution method has been applied for restoring the contrast and the spatial-resolution of the fast neutron image.

  4. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  5. Timing Carbohydrate Beverage Intake During Prolonged Moderate Intensity Exercise Does Not Affect Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    SCHWEITZER, GEORGE G.; SMITH, JOHN D.; LECHEMINANT, JAMES D.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate beverages consumed during long-term exercise have been shown to attenuate fatigue and improve performance; however, the optimal timing of ingestion is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if timing the carbohydrate ingestion (continual loading (CL), front-loading (FL), and end-loading (EL)) during prolonged exercise influenced exercise performance in competitive cyclists. Ten well-trained cyclists completed three separate exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer, each lasting 2 hours at an intensity of ~67% VO2 max, followed by a 15-minute “all out” time trial. In the CL trial, a carbohydrate beverage was ingested throughout the trial. In the FL trial, participants ingested a carbohydrate beverage during the first hour and a placebo beverage during the second hour. In the EL trial, a carbohydrate beverage was ingested during the second hour and a placebo during the first hour. The amount of carbohydrate consumed (75 g) was the same among conditions. The order of conditions was single-blinded, counterbalanced, and determined randomly. Performance was measured by the work output during the 15-minute performance ride. There were no differences in work output among the three conditions during the final time trial. In the first hour of exercise, peak venous blood glucose was highest in the FL condition. In the second hour, peak venous blood glucose was highest in the EL condition. Following the time trial, venous blood glucose levels were similar among CL, FL, and EL. Overall, the timing of carbohydrate beverage consumption during prolonged moderate intensity cycling did not alter cycling performance.

  6. Feeling backwards? How temporal order in speech affects the time course of vocal emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rigoulot, Simon; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Pell, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the time course for recognizing vocal expressions of basic emotion in speech varies significantly by emotion type, implying that listeners uncover acoustic evidence about emotions at different rates in speech (e.g., fear is recognized most quickly whereas happiness and disgust are recognized relatively slowly; Pell and Kotz, 2011). To investigate whether vocal emotion recognition is largely dictated by the amount of time listeners are exposed to speech or the position of critical emotional cues in the utterance, 40 English participants judged the meaning of emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterances presented in a gating paradigm, where utterances were gated as a function of their syllable structure in segments of increasing duration from the end of the utterance (i.e., gated syllable-by-syllable from the offset rather than the onset of the stimulus). Accuracy for detecting six target emotions in each gate condition and the mean identification point for each emotion in milliseconds were analyzed and compared to results from Pell and Kotz (2011). We again found significant emotion-specific differences in the time needed to accurately recognize emotions from speech prosody, and new evidence that utterance-final syllables tended to facilitate listeners' accuracy in many conditions when compared to utterance-initial syllables. The time needed to recognize fear, anger, sadness, and neutral from speech cues was not influenced by how utterances were gated, although happiness and disgust were recognized significantly faster when listeners heard the end of utterances first. Our data provide new clues about the relative time course for recognizing vocally-expressed emotions within the 400–1200 ms time window, while highlighting that emotion recognition from prosody can be shaped by the temporal properties of speech. PMID:23805115

  7. Fibrinolytic Therapy in CCU Instead of Emergency Ward: How It Affects Door to Needle Time?

    PubMed Central

    Zeraati, Fatemeh; Homayounfar, Shahram; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Khalili, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The door-to-needle-time (DNT) is considered a standard time for scheduling thrombolysis for acute ST-segment elevation of myocardial infarction and this time can be reduced by minimizing the delay in starting thrombolytic treatment once the patient has reached to the hospital. This study was carried out on a sample of Iranian patients with acute myocardial infarction to determine the DNT in those after changing schedule of thrombolysis during 8 years from emergency to coronary care unit (CCU). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on all consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction admitted to the emergency ward of Ekbatan Hospital in Hamadan, Iran, within 2011 and had an indication of fibrinolytic therapy, which 47 patients were finally indicated to receive streptokinase in the part of CCU. Results: The mean time interval between arrival at the hospital and electrocardiogram (ECG) assessment was 6.30 min, taking ECG and patient's admission was 21.6 min and transferring the patient from admission to CCU ward was 31.9. The time between transferring the patients to CCU ward and fibrinolytic administration order and the time between its ordering and infusion was 31.2 min and 14.0 min respectively. In sum, the DNT was estimated 84.48 ± 53.00 min ranged 30-325 min that was significantly more than standard DNT (P <0.01). Furthermore, DNT mean in this study is significantly more than a study conducted 8 years ago in the same hospital (P <0.01). Conclusions: The DNT is higher than the standard level and higher than the estimated level in the past. This shows that DNT was longer after transferring to CCU. PMID:24829715

  8. Dose administration time from before breakfast to before dinner affect thyroid hormone levels?

    PubMed Central

    Ala, Shahram; Akha, Ozra; Kashi, Zahra; Asgari, Hossein; Bahar, Adeleh; Sasanpour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Levothyroxine is commonly used in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine is often administered in the morning, on an empty stomach, to increase its absorption. However, many patients have trouble for taking levothyroxine in the morning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing administration time of levothyroxine from before breakfast to before dinner on serum levels of TSH and T4. Methods: Fifty hypothyroidism patients aged 18-75 years old were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups. Each group received two tablets per day blindly (one levothyroxine tablet and one placebo tablet) before breakfast and before dinner. After two months, the administration time for the tablets was changed for each group, and the new schedule was continued for a further two-month period. The serum TSH and T4 levels were measured before and after treatment in each group. Results: Changing the levothyroxine administration time, resulted in 1.47±0.51 µIU/mL increase in TSH level (P=0.001) and 0.35±1.05µg/dL decrease in T4 level (P=0.3). Conclusion: Changing the levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner minimally reduced the therapeutic efficacy of levothyroxine. PMID:26644879

  9. Does Big-Time Success in Football or Basketball Affect SAT Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Irvin B., III; Amato, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of academics and athletics (including football and basketball variables) on first-year college students' Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores at U.S. universities engaged in big-time intercollegiate sports. Academic variables rather than athletic success variables determine the level of average first-year students' SAT…

  10. How Do Mode and Timing of Follow-up Surveys Affect Evaluation Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundinya, Vikram; Klink, Jenna; Deming, Philip; Meyers, Andrew; Erb, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the analysis of evaluation methods used in a well-designed and comprehensive evaluation effort of a significant Extension program. The evaluation data collection methods were analyzed by questionnaire mode and timing of follow-up surveys. Response rates from the short- and long-term follow-ups and different questionnaire…

  11. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  12. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  13. How Work Affects Divorce: The Mediating Role of Financial and Time Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associated with spouses' working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband works on average fewer hours and the wife more…

  14. An examination of factors that could affect choice reaction time in histology technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.; Thornton, J.C.; Husmark, I.

    1989-01-01

    Histology technicians exposed to formaldehyde and solvents have symptoms and objective evidence of neurobehavioral impairment of memory, judgment, and equilibrium. Because reaction time has been prolonged in many groups of workers exposed to toxicants, choice reaction time was measured in 385 female formaldehyde and solvent-exposed histology technicians, and 79 unexposed female laboratory workers. Choice reaction time to a visual stimulus (CRT) is defined, for the purpose of this study, as the time required for discriminated cancellation of two different letters on a microcomputer screen by pressing the matching keys. Initial analysis showed that increases in age, years of cigarette smoking, and hours per day of formaldehyde exposure significantly lengthened CRT, but xylene-toluene exposure had no effect. Since duration of smoking and length of daily formaldehyde exposure were age related, multiple linear regression analysis of CRT was performed using them as independent variables. Increasing age was the only significant factor in lengthening CRT. However, in these female histology technicians, the second measurement one year later was 44 msec faster (p less than .04). The reason for improved performance is unclear, but it may be an effect of training encompassing familiarity, improved attention, or learning.

  15. Corn yield and nitrate loss in subsurface drainage affected by timing of anhydrous ammonia application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surprisingly little research has examined the corn yield, N use efficiency, and water quality implications of N fertilizer timing. We applied anhydrous ammonia either in the fall after harvest (F) at 196 kg ha-1, or in the spring before planting (PP) or as an early sidedress (SD) at rates of 168 kg ...

  16. Grazing initiation timing affects net rturn to dual-purpose wheat systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited experimental data are available to allow direct evaluation of the effects of grazing initiation timing on net returns to dual-purpose wheat systems. The objectives were to simulate the effect of grazing initiation dates on net returns to a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – cattle (Bos taurus) ...

  17. Streamwater transit time estimates affected by isotope transformations within the forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockinger, Michael; Bogena, Heye; Lücke, Andreas; Diekkrüger, Bernd; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotopes of water are often used as tracers of water movement at the catchment scale. Previous studies have mainly used tracer information of open precipitation (OP) to derive the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) models of streamflow emanating from forested catchments. However, rainfall passage through the forest canopy may alter the precipitation water tracer information due to evaporation, possibly leading to erroneous TTD estimates. Here we compare the effects of different precipitation tracer inputs for TTD modeling for a 0.39 km² forested headwater catchment in the Eifel region of Germany: throughfall (TF) measured for 19 months, OP and OP corrected by a constant factor to account for canopy influence (OPcorr). We used the 1.5 year long time series of weekly precipitation and stream isotope data to evaluate changes in stream isotope simulation and TTD results using the TRANSEP model. Stream isotope simulation results were improved with a maximum increase in Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.23 (0.44 to 0.67) when TF was used instead of OP. We found that TF influences on OP isotope composition had a significant effect on TTDs, with transit times decreasing by up to 27%. These results show the importance of accounting for canopy-induced isotope tracer changes in estimating streamwater transit time.

  18. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring–summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus–host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus–host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems. PMID:26296067

  19. Seasonal time bombs: dominant temperate viruses affect Southern Ocean microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh W; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-02-01

    Rapid warming in the highly productive western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region of the Southern Ocean has affected multiple trophic levels, yet viral influences on microbial processes and ecosystem function remain understudied in the Southern Ocean. Here we use cultivation-independent quantitative ecological and metagenomic assays, combined with new comparative bioinformatic techniques, to investigate double-stranded DNA viruses during the WAP spring-summer transition. This study demonstrates that (i) temperate viruses dominate this region, switching from lysogeny to lytic replication as bacterial production increases, and (ii) Southern Ocean viral assemblages are genetically distinct from lower-latitude assemblages, primarily driven by this temperate viral dominance. This new information suggests fundamentally different virus-host interactions in polar environments, where intense seasonal changes in bacterial production select for temperate viruses because of increased fitness imparted by the ability to switch replication strategies in response to resource availability. Further, temperate viral dominance may provide mechanisms (for example, bacterial mortality resulting from prophage induction) that help explain observed temporal delays between, and lower ratios of, bacterial and primary production in polar versus lower-latitude marine ecosystems. Together these results suggest that temperate virus-host interactions are critical to predicting changes in microbial dynamics brought on by warming in polar marine systems. PMID:26296067

  20. Intraindividual reaction time variability affects P300 amplitude rather than latency

    PubMed Central

    Ramchurn, Anusha; de Fockert, Jan W.; Mason, Luke; Darling, Stephen; Bunce, David

    2014-01-01

    The neural correlates of intraindividual response variability were investigated in a serial choice reaction time (CRT) task. Reaction times (RTs) from the faster and slower portions of the RT distribution for the task were separately aggregated and associated P300 event-related potentials computed. Independent behavioral measures of executive function and IQ were also recorded. Across frontal, fronto-central, central, centro-parietal and parietal scalp regions, P300 amplitudes were significantly greater for faster relative to slower behavioral responses. However, P300 peak amplitude latencies did not differ according to the speed of the behavioral RT. Importantly, controlling for select independent measures of executive function attenuated shared variance in P300 amplitude for faster and slower trials. The findings suggest that P300 amplitude rather than latency is associated with the speed of behavioral RTs, and the possibility that fluctuations in executive control underlie variability in speeded responding. PMID:25120458

  1. Catheter dwell time and diameter affect the recurrence rates after internal urethrotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yürük, Emrah; Yentur, Serhat; Çakır, Ömer Onur; Ertaş, Kasım; Şerefoğlu, Ege Can; Semerciöz, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cold-knife direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) is frequently used as the first-line treatment for urethral stricture disease. Although the steps of the procedure are defined in detail, the duration of catheterization and the diameter of the catheter to be used after the operation are not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of catheter dwell time and diameter on recurrence rates of urethral stricture disease after DVIU. Material and methods Data of 193 consecutive treatment naïve bulbar urethral stricture patients who underwent DVIU between January 2009 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient demographics and stricture characteristics were noted. Catheter dwell times were grouped as <5 and ≥5 days. The diameters of catheters used were 16, 18 and 22 Fr. The association between recurrence rates, catheter dwell times, and diameter were evaluated with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test, respectively. Results Overall 193 patients with a mean age of 64.51±12.99 (range: 17 to 85) years were enrolled in the study. Urethral stricture disease recurred in 45 (23.31%) patients within the first year after DVIU. Mean duration of catheterization was 7.47±4.03 and 4.79±1.94 days in patients with and without recurrences, respectively (p=0.0001). Catheter dwell times for ≥5 days were also associated with increased recurrence (p=0.0001). Of the patients with recurrent strictures, 16, 18 and 22Fr catheters were placed in 22.22%, 20% and 57.78% of the patients, respectively. Increased catheter diameter was also associated with higher recurrence rates (p=0.004). Conclusion Shortening the postoperative duration of catheterization and decreasing the catheter size may result in improved recurrence rates after DVIU. Further prospective randomized trials are necessary to confirm these findings.

  2. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  3. Warming affects hatching time and early season survival of eastern tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Lill, John T

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is disrupting species interactions by altering the timing of phenological events such as budburst for plants and hatching for insects. We combined field observations with laboratory manipulations to investigate the consequences of climate warming on the phenology and performance of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum). We evaluated the effects of warmer winter and spring regimes on caterpillar hatching patterns and starvation endurance, traits likely to be under selection in populations experiencing phenological asynchrony, using individuals from two different populations (Washington, DC, and Roswell, GA). We also quantified the proximate and extended fitness effects of early food deprivation and recorded spring phenology of local caterpillars and their host plants. In addition, we conducted laboratory assays to determine if caterpillars are using plant chemical cues to fine-tune their hatching times. Warmer winter temperatures induced earlier hatching and caterpillars from GA survived starvation for periods that were 30% longer than caterpillars from DC. Warmer spring regimes reduced the starvation endurance of caterpillars overwintering in the wild but not in the laboratory. Early starvation dramatically reduced hatchling survival; however, surviving caterpillars did not show detrimental effects on pupal mass or development time. In the field, hatching preceded budburst in both 2013 and 2014 and the period of optimal foliage quality was 2 weeks shorter in 2013. Hatching time was unaffected by exposure to plant volatiles. Overall, we found that warmer temperatures can trigger late-season asynchrony by accelerating plant phenology and caterpillars from different populations exhibit differential abilities to cope with environmental unreliability. PMID:26093630

  4. Microwave-assisted carboxymethylation of cellulose extracted from brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Danilo Martins; Bukzem, Andrea de Lacerda; Ascheri, Diego Palmiro Ramirez; Signini, Roberta; de Aquino, Gilberto Lucio Benedito

    2015-10-20

    Cellulose was extracted from brewer's spent grain (BSG) by alkaline and bleaching treatments. The extracted cellulose was used in the preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by reaction with monochloroacetic acid in alkaline medium with the use of a microwave reactor. A full-factorial 2(3) central composite design was applied in order to evaluate how parameters of carboxymethylation process such as reaction time, amount of monochloroacetic acid and reaction temperature affect the average degree of substitution (DS) of the cellulose derivative. An optimization strategy based on response surface methodology has been used for this process. The optimized conditions to yield CMC with the highest DS of 1.46 follow: 5g of monochloroacetic acid per gram of cellulose, reaction time of 7.5min and temperature of 70°C. This work demonstrated the feasibility of a fast and efficient microwave-assisted method to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose from cellulose isolated of brewer's spent grain. PMID:26256168

  5. Whole Genome Duplication Affects Evolvability of Flowering Time in an Autotetraploid Plant

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sara L.; Husband, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome duplications have occurred recurrently throughout the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. The resulting genetic and phenotypic changes can influence physiological and ecological responses to the environment; however, the impact of genome copy number on evolvability has rarely been examined experimentally. Here, we evaluate the effect of genome duplication on the ability to respond to selection for early flowering time in lines drawn from naturally occurring diploid and autotetraploid populations of the plant Chamerion angustifolium (fireweed). We contrast this with the result of four generations of selection on synthesized neoautotetraploids, whose genic variability is similar to diploids but genome copy number is similar to autotetraploids. In addition, we examine correlated responses to selection in all three groups. Diploid and both extant tetraploid and neoautotetraploid lines responded to selection with significant reductions in time to flowering. Evolvability, measured as realized heritability, was significantly lower in extant tetraploids ( = 0.31) than diploids ( = 0.40). Neotetraploids exhibited the highest evolutionary response ( = 0.55). The rapid shift in flowering time in neotetraploids was associated with an increase in phenotypic variability across generations, but not with change in genome size or phenotypic correlations among traits. Our results suggest that whole genome duplications, without hybridization, may initially alter evolutionary rate, and that the dynamic nature of neoautopolyploids may contribute to the prevalence of polyploidy throughout eukaryotes. PMID:23028620

  6. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Zotarelli, L; Scholberg, J M; Dukes, M D; Muñoz-Carpena, R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns during the fall and spring to mimic short-term N uptake dynamics. Nitrogen was applied either 1, 3, or 7 d before a weekly leaching event, using KNO3 solution (total of 393 kg N ha(-1)). Residence times (tR) were tR-1, tR-3, and tR-7 d before weekly removal of residual soil N. Plant N uptake was calculated by comparing weekly N recovery from planted with non-planted columns. During the fall, N uptake values at 70 d after emergence were 59, 73, and 126 kg N ha(-1). During the spring, corresponding values were 54, 108, and 159 kg N ha(-1). A linear response of plant growth and yield to the tR was observed under cooler conditions, whereas a quadratic response occurred under warmer conditions. There was correlation between root length density and yield. It is concluded that increasing N fertilizer residence time, which is indicative of better irrigation practices, enhanced overall sweet corn growth, yield, N uptake, and FUE, consequently reduced the risk of N being leached below the root zone before complete N uptake. PMID:18453447

  7. Eye contact affects attention more than arousal as revealed by prospective time estimation.

    PubMed

    Jarick, Michelle; Laidlaw, Kaitlin E W; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Eye contact can both increase arousal and engage attention. Because these two changes impact time estimation differently, we were able to use a prospective time estimation task to assess the relative changes in arousal and attention during eye contact. Pairs of participants made a 1-minute prospective time estimate while sitting side-by-side and performing three different gaze trials: looking at the wall away from their partner (baseline/away trials), looking at their partner's profile (profile trials), or making eye contact with their partner (eye contact trials). We found that participants produced significantly longer estimates when they were engaged in eye contact, more so than when they looked at another person's profile or baseline. As research has shown that people produce shorter estimates during arousing events and longer estimates when attention is captured, we attribute this difference to the attention-demanding process of interacting with another person, via mutual eye contact, over and above any changes in arousal. PMID:27002959

  8. The time between intention and action affects the experience of action

    PubMed Central

    Vinding, Mikkel C.; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e., intentions for immediate actions) and delayed intentions (i.e., intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action). The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action. PMID:26150783

  9. The Affect of the Thermosphere on Quiet-Time Plasmasphere Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NRL SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code[1] has shown that the plasmasphere undergoes diurnal oscillations[2] and that those oscillations are consistent with variations found in in situ IMAGE/RPI density measurements during a quiet-time refilling event, 2001 February 1-5[3]. The SAMI3 ionosphere code includes 7 ion species (H+,He+,O+,N+,O+2,N+2,NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e-. We include a Weimer potential at high latitudes, driven by the solar wind, and the self-consistent dynamo potential at mid-to-low latitudes, driven by specified winds, such as the HWM07 or HWM93 empirical model. During this quiet-time event, we find that the shape of the plasmasphere at any given time varies significantly with the wind model. In all cases, however, the diurnal oscillations persist and a similar degree of model-data agreement is found. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall, 2013, "Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3," Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 [2] Krall, J., and J. D. Huba, 2013, "SAMI3 simulation of plasmasphere refilling," Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2484-2488, doi:10.1002/GRL.50458 [3] Krall, J, J. D. Huba, R. E. Denton and T.-W. Wu', 2013, "Density oscillations during post-storm plasmasphere refilling: 2001 February 1-5," Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted Research supported by NRL base funds and NASA.

  10. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    PubMed Central

    Žarić, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Blomert, Leo; Bonte, Milene

    2015-01-01

    A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n = 17) followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0), the letter “a” was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200) it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1), dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN) window. After the training (T2), our results showed earlier (and enhanced) crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN) in the simultaneous condition (AV0) measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration. PMID:26157382

  11. Compensatory growth strategies are affected by the strength of environmental time constraints in anuran larvae.

    PubMed

    Orizaola, Germán; Dahl, Emma; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    Organisms normally grow at a sub-maximal rate. After experiencing a period of arrested growth, individuals often show compensatory growth responses by modifying their life-history, behaviour and physiology. However, the strength of compensatory responses may vary across broad geographic scales as populations differ in their exposition to varying time constraints. We examined differences in compensatory growth strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) populations from southern and northern Sweden. Tadpoles from four populations were reared in the laboratory and exposed to low temperature to evaluate the patterns and mechanisms of compensatory growth responses. We determined tadpoles' growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency during the compensation period. In the absence of arrested growth conditions, tadpoles from all the populations showed similar (size-corrected) growth rates, food intake and growth efficiency. After being exposed to low temperature for 1 week, only larvae from the northern populations increased growth rates by increasing both food intake and growth efficiency. These geographic differences in compensatory growth mechanisms suggest that the strategies for recovering after a period of growth deprivation may depend on the strength of time constraints faced by the populations. Due to the costs of fast growth, only populations exposed to the strong time constraints are prone to develop fast recovering strategies in order to metamorphose before conditions deteriorate. Understanding how organisms balance the cost and benefits of growth strategies may help in forecasting the impact of fluctuating environmental conditions on life-history strategies of populations likely to be exposed to increasing environmental variation in the future. PMID:23996230

  12. Severity and timing: How prenatal stress exposure affects glial developmental, emotional behavioural and plasma neurosteroid responses in guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Walker, David; Hirst, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of developmental changes in offspring, notably those associated with brain development and subsequent risk for neuropathologies later in life. Recently, the importance of the timing and the severity of the stressor during pregnancy has been emphasized with neurosteroids including allopregnanolone implicated in the regulation of stress and also for endogenous neuroprotection in offspring. Prenatal stress was induced using strobe light exposure in pregnant guinea pigs (term 71days) in three defined stress exposure groups (Gestational Age (GA)35-65, GA50-65 and GA60-65). Stress was induced for 2h (9-11am) every 5days via strobe light exposure. A fetal cohort were euthanased at term with fetal brains and plasma collected. Anxiety-like behaviour was evaluated at 18 days of age in a separate cohort of offspring with brains and plasma collected at 21days of age. Markers for mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes were measured in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subcortical white matter. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone was measured by radioimmunoassay in offspring plasma. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, fetuses from all stress groups showed reduced expression of mature oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes. By juvenility, all male stress exposure groups had recovered to levels of unaffected controls with the exception of the GA35-65 stress group. In juvenile females, mature oligodendrocyte marker expression was reduced in all stress groups and reactive astrocyte expression was reduced in the GA35-65 and GA60-65 stress groups by juvenility. Increased reactive astrocyte expression was also apparent in the subcortical white matter in both sexes both at term and at juvenility. Prenatally stressed offspring spent less time exploring in the object exploration test and also entered the inner zone of the open field less than controls at 18days of age. Circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were

  13. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  14. Vibrotactile timing: Are vibrotactile judgements of duration affected by repetitive stimulation?

    PubMed

    Jones, Luke A; Ogden, Ruth S

    2016-01-01

    Timing in the vibrotactile modality was explored. Previous research has shown that repetitive auditory stimulation (in the form of click-trains) and visual stimulation (in the form of flickers) can alter duration judgements in a manner consistent with a "speeding up" of an internal clock. In Experiments 1 and 2 we investigated whether repetitive vibrotactile stimulation in the form of vibration trains would also alter duration judgements of either vibrotactile stimuli or visual stimuli. Participants gave verbal estimates of the duration of vibrotactile and visual stimuli that were preceded either by five seconds of 5-Hz vibration trains, or, by a five-second period of no vibrotactile stimulation, the end of which was signalled by a single vibration pulse (control condition). The results showed that durations were overestimated in the vibrotactile train conditions relative to the control condition; however, the effects were not multiplicative (did not increase with increasing stimulus duration) and as such were not consistent with a speeding up of the internal clock, but rather with an additive attentional effect. An additional finding was that the slope of the vibrotactile psychometric (control condition) function was not significantly different from that of the visual (control condition) function, which replicates a finding from a previous cross-modal comparison of timing. PMID:25965268

  15. Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean sea at ecological time scales.

    PubMed

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  16. Modifiable variables affecting interdialytic weight gain include dialysis time, frequency, and dialysate sodium.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Benjamin K A; Dixon, Stephanie N; Huang, Shi-Han S; Leitch, Rosemary E; Suri, Rita S; Chan, Christopher T; Lindsay, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and all-cause mortality. Dialysate sodium concentration may cause diffusion gradients with plasma sodium and influence subsequent IDWG. Dialysis time and frequency may also influence the outcomes of this Na(+) gradient; these have been overlooked. Our objective was to identify modifiable factors influencing IDWG. We performed a retrospective multivariable regression analyses of data from 86 home hemodialysis patients treated by hemodialysis modalities differing in frequency and session duration to determine factors involved that predict IDWG. Age, diabetic status, and residual renal function did not correlate with IDWG in the univariable analysis. However, using a combination of backwards selection and Akaike information criterion to build our model, we created an equation that predicted IDWG on the basis of serum albumin, age, patient sex, dialysis frequency, and the diffusive balance of sodium, represented by the product of the duration of dialysis and the patient plasma to dialysate Na(+) gradient. This equation was internally validated using bootstrapping, and externally validated in a temporally distinct patient population. We have created an equation to predict IDWG on the basis of independent factors readily available before a dialysis session. The modifiable factors include dialysis time and frequency, and dialysate sodium. Patient sex, age, and serum albumin are also correlated with IDWG. Further work is required to establish how improvements in IDWG influence cardiovascular and other clinical outcomes. PMID:23782770

  17. Seasonal timing of first rain storms affects rare plant population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in forecasting the ecological consequences of climate change is understanding the relative importance of changes to mean conditions vs. changes to discrete climatic events, such as storms, frosts, or droughts. Here we show that the first major storm of the growing season strongly influences the population dynamics of three rare and endangered annual plant species in a coastal California (USA) ecosystem. In a field experiment we used moisture barriers and water addition to manipulate the timing and temperature associated with first major rains of the season. The three focal species showed two- to fivefold variation in per capita population growth rates between the different storm treatments, comparable to variation found in a prior experiment imposing eightfold differences in season-long precipitation. Variation in germination was a major demographic driver of how two of three species responded to the first rains. For one of these species, the timing of the storm was the most critical determinant of its germination, while the other showed enhanced germination with colder storm temperatures. The role of temperature was further supported by laboratory trials showing enhanced germination in cooler treatments. Our work suggests that, because of species-specific cues for demographic transitions such as germination, changes to discrete climate events may be as, if not more, important than changes to season-long variables.

  18. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  19. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Juvenile Green Frog (Rana clamitans) Predatory Ability not Affected by Exposure to Carbaryl at Different Times During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melanie J.; Kleinhenz, Peter; Boone, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Larval exposure to pesticides can occur at different times during development, and can negatively impact amphibian fitness. We examined the effects of larval green frog (Rana clamitans) exposure to carbaryl at 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks of development on juvenile predatory ability. We did not find evidence that predatory ability was affected by exposure to carbaryl, which suggests that carbaryl does not have latent effects on the predatory performance of green frogs in subsequent life stages. PMID:21462236

  1. Variation in timing of ossification affects inferred heterochrony of cranial bones in Lissamphibia.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Christopher A; Jorgensen, Michael; Tulenko, Frank; Harrington, Sean

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary origin of Lissamphibia likely involved heterochrony, as demonstrated by the biphasic lifestyles of most extant orders, differences between Anura (with tadpole-to-froglet metamorphosis) and Urodela (which lack strongly defined metamorphosis), and the appearance of direct development among separate lineages of frogs. Patterns in the timing of appearance of skeletal elements (i.e., ossification sequence data) represent a possible source of information for understanding the origin of Lissamphibia, and with the advent of analytical methods to directly optimize these data onto known phylogenies, there has been a renewed interest in assessing the role of changes in these developmental events. However, little attention has been given to the potential impact of variation in ossification sequence data--this is particularly surprising given that different criteria for collecting these data have been employed. Herein, new and previously published ossification data are compiled and all pairs of data for same-species comparisons are selected. Analyses are run to assess the impact of using data that were collected by different methodologies: (1) wild- versus lab-raised animals; (2) different criteria for recognizing timing of ossification; and (3) randomly selecting ossification sequences for species from which multiple studies have been published, but for which the data were collected by different criteria. Parsimov-based genetic inference is utilized to map ossification sequence data onto an existing phylogeny to reconstruct ancestral sequences of ossification and infer instances of heterochrony. All analyses succeeded in optimizing sequence data on internal nodes and instances of heterochrony were identified. However, among all analyses little congruence was found in reconstructed ancestral sequences or among inferred instances of heterochrony. These results indicate a high degree of variation in timing of ossification, and suggest a cautionary note about use

  2. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  3. Time changes in radiocesium concentration in aquatic systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Also detailed field monitoring has been condcuted in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. These monitoring includes, 1) Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use, 2) 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope, 3) Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water, 4)Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment, and 5)Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide

  4. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption. PMID:24482210

  5. Physical Activity, Menopause, and Quality of Life: The Role of Affect and Self-Worth across Time

    PubMed Central

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life, however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related quality of life (QOL) and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Design Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking, yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey two years following the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related quality of life. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity - quality of life relationship over time. Results At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (βs = .23 and −.52) and for symptoms also to decreased positive affect (β = −.47), and both physical self-worth (β = .34) and affect (β = .43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R2 = .775). Conclusions The findings support the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition. PMID:19169167

  6. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  7. Mechanical and thermomechanical calculations related to the storage of spent nuclear-fuel assemblies in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1981-08-01

    A generic test of the geologic storage of spent-fuel assemblies from an operating nuclear reactor is being made by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site. The spent-fuel assemblies were emplaced at a depth of 420 m (1370 ft) below the surface in a typical granite and will be retrieved at a later time. The early time, close-in thermal history of this type of repository is being simulated with spent-fuel and electrically heated canisters in a central drift, with auxiliary heaters in two parallel side drifts. Prior to emplacement of the spent-fuel canisters, preliminary calculations were made using a pair of existing finite-element codes. Calculational modeling of a spent-fuel repository requires a code with a multiple capability. The effects of both the mining operation and the thermal load on the existing stress fields and the resultant displacements of the rock around the repository must be calculated. The thermal loading for each point in the rock is affected by heat tranfer through conduction, radiation, and normal convection, as well as by ventilation of the drifts. Both the ADINA stress code and the compatible ADINAT heat-flow code were used to perform the calculations because they satisfied the requirements of this project. ADINAT was adapted to calculate radiative and convective heat transfer across the drifts and to model the effects of ventilation in the drifts, while the existing isotropic elastic model was used with the ADINA code. The results of the calculation are intended to provide a base with which to compare temperature, stress, and displacement data taken during the planned 5-y duration of the test. In this way, it will be possible to determine how the existing jointing in the rock influences the results as compared with a homogeneous, isotropic rock mass. Later, new models will be introduced into ADINA to account for the effects of jointing.

  8. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  9. Socioeconomic status affects pulmonary hypertension disease severity at time of first evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Talwar, Ankoor; Kohn, Nina; Klinger, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases, leading to worse disease severity at initial presentation. There is a paucity of these data in the pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) population. We studied the association of SES, as measured by zip code–based median annual household income, with World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) at time of first evaluation in PHTN patients. All patients evaluated at our center with a right heart catheterization revealing a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg within 12 months of initial evaluation were considered for the study. Demographics, WHO-FC, and zip codes were obtained from retrospective chart analysis. The 2010 US census was used to obtain zip code–based annual median income. The income groups were divided into quartiles. Patients were categorized by their WHO-FC and zip code–derived median income. Similar analyses were conducted for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were analyzed in SAS, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. There were 228 PHTN patients (70 [30.7%] male, 158 [69.3%] female). As median income decreased, the FC at presentation increased, signifying higher disease severity (Spearman correlation: r = −0.161, P < 0.0515). This association between median income groups and WHO-FC at initial evaluation was significant (χ2 test: P < 0.0168). There were 116 PAH patients (32 [27.6%] male, 84 [72.4%] female). There was again a negative relationship between income and initial FC (Spearman correlation: r = −0.0307, P < 0.0007). A lower SES was associated with worse disease, as measured by WHO-FC. PMID:27252845

  10. Did FDA Decisionmaking Affect Anti-Psychotic Drug Prescribing in Children?: A Time-Trend Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Franklin, Jessica M.; Eddings, Wesley; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, many drugs are prescribed for non-FDA-approved (“off-label”) uses. If substantial evidence supports the efficacy and safety of off-label indications, manufacturers can pursue formal FDA approval through supplemental new drug applications (sNDAs). We evaluated the effect of FDA determinations on pediatric sNDAs for antipsychotic drugs on prescribing of these products in children. Methods Retrospective, segmented time-series analysis using new prescription claims during 2003–2012 for three atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone). FDA approved the sNDAs for pediatric use of olanzapine and quetiapine in December 2009, but did not approve the sNDA for pediatric use of ziprasidone. Results During the months before FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA, new prescriptions of olanzapine decreased for both children and adults. After FDA approval, the increase in prescribing trends was similar for both age groups (P = 0.47 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; P = 0.37 for other indications). Comparable decreases in use of quetiapine were observed between pediatrics and adults following FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.88; P = 0.63). Prescribing of ziprasidone decreased similarly for pediatric and adult patients after FDA non-approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.61; P = 0.79). Conclusions The FDA’s sNDA determinations relating to use of antipsychotics in children did not result in changes in use that favored the approved sNDAs and disfavored the unapproved sNDA. Improved communication may help translate the agency’s expert judgments to clinical practice. PMID:27032095

  11. Socioeconomic status affects pulmonary hypertension disease severity at time of first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Arunabh; Sahni, Sonu; Talwar, Ankoor; Kohn, Nina; Klinger, James R

    2016-06-01

    A low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases, leading to worse disease severity at initial presentation. There is a paucity of these data in the pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) population. We studied the association of SES, as measured by zip code-based median annual household income, with World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC) at time of first evaluation in PHTN patients. All patients evaluated at our center with a right heart catheterization revealing a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg within 12 months of initial evaluation were considered for the study. Demographics, WHO-FC, and zip codes were obtained from retrospective chart analysis. The 2010 US census was used to obtain zip code-based annual median income. The income groups were divided into quartiles. Patients were categorized by their WHO-FC and zip code-derived median income. Similar analyses were conducted for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were analyzed in SAS, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. There were 228 PHTN patients (70 [30.7%] male, 158 [69.3%] female). As median income decreased, the FC at presentation increased, signifying higher disease severity (Spearman correlation: r = -0.161, P < 0.0515). This association between median income groups and WHO-FC at initial evaluation was significant (χ(2) test: P < 0.0168). There were 116 PAH patients (32 [27.6%] male, 84 [72.4%] female). There was again a negative relationship between income and initial FC (Spearman correlation: r = -0.0307, P < 0.0007). A lower SES was associated with worse disease, as measured by WHO-FC. PMID:27252845

  12. Length of time in tissue culture can affect the selected glyphosate resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Papanikou, Efstratia; Brotherton, Jeffrey E; Widholm, Jack M

    2004-02-01

    Usually, stepwise selection of plant suspension cultures with gradually increasing concentrations of the herbicide glyphosate results in the amplification of the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19) gene that leads to resistance by increasing EPSPS mRNA and enzyme activity. We show that glyphosate selection with newly initiated suspension cultures can produce resistant lines with resistance mechanisms other than gene amplification and that usually as the cultures age gene amplification becomes the predominant mechanism. Gene amplification did not occur in 3 lines selected from 5-month-old Datura innoxia Mill. cultures but did occur in all 10 lines selected after 52 months. Selection with Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) less than 5 months old produced 2 lines out of 24 with no EPSPS amplification while all 17 lines selected from older cultures contained amplified genes. Lines selected from the oldest culture (35 years) also exhibited amplification of several different genes, indicating the expression of different EPSPS genes or an enhanced gene amplification incidence. None of the 15 lines selected from 2 different 5-month-old Daucus carota L. (carrot) lines exhibited amplification while amplification led to the resistance of all 7 lines selected from one of the original carrot lines (DHL) after 3 years. However, the other line (Car4) was exceptional and produced only non-amplified lines (9 of 9) after 8 years in culture. These results show that plant tissue cultures change with time in culture and that several different new mechanisms can result in glyphosate resistance. PMID:14566562

  13. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  14. Racial Differences Affecting Night Time Blood Pressure Dipping Groups in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, LH; Elaine, Huang; Kong, RT

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm, with dipping of BP at night. However, little has been done to show how the dipping groups vary amongst the White and Asian population at different periods of the year. This study aims to examine the pattern of nocturnal dipping between the White and Asian population, as well as to compare it to the different timings of the year, between summer and winter. Methods Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor recordings were obtained from 220 patients, half were White patients obtained from Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland and half were Asian patients from National Heart Centre, Singapore during the summer period from May to June and the winter period from October to December. Results Both the Irish and Singaporeans exhibit a decrease in total number of reverse dipper from summer to winter. However, the redistribution of reverse dipper was mainly to the dippers in Singapore, while in Ireland it was to both the extreme dipper and dipper. Irish seasonal changes also resulted in an increase in nocturnal diastolic pressure (95% CI, 0.72 to 6.03, 3.37 mm Hg; p<0.05) and a change in the duration of dipping at night (95% CI, 0.045 to 1.01, 0.53 Hours; p<0.05). Conclusion Regardless of race or temperature, reverse dippers seem to decrease in winter. However, the racial differences dictate the redistribution of the fall in number of dippers. This has implications on how reverse dippers should be treated at different periods of the year. PMID:26989605

  15. Factors affecting the coefficient of variation of stride time of the elderly without falling history: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Nakahara, Masami; Ikeda, Takuro; Okamoto, Ryuji; Kurosawa, Kazuo; Horikawa, Etuo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time in an exercise intervention for the elderly without falling history. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 42 elderly women who had participated in a care prevention program for 12 weeks. Stride time CV, motor function, movement ability, balance, Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) score, and Life-space Assessment (LSA) score before and after the intervention were examined for significant differences using the paired t-test. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the factors that changed in the stride time CV. [Results] There were significant differences in muscle strength, sit-and-reach flexibility, the one-leg standing time (eyes open), the maximum walking speed, local stability of trunk acceleration, The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-T), the MFES score, and the LSA score between the pre-intervention and post-intervention. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that improvement of quadriceps muscle strength, sit-and-reach flexibility, the one-leg standing time, TUG-T, local stability of trunk acceleration (vertical direction) and MFES score were independent variables explaining the reduction in stride time CV. [Conclusion] The results was suggested that it might be possible to reduce the stride time CV by improving strength, flexibility and dynamic balance, and reducing fear of falls through interventions. PMID:25995563

  16. Strategies for dealing with emergency department overcrowding: a one-year study on how bedside registration affects patient throughput times.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Kevin M; Shofer, Frances S; Abbuhl, Stephanie B

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the implementation of bedside registration would affect patient throughput times in an urban, academic emergency department. This was a before-and-after interventional study. An 8-month period before initiating bedside registration in November 2001 was compared to three subsequent 4-month intervals. Four times of day and three triage classifications were examined. Data were analyzed using a three-way analysis of covariance. There were 58,225 patient encounters analyzed. There was a significant difference in time from triage to room after bedside registration began (p < 0.0001). When examined by triage class, there were no differences in triage-to-room for emergent patients, a significant decrease for urgent patients initially and a significant decrease for non-urgent patients. Bedside registration by time of day initially reduced all four time-of-day periods but over the year they returned to pre-bedside registration levels, except for the morning period. Bedside registration decreased triage-to-room times for non-urgent patients and urgent patients initially, but this was not sustained at the end of 1 year. It had no effect on emergent patients who are routinely taken into the patient care area immediately. The sustainable effects of bedside registration were during the morning time when emergency department beds were available. PMID:17499684

  17. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  18. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  19. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-02-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD`s work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools.

  20. Leaching and separation of zinc from the black paste of spent MnO2-Zn dry cell batteries.

    PubMed

    El-Nadi, Y A; Daoud, J A; Aly, H F

    2007-05-01

    Spent batteries represent a source of hazardous materials when discarded without appropriate treatment. Investigations on the recovery of zinc from the black paste of spent MnO(2)-Zn cell batteries were carried out. Leaching of zinc and manganese from the black paste of spent batteries using sulfuric or hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. It was found that leaching with sulfuric acid solution is more efficient than with HCl solution. Different parameters affecting the leaching of Zn(II) and Mn(II) with sulfuric acid were further studied. Extraction of Zn(II) and Mn(II) from the leaching sulfate medium by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid (CYANEX 301) diluted with kerosene was investigated. The factors affecting the extraction process, separately studied, include the effect of contact time, sulfuric acid concentration, CYANEX 301 concentration, phase ratio as well as temperature. The results indicated that, from sulfate medium, Zn(II) is more extracted than Mn(II). Selective stripping of Zn(II) was obtained using 5M HCl. Application of the method on the leaching sulfate solution of the spent MnO(2)-Zn dry cell black paste show the efficiency of the process, where the extraction and stripping of Zn(II) are 98% and 99%, respectively. PMID:17049161

  1. Timing of Maternal Immunization Affects Immunological and Behavioral Outcomes of Adult Offspring in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, and behavior. Common environmental pathogens can induce maternal immune responses and affect subsequent development of offspring. There are likely sensitive periods during pregnancy when animals are particularly vulnerable to environmental disruption. Here we characterize the effects of maternal immunization across pregnancy and postpartum on offspring physiology and behavior in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters were injected with the antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (1) prior to pairing with a male (premating), (2) at separation (postmating), (3) at midpregnancy, or (4) after birth (lactation). Maternal food intake, body mass, and immunity were monitored throughout gestation, and litters were measured weekly for growth until adulthood when social behavior, hormone concentrations, and immune responses were determined. We found that immunizations altered maternal immunity throughout pregnancy and lactation. The effects of maternal treatment differed between male and female offspring. Aggressive behavior was enhanced in offspring of both sexes born to mothers treated postmating and thus early in pregnancy relative to other stages. In contrast, maternal treatment and maternal stage differentially affected innate immunity in males and females. Offspring cortisol, however, was unaffected by maternal treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that maternal immunization affects offspring physiology and behavior in a time-dependent and sex-specific manner. More broadly, these findings contribute to our understanding of the effects of maternal immune activation, whether it be from environmental exposure or immunization, on immunological and behavioral responses of offspring. PMID:27320639

  2. Does the Time of Postoperative Bisphosphonate Administration Affect the Bone Union in Osteoporotic Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Je; Chun, Young Soo; Kang, Joon Soon; Jung, Gwang Young; Lee, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the effect of bisphosphonate administration starting time on bone healing and to identify the best administration time following surgical treatment of osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods Two hundreds and eighty four patients (284 hips; 52 males, 232 females) who underwent surgery following osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture from December 2002 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The average follow-up period was 68.4 months. The patients were divided into three groups according to the time of bisphosphonate administration after operation: 1 week (group A; n=102), 1 month (group B; n=89), and 3 months (group C; n=93). Koval scores and change of Koval scores 1 year after operation were used for clinical evaluation. For radiologic evaluation, the time of callus appearance across the fracture line on sagittal and coronal radiographs and the time to absence of pain during hip motion was judged as the time of bone union. Results Koval scores one year after surgery for groups A, B, and C were 2.44, 2.36, and 2.43 (P=0.895), respectively. The mean time of union was 12.4, 11.9, and 12.3 weeks after operation in the three groups (P=0.883), respectively. There were zero cases of nonunion. There were 3, 5, and 7 cases of fixative displacement in the three groups, respectively, but the distribution showed no significant difference (P>0.472). Conclusion The initiating time of bisphosphonate administration following surgery does not affect the clinical outcomes in patients with osteoporotic intertrochanteric fracture. PMID:27536634

  3. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  4. The relative timing between eye and hand in rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, F J A; van Polanen, V; Savelsbergh, G J P; Bennett, S J

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were manipulated, such that timing constraints were high (ISI = 300 ms) or low (ISI = 450 ms) and advance knowledge of the target location was present (fixed order) or absent (random order). Analysis of eye and finger onset and completion times per segment of the sequence indicated that oculo-manual behaviour was in general characterized by eye movements preceding the finger, as well as 'gaze anchoring' (i.e. eye fixation of the first target until completion of the finger movement towards that target). Advance knowledge of future target locations lead to shorter latency times of eye and hand, and smaller eye-hand lead times, which in combination resulted in shorter total movement times. There was, however, no effect of advance knowledge on the duration of gaze anchoring. In contrast, gaze anchoring did change as a function of the interval between successive stimuli and was shorter with a 300 ms ISI versus 450 ms ISI. Further correlation analysis provided some indication that shorter residual latency is associated with shorter pointing duration, without affecting accuracy. These results are consistent with a neural mechanism governing the coupling of eye and arm movements, which has been suggested to reside in the superior colliculus. The temporal coordination resulting from this coupling is a function of the time pressure on the visuo-manual system resulting from the appearance of external stimuli. PMID:21744087

  5. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  6. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  7. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins - 12210

    SciTech Connect

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    Organic ion exchangers (IEX) play a major and increasing role in the reactor coolant and other water purification processes. During their operation time they receive significant amounts of radioactivity, making their disposal, together with their organic nature, as medium active waste challenging. Processes applied so far do not eliminate the organic matter, which is unwanted in disposal facilities, or, if high temperatures are applied, raise problems with volatile radionuclides. NUKEM Technologies offers their well introduces process for the destruction of spent solvent (TBP), the pebble bed pyrolysis, now for the treatment of spent IEX (and other problematic waste), with the following benefits: the pyrolysis product is free of organic matter, and the operation temperature with approx. 500 deg. C keeps Cs radionuclides completely in the solid residue. (authors)

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of time-series genes profiling to explore key genes affected by age in fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Hao; Xie, Jingjing; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Lu, Hua

    2014-06-01

    The present study was aimed to explore possible key genes and bioprocess affected by age during fracture healing. GSE589, GSE592 and GSE1371 were downloaded from gene expression omnibus database. The time-series genes of three age levels rats were firstly identified with hclust function in R. Then functional and pathway enrichment analysis for selected time-series genes were performed. Finally, the VennDiagram package of R language was used to screen overlapping n time-series genes. The expression changes of time-series genes in the rats of three age levels were classified into two types: one was higher expressed at 0 day, decreased at 3 day to 2 week, and increased from 4 to 6 week; the other was the opposite. Functional and pathways enrichment analysis showed that 12 time-series genes of adult and old rats were significantly involved in ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression changes of 11 genes were consistent with time axis, 10 genes were up-regulated at 3 days after fracture, and increased slowly in 6 week, while Itga2b was down-regulated. The functions of 106 overlapping genes were all associated with growth and development of bone after fracture. The key genes in ECM-receptor interaction pathway including Spp1, Ibsp, Tnn and Col3a1 have been reported to be related to fracture in literatures. The difference during fracture healing in three age levels rats is mainly related to age. The Spp1, Ibsp, Tnn and Col3a1 are possible potential age-related genes and ECM-receptor interaction pathway is the potential age-related process during fracture healing. PMID:24627361

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  10. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  11. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  12. Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yong; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical models of the travel time distribution (TTD) from a source area to a sample location are often used to estimate groundwater ages and solute concentration trends. The accuracies of these models are not well known for geologically complex aquifers. In this study, synthetic datasets were used to quantify the accuracy of four analytical TTD models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, model selection, and tracer selection. Synthetic TTDs and tracer data were generated from existing numerical models with complex hydrofacies distributions for one public-supply well and 14 monitoring wells in the Central Valley, California. Analytical TTD models were calibrated to synthetic tracer data, and prediction errors were determined for estimates of TTDs and conservative tracer (NO3−) concentrations. Analytical models included a new, scale-dependent dispersivity model (SDM) for two-dimensional transport from the watertable to a well, and three other established analytical models. The relative influence of the error sources (TTD complexity, observation error, model selection, and tracer selection) depended on the type of prediction. Geological complexity gave rise to complex TTDs in monitoring wells that strongly affected errors of the estimated TTDs. However, prediction errors for NO3− and median age depended more on tracer concentration errors. The SDM tended to give the most accurate estimates of the vertical velocity and other predictions, although TTD model selection had minor effects overall. Adding tracers improved predictions if the new tracers had different input histories. Studies using TTD models should focus on the factors that most strongly affect the desired predictions.

  13. The timing and amount of vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training affect post-stroke recovery of forelimb strength

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of upper arm strength after stroke is a leading cause of disability. Strategies that can enhance the benefits of rehabilitative training could improve motor function after stroke. Recent studies in a rat model of ischemic stroke demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training substantially improves recovery of forelimb strength compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS. Here we report that the timing and amount of stimulation affect the degree of forelimb strength recovery. Similar amounts of delayed VNS delivered two hours after daily rehabilitative training sessions resulted in significantly less improvement compared to VNS that is paired with identical rehabilitative training. Significantly less recovery also occurred when several-fold more VNS was delivered during rehabilitative training. Both delayed and additional VNS confer moderately improved recovery compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS, but fail to enhance recovery to the same degree as VNS that is timed to occur with successful movements. These findings confirm that VNS paired with rehabilitative training holds promise for restoring forelimb strength post-stroke and indicate that both the timing and amount of VNS should be optimized to maximize therapeutic benefits. PMID:24818637

  14. Real-time processing of ASL signs: Delayed first language acquisition affects organization of the mental lexicon.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-07-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of linguistic input for deaf individuals is highly heterogeneous, which is rarely the case for hearing learners of spoken languages. Little is known about how these modality and developmental factors affect real-time lexical processing. In this study, we ask how these factors impact real-time recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel adaptation of the visual world paradigm in deaf adults who learned sign from birth (Experiment 1), and in deaf adults who were late-learners of ASL (Experiment 2). Results revealed that although both groups of signers demonstrated rapid, incremental processing of ASL signs, only native signers demonstrated early and robust activation of sublexical features of signs during real-time recognition. Our findings suggest that the organization of the mental lexicon into units of both form and meaning is a product of infant language learning and not the sensory and motor modality through which the linguistic signal is sent and received. PMID:25528091

  15. Fire regime, not time-since-fire, affects soil fungal community diversity and composition in temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Eleonora; McMullan-Fisher, Sapphire; Morgan, John W; May, Tom; Zeeman, Ben; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-09-01

    Frequent burning is commonly undertaken to maintain diversity in temperate grasslands of southern Australia. How burning affects below-ground fungal community diversity remains unknown. We show, using a fungal rDNA metabarcoding approach (Illumina MiSeq), that the fungal community composition was influenced by fire regime (frequency) but not time-since-fire. Fungal community composition was resilient to direct fire effects, most likely because grassland fires transfer little heat to the soil. Differences in the fungal community composition due to fire regime was likely due to associated changes that occur in vegetation with recurrent fire, via the break up of obligate symbiotic relationships. However, fire history only partially explains the observed dissimilarity in composition among the soil samples, suggesting a distinctiveness in composition in each grassland site. The importance of considering changes in soil microbe communities when managing vegetation with fire is highlighted. PMID:27528692

  16. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Sarvan, I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Dekker, M; Verkerk, R

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown products are affected by steaming (raw, 1min, 2min and 3min steamed) and meal composition (protein or lipid addition) was studied with an in vitro digestion model (mouth, stomach, intestine, but not colonic digestion). The main formation of SF and SFN occurred during in vitro chewing. The contents of GR, SF and SFN did not change after further digestion, as the irreversible inactivated myrosinase under gastric conditions caused no further GR hydrolysis. SF concentrations were up to 10 times higher in raw and 1min steamed broccoli samples after digestion compared to longer-steamed broccoli. Protein or lipid addition had no influence on the formation and bioaccessibility of SF or SFN. PMID:27507513

  17. Effect of Helium Accumulation on the Spent Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, Cecile; Piron, Jean-Paul; Stout, Ray

    2007-07-01

    In a nuclear spent fuel repository, the aqueous rapid release of radio-activity from exposed spent fuel surfaces will depend on the pellet microstructure at the arrival time of water into the disposal container. Research performed on spent fuel evolution in a closed system has shown that the evolution of microstructure under disposal conditions should be governed by the cumulated {alpha}-decay damage and the subsequent helium behavior. The evolution of fission gas bubble characteristics under repository conditions has to be assessed. In UO{sub 2} fuels with a burnup of 47.5 GWd/t, the pressure in fission gas bubbles, including the pressure increase from {alpha}-decay helium atoms, is not expected to reach the critical bubble pressure that will cause failure, thus micro-cracking in UO{sub 2} spent fuel grains is not expected. (authors)

  18. Spent Fuel Working Group Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary`s initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group`s Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities.

  19. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    PubMed Central

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97)]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56)]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06)]. Conclusions Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome. PMID:27396484

  20. GNS spent fuel cask experience

    SciTech Connect

    Weh, R. )

    1993-05-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS), which is owned by German utilities, is responsible for the management of spent fuel and nuclear waste on behalf of the German utilities operating nuclear power plants. This paper describes the spent reactor fuel and waste shipping and/or storage casks that GNS manufacturers for nuclear facilities in Germany, and worldwide. So far more than 30 different casks have been produced in quantities ranging from one to several hundred of each type. GNS participates in the German Support Program to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in developing verification procedures for dry storage casks containing spent fuel. This activity is also summarized.

  1. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule. PMID:27085910

  2. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  3. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    PubMed Central

    Jarideh, S.; Taeb, S.; Pishva, S. M.; Haghani, M.; Sina, S.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Hosseini, M. A.; Nematollahi, S.; Shokrpour, N.; Hassan Shahi, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females), with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38), participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females) whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT) test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32) and the control group (N=29) were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively.  Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i) pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii) forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii) backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv) word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid Dastghieb

  4. Criteria for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel in Interim Wet Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.P.

    1999-09-14

    Storage of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other locations in the U. S. and around the world has been a concern over the past decade because of the long time interim storage requirements in water. Pitting corrosion of production aluminum-clad fuel in the early 1990''s at SRS was attributed to less than optimum quality water and corrective action taken has resulted in no new pitting since 1994. The knowledge gained from the corrosion surveillance testing and other investigations at SRS over the past 8 years has provided an insight into factors affecting the corrosion of aluminum in relatively high purity water. This paper reviews some of the early corrosion issues related to aluminum-clad spent fuel at SRS, including fundamentals for corrosion of aluminum alloys. It updates and summarizes the corrosion surveillance activities supporting the future storage of over 15,000 research reactor fuel assemblies from countries over the world during the next 15-20 years. Criteria are presented for providing corrosion protection for aluminum-clad spent fuel in interim storage during the next few decades while plans are developed for a more permanent disposition.

  5. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. ); Knoll, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  7. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  8. Time of day affects chemoreflex sensitivity and the carbon dioxide reserve during NREM sleep in participants with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H

    2014-11-15

    Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PET(CO2)) and minute ventilation, as well as the PET(CO2) that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PET(CO2): 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea. PMID:25213638

  9. Endogenous and exogenous estrogens during embryonic development affect timing of hatch and growth in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Cruze, Lori; Roark, Alison M; Rolland, Gabrielle; Younas, Mona; Stacy, Nicole; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect length of gestation and body mass and size of offspring. However, the dose, timing, and duration of exposure as well as sex and strain of the experimental animals determine the direction and magnitude of these effects. In this study, we examined the effects of a one-time embryonic exposure to either 17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1.4 days earlier than vehicle-treated (control) alligators, suggesting that estrogenic chemicals hasten hatching in these animals. We assessed growth rates, growth allometry, and body condition for 21 weeks after hatching and found that BPA-treated alligators grew more quickly shortly after hatching but more slowly thereafter compared to control alligators. Conversely, E2-treated alligators grew more slowly shortly after hatching but more quickly thereafter compared to control alligators. As a result of differences in growth rate, BPA-treated alligators were heavier, longer, and fatter than control alligators at age 5 weeks but were similar in size and leaner than control alligators at age 21 weeks. Biochemical analytes were examined at the end of the 21-week study to assess overall metabolic condition. We found that E2-treated alligators had significantly higher circulating plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides than control alligators while BPA-treated alligators had blood profiles comparable to control alligators. Our results provide important insights into the effects of exogenous estrogens on morphology and metabolism in an oviparous, semi-aquatic reptile. PMID:25687799

  10. How group size affects vigilance dynamics and time allocation patterns: the key role of imitation and tempo.

    PubMed

    Michelena, Pablo; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    In the context of social foraging, predator detection has been the subject of numerous studies, which acknowledge the adaptive response of the individual to the trade-off between feeding and vigilance. Typically, animals gain energy by increasing their feeding time and decreasing their vigilance effort with increasing group size, without increasing their risk of predation ('group size effect'). Research on the biological utility of vigilance has prevailed over considerations of the mechanistic rules that link individual decisions to group behavior. With sheep as a model species, we identified how the behaviors of conspecifics affect the individual decisions to switch activity. We highlight a simple mechanism whereby the group size effect on collective vigilance dynamics is shaped by two key features: the magnitude of social amplification and intrinsic differences between foraging and scanning bout durations. Our results highlight a positive correlation between the duration of scanning and foraging bouts at the level of the group. This finding reveals the existence of groups with high and low rates of transition between activities, suggesting individual variations in the transition rate, or 'tempo'. We present a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments. Our theoretical predictions show that the system is robust in respect to variations in the propensity to imitate scanning and foraging, yet flexible in respect to differences in the duration of activity bouts. The model shows how individual decisions contribute to collective behavior patterns and how the group, in turn, facilitates individual-level adaptive responses. PMID:21525987

  11. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

  12. How Group Size Affects Vigilance Dynamics and Time Allocation Patterns: The Key Role of Imitation and Tempo

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Pablo; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    In the context of social foraging, predator detection has been the subject of numerous studies, which acknowledge the adaptive response of the individual to the trade-off between feeding and vigilance. Typically, animals gain energy by increasing their feeding time and decreasing their vigilance effort with increasing group size, without increasing their risk of predation (‘group size effect’). Research on the biological utility of vigilance has prevailed over considerations of the mechanistic rules that link individual decisions to group behavior. With sheep as a model species, we identified how the behaviors of conspecifics affect the individual decisions to switch activity. We highlight a simple mechanism whereby the group size effect on collective vigilance dynamics is shaped by two key features: the magnitude of social amplification and intrinsic differences between foraging and scanning bout durations. Our results highlight a positive correlation between the duration of scanning and foraging bouts at the level of the group. This finding reveals the existence of groups with high and low rates of transition between activies, suggesting individual variations in the transition rate, or ‘tempo’. We present a mathematical model based on behavioral rules derived from experiments. Our theoretical predictions show that the system is robust in respect to variations in the propensity to imitate scanning and foraging, yet flexible in respect to differences in the duration of activity bouts. The model shows how individual decisions contribute to collective behavior patterns and how the group, in turn, facilitates individual-level adaptive responses. PMID:21525987

  13. Gradient Index Microlens Implanted in Prefrontal Cortex of Mouse Does Not Affect Behavioral Test Performance over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon A.; Holly, Kevin S.; Voziyanov, Vladislav; Villalba, Stephanie L.; Tong, Rudi; Grigsby, Holly E.; Glasscock, Edward; Szele, Francis G.; Vlachos, Ioannis; Murray, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Implanted gradient index lenses have extended the reach of standard multiphoton microscopy from the upper layers of the mouse cortex to the lower cortical layers and even subcortical regions. These lenses have the clarity to visualize dynamic activities, such as calcium transients, with subcellular and millisecond resolution and the stability to facilitate repeated imaging over weeks and months. In addition, behavioral tests can be used to correlate performance with observed changes in network function and structure that occur over time. Yet, this raises the questions, does an implanted microlens have an effect on behavioral tests, and if so, what is the extent of the effect? To answer these questions, we compared the performance of three groups of mice in three common behavioral tests. A gradient index lens was implanted in the prefrontal cortex of experimental mice. We compared their performance with mice that had either a cranial window or a sham surgery. Three presurgical and five postsurgical sets of behavioral tests were performed over seven weeks. Behavioral tests included rotarod, foot fault, and Morris water maze. No significant differences were found between the three groups, suggesting that microlens implantation did not affect performance. The results for the current study clear the way for combining behavioral studies with gradient index lens imaging in the prefrontal cortex, and potentially other regions of the mouse brain, to study structural, functional, and behavioral relationships in the brain. PMID:26799938

  14. Steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum affected by various salts and sugars: Time-independent properties.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali R; Eivazlou, Razieh; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2016-10-01

    The rheological properties of food hydrocolloids are remarkably influenced by the quality of solvent/cosolutes in a food system. In this work, the steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum (SSG, 0.5% w/w) at the presence of different levels of salts (KCl & MgCl2, 0-100mM) and sugars (sucrose, lactose & glucose, 0-6% w/w) was studied. It was found that the rheological properties of SSG were affected by the type of sugars and salts and their concentrations as well. Synergistic interaction was observed between SSG and sugars which enhanced the viscosity of gum solutions, while salts addition diminished the viscosity. SSG solutions exhibited a shear thinning behavior at all conditions tested. Various time-independent rheological models were used to fit the shear stress-shear rate data, although the Herschel-Bulkley (R(2)=0.994-0.999) and Sisko (R(2)=0.995-0.999) models showed the best results to describe the flow behavior of SSG. In the presence of salts, the yield stress (τ0), consistency coefficient (k), and flow behavior index (n) values decreased. The k and τ0 values enhanced and the n value lowered in the presence of sugars. Divalent cations of Mg(2+) and sucrose roughly showed more effect on rheological parameters than others. PMID:27316768

  15. The relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ngai-Ying

    1993-10-01

    One thousand seven hundred and sixty six secondary school students in Hong Kong participated in the present study, in which the relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background was investigated. It was found that mathematics achievement was most closely related with self-concept, academic self-concept and attitudes towards mathematics. Self- and parental expectations were the most influential factors to these affective variables. It was also found that Hong Kong students spent, on the average, over 33% of homework time on mathematics homework. The time spend on homework, however, did not exhibit significant correlation with mathematics achievement.

  16. Analyzing Factors Affecting Emergency Department Length of Stay-Using a Competing Risk-accelerated Failure Time Model.

    PubMed

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Te-Fa; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) is associated with ED crowding and related complications. Previous studies either analyzed single patient disposition groups or combined different endpoints as a whole. The aim of this study is to evaluate different effects of relevant factors affecting ED LOS among different patient disposition groups.This is a retrospective electronic data analysis. The ED LOS and relevant covariates of all patients between January 2013 and December 2013 were collected. A competing risk accelerated failure time model was used to compute endpoint type-specific time ratios (TRs) for ED LOS.A total of 149,472 patients was included for analysis with an overall medium ED LOS of 2.15 [interquartile range (IQR) = 6.51] hours. The medium LOS for discharged, admission, and mortality patients was 1.46 (IQR = 2.07), 11.3 (IQR = 33.2), and 7.53 (IQR = 28.0) hours, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age (TR = 1.012, P < 0.0001], higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 2.371, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (compared with adult nontrauma, TR = 3.084, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 2.712, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (compared with night shift, TR = 1.451, P < 0.0001) were associated with prolonged ED LOS in the discharged patient group. However, opposite results were noted for higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 0.532, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (TR = 0.375, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 0.852, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (TR = 0.88, P < 0.0001) in the admission patient group.Common influential factors such as age, patient entity, triage acuity level, or arrival time may have varying effects on different disposition groups of patients. These findings and the suggested model could be used for EDs to develop individually tailored approaches to minimize ED LOS and further improve ED crowding status

  17. Analyzing Factors Affecting Emergency Department Length of Stay—Using a Competing Risk-accelerated Failure Time Model

    PubMed Central

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Te-Fa; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Ng, Chip-Jin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) is associated with ED crowding and related complications. Previous studies either analyzed single patient disposition groups or combined different endpoints as a whole. The aim of this study is to evaluate different effects of relevant factors affecting ED LOS among different patient disposition groups. This is a retrospective electronic data analysis. The ED LOS and relevant covariates of all patients between January 2013 and December 2013 were collected. A competing risk accelerated failure time model was used to compute endpoint type-specific time ratios (TRs) for ED LOS. A total of 149,472 patients was included for analysis with an overall medium ED LOS of 2.15 [interquartile range (IQR) = 6.51] hours. The medium LOS for discharged, admission, and mortality patients was 1.46 (IQR = 2.07), 11.3 (IQR = 33.2), and 7.53 (IQR = 28.0) hours, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age (TR = 1.012, P < 0.0001], higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 2.371, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (compared with adult nontrauma, TR = 3.084, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 2.712, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (compared with night shift, TR = 1.451, P < 0.0001) were associated with prolonged ED LOS in the discharged patient group. However, opposite results were noted for higher acuity (triage level I vs level V, TR = 0.532, P < 0.0001), pediatric nontrauma (TR = 0.375, P < 0.0001), transferred patients (TR = 0.852, P < 0.0001), and day shift arrival (TR = 0.88, P < 0.0001) in the admission patient group. Common influential factors such as age, patient entity, triage acuity level, or arrival time may have varying effects on different disposition groups of patients. These findings and the suggested model could be used for EDs to develop individually tailored approaches to minimize ED LOS and further improve ED crowding

  18. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  19. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength–enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  20. Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application.

    PubMed

    Hall, M R; Johnson, A W; Smittle, D A

    1988-10-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil and increased marketable yield in 1982, but not in 1983 and 1984. When DD, fenamiphos, and aldicarb were applied just before planting either sweet potato or onion, nematode population densities at harvest were lower in treated than in untreated plots. No additional benefits resulted when the nematicides were applied immediately before planting both sweet potato and onion. Correlation coefficients (P

  1. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-01-27

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety. PMID:25535358

  2. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  3. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    McPheeters, C.C; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant.

  4. Status of spent-fuel shipping cask development

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Cask Systems Development Program is to develop a variety of cask systems that can safely and economically transport commercial spent fuel and high-level waste from the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This paper is limited to a discussion of the status of from-reactor spent-fuel cask development; future cask development plans include MRS-to-repository casks, specialty casks for nonstandard spent fuel and nonfuel materials, and defense high-level waste casks. Spent-fuel casks must be available in the late 1990s to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) shipments from utilities. DOE-Idaho, with the support of EG G Idaho, Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, and selected cask developing contractors, has been assigned the responsibility for developing a new generation of cask systems. Four categories of spent fuel casks were initially proposed: (1) legal weight truck (LWT) casks (2) overweight truck (OWT) casks (3) rail/barge (R/B) casks (4) dual purpose (DP) storage/transport casks. Casks are being designed for reduced occupational radiation exposure at the receiving facility by facilitating the use of remote handling equipment. Automation of remote handling systems may be used to reduce cask turnaround time. Reducing turnaround time promotes reduced radiation exposure to occupational workers and improves cask utilization efficiency.

  5. Physical activity and subjective well-being: the role of time.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Pamela; Coates, Dennis; Breuer, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the role of time in explaining the effect of physical activity on subjective well-being. Specifically, it looks at the composite structure of time needed for participation in a time-efficient fitness programme and how different time components affect satisfaction with health, leisure time, fitness, body and look. This quasi-experimental study consisted of three stages: (i) physical entry test and pre-survey, (ii) training intervention (30 min; performed twice a week over a 4-week period) and (iii) exit test and post-survey. A total of N = 10 481 individuals participated across 316 German fitness centres. Regression results show that total time spent significantly increases satisfaction with health and fitness. Time spent on approach and parking reduces satisfaction with leisure time, while time spent on wellness and showering increases it. Spending time in the bistro increases satisfaction with health and fitness. Time spent on the actual fitness training has no significant effect on either satisfaction measure. The findings indicate that it is important to consider the composite structure of time needed for physical activity because other activities matter more than the actual time spent on exercising. Public health policies and policy makers should therefore support such time-efficient programmes. PMID:25817207

  6. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  7. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  8. Spent-fuel storage requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as current licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000.

  9. Spent fuel integrity during transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    The conditions of recent shipments of light water reactor spent fuel were surveyed. The radioactivity level of cask coolant was examined in an attempt to find the effects of transportation on LWR fuel assemblies. Discussion included potential cladding integrity loss mechanisms, canning requirements, changes of radioactivity levels, and comparison of transportation in wet or dry media. Although integrity loss or degradation has not been identified, radioactivity levels usually increase during transportation, especially for leaking assemblies.

  10. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  11. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Program. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The spent fuel treatment (SFT) program plan addresses spent fuel volume reduction, packaging, storage, transportation, fuel recovery, and disposal to meet the needs of the HTGR Lead Plant and follow-on plants. In the near term, fuel refabrication will be addressed by following developments in fresh fuel fabrication and will be developed in the long term as decisions on the alternatives dictate. The formulation of this revised program plan considered the implications of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) which, for the first time, established a definitive national policy for management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Although the primary intent of the program is to address technical issues, the divergence between commercial and government interests, which arises as a result of certain provisions of the NWPA, must be addressed in the economic assessment of technically feasible alternative paths in the management of spent HTGR fuel and waste. This new SFT program plan also incorporates a significant cooperative research and development program between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this international program is to reduce costs by avoiding duplicate efforts.

  12. Criticality of spent reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The storage capacity of spent reactor fuel pools can be greatly increased by consolidation. In this process, the fuel rods are removed from reactor fuel assemblies and are stored in close-packed arrays in a canister or skeleton. An earlier study examined criticality consideration for consolidation of Westinghouse fuel, assumed to be fresh, in canisters at the Millstone-2 spent-fuel pool and in the General Electric IF-300 shipping cask. The conclusions were that the fuel rods in the canister are so deficient in water that they are adequately subcritical, both in normal and in off-normal conditions. One potential accident, the water spill event, remained unresolved in the earlier study. A methodology is developed here for spent-fuel criticality and is applied to the water spill event. The methodology utilizes LEOPARD to compute few-group cross sections for the diffusion code PDQ7, which then is used to compute reactivity. These codes give results for fresh fuel that are in good agreement with KENO IV-NITAWL Monte Carlo results, which themselves are in good agreement with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. These methodologies are in reasonable agreement with critical measurements for undepleted fuel.

  13. Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by acidophilic thermophile Acidianus brierleyi: Leaching mechanism and effect of decoking.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Abhilasha; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2013-02-01

    Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by thermophillic archae Acidianus brierleyi was investigated. The spent catalyst (containing Al, Fe, Ni and Mo as major elements) was characterized, and the effect of pretreatment (decoking) on two-step and spent medium leaching was examined at 1% w/v pulp density. Decoking resulted in removal of carbonaceous deposits and volatile impurities, and affected the solubility of metal compounds through oxidization of the metal sulfides. Nearly 100% extraction was achieved using spent medium leaching for Fe, Ni and Mo, and 67% for Al. Bioleaching reduced nickel concentration in the leachate below the regulated levels for safe waste disposal. Chemical (i.e. abiotic) leaching using equimolar concentration of sulfuric acid produced by the bacteria during two-step process achieved a lower leaching efficiency (by up to 30%). Results indicated that A. brierleyi successfully leached heavy metals from spent catalyst. PMID:23334026

  14. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  15. Effect of spent craft brewers’ yeast on fermentation and methane production by rumen microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key component of beer brewing and a major by-product. The leftover, spent brewers’ yeast, from large breweries has been used for some time as a protein supplement in cattle, however the possible advantages of spent yeast from smaller craft breweries, containing much hig...

  16. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials. PMID:27427893

  17. Foreign experience in extended dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Most countries with nuclear power are planning for spent nuclear fuel (or high-level waste from reprocessing of spent fuel) to be disposed of in national deep geological repositories starting in the time period of about 2010 to 2050. While spent fuel has been stored in water basins for the early years after discharge from the reactors, interim dry storage for extended periods (i.e., several tens of years) is being implemented or considered in an increasing number of countries. Dry storage technology is generally considered to be developed on a world-wide basis, and is being initiated and/ or expanded in a number of countries. This paper presents a summary of status and experience in dry storage of spent fuel in other countries, with emphasis on zirconium-clad fuels. Past activities, current status, future plans, research and development, and experience in dry storage are summarized for Argentina, Canada, France, former West Germany, former East Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. Conclusions from their experience are presented. Their experience to date supports the expectations that proper dry storage should provide for safe extended dry storage of spent fuel.

  18. Time series analysis of fine particulate matter and asthma reliever dispensations in populations affected by forest fires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between forest fire smoke and acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases, but few have examined effects on pharmaceutical dispensations. We examine the associations between daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and pharmaceutical dispensations for salbutamol in forest fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We estimated PM2.5 exposure for populations in administrative health areas using measurements from central monitors. Remote sensing data on fires were used to classify the populations as fire-affected or non-fire-affected, and to identify extreme fire days. Daily counts of salbutamol dispensations between 2003 and 2010 were extracted from the BC PharmaNet database. We estimated rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each population during all fire seasons and on extreme fire days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, and temporal trends. Overall effects for fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations were estimated via meta-regression. Results Fire season PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in all fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.07) for a 10 ug/m3 increase. Fire season PM2.5 was not significantly associated with salbutamol dispensations in non-fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR of 1.00 (0.98-1.01). On extreme fire days PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in both population types, with a global meta-regression RR of 1.07 (1.04 - 1.09). Conclusions Salbutamol dispensations were clearly associated with fire-related PM2.5. Significant associations were observed in smaller populations (range: 8,000 to 170,000 persons, median: 26,000) than those reported previously, suggesting that salbutamol dispensations may be a valuable outcome for public health surveillance during fire events. PMID:23356966

  19. Treatment of spent NTA-based decontamination solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, A.; Semelová, M.; John, J.; Černochová, K.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with potential treatment of spent NTA-containing decontamination solutions for final disposal. The method proposed is based on the degradation of organic substances followed by the separation of radionuclides. The influence of various parameters (pH value, irradiation time, temperature, catalyst amount, type and various combinations of catalysts) on photocatalytic degradation of NTA has been studied. Photo-Fenton reagent (Fe3+/H2O2) as a homogenous catalyst was found to be much more efficient than the TiO2-based heterogeneous catalyst Degussa P25. Under optimum conditions NTA in a simulant of a spent decontamination solution without or with hydrazine could be degraded within 5 or 9 hours, respectively. The study of sorption properties of a series of absorbers revealed that radiostrontium and radiosilver can be effectively removed from the simulant of a spent decontamination solution even in the presence of NTA, while total NTA degradation is necessary for effective radiocobalt separation.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  1. Regulatory review time for approval of oncology drugs in Japan between 2001 and 2014. Considerations of changes, factors that affect review time, and difference with the United States.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideki; Kurokawa, Tatsuo

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we comprehensively and historically studied the review time of oncology drugs approved by the regulatory authorities in Japan with publicly available information. A total of 120 applications of oncology drugs were approved in Japan between April 2001 and July 2014. The review time peaked with 732.0 days (24.4 months) in 2005, and showed a tendency to decline gradually each year thereafter. After 2012, a significant reduction of the review time was seen in comparison to the median of 13-year median time. In addition, we compared the review time with that in the United States. The median review time lag with the United States was significantly peaked in 2005. After 2005, the review time lag with the FDA has decreased, but lag did not significantly reduce by 2014. We also examined factors influencing the review time in Japan with multiple regression analysis. It was found that the factors related to a use of overseas data and expedited program for accelerating the reviews influenced the direction of shortening the review time. We consider that regulatory authorities in Japan need to keep making efforts to reduce the review time further and eliminate the review time lag with the United States. PMID:25560978

  2. Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mark R; Eccleston, George W; Bedell, Jeffrey J; Lockard, Chanelle M

    2009-01-01

    The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of short-lived fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopic values are available. Uranium isotopics are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U isotopic values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium isotopics over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate isotopic calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium isotopics. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium isotopics; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.

  3. Modeling of molecular and particulate transport in dry spent nuclear fuel canisters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Andrew M.

    2007-09-01

    these particles are transported with the fill gas into the breach, they may be deposited, leading to a restriction of flow and eventually to the plugging of the breach. This model uses an analytical solution to the problem of particle deposition in convective-diffusive fully-developed laminar flow through a straight cylindrical tube. Since the cylindrical flow geometry is a requirement for the use of this equation, it is assumed that all deposited particles are distributed uniformly both axially and circumferentially along the breach. The model is capable of monitoring the pressure, temperature, quantity of fill gas, breach radius, particle transmission fraction, and flow velocity through the breach as functions of time. The depressurization time can be significantly affected by the release of fission gases or helium generated from alpha decay if the cladding of a fuel rod within the canister is breached. To better quantify this phenomenon, a Monte Carlo model of molecular transport through nano-scale flow pathways in the spent fuel is developed in this thesis. This model is applied to cylindrical, conical, elliptical, and helical pathways. Finally, in order to remove some of the restrictions of the model of canister depressurization accounting for suspended particles, a Monte Carlo program was written to model the movement of particles through the breach. This program is capable of accounting for any transport mechanism specified but is focused in this work on laminar convective-diffusive flow. Each test particle is tracked as it is carried through the breach and if it impacts the breach wall, the three-dimensional location of the impact is recorded. In this way, the axial and circumferential deposition patterns can be recorded. This program can model any flow geometry as long as a velocity profile can be provided. In this thesis, the program is expanded to account for flow through straight and torroidal cylindrical tubes.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-02-08

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation.

  5. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  6. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  7. Real-Time Observation on Evolution of Droplets Morphology Affected by Electric Current Pulse in Al-Bi Immiscible Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Tongmin; Cao, Fei; Fu, Hongwang; Fu, Yanan; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of Bi-rich droplets morphology in a solidifying Al-Bi immiscible alloy was directly observed using a synchrotron microradiography technique. The electric current pulse (ECP) was applied to control the solidification process of Al-Bi immiscible alloy. It was found that the electromagnetic pinch force and Marangoni force induced by ECP and temperature gradient, respectively, can significantly affect the distribution of Bi-rich droplets. The electromagnetic pinch force drove the droplets from the center to side; meanwhile, the Marangoni force lifted the droplets from the bottom to the top. As a result, the droplets finally distributed with a manner of "inverted triangle."

  8. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  9. Storage assembly for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, M.E.

    1982-04-27

    A technique for storing spent fuel rods from a nuclear reactor is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a housing including a closed inner chamber for containing the fuel rods and a thermally conductive member located partially within the housing chamber and partially outside the housing for transferring heat generated by the fuel rods from the chamber to the ambient surroundings. Particulate material is located within the chamber and surrounds the fuel rods contained therein. This material is selected to serve as a heat transfer media between the contained cells and the heat transferring member and, at the same time, stand ready to fuse into a solid mass around the contained cells if the heat transferring member malfunctions or otherwise fails to transfer the generated heat out of the housing chamber in a predetermined way.

  10. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  11. Methodology for determining criteria for storing spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.R.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1986-11-01

    Dry storage in an air atmosphere is a method being considered for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as an alternative to storage in an inert gas environment. However, methods to predict fuel integrity based on oxidation behavior of the fuel first must be evaluated. The linear cumulative damage method has been proposed as a technique for defining storage criteria. Analysis of limited nonconstant temperature data on nonirradiated fuel samples indicates that this approach yields conservative results for a strictly decreasing-temperature history. On the other hand, the description of damage accumulation in terms of remaining life concepts provides a more general framework for making predictions of failure. Accordingly, a methodology for adapting remaining life concepts to UO/sub 2/ oxidation has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Both the linear cumulative damage and the remaining life methods were used to predict oxidation results for spent fuel in which the temperature was decreased with time to simulate the temperature history in a dry storage cask. The numerical input to the methods was based on oxidation data generated with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets. The calculated maximum allowable storage temperatures are strongly dependent on the temperature-time profile and emphasize the conservatism inherent in the linear cumulative damage model. Additional nonconstant temperature data for spent fuel are needed to both validate the proposed methods and to predict temperatures applicable to actual spent fuel storage.

  12. Task Time Tracker

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  13. The Timing of Learning before Night-Time Sleep Differentially Affects Declarative and Procedural Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16–17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation. PMID:22808287

  14. The time-of-day that breaks occur between consecutive duty periods affects the sleep strategies used by shiftworkers.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Reid, Kathryn J; Darwent, David; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sleep strategies used in breaks between consecutive shifts. For two weeks, 253 shiftworkers collected data regarding the timing of all shifts and sleeps. The final dataset included 395 between-shift breaks that had a standard duration (i.e. ~16 h). If a break included an entire night, participants had a single sleep on 80-93% of occasions, but if a break occurred predominantly during the daytime, participants had more than one sleep on 41-50% of occasions. These data indicate that the sleep strategy employed is influenced by the time-of-day that a break occurs. PMID:27082460

  15. Gestational exposure to bisphenol A and cross-fostering affect behaviors in juvenile mice

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Kimberly H.; Gatewood, Jessica D.; Howeth, Chelsea; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate resins, and, lately, concern has been raised about its potential negative effects on human health. BPA is an estrogen analog and, in addition, it can act as a DNA hypomethylator. We examined effects of gestational exposure to BPA on several behaviors in C57BL/6J mice. Because BPA affects maternal care, which, may have long-lasting effects on offspring behavior, we tested mice raised by either biological or fostered dams. Both diet and dam affected behavior in juvenile mice in a social novelty task and the elevated plus maze (EPM). In a social novelty task, the amount of time spent interacting with an adult male was affected by sex and gestational diet, but only in juveniles raised by a foster dam. Control females spent less time sniffing a novel adult than did control males or females exposed to BPA during gestation. In the EPM, juveniles reared by foster dams and exposed to BPA during gestation spent less time in the distal half of the open arm as compared with juveniles gestated on a control diet. Adult offspring raised by their biological dams showed the same response pattern; gestational BPA increased anxiety as compared with control diet. Our results show that prenatal BPA exposure affects social behavior and anxiety in the EPM. Moreover, some facet(s) of the infant-maternal interaction may modify these effects. PMID:20691692

  16. Values, Policies, and Practices Affecting the Hiring Process for Full-Time Arts and Sciences Faculty in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Community colleges employ over 100,000 full-time faculty members, or one fifth of all faculty members in U.S. post-secondary education (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2001; Huber, 1998). These faculty members provide instruction in a wide range of programs for approximately 37% of all postsecondary students in the U.S., including…

  17. You Can Teach Old Dogs New Tricks: The Factors that Affect Changes over Time in Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshet-Alkalai, Yoram; Chajut, Eran

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of digital technologies and the rapid changes they undergo through time face users with new cognitive, social, and ergonomic challenges that they need to master in order to perform effectively. In recent years, following empirical reports on performance differences between different age-groups, there is a debate in the research…

  18. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  19. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  20. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  1. Bioassay design and length of time in the laboratory affect intercolonial interactions of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of diet, experimental design, and length of time in the laboratory on intercolonial aggression among Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies. There was no correlation between the level of aggressive behavior and the laboratory diet of th...

  2. Type of acute hamstring strain affects flexibility, strength, and time to return to pre‐injury level

    PubMed Central

    Askling, C; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate possible links between aetiology of acute, first time hamstring strains in sprinters and dancers and recovery of flexibility, strength, and function as well as time to return to pre‐injury level. Methods Eighteen elite sprinters and 15 professional dancers with a clinically diagnosed hamstring strain were included. They were clinically examined and tested two, 10, 21, and 42 days after the acute injury. Range of motion in hip flexion and isometric strength in knee flexion were measured. Self estimated and actual time to return to pre‐injury level were recorded. Hamstring reinjuries were recorded during a two year follow up period. Results All the sprinters sustained their injuries during high speed sprinting, whereas all the dancers were injured while performing slow stretching type exercises. The initial loss of flexibility and strength was greater in sprinters than in dancers (p<0.05). At 42 days after injury, both groups could perform more than 90% of the test values of the uninjured leg. However, the actual times to return to pre‐injury level of performance were significantly longer (median 16 weeks (range 6–50) for the sprinters and 50 weeks (range 30–76) for the dancers). Three reinjuries were noted, all in sprinters. Conclusion There appears to be a link between the aetiologies of the two types of acute hamstring strain in sprinters and dancers and the time to return to pre‐injury level. Initially, sprinters have more severe functional deficits but recover more quickly. PMID:16371489

  3. Cognitive and Affective Reading Development during an After-School Program: A Case Study of Three Adolescent Readers' Participation in the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moransky-Miller, Marlo R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how three struggling, sixth grade readers experienced an after-school program designed to increase their affective and cognitive reading performance. Research in the areas of vocabulary acquisition, reading strategy development, discussion of text, time spent reading, engagement, and reader self-perception…

  4. Factors Affecting the Inter-annual to Centennial Time Scale Variability of All Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The All Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) is highly important for the livelihood of more than 1 billion people living in the Indian sub-continent. The agriculture of this region is heavily dependent on seasonal (JJAS) monsoon rainfall. An early start or a slight delay of monsoon, or an early withdrawal or prolonged monsoon season may upset the farmer's agricultural plans, can cause significant reduction in crop yield, and hence economic loss. Understanding of AISMR is also vital because it is a part of global atmospheric circulation system. Several studies show that AISMR is influenced by internal climate forcings (ICFs) viz. ENSO, AMO, PDO etc. as well as external climate forcings (ECFs) viz. Greenhouse Gases, volcanic eruptions, and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). We investigate the influence of ICFs and ECFs on AISMR using recently developed statistical technique called De-trended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA). DPCCA can analyse a complex system of several interlinked variables. Often, climatic variables, being cross correlated, are simultaneously tele-connected with several other variables and it is not easy to isolate their intrinsic relationship. In the presence of non-stationarities and background signals the calculated correlation coefficients can be overestimated and erroneous. DPCCA method removes the non-stationarities and partials out the influence of background signals from the variables being cross correlated and thus give a robust estimate of correlation. We have performed the analysis using NOAA Reconstructed SSTs and homogenised instrumental AISMR data set from 1854-1999. By employing the DPCCA method we find that there is a statistically insignificant negative intrinsic relation (by excluding the influence of ICFs, and ECFs except TSI) between AISMR and TSI on decadal to centennial time scale. The ICFs considerably modulate the relation between AISMR and solar activity between 50-80 year time scales and transform this relationship

  5. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT... affecting § 72.214, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  6. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  7. Time up and go task performance improves after transcranial direct current stimulation in patient affected by Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Rosini, Sandra; Orizio, Italo; Ferrari, Clarissa; Borroni, Barbara; Cotelli, Maria

    2014-09-19

    Locomotor disturbances represent one of the major distress in everyday life in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Timed up and go test (TUG) has been advocated a useful and reliable tool for quantifying locomotor performance. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during timed up and go test (TUG) in a group of patients with PD. Ten participants underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right) and one session of placebo tDCS. TUG was performed before and after each tDCS session (anodal or placebo). A significant motor improvement after right DLPFC stimulation vs. placebo stimulation was observed. These results suggest that anodal tDCS can be a relevant tool to modulate walking abilities in PD. PMID:25107738

  8. The time-of-day of myocardial infarction onset affects healing through oscillations in cardiac neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Maximilian J; Horckmans, Michael; Nitz, Katrin; Duchene, Johan; Drechsler, Maik; Bidzhekov, Kiril; Scheiermann, Christoph; Weber, Christian; Soehnlein, Oliver; Steffens, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death in Western countries. Epidemiological studies show acute MI to be more prevalent in the morning and to be associated with a poorer outcome in terms of mortality and recovery. The mechanisms behind this association are not fully understood. Here, we report that circadian oscillations of neutrophil recruitment to the heart determine infarct size, healing, and cardiac function after MI Preferential cardiac neutrophil recruitment during the active phase (Zeitgeber time, ZT13) was paralleled by enhanced myeloid progenitor production, increased circulating numbers of CXCR2(hi) neutrophils as well as upregulated cardiac adhesion molecule and chemokine expression. MI at ZT13 resulted in significantly higher cardiac neutrophil infiltration compared to ZT5, which was inhibited by CXCR2 antagonism or neutrophil-specific CXCR2 knockout. Limiting exaggerated neutrophilic inflammation at this time point significantly reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac function. PMID:27226028

  9. Using the time-varying effect model (TVEM) to examine dynamic associations between negative affect and self confidence on smoking urges: differences between successful quitters and relapsers.

    PubMed

    Shiyko, Mariya P; Lanza, Stephanie T; Tan, Xianming; Li, Runze; Shiffman, Saul

    2012-06-01

    With technological advances, collection of intensive longitudinal data (ILD), such as ecological momentary assessments, becomes more widespread in prevention science. In ILD studies, researchers are often interested in the effects of time-varying covariates (TVCs) on a time-varying outcome to discover correlates and triggers of target behaviors (e.g., how momentary changes in affect relate to momentary smoking urges). Traditional analytical methods, however, impose important constraints, assuming a constant effect of the TVC on the outcome. In the current paper, we describe a time-varying effect model (TVEM) and its applications to data collected as part of a smoking-cessation study. Differentiating between groups of short-term successful quitters (N = 207) and relapsers (N = 40), we examine the effects of momentary negative affect and abstinence self-efficacy on the intensity of smoking urges in each subgroup in the 2 weeks following a quit attempt. Successful quitters demonstrated a rapid reduction in smoking urges over time, a gradual decoupling of the association between negative affect and smoking urges, and a consistently strong negative effect of self-efficacy on smoking urges. In comparison, relapsers exhibited a high level of smoking urges throughout the post-quit period, a time-varying and, generally, weak effect of self-efficacy on smoking urges, and a gradual reduction in the strength of the association between negative affect and smoking urges. Implications of these findings are discussed. The TVEM is made available to applied prevention researchers through a SAS macro. PMID:22246429

  10. Length of time on dialysis prior to renal transplantation is a critical factor affecting patient survival after allografting.

    PubMed

    West, J C; Bisordi, J E; Squiers, E C; Latsha, R; Miller, J; Kelley, S E

    1992-01-01

    Within the past year at our transplant center we have had the experience of performing renal allografts in two patients older than 65 years, each of whom had been on hemodialysis more than 10 years. Both resulted in patient mortality within 90 days of transplant (one due to myocardial infarction, the other due to visceral ischemia with infarction). This prompted us to review retrospectively our own data (n = 204) and the national (UNOS) data (n = 10,971) regarding transplant outcome, patient age, and length of time on dialysis prior to renal transplantation. This review revealed that patient mortality after transplant increased with the length of end-stage renal disease (dialysis, regardless of type) independent of age, the greatest mortality occurring within the first 6 months of transplant (and not thereafter); graft survival was similar for all age cohorts analyzed. Our review of the literature reveals a paucity of articles pertaining to post-transplant mortality and length of time on dialysis prior to transplant. Our results indicate the following possible conclusions. (1) The length of time of end-stage renal disease therapy prior to renal transplantation is a significant and independent risk factor for post-transplant mortality. (2) Higher priority should be given to this factor when formulating strategies for allocation of scarce resources. (3) Patients on dialysis for extended periods of time who are elderly may be at particularly high risk. (4) Patients being considered for renal transplant should be informed of their individual risk factors for mortality post-transplant based on length of ESRD therapy. (5) Renal transplantation should be considered as early as possible in patients with ESRD (or imminent ESRD). PMID:14621760

  11. Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

  12. Polarized Raman investigations of oriented animal muscle fibers affected by storage time applying a 671 nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ebrahim, Halah; Sowoidnich, Kay; Schmidt, Heinar; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2011-06-01

    Due to its analytical ability and sensitivity to molecular vibrations, Raman spectroscopy provides valuable information of the secondary structure of proteins. Moreover, polarized Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful instrument to investigate the structural changes resulting from the aging and spoilage process of meat. In this work, polarized Raman spectra were measured on oriented cuts of pork and turkey. Fresh meat slices were stored at 5 °C and measured for a consecutive time period of 10 days. A 671 nm microsystem diode laser was used as excitation light source. The laser power at the sample was 50 mW and the integration time of each Raman spectrum was set to 5 seconds. Measurements were performed with a laser beam orientation perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers. In that arrangement, the fibers were aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the polarization direction of the laser source. By using the statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA), a clear separation of the meat samples can be found for fresh meat according to the orientation (parallel or perpendicular) using the first two principal components. During the storage period, this separation subsequently vanishes due to the aging process and due to an increase of the microbial spoilage of the meat surface. For the latter effect, a time-dependent distinction of the Raman spectra is presented as well. Furthermore, specific changes of conformation-sensitive Raman bands were recognized, notably a decrease of the intensities of α-helical protein conformation.

  13. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    PubMed

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. PMID:25529678

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  15. Near-term commercial spent fuel shipping cask requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes an analysis of the near-term commercial light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel transportation system. The objective was to determine if the existing commercial spent fuel shipping cask fleet is adequate to provide the needed transportation services for the period of time the US government would be authorized to accept spent fuel for Federal Interim Storage (FIS). A spent fuel shipping cask supply-demand analysis was performed to evaluate the existing fleet size. The results of the shipping cask handling capability study indicated that by weight, 75% of the spent fuel shipments will be by truck (overweight plus legal-weight truck). From the results of the shipping cask supply-demand analysis it was concluded that, if utilities begin large-scale applications for FIS, the five legal-weight truck (LWT) casks currently in service would be inadequate to perform all of the needed shipments as early as 1987. This further assumes that a western site would be selected for the FIS facility. If the FIS site were to be located in the East, the need for additional LWT casks would be delayed by about two years. The overweight truck (OWT) cask fleet (two PWR and two BWR versions) will be adequate through 1992 if some shipments to FIS can be made several years before a reactor is projected to lose full core reserve. This is because OWT cask requirements increase gradually over the next several years. The feasibility of shipping before losing full core reserve has not been evaluated. Cask utilization requirements in later years will be reduced if some shipments can be made prior to the time they are actually needed. The existing three rail casks are adequate to perform near-term shipments. 18 references, 4 figures, 18 tables.

  16. Spent Fuel Test - Climax data acquisition system operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nyholm, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granite rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. The multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system (DAS) collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the software element of the LLNL developed SFT-C Data Acquisition System. It defines the operating system and hardware interface configurations, the special applications software and data structures, and support software.

  17. Spent fuel test. Climax data acquisition system integration report

    SciTech Connect

    Nyholm, R.A.; Brough, W.G.; Rector, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the design and functions of the hardware and software elements of the Data Acquisition System and describes the supporting facilities which include environmental enclosures, heating/air-conditioning/humidity systems, power distribution systems, fire suppression systems, remote terminal stations, telephone/modem communications, and workshop areas. 9 figures.

  18. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared to assist research reactor operators possessing spent fuel containing enriched uranium of United States origin to prepare part of the documentation necessary to ship this fuel to the United States. Data are included on the nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate, and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies. Isotopic masses of U, Np, Pu and Am that are present in spent research reactor fuel are estimated for MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assembly types. The isotopic masses of each fuel assembly type are given as functions of U-235 burnup in the spent fuel, and of initial U-235 enrichment and U-235 mass in the fuel assembly. Photon dose rates of spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are estimated for fuel assemblies with up to 80% U-235 burnup and specific power densities between 0.089 and 2.857 MW/kg[sup 235]U, and for fission product decay times of up to 20 years. Thermal decay heat loads are estimated for spent fuel based upon the fuel assembly irradiation history (average assembly power vs. elapsed time) and the spent fuel cooling time.

  19. A Monte Carlo based spent fuel analysis safeguards strategy assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, Michael L; Tobin, Stephen J; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Menlove, Howard O; Sandoval, Nathan P

    2009-01-01

    Safeguarding nuclear material involves the detection of diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials, and the deterrence of such diversions by the risk of early detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguards nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from spent fuel; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium and other actinides of interest in spent fuel. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of cost effective techniques for quantifying plutonium mass in spent fuel for nuclear safeguards. A standardized assessment process was developed to compare the effective merits and faults of 12 different detection techniques in order to integrate a few techniques and to down-select among the techniques in preparation for experiments. The process involves generating a basis burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library, creating diversion scenarios, developing detector models and quantifying the capability of each NDA technique. Because hundreds of input and output files must be managed in the couplings of data transitions for the different facets of the assessment process, a graphical user interface (GUI) was development that automates the process. This GUI allows users to visually create diversion scenarios with varied replacement materials, and generate a MCNPX fixed source detector assessment input file. The end result of the assembly library assessment is to select a set of common source terms and diversion scenarios for quantifying the capability of each of the 12 NDA techniques. We present here the generalized

  20. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  1. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf. PMID:26578793

  2. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf. PMID:26578793

  3. How does leaving home affect marital timing? An event-history analysis of migration and marriage in Nang Rong, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jampaklay, Aree

    2006-11-01

    This study examines the effects of migration on marital timing in Thailand between 1984 and 2000 using prospective and retrospective survey data from Nang Rong. In contrast to previous results in the literature, event-history analysis of the longitudinal data reveals a positive, not a negative, effect of lagged migration experience on the likelihood of marriage. The findings also indicate gender differences. Migration's positive impact is independent of other life events for women but is completely "explained" by employment for men. PMID:17236543

  4. The Effect of Pitch, Burnup, and Absorbers on a TRIGA Spent-Fuel Pool Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Marjan; Jeraj, Robert; Glumac, Bogdan

    2003-02-15

    It has been shown that supercriticality might occur for some postulated accident conditions at the TRIGA spent-fuel pool. However, the effect of burnup was not accounted for in previous studies. In this work, the combined effect of fuel burnup, pitch among fuel elements, and number of uniformly mixed absorber rods for a square arrangement on the spent-fuel pool k{sub eff} is investigated.The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with the ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. The WIMS-D code was used to model the isotopic composition of the standard TRIGA and FLIP fuel for 5, 10, 20 and 30% burnup level and 2- and 4-yr cooling time.The results show that out of the three studied effects, pitch from contact (3.75 cm) up to rack design pitch (8 cm), number of absorbers from zero to eight, and burnup up to 30%, the pitch has the greatest influence on the multiplication factor k{sub eff}. In the interval in which the pitch was changed, k{sub eff} decreased for up to {approx}0.4 for standard and {approx}0.3 for FLIP fuel. The number of absorber rods affects the multiplication factor much less. This effect is bigger for more compact arrangements, e.g., for contact of standard fuel elements with eight absorber rods among them, k{sub eff} values are smaller for {approx}0.2 ({approx}0.1 for FLIP) than for arrangements without absorber rods almost regardless of the burnup. The effect of burnup is the smallest. For standard fuel elements, it is {approx}0.1 for almost all pitches and numbers of absorbers. For FLIP fuel, it is smaller for a factor of 3, but increases with the burnup for compact arrangements. Cooling time of fuel has just a minor effect on the k{sub eff} of spent-fuel pool and can be neglected in spent-fuel pool design.

  5. New ways of working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration. PMID:22317507

  6. New Ways of Working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration. PMID:22317114

  7. Time changes in suspended sediment radiocesium concentration in rivers in Fukushima affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesium deposited in Fukushima area have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Our monitoring result data demonstrated that the Cs-137 activity concentration in sediment eroded from the runoff-erosion plot, has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed a slight decrease through with time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy fields and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 activity concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 activity concentration was fitted using a two-component exponential model. Differences in the exponential reduction rates of the model were compared and discussed with respect to various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide important insights into the future prediction of radiocesium wash-off from catchments with different land uses.

  8. Contextual Change After Fear Acquisition Affects Conditioned Responding and the Time Course of Extinction Learning—Implications for Renewal Research

    PubMed Central

    Sjouwerman, Rachel; Niehaus, Johanna; Lonsdorf, Tina B.

    2015-01-01

    Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear) memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF) paradigms (in particular renewal), involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g., in ABC and ABA renewal). Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e., renewal). Thus, the possibility of a general effect of context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied. Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36) was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149), while measuring physiological (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle) measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e., contextual switch after extinction). Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects. PMID:26696855

  9. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  10. Persistence time of loss-of-function mutations at nonessential loci affecting eye color in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yampolsky, Lev Y; Allen, Chenoa; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Kondrashov, Alexey S

    2005-12-01

    Persistence time of a mutant allele, the expected number of generations before its elimination from the population, can be estimated as the ratio of the number of segregating mutations per individual over the mutation rate per generation. We screened two natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster for mutations causing clear-cut eye phenotypes and detected 25 mutant alleles, falling into 19 complementation groups, in 1164 haploid genomes, which implies 0.021 eye mutations/genome. The de novo haploid mutation rate for the same set of loci was estimated as 2 x 10(-4) in a 10-generation mutation-accumulation experiment. Thus, the average persistence time of all mutations causing clear-cut eye phenotypes is approximately 100 generations (95% confidence interval: 61-219). This estimate shows that the strength of selection against phenotypically drastic alleles of nonessential loci is close to that against recessive lethals. In both cases, deleterious alleles are apparently eliminated by selection against heterozygous individuals, which show no visible phenotypic differences from wild type. PMID:16118190

  11. Factors Affecting 14C Ages of Lacustrine Carbonates: Timing and Duration of the Last Highstand Lake in the Lahontan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.

    1993-01-01

    Two processes contribute to inaccurate 14C age estimates of carbonates precipitated within the Lahontan basin, NevadaCalifornia: low initial 14C/C ratios in lake water (reservoir effect) and addition of modern carbon to calcium carbonate after its precipitation. The mast reliable set of 14C ages on carbonates from elevations > 1310 m in the Pyramid and Walker Lake subbasins indicate that lakes in all seven Lahontan subbasins coalesced ???14,200 14C yr B.P. forming Lake Lahontan. Lake Lahontan achieved its 1330-m highstand elevation by ???13,800 14 C yr B.P. and receded to 1310 m by ???13,700 14C yr B.P. Calculations, based on measured carbonate-accumulation rates, of the amount of time Lake Lahontan exceeded 1310 and 1330 m (500 and 50 yr) are consistent with this chronology. The timing of the Lake Lahontan highstand is of interest because of the linkage of highstand climates with proximity to the polar jet stream. The brevity of the Lahontan highstand is interpreted to indicate that the core of the southern branch of the polar jet stream remained only briefly over the Lahontan basin.

  12. Recovery of cathode materials and Al from spent lithium-ion batteries by ultrasonic cleaning.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Cathode materials are difficult to separate from Al-foil substrates during the recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of the strong bonding force present. In this study, ultrasonic cleaning was used to separate and recycle these cathode materials. The mechanism of separation was ascribed to the dissolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and the cavitation caused by ultrasound. Based on this mechanism, the key parameters affecting the peel-off efficiency of cathode materials from Al foil was identified as solvent nature, temperature, ultrasonic power, and ultrasonic time. The peel-off efficiency of cathode materials achieved ∼ 99% under the optimized conditions of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) cleaning fluid, 70°C process temperature, 240 W ultrasonic power, and 90 min of ultrasonication. The cathode materials separated from Al foil displayed a low agglomeration degree, which is beneficial to the subsequent leaching process. Finally, a new, environmentally-sound process was proposed to efficiently recycle cathode materials and Al from spent LIBs, consisting of manual dismantling, ultrasonic cleaning, and picking. PMID:26323202

  13. Damage to stomata and inhibition of photosynthesis by toxic pollutants in Pinus sylvestris needles as affected by the exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipiainen, L.K.; Sofronova, G.I.; Hari, P.

    1995-11-01

    The impact of persistent exposure of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of various ages to industrial emissions on stomata and photosynthesis of needles was studied in relation to the exposure time. The electron microscopic examination of the needles revealed an erosion of the epicuticular wax and damage to stomata, which increased with needle age until stomata were completely occluded by polymetallic dust. Pollutant particles wee found to contain S, Cl, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cu, Co, Ti, and Zn. Photosynthetic rates were inhibited by 20-60%, depending on the needle age and tree condition. It is concluded that a nonuniformity in the toxicant distribution over the forest canopy and the age-dependent changes in the state of the cuticular wax layer are the most likely causes of variability in the extent to which individual trees were damaged by the toxicants.

  14. Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Chi; Huang, Yin-Mei

    2002-10-01

    Past empirical evidence has indicated that employee affective delivery can influence customer reactions (e.g., customer satisfaction, service quality evaluation). This study extends previous research by empirically examining mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions. Data were collected from 352 employee-customer pairs in 169 retail shoe stores in Taiwan. Results showed that the influence of employee affective delivery on customers' willingness to return to the store and pass positive comments to friends was indirect through the mediating processes of customer in-store positive moods and perceived friendliness. The study also indicated that employee affective delivery influences customers' time spent in store, which, in turn, influences customer behavioral intentions. PMID:12395825

  15. Annual report, FY 1979 Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Kustas, F.M.

    1980-05-01

    International meetings under the BEFAST program and under INFCE Working Group No. 6 during 1978 and 1979 continue to indicate that no cases of fuel cladding degradation have developed on pool-stored fuel from water reactors. A section from a spent fuel rack stand, exposed for 1.5 y in the Yankee Rowe (PWR) pool had 0.001- to 0.003-in.-deep (25- to 75-..mu..m) intergranular corrosion in weld heat-affected zones but no evidence of stress corrosion cracking. A section of a 304 stainless steel spent fuel storage rack exposed 6.67 y in the Point Beach reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool showed no significant corrosion. A section of 304 stainless steel 8-in.-dia pipe from the Three Mile Island No. 1 (PWR) spent fuel pool heat exchanger plumbing developed a through-wall crack. The crack was intergranular, initiating from the inside surface in a weld heat-affected zone. The zone where the crack occurred was severely sensitized during field welding. The Kraftwerk Union (Erlangen, GFR) disassembled a stainless-steel fuel-handling machine that operated for 12 y in a PWR (boric acid) spent fuel pool. There was no evidence of deterioration, and the fuel-handling machine was reassembled for further use. A spent fuel pool at a Swedish PWR was decontaminated. The procedure is outlined in this report.

  16. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  17. Release of U(VI) from spent biosorbent immobilized in cement concrete blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Venkobachar, C.; Iyengar, L.; Mishra, U.K.; Chauhan, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with cementation as the method for the disposal of spent biosorbent, Ganoderma lucidum (a wood rotting macrofungi) after it is used for the removal of Uranium. Results on the uranium release during the curing of cement-concrete (CC) blocks indicated that placing the spent sorbent at the center of the blocks during their casting yields better immobilization of uranium as compared to the homogeneous mixing of the spent sorbent with the cement. Short term leach tests indicated that the uranium release was negligible in simulated seawater, 1.8% in 0.2 N sodium carbonate and 6.0% in 0.2 N HCl. The latter two leachates were used to represent the extreme environmental conditions. It was observed that the presence of the spent biosorbent up to 5% by weight did not affect the compressive strength of CC blocks. Thus cementation technique is suitable for the immobilization of uranium loaded biosorbent for its ultimate disposal.

  18. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  19. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  20. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  1. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  2. Does Water Temperature Affect the Timing and Duration of Remigial Moult in Sea Ducks? An Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Viain, Anouck; Guillemette, Magella

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds have high cost of thermoregulation, especially during the moulting period, yet the effect of water temperature on the moulting strategy of aquatic birds has rarely been studied. Our general hypothesis is that energy savings associated with lower thermoregulation costs would be allocated to moulting processes. We predicted that aquatic birds moulting in warm water would have a higher level of body reserves, a faster growth rate of feathers, and an earlier remigial moult onset compared with birds moulting in cold water. We used the common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), a large sea duck, as the model species. Captive individuals were experimentally exposed to warm (18°C) and cold (8°C) water treatments during a three year period with individuals swapped between treatments. We found a similar feather growth rate for the two water temperature treatments and in contrast to our predictions, eiders exposed to warm water had a lower body mass and showed a delayed onset of remigial moult of approximately 7 days compared with those exposed to cold water. Our data indicate that body mass variations influence the timing of moult in unexpected ways and we suggest that it likely controls the occurrence of wing moult through a hormonal cascade. This study emphasizes the importance of improving our knowledge of the effects of water temperature on remigial moult of aquatic birds, to better assert the potential effects of global warming on their survival. PMID:27177039

  3. Channel Interaction and Current Level Affect Across-Electrode Integration of Interaural Time Differences in Bilateral Cochlear-Implant Listeners.

    PubMed

    Egger, Katharina; Majdak, Piotr; Laback, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) is important for sound localization. Normal-hearing listeners benefit from across-frequency processing, as seen with improved ITD thresholds when consistent ITD cues are presented over a range of frequency channels compared with when ITD information is only presented in a single frequency channel. This study aimed to clarify whether cochlear-implant (CI) listeners can make use of similar processing when being stimulated with multiple interaural electrode pairs transmitting consistent ITD information. ITD thresholds for unmodulated, 100-pulse-per-second pulse trains were measured in seven bilateral CI listeners using research interfaces. Consistent ITDs were presented at either one or two electrode pairs at different current levels, allowing for comparisons at either constant level per component electrode or equal overall loudness. Different tonotopic distances between the pairs were tested in order to clarify the potential influence of channel interaction. Comparison of ITD thresholds between double pairs and the respective single pairs revealed systematic effects of tonotopic separation and current level. At constant levels, performance with double-pair stimulation improved compared with single-pair stimulation but only for large tonotopic separation. Comparisons at equal overall loudness revealed no benefit from presenting ITD information at two electrode pairs for any tonotopic spacing. Irrespective of electrode-pair configuration, ITD sensitivity improved with increasing current level. Hence, the improved ITD sensitivity for double pairs found for a large tonotopic separation and constant current levels seems to be due to increased loudness. The overall data suggest that CI listeners can benefit from combining consistent ITD information across multiple electrodes, provided sufficient stimulus levels and that stimulating electrode pairs are widely spaced. PMID:26377826

  4. Age of learning affects the authenticity of voice-onset time (VOT) in stop consonants produced in a second language.

    PubMed

    Flege, J E

    1991-01-01

    This study examined whether Spanish-English bilinguals are able to fully differentiate Spanish and English /t/ according to voice-onset time (VOT) if they learn English as a second language (L2) in early childhood. In experiment 1, VOT was measured in Spanish words spoken by Spanish monolinguals, in English words spoken by English monolinguals, and in Spanish and English words spoken by bilinguals who learned English either as young children or as adults. As expected, the Spanish monolinguals produced /t/ with considerably shorter VOT values than the English monolinguals. Also as expected, the late L2 learners produced English /t/ with "compromise" VOT values that were intermediate to the short-lag values observed for Spanish monolinguals and the long-lag values observed for English monolinguals. The early learners' VOT values for English /t/, on the other hand, did not differ from English monolinguals' VOT. The same pattern of results was obtained for stops in utterance-medial position and in absolute utterance-initial position. The results of experiment 1 were replicated in experiment 2, where bilingual subjects were required to produce Spanish and English utterances (sentences, phrases, words) in alteration. The results are interpreted to mean that individuals who learn an L2 in early childhood, but not those who learn an L2 later in life, are able to establish phonetic categories for sounds in the L2 that differ acoustically from corresponding sounds in the native language. It is hypothesized that the late L2 learners produced /t/ with slightly longer VOT values in English than Spanish by applying different realization rules to a single phonetic category. PMID:2002177

  5. Timing of The First Zygotic Cleavage Affects Post-Vitrification Viability of Murine Embryos Produced In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jusof, Wan-Hafizah Wan; Khan, Nor-Ashikin Mohamed Noor; Rajikin, Mohd Hamim; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Mustafa, Mohd-Fazirul; Jusoh, Norhazlin; Dasiman, Razif

    2015-01-01

    Background Timing of the first zygotic cleavage is an accurate predictor of embryo quality. Embryos that cleaved early (EC) have been shown to exhibit higher develop- mental viability compared to those that cleaved at a later period (LC). However, the vi- ability of EC embryos in comparison to LC embryos after vitrification is unknown. The present study aims to investigate the post-vitrification developmental viability of murine EC versus LC embryos. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, female ICR mice (6-8 weeks old) were superovulated and cohabited with fertile males for 24 hours. Afterwards, their ovi- ducts were excised and embryos harvested. Embryos at the 2-cell stage were catego- rized as EC embryos, while zygotes with two pronuclei were categorized as LC embryos. Embryos were cultured in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a humidified 5% CO2atmosphere. Control embryos were cultured until the blastocyst stage without vitrification. Experimental embryos at the 2-cell stage were vitri- fied for one hour using 40% v/v ethylene glycol, 18% w/v Ficoll-70 and 0.5 M sucrose as the cryoprotectant. We recorded the numbers of surviving embryos from the control and experimental groups and their development until the blastocyst stage. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results A significantly higher proportion of EC embryos (96.7%) from the control group developed to the blastocyst stage compared with LC embryos (57.5%, P<0.0001). Similarly, in the experimental group, a significantly higher percentage of vitrified EC embryos (69.4%) reached the blastocyst stage compared to vitrified LC embryos (27.1%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Vitrified EC embryos are more vitrification tolerant than LC embryos. Prese- lection of EC embryos may be used as a tool for selection of embryos that exhibit higher developmental competence after vitrification. PMID:26246881

  6. Gamma Ray Mirrors for Direct Measurement of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, Dr. Michael J.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Harrison, Mark J; Soufli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurement of the amount of Pu and U in spent nuclear fuel represents a challenge for the safeguards community. Ideally, the characteristic gamma-ray emission lines from different isotopes provide an observable suitable for this task. However, these lines are generally lost in the fierce flux of radiation emitted by the fuel. The rates are so high that detector dead times limit measurements to only very small solid angles of the fuel. Only through the use of carefully designed view ports and long dwell times are such measurements possible. Recent advances in multilayer grazing-incidence gamma-ray optics provide one possible means of overcoming this difficulty. With a proper optical and coating design, such optics can serve as a notch filter, passing only narrow regions of the overall spectrum to a fully shielded detector that does not view the spent fuel directly. We report on the design of a mirror system and a number of experimental measurements.

  7. Time-lagged variation in pond density and primary productivity affects duck nest survival in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Walker, Johann; Rotella, Jay J; Stephens, Scott E; Lindberg, Mark S; Ringelman, James K; Hunter, Christine; Smith, Aaron J

    2013-07-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the primary breeding region for most species of North American dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). Conservation of these species is guided in part by knowledge of relationships between nest survival probability and habitat features. Positive relationships between duck nest survival and amount and configuration of herbaceous perennial vegetation have been observed in previous studies, but these 2- to 4-year studies might not have adequately characterized the temporal effect of wet-dry episodes on nest survival. Over an eight-year period, we studied nest survival of five species of ducks in the PPR relative to spatial and temporal variation in pond density, primary productivity, and hydrologic status of wetlands, soil, and vegetation on 52 study sites selected to span a gradient of spatial variation in proportion of herbaceous perennial vegetation and in number of wetland basins. We observed the fate of 12 754 nests. Consistent with past studies, 90% of nests that failed to hatch were destroyed by predators. Nest survival probability was positively related to current-year pond density and primary productivity, negatively related to pond density and primary productivity during the previous two years, and positively related to the number of wetland basins on the study site. Predicted relationships between nest survival and proportion or configuration of herbaceous perennial vegetation in the surrounding landscape were not supported. For mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), median estimated nest survival probability ranged from 0.02 (SE = 0.01) to 0.22 (SE = 0.02). Estimated nest survival was greatest on sites with numerous wetland basins that had transitioned from dry, unproductive conditions to wet, productive conditions in the previous 1-2 years. Our results were consistent with time-lagged responses of food webs to resource pulses in a broad array of ecosystems. Our study highlighted the importance of wetland basins and wet-dry episodes to duck

  8. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides.

  9. Recovery and recycle of valuable constituents in spent pickling acids

    SciTech Connect

    Thornburg, G. ); McArdle, J.C.; Piccari, J.A.; Byszewski, C.H. )

    1990-11-01

    An acid recovery system has been successfully operated for over two years at Washington Steel Corporation, Washington, Pennsylvania. During this time the system has effectively recycled the valuable components in spent pickling acids, thereby significantly reducing the costs and liabilities associated with the disposal of these hazardous wastes. Integration of the system into existing pickle line operations has the additional benefit of improving the quality and consistency of the pickled steel product, as well as reducing maintenance on the tubs.

  10. Characterization of alloy particles extracted from spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Fortner, J. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Eriksson, L.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.; Spahiu, K.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, submicro- and nanosized fission product-alloy particles that were extracted nondestructively from spent nuclear fuel, in terms of noble metal (Mo-Ru-Tc-Rh-Pd-Te) composition, atomic level homogeneity and lattice parameters. The evidences obtained in this work contribute to an improved understanding of the redox chemistry of radionuclides in nuclear waste repository environments and, in particular, of the catalytic properties of these unique metal alloy particles.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project dose management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1996-03-01

    This dose management plan facilitates meeting the dose management and ALARA requirements applicable to the design activities of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, and establishes consistency of information used by multiple subprojects in ALARA evaluations. The method for meeting the ALARA requirements applicable to facility designs involves two components. The first is each Spent Nuclear Fuel Project subproject incorporating ALARA principles, ALARA design optimizations, and ALARA design reviews throughout the design of facilities and equipment. The second component is the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project management providing overall dose management guidance to the subprojects and oversight of the subproject dose management efforts.

  12. Recycling of spent adsorbents for oxyanions and heavy metal ions in the production of ceramics.

    PubMed

    Verbinnen, Bram; Block, Chantal; Van Caneghem, Jo; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Spent adsorbents for oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals are classified as hazardous materials and they are typically treated by stabilization/solidification before landfilling. The use of lime or cement for stabilization/solidification entails a high environmental impact and landfilling costs are high. This paper shows that mixing spent adsorbents in the raw material for the production of ceramic materials is a valuable alternative to stabilize oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals. The produced ceramics can be used as construction material, avoiding the high economic and environmental impact of stabilization/solidification followed by landfilling. To study the stabilization of oxyanion forming elements and heavy metals during the production process, two series of experiments were performed. In the first series of experiments, the main pollutant, Mo was adsorbed onto iron-based adsorbents, which were then mixed with industrial sludge (3 w/w%) and heated at 1100°C for 30 min. Mo was chosen, as this element is easily adsorbed onto iron-based adsorbents and it is the element that is the most difficult to stabilize (i.e. the highest temperatures need to be reached before the concentrations in the leachate are reduced). Leaching concentration from the 97/3 sludge/adsorbent mixture before heating ranged between 85 and 154 mg/kg; after the heating process they were reduced to 0.42-1.48 mg/kg. Mo was actually stabilized, as the total Mo concentration after addition was not affected by the heat treatment. In the second series of experiments, the sludge was spiked with other heavy metals and oxyanion forming elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in concentrations 5 times higher than the initial concentrations; after heat treatment the leachate concentrations were below the regulatory limit values. The incorporation of spent adsorbents in ceramic materials is a valuable and sustainable alternative to the existing treatment methods, saving raw materials in the

  13. Site Specific Analyses of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Chen, S. Y.

    2003-02-24

    The number of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments is expected to increase significantly during the time period that the United States' inventory of SNF is sent to a final disposal site. Prior work estimated that the highest accident risks of a SNF shipping campaign to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain were in the corridor states, such as Illinois. The largest potential human health impacts would be expected to occur in areas with high population densities such as urban settings. Thus, our current study examined the human health impacts from the most plausible severe SNF transportation accidents in the Chicago metropolitan area. The RISKIND 2.0 program was used to model site-specific data for an area where the largest impacts might occur. The results have shown that the radiological human health consequences of a severe SNF rail transportation accident on average might be similar to one year of exposure to natural background radiation for those persons living a nd working in the most affected areas downwind of the actual accident location. For maximally exposed individuals, an exposure similar to about two years of exposure to natural background radiation was estimated. In addition to the accident probabilities being very low (approximately 1 chance in 10,000 or less during the entire shipping campaign), the actual human health impacts are expected to be lower if any of the accidents considered did occur, because the results are dependent on the specific location and weather conditions, such as wind speed and direction, that were selected to maximize the results. Also, comparison of the results of longer duration accident scenarios against U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines was made to demonstrate the usefulness of this site-specific analysis for emergency planning purposes.

  14. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Hu, Jianwei; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; et al

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  15. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety studies applicable to spent fuel shipping cask designs and spent fuel storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Criticality analyses of water-moderated and reflected arrays of LWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies were carried out in this study. The calculated results indicate that using the assumption of fresh fuel loading in spent fuel shipping cask design leads to assembly spacings which are about twice the spacings of spent fuel loadings. Some shipping cask walls of composite lead and water are more effective neutron reflectors than water of 30.48 cm (12 in).

  17. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

  18. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I.

    2013-07-01

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  20. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  1. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  2. Spent Fuel Reprocessing: More Value for Money Spent in a Geological Repository?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.; Vinoche, R.; Devezeaux, J-G.; Bailly, F.

    2003-02-25

    Today, each utility or country operating nuclear power plants can select between two long-term spent fuel management policies: either, spent fuel is considered as waste to dispose of through direct disposal or, spent fuel is considered a resource of valuable material through reprocessing-recycling. Reading and listening to what is said in the nuclear community, we understand that most people consider that the choice of policy is, actually, a choice among two technical paths to handle spent fuel: direct disposal versus reprocessing. This very simple situation has been recently challenged by analysis coming from countries where both policies are on survey. For example, ONDRAF of Belgium published an interesting study showing that, economically speaking for final disposal, it is worth treating spent fuel rather than dispose of it as a whole, even if there is no possibility to recycle the valuable part of it. So, the question is raised: is there such a one-to-one link between long term spent fuel management political option and industrial option? The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of spent fuel treatment as an implementation of the policy that considers spent fuel as waste to dispose of. Based on technical considerations and industrial experience, we will study qualitatively, and quantitatively when possible, the different answers proposed by treatment to the main concerns of spent-fuel-as-a-whole geological disposal.

  3. Impacts of a high-burnup spent fuel on a geological disposal system design

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D.K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.Y.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.

    2007-07-01

    The influence of a burnup increase of a spent nuclear fuel on a deep geological disposal system was evaluated in this study. First, the impact of a burnup increase on each aspect related to thermal and nuclear safety concerns was quantified. And then, the tunnel length, excavation volume, and the raw materials for a cast insert, copper, bentonite, and backfill needed to constitute a disposal system were comprehensively analyzed based on the spent fuel inventory to generate 1 Terawatt-year (TWa), to establish the overall effects and consequences on a geological disposal. As a result, impact of a burnup increase on the criticality safety and radiation shielding was shown to be negligible. The disposal area, however, is considerably affected because of a higher thermal load. And, it is reasonable to use a canister such as the Korean Reference Disposal Canister (KDC-1) containing 4 spent fuels up to 50 GWD/MtU, and to use a canister containing 3 spent fuels beyond 50 GWD/MtU. Although a considerable increased, 33 % in the tunnel length and 30 % in the excavation volume, was observed as the burnup increases from 50 to 60 GWD/MtU, because a decrease in the canister needs can offset an increase in the excavation volume, it can be concluded that a burnup increase of a spent fuel is not a critical concern for a geological disposal of a spent fuel. (authors)

  4. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  5. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO 2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO 2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl 2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl x-Al and U 3Si 2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl 2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe 2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH) 3(s) and Eu(OH) 3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot

  6. Process optimization of preparation of ZnO-porous carbon composite from spent catalysts using one step activation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen; Qu, Wen-Wen; Srinivasakannan, C; Peng, Jin-Hui; Duan, Xin-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Min

    2012-08-01

    The process parameters of one step preparation of ZnO/Activated Carbon (AC) composite materials, from vinyl acetate synthesis spent catalyst were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and the central composite rotatable design (CCD). Regeneration temperature, time and flow rate of CO2 were the process variables, while the iodine number and the yield were the response variables. All the three process variables were found to significantly influence the yield of the regenerated carbon, while only the regeneration temperature and CO2 flow rate were found to significantly affect the iodine number. The optimized process conditions that maximize the yield and iodine adsorption capacity were identified to be a regeneration temperature of 950 degrees C, time of 120 min and flow rate of CO2 of 600 ml/min, with the corresponding yield and iodine number to be in excess of 50% and 1100 mg/g. The BET surface area of the regenerated composite was estimated to be 1263 m2/g, with micropore to mesopore ratio of 0.75. The pore volume was found to have increased 6 times as compared to the spent catalyst. The composite material (AC/ZnO) with high surface area and pore volume coupled with high yield augur economic feasibility of the process. EDS and XRD spectrum indicate presence of ZnO in the regenerated samples. PMID:22962730

  7. Handling encapsulated spent fuel in a geologic repository environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.B.

    1983-02-01

    In support of the Spent Fuel Test-Climate at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site, a spent-fuel canister handling system has been designed, deployed, and operated successfully during the past five years. This system transports encapsulated commercial spent-fuel assemblies between the packaging facility and the test site ({similar_to}100 km), transfers the canisters 420 m vertically to and from a geologic storage drift, and emplaces or retrieves the canisters from the storage holes in the floor of the drift. The spent-fuel canisters are maintained in a fully shielded configuration at all times during the handling cycle, permitting manned access at any time for response to any abnormal conditions. All normal operations are conducted by remote control, thus assuring as low as reasonably achievable exposures to operators; specifically, we have had no measurable exposure during 30 canister transfer operations. While not intended to be prototypical of repository handling operations, the system embodies a number of concepts, now demonstrated to be safe, reliable, and economical, which may be very useful in evaluating full-scale repository handling alternatives in the future. Among the potentially significant concepts are: Use of an integral shielding plug to minimize radiation streaming at all transfer interfaces. Hydraulically actuated transfer cask jacking and rotation features to reduce excavation headroom requirements. Use of a dedicated small diameter (0.5 m) drilled shaft for transfer between the surface and repository workings. A wire-line hoisting system with positive emergency braking device which travels with the load. Remotely activated grapples - three used in the system - which are insensitive to load orientation. Rail-mounted underground transfer vehicle operated with no personnel underground.

  8. Monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas using temporal profiles of spectral signal from time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulou, Danai; Koutsias, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus to be helpful for monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas. The aim of this study is to explore the vegetation recovery pattern of the catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Peloponnisos, southern Greece, in 2007. These fires caused the loss of 67 lives and were recognized as the most extreme natural disaster in the country's recent history. Satellite remote sensing data from MODIS and LANDSAT satellites in the period from 2000 to 2014 were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal for selected areas within the fire-affected areas. This dataset and time period analyzed together with the time that these fires occurred gave the opportunity to create temporal profiles seven years before and seven years after the fire. The different scale of the data used gave us the chance to understand how vegetation phenology and therefore the recovery patterns are influenced by the spatial resolution of the satellite data used. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been created and used to assess vegetation recovery in the fire-affected areas. Our analysis was focused in the main land cover types that were mostly affected by the 2007 wildland fires. Based on CORINE land-cover maps these were agricultural lands highly interspersed with large areas of natural vegetation followed by sclerophyllous vegetation, transitional woodland shrubs, complex cultivation patterns and olive groves. Apart of the use of the original spectral data we estimated and used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. In this study we

  9. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; White, Joseph C; Smith, William K

    2014-05-01

    In cloud forests, foliar uptake (FU) of water has been reported for numerous species, possibly acting to relieve daily water and carbon stress. While the prevalence of FU seems common, how daily variation in fog timing may affect this process has not been studied. We examined the quantity of FU, water potentials, gas exchange and abiotic variation at the beginning and end of a 9-day exposure to fog in a glasshouse setting. Saplings of Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. and Picea rubens Sarg. were exposed to morning (MF), afternoon (AF) or evening fog (EF) regimes to assess the ability to utilize fog water at different times of day and after sustained exposure to simulated fog. The greatest amount of FU occurred during MF (up to 50%), followed by AF (up to 23%) and then EF, which surprisingly had no FU. There was also a positive relationship between leaf conductance and FU, suggesting a role of stomata in FU. Moreover, MF and AF lead to the greatest improvements in daily water balance and carbon gain, respectively. Foliar uptake was important for improving plant ecophysiology but was influenced by diurnal variation in fog. With climate change scenarios predicting changes to cloud patterns and frequency that will likely alter diurnal patterns, cloud forests that rely on this water subsidy could be affected. PMID:24835239

  10. Evaluation of lipid oxidation and oxidative products as affected by pork meat cut, packaging method, and storage time during frozen storage (-10 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Yoo, S S; Uh, J H; Eun, J B; Lee, H C; Kim, Y J; Chin, K B

    2007-03-01

    Lipid oxidation and oxidative volatiles as affected by pork meat cut and packaging method during frozen storage at -10 degrees C were evaluated. Pork belly cut had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and pH values than did the loin, whereas the loin had higher free fatty acid (FFA) values than that of the belly cut. Peroxide values increased with increased storage time, but were not affected by pork meat cut and packaging method. Volatiles with carbon numbers less than 10 in the belly cut were higher than those in the loin cut, whereas those with carbon numbers greater than 10 in the loin cut were higher than those in belly cut. Most volatiles were decreased with increased storage time, except for propane. Both 4-pentenal and 4-methyl-2-hexanone in the belly cut showed a positive correlation with FFA, whereas 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptene and 9-octadecenal in the loin cut were positively correlated with TBARS and FFA, respectively, even though the values were not high enough to predict the degree of lipid oxidation. PMID:17995825

  11. Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Fensin, M. L.; Lee, S. Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M. A.; Smith, L. E.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-06-30

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an"assembly library" was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed

  12. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    PubMed

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes. PMID:26934377

  13. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23–26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes. PMID:26934377

  14. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  15. 78 FR 3853 - Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 71 and 72 Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation and During Transportation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... transport of spent nuclear fuel are separate from requirements for storage of spent nuclear fuel....

  16. Parametric study of radiation dose rates from rail and truck spent fuel transport casks

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Knight, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma dose rates from typical rail and truck spent fuel transport casks are reported for a variety of spent PWR fuel sources and cask conditions. The IF 300 rail cask and NLI 1/2 truck cask were selected for use as appropriate cask models. All calculations (cross section preparation, generation of spent fuel source terms, radiation transport calculations, and dose evaluation) were performed using various modules of the SCALE computational system. Conditions or parameters for which there were variations between cases include: detector distance from cask, spent fuel cooling time, the setting of fuel or neutron shielding cavities to either wet or dry, the cobalt content of assembly materials, normal fuel assemblies and consolidated cannisters, the geometry mesh interval size, and the order of the angular quadrature set. 13 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Reexamination of spent fuel shipment risk estimates

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,J.R.; SPRUNG,JEREMY L.

    2000-04-25

    The risks associated with the transport of spent nuclear fuel by truck and rail have been reexamined and compared to results published in NUREG-O170 and the Modal Study. The full reexamination considered transport of PWR and BWR spent fuel by truck and rail in four generic Type B spent fuel casks. Because they are typical, this paper presents results only for transport of PWR spent fuel in steel-lead steel casks. Cask and spent fuel response to collision impacts and fires were evaluated by performing three-dimensional finite element and one-dimensional heat transport calculations. Accident release fractions were developed by critical review of literature data. Accident severity fractions were developed from Modal Study truck and rail accident event trees, modified to reflect the frequency of occurrence of hard and soft rock wayside route surfaces as determined by analysis of geographic data. Incident-free population doses and the population dose risks associated with the accidents that might occur during transport were calculated using the RADTRAN 5 transportation risk code. The calculated incident-free doses were compared to those published in NUREG-O170. The calculated accident dose risks were compared to dose risks calculated using NUREG-0170 and Modal Study accident source terms. The comparisons demonstrated that both of these studies made a number of very conservative assumptions about spent fuel and cask response to accident conditions, which caused their estimates of accident source terms, accident frequencies, and accident consequences to also be very conservative. The results of this study and the previous studies demonstrate that the risks associated with the shipment of spent fuel by truck or rail are very small.

  18. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    The second quarter of 1990 was one of peripheral progress on the project of reclaiming molybdenum and nickel from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. We defined some important parameters for future research and we were able to clear up ambiguities in some of the past approaches and the problems uniquely associated with the ability of T. ferrooxidans to leach both Ni{sup ++} and molybdate from spent, alumina supported catalyst from the Wilsonville pilot project. We were also able to show the T. ferrooxidans was very sensitive to molybdate and extremely sensitive to tungstate, but showed relatively little sensitivity for the related elements chromate, vanadate and for the catalyst associated metal, Ni{sup ++}. There appears to be no negative synergistic effects between Ni{sup ++} and molybdate for growth, which bodies well for processes to reclaim both these metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. We have shown that T. ferrooxidans is indeed capable of leaching molybdate and Ni{sup ++} from spent catalysts if the catalyst is washed extensively with both an organic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran to remove the oily contaminants and an aqueous acidic medium to remove readily solubilized N{sup ++} and molybdate. It is possible to extract into an acidic medium enough molybdate from THF washed spent catalyst within 24 hr to completely inhibit the growth of all tested T. ferrooxidans strains. The stage is now set for the development of a molybdate tolerant strain to be used for actual leaching of the spent catalyst. We are currently seeking simpler ways of pretreating the raw spent catalyst in order to make it more amenable to microbial leaching and possibly produce an economic and feasible technology.

  19. Shipper/receiver difference verification of spent fuel by use of PDET

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y. S.; Sitaraman, S.

    2011-07-01

    the peak ratio of all the detector locations gives a unique signature that is sensitive to missing pins. The signature is principally dependent on the geometry of the detector locations, and little sensitive to enrichment or burn-up variations. A small variation in the fuel bundle, such as a few missing pins, changes the shape of the signature to enable detection. After verification of the non-diversion of spent fuel pins, the neutron signal and gamma signal are subsequently used to verify the consistency of the operator declaration on the fuel burn-up and cooling time. (authors)

  20. Quality of Learners' Time and Learning Performance beyond Quantitative Time-on-Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Margarida; Barbera, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Along with the amount of time spent learning (or time-on-task), the quality of learning time has a real influence on learning performance. Quality of time in online learning depends on students' time availability and their willingness to devote quality cognitive time to learning activities. However, the quantity and quality of the time spent by…

  1. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics. PMID:27449232

  2. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J.; Ma, Z.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  3. Method for calculating the duration of vacuum drying of a metal-concrete container for spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Yu. E.; Nekhozhin, M. A.; Pletnev, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    A method for calculating the quantity of moisture in a metal-concrete container in the process of its charging with spent nuclear fuel is proposed. A computing method and results obtained by it for conservative estimation of the time of vacuum drying of a container charged with spent nuclear fuel by technologies with quantization and without quantization of the lower fuel element cluster are presented. It has been shown that the absence of quantization in loading spent fuel increases several times the time of vacuum drying of the metal-concrete container.

  4. Relieving the Time Squeeze? Effects of a White-Collar Workplace Change on Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Rachelle; Tranby, Eric; Kelly, Erin; Moen, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Employed parents perceive a time squeeze even as trends from the 1960s show they are spending more time with their children. Work conditions (e.g., hours and schedule control) would seem to affect both parents’ time with children and perceived time squeeze, but most studies rely on cross-sectional data that do not establish causality. The authors examined the effects of the introduction of a workplace flexibility initiative (Results Only Work Environment [ROWE]) on changes in mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of the adequacy of their time with children and actual time spent with children (N = 225). Baseline data show the importance of work conditions for parents’ sense of perceived time adequacy. Panel data show that mothers (but not fathers) in ROWE report increased schedule control and improved time adequacy, but no change in actual time spent with children, except that ROWE increases evening meals with children for mothers sharing few meals at baseline. PMID:24436498

  5. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 72.214, see the List of CFR Sections...

  6. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of approved spent fuel storage casks. 72.214 Section 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 72.214, see the List of CFR Sections...

  7. Dosimetry Modeling for Predicting Radiolytic Production at the Spent Fuel - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Kline, Amanda J.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2006-04-30

    Modeling of the alpha, beta, and gamma dose from spent fuel as a function of particle size and fuel to water ratio was examined. These doses will be combined with modeling of G values and interactions to determine the concentration of various species formed at the fuel water interface and their affect on dissolution rates.

  8. Ion Exchange Resins for Long-Term Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rideaux, J.

    1999-03-08

    This paper will specifically address the use and life cycle of ion exchange resins as they relate to the SRS Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins. This paper also chronicles the use of two types of ion exchange resins and their affect on basin water quality from the sixties until today.

  9. Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D. R.; Cuta, J. M.; Enderlin, C. W.

    1997-10-08

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codes for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.

  11. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  12. Effects of cooling time and alloying elements on the microstructure of the gleeble-simulated heat-affected zone of 22% Cr duplex stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Rong-Iuan; Liou, Horng-Yih; Pan, Yeong-Tsuen

    2001-10-01

    The effects of austenite stabilizers, such as nitrogen, nickel, and manganese, and cooling time on the microstructure of the Gleeble simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ) of 22% Cr duplex stainless steels were investigated. The submerged are welding was performed for comparison purposes. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for microscopic studies. The amount of Cr2N precipitates in the simulated HAZ was determined using the potentiostatic electrolysis method. The experimental results indicate that an increase in the nitrogen and nickel contents raised the δ to transformation temperature and also markedly increased the amount of austenite in the HAZ. The lengthened cooling time promotes the reformation of austenite. An increase in the austenite content reduces the supersaturation of nitrogen in ferrite matrix as well as the precipitation tendency of Cr2N. The optimum cooling time from 800 to 500 °C (Δ t 8/5) obtained from the Gleeble simulation is between 30 and 60 s, which ensures the austenite content in HAZ not falling below 25% and superior pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance for the steels. The effect of manganese on the formation of austenite can be negligible.

  13. Simulation study for lifetime distribution of middle-of-line time-dependent dielectric breakdown affected by global and local spacing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokogawa, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    The impact of process fluctuations for the lifetime distribution of middle-of-line time-dependent dielectric breakdown was investigated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Global and local variations were simulated using a doubly truncated normal distribution. A goodness of fit to the generated data was determined statistically in terms of the Weibull distribution and clustering model. A change in the standard deviation of the global variation shows a large contribution to lifetime variation. However, it does not affect the average lifetime. A change in the standard deviation of the local variation contributes to both the average lifetime and the distribution variation. The upper limit of the process variation induces the convex upward shape of the lifetime distribution on the Weibull plot. The clustering model well explains the distribution shape.

  14. Water residence time affecting phytoplankton blooms: study case in Ibitinga Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) using Landsat/TM images.

    PubMed

    Londe, L R; Novo, E M L M; Barbosa, C; Araujo, C A S

    2016-05-01

    Satellite images are an effective tool for the detection of phytoplankton blooms, since they cause striking changes in water color. Bloom intensity can be expressed in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration. Previous studies suggest the use of Landsat TM4/TM3 reflectance ratio to retrieve surface chlorophyll-a concentration from aquatic systems. In this study we assumed that a remote sensing trophic state index can be applied to investigate how changes in HRT along the hydrologic year affect the spatial distribution of the phytoplankton blooms at Ibitinga's reservoir surface. For that, we formulated two objectives: (1) apply a semi-empirical model which uses this reflectance ratio to map chlorophyll-a concentration at Ibitinga reservoir along the 2005 hydrologic year and (2) assess how changes in hydraulic residence time (HRT) affect the spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms at Ibitinga Reservoir. The study site was chosen because previous studies reported seasonal changes in the reservoir limnology which might be related to the reservoir seasonality and hydrodynamics. Six Landsat/TM images were acquired over Ibitinga reservoir during 2005 and water flow measurements provided by the Brazilian Electric System National Operator - ONS were used to compute the reservoir´s residence time, which varied from 5.37 to 52.39 days during 2005. The HRT in the date of image acquisition was then compared to the distribution of chlorophyll-a in the reservoir. The results showed that the HRT increasing implies the increasing of the reservoir surface occupied by phytoplankton blooms. PMID:27143058

  15. Plastic hatching timing by red-eyed treefrog embryos interacts with larval predator identity and sublethal predation to affect prey morphology but not performance.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin C; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2014-01-01

    Many animals respond to predation risk by altering their morphology, behavior, or life-history. We know a great deal about the cues prey respond to and the changes to prey that can be induced by predation risk, but less is known about how plastic responses to predators may be affected by separate plastic responses occurring earlier in life, particularly during the embryonic period. Embryos of a broad array of taxa can respond to egg- or larval-stage risks by altering hatching timing, which may alter the way organisms respond to future predators. Using the red-eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas), a model for understanding the effects of plasticity across life-stages, we assessed how the combined effects of induced variation in the timing of embryo hatching and variation in the larval predator community impacted tadpole morphology, pigmentation and swimming performance. We found that A. callidryas tadpoles developed deeper tail muscles and fins and darker pigmentation in response to fish predators, either when alone or in diverse community with other predators. Tadpoles altered morphology much less so to dragonfly naiads or water bugs. Interestingly, morphological responses to predators were also affected by induced differences in hatching age, with early and late-hatched tadpoles exhibiting different allometric relationships between tail height and body length in different predator environments. Beyond induced morphological changes, fish predators often damaged tadpoles' tails without killing them (i.e., sublethal predation), but these tadpoles swam equally quickly to those with fully intact tails. This was due to the fact that tadpoles with more damaged tails increased tail beats to achieve equal swimming speed. This study demonstrates that plastic phenotypic responses to predation risk can be influenced by a complex combination of responses to both the embryo and larval environments, but also that prey performance can be highly resilient to sublethal predation

  16. A high proportion of blue light increases the photosynthesis capacity and leaf formation rate of Rosa × hybrida but does not affect time to flower opening.

    PubMed

    Terfa, Meseret Tesema; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar; Olsen, Jorunn Elisabeth; Torre, Sissel

    2013-05-01

    Alterations in light quality affect plant morphogenesis and photosynthetic responses but the effects vary significantly between species. Roses exhibit an irradiance-dependent flowering control but knowledge on light quality responses is scarce. In this study we analyzed, the responses in morphology, photosynthesis and flowering of Rosa × hybrida to different blue (B) light proportions provided by light-emitting diodes (LED, high B 20%) and high pressure sodium (HPS, low B 5%) lamps. There was a strong morphological and growth effect of the light sources but no significant difference in total dry matter production and flowering. HPS-grown plants had significantly higher leaf area and plant height, yet a higher dry weight proportion was allocated to leaves than stems under LED. LED plants showed 20% higher photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and higher levels of soluble carbohydrates. The increase in Amax correlated with an increase in leaf mass per unit leaf area, higher stomata conductance and CO2 exchange, total chlorophyll (Chl) content per area and Chl a/b ratio. LED-grown leaves also displayed a more sun-type leaf anatomy with more and longer palisade cells and a higher stomata frequency. Although floral initiation occurred at a higher leaf number in LED, the time to open flowers was the same under both light conditions. Thereby the study shows that a higher portion of B light is efficient in increasing photosynthesis performance per unit leaf area, enhancing growth and morphological changes in roses but does not affect the total Dry Matter (DM) production or time to open flower. PMID:23020549

  17. Plastic Hatching Timing by Red-Eyed Treefrog Embryos Interacts with Larval Predator Identity and Sublethal Predation to Affect Prey Morphology but Not Performance

    PubMed Central

    Touchon, Justin C.; Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals respond to predation risk by altering their morphology, behavior, or life-history. We know a great deal about the cues prey respond to and the changes to prey that can be induced by predation risk, but less is known about how plastic responses to predators may be affected by separate plastic responses occurring earlier in life, particularly during the embryonic period. Embryos of a broad array of taxa can respond to egg- or larval-stage risks by altering hatching timing, which may alter the way organisms respond to future predators. Using the red-eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas), a model for understanding the effects of plasticity across life-stages, we assessed how the combined effects of induced variation in the timing of embryo hatching and variation in the larval predator community impacted tadpole morphology, pigmentation and swimming performance. We found that A. callidryas tadpoles developed deeper tail muscles and fins and darker pigmentation in response to fish predators, either when alone or in diverse community with other predators. Tadpoles altered morphology much less so to dragonfly naiads or water bugs. Interestingly, morphological responses to predators were also affected by induced differences in hatching age, with early and late-hatched tadpoles exhibiting different allometric relationships between tail height and body length in different predator environments. Beyond induced morphological changes, fish predators often damaged tadpoles’ tails without killing them (i.e., sublethal predation), but these tadpoles swam equally quickly to those with fully intact tails. This was due to the fact that tadpoles with more damaged tails increased tail beats to achieve equal swimming speed. This study demonstrates that plastic phenotypic responses to predation risk can be influenced by a complex combination of responses to both the embryo and larval environments, but also that prey performance can be highly resilient to sublethal predation

  18. Geomechanics of the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Three years of geomechanical measurements were made at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) 1400 feet underground in fractured granitic rock. Heating of the rock mass resulted from emplacement of spent fuel as well as the heating by electrical heaters. Cooldown of the rock occurred after the spent fuel was removed and the heaters were turned off. The measurements program examines both gross and localized responses of the rock mass to thermal loading, to evaluate the thermomechanical response of sheared and fractured rock with that of relatively unfractured rock, to compare the magnitudes of displacements during mining with those induced by extensive heating of the rock mass, and to check assumptions regarding symmetry and damaged zones made in numerical modeling of the SFT-C. 28 refs., 113 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.