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Sample records for affect trace element

  1. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  2. Trace Elements Affect Methanogenic Activity and Diversity in Enrichments from Subsurface Coal Bed Produced Water

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2 = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community. PMID

  3. Seasonal Dynamics of Trace Elements in Tidal Salt Marsh Soils as Affected by the Flow-Sediment Regulation Regime

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering. PMID:25216278

  4. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  5. Do the Levels of Maternal Plasma Trace Elements Affect Fetal Nuchal Translucency Thickness?

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Ming-Song; Chang, Chia-Huang; Chien, Ling-Chu; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Yen-An; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is an important marker for prenatal screening; however, studies focusing on the correlation between maternal trace element levels and NT thickness are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal trace element levels during the first trimester and to investigate the association between maternal trace element levels and fetal NT thickness. Methods In total, 113 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women. Maternal plasma samples were collected in the first trimester of gestation. Plasma trace element levels were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nuchal translucency thickness was measured using ultrasonography at 10–14 weeks of gestation. Results We found that maternal plasma potassium (K) levels had a significant negative correlation with both NT (r = -0.230, p < 0.05) and NT Multiples of the Median (NT MoM) (r = -0.206, p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, log-transformed maternal plasma potassium levels in the first trimester were significantly associated with fetal NT (NT MoM: β = -0.68, p < 0.05; NT: β = -1.20, p < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, the As, Hg and Pb levels in maternal plasma were positively correlated with NT, and the Mg, Cu, Zn, Na and Ca levels were negatively correlated with NT. Conclusion Maternal plasma K levels during the first trimester appeared to be associated with NT thickness. The essential elements tended to decrease NT thickness, and non-essential elements tended to increase it. PMID:26367380

  6. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  7. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  8. Mercury and other trace elements in soils affected by the mine tailing spill in Aznalcóllar (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, F; Ariza, J; Madejón, P; Madejón, E; Murillo, J M

    2008-02-15

    The Aznalcóllar accident (28th April 1998) occurred because the collapse of the tailing-dam dike of the Aznalcóllar-Los Frailes mines. Soils were affected by a slurry of acidic water loaded with trace elements, finely divided metal sulphides, and materials used in the refining /floating process. Studies carried out before and after the soil restoration activities (sludge removal, amending, tilling, and afforestation) showed severe trace-element contamination (mainly As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn) in the superficial layer of the sludge-affected soils. Despite Hg being an important component of the Los Frailes ore and therefore of the contaminant sludge, data on Hg content of sludge-affected soils are scarce and sometimes controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the spill and of restoration measures on the Hg content of soils and how this related to other elements. Concentration of Hg immediately after the spill was 8-fold above background (0.061+/-0.012 mg kg(-1); mean+/-SD) at the surface (0-5 cm) and 3-4-fold greater in deeper layers (0-20; 0-50 cm). After the remediation measures, mean values of Hg and other elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were very variable and remained above background values. These anomalies are due to the sludge left on the soil surface or buried during restoration operations, resulting in an irregular distribution of trace elements. The highest values for the less mobile elements (up to 176 mg kg(-1) As, 2.36 mg kg(-1) Hg and 1556 mg kg(-1) Pb) were observed in the area 1 km downstream of the tailings dam. PMID:18029288

  9. Matrix isolation technique for the study of some factors affecting the partitioning of trace elements. [using vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzybowski, J. M.; Allen, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    The factors that affect the preferred positions of cations in ionic solid solutions were investigated utilizing vibrational spectroscopy. Solid solutions of the sulfate and chromate ions codoped with La(+3) and Ca(+2) in a KBr host lattice were examined as a function of the polyvalent cation concentration. The cation-anion pairing process was found to be random for Ca(+2), whereas the formation of La(+3)-SO4(-2) ion pairs with a C2 sub v bonding geometry is highly preferential to any type of La(+3)-CrO4(-2) ion pair formation. The relative populations of ion pair site configurations are discussed in terms of an energy-entropy competition model which can be applied to the partition of trace elements during magmatic processes.

  10. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  11. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  12. Selenium and trace element mobility affected by periodic displacement of stratification in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beisner, K.; Naftz, D.L.; Johnson, W.P.; Diaz, X.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a unique ecosystem in which trace element activity cannot be characterized by standard geochemical parameters due to the high salinity. Movement of selenium and other trace elements present in the lake bed sediments of GSL may occur due to periodic stratification displacement events or lake bed exposure. The water column of GSL is complicated by the presence of a chemocline persistent over annual to decadal time scales. The water below the chemocline is referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has a high salinity (16.5 to 22.9%) and is anoxic. The upper brine layer (UBL) resides above the chemocline, has lower salinity (12.6 to 14.7%) and is oxic. Displacement of the DBL may involve trace element movement within the water column due to changes in redox potential. Evidence of stratification displacement in the water column has been observed at two fixed stations on the lake by monitoring vertical water temperature profiles with horizontal and vertical velocity profiles. Stratification displacement events occur over periods of 12 to 24 h and are associated with strong wind events that can produce seiches within the water column. In addition to displacement events, the DBL shrinks and expands in response to changes in the lake surface area over a period of months. Laboratory tests simulating the observed sediment re-suspension were conducted over daily, weekly and monthly time scales to understand the effect of placing anoxic bottom sediments in contact with oxic water, and the associated effect of trace element desorption and (or) dissolution. Results from the laboratory simulations indicate that a small percentage (1%) of selenium associated with anoxic bottom sediments is periodically solubilized into the UBL where it potentially can be incorporated into the biota utilizing the oxic part of GSL.

  13. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  14. Traceds: An Experimental Trace Element Partitioning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this project, which is part of the EARTHCHEM initiative, is to compile the existing experimental trace element partitioning data, and to develop a transparent, accessible resource for the community. The primary goal of experimental trace element partitioning studies is to create a database that can be used to develop models of how trace elements behave in natural geochemical systems. The range of approaches as to how this is accomplished and how the data are reported differs dramatically from one system to another and one investigator to another. This provides serious challenges to the creation of a coherent database - and suggests the need for a standard format for data presentation and reporting. The driving force for this compilation is to provide community access to the complete database for trace element experiments. Our new effort includes all the published analytical results from experimental determinations. In compiling the data, we have set a minimum standard for the data to be included. The threshold criteria include: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without a knowledge of the actual concentrations or the temperature and pressure of formation. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. Our ultimate goal is to produce a database together with a flexible user interface that will be useful for experimentalists to set up their work and to build

  15. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  16. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  17. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  18. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  19. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  20. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes research progress in development of phytoremediation technologies. Some soils have become contaminated by trace elements enough to kill plants, inhibit soil organisms, and/or threaten wildlife, humans or the environment. Traditional remediation by dig and haul methods are v...

  1. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  2. In situ trace element microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

  3. Trace elements in end-stage renal disease. 2. Clinical implication of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zima, T; Tesar, V; Mestek, O; Nemecek, K

    1999-01-01

    For human beings trace elements are essential nutrients with a gamut of functions. They are for instance indispensable components of many enzymes, so they have some regulatory functions and they may affect immune reactions and free radical generation. Abnormalities of trace elements are primarily the result of uremia, and they may be further modified and sometimes greatly exacerbated by the dialysis procedure. The role of trace elements in hemodialysis (HD) patients has not yet been fully characterized. To prevent some complications in chronic HD patients, it is very important to regulate the levels of trace elements by adequate water treatment. Reverse osmosis is able to prevent the accumulation of the majority of trace elements in the patients. Zinc supplementation may be recommended for patients with proven zinc deficiency, but for all chronic renal failure patients it is questionable. Selenium deficiency is to be suspected in dialyzed patients and selenium supplementation may be beneficial (increasing glutathione peroxidase activity, cardioprotective effect, immunostimulatory properties) for chronic renal failure patients. Supplementation with a trace element may be indicated when its depletion was unequivocally documented and when there is evidence of the positive effects of this element on the quality of life of the dialyzed patients. PMID:10494021

  4. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  5. Trace Elements and Chemotherapy Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Yang, Weiping; Long, Gang; Wei, Changyuan

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements might be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association between trace elements and efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with HCC. Cancer, cancer-adjacent, and cancer-free tissues were collected intraoperatively from 55 patients with HCC between January 2001 and April 2004 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Guangxi (China), a high HCC incidence area in the world. Trace element levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In vitro sensitivity of cancer cells to five chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and mitomycin) was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in cancer cells from 32 patients. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels had the same gradient distribution in different liver tissues: cancer < cancer-adjacent < cancer-free tissues. Copper levels of cancer tissues were negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.278, P = 0.027), while manganese and selenium levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.297, P = 0.015; r = -0.285, P = 0.018, respectively). Simple correlation analyses revealed that the carboplatin sensitivity was negatively correlated with selenium levels of cancer tissues, while doxorubicin sensitivity was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.497, P = 0.004). Partial correlation analyses showed that doxorubicin sensitivity only was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.450, P = 0.014). These results suggest that the selenium and manganese content in primary HCC tissues could influence the response of the HCC cells to carboplatin and doxorubicin. These preliminary results provide a basis for future studies. PMID:26961293

  6. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Denton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP {11}/{34} data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair.

  7. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    element compositions imply. Many trace element analyses are performed using either bulk rock techniques or spot analyses, and these maps suggest those types of analyses likely sample variable trace element abundances even within otherwise homogeneous grains, rendering their results difficult to interpret. Consequently, the correlation discussed previously between trace elements and short lived isotopes has likely been impacted by post-magmatic alteration and cannot solely be used to argue that HED's cannot be derived from Vesta. Furthermore, these maps strengthen the HED-Vesta link by suggesting that the diogenites underwent an extended history of cooling, reheating, partial melting, impact fragmentation, fluid/melt migration, and finally re-annealing. These complicated steps are particularly noteworthy as the pyroxene cumulate layer on the asteroid Vesta should lie beneath the eucritic crust, implying that early impacts were able to penetrate that crust and affect the diogenite layers early in Vesta's history, most likely while the asteroid was still hot enough to allow for annealing and regrowth of fractured grains. [1] Schiller et al. (2011) [2] Milman-Barris et al. (2008)

  8. Osteoporosis and trace elements--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Boivin, Georges; Andersen, Ole

    2012-06-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified. Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future. PMID:22575536

  9. Meteoritic trace element toxification and the terminal Mesozoic mass extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.M.; Erickson, D.J. III

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of trace element fluxes to the earth associated with 5 and 10 kilometer diameter Cl chondrites and iron meteorites are presented. The data indicate that the masses of certain trace elements contained in the bolide, such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cu, are as large as or larger than the world ocean burden. The authors believe that this pulse of trace elements was of sufficient magnitude to perturb the biogeochemical cycles operative 65 million years ago, a probably time of meteorite impact. Geochemical anomalies in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments suggest that elevated concentrations of trace elements may have persisted for thousands of years in the ocean. Through direct exposure and bioaccumulation, many trophic levels of the global food chain, including that of the dinosaurs, would have been adversely affected by these meteoritic trace elements. The trace element toxification hypothesis may account for the selective extinction of both marine and terrestrial species in the enigmatic terminal Mesozoic event.

  10. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  11. PRECONCENTRATION METHODS FOR TRACE ELEMENT DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research had several objectives. One was to review the literature to determine methods of trace element preconcentration that could be used realistically for sample preparation for trace element determinations in drinking, natural and/or effluent waters. Elements included in...

  12. Serum Trace Element Concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, Maryam; Ayati, Razie; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hejazi, Sepideh; Saghafi, Massoud; Saadati, Nayyereh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition that is associated with oxidative stress. Serum trace elements and their related transport proteins, e.g., albumin and ceruloplasmin, play an important role in the antioxidant defense. Trace element status may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of RA or be affected by the disease activity of this chronic inflammatory condition. The study participants were 110 patients with RA and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, selenium, zinc, copper, and zinc/copper ratio were measured in all subjects. The relationship between these parameters and disease activity score was also assessed. Lower concentrations of serum Alb, Zn, and Se were independently related to disease activity index. High concentrations of serum copper were associated with the presence of RA. Serum Cu concentrations were positively related to disease activity as assessed by the disease activity score. Low serum concentrations of Zn and Se, and high serum Cu concentrations may be associated with the presence of RA or be a consequence of this condition. Of the trace elements that were investigated in the present study, only serum Cu was positively correlated with disease activity. PMID:26450515

  13. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary. PMID:26864198

  14. Chemistry of trace elements in soils and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present information about sources of processes that affect trace elements in soils and groundwater; precipitation and dissolution, surface interactions and absorption and oxidation-reduction reactions. For each element or group of elements, we provide a review of mode of occurrence, sources and ...

  15. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  16. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R.

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  17. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  18. TRACE ELEMENTS - METHODOLOGY, AND LEGISLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article has been requested by ASTM to be included in a special issue of Standardization News, dealing with analytical chemistry. The article traces federal water legislation as it pertains to drinking water and wastewater and how it applies to the approved methodology for me...

  19. Factors affecting accumulation of thallium and other trace elements in two wild Brassicaceae spontaneously growing on soils contaminated by tailings dam waste.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Lepp, N W

    2007-02-01

    Thallium is a scarce, highly toxic element. There are several investigations that report Tl accumulation in plants of the family Brassicaceae. These plants could pose a risk in areas where Tl is present at higher concentrations than normal soils. The present study reports analyses of two wild Brassicaceae, Hirschfeldia incana and Diplotaxis catholica, growing spontaneously at five sampling sites moderately polluted with Tl and other trace elements in the Green Corridor of the Guadiamar river, Seville, S. Spain. In general, trace element content was unremarkable in all part plants, despite the concentrations present in soil. Thallium was the only element whose concentration in both plant species was above normal for plants (maximum values of 5.00 mgkg(-1) in H. incana flowers). There were significant positive correlations between total Tl in soil and Tl in both plant species. Transfer Coefficients (TC) for all elements were, in general, <1 for both species, except for Tl in flowers and fruits at some sites. The highest Enrichment Factor (EF) was found for Tl in H. incana fruits (EF = 607) and D. catholica flowers (EF = 321). H. incana was studied in a previous growing season (2004) in the same area, although the rainfall was 3 times more than in the year of the present study (2005), giving a maximum Tl content of 46.5 mgkg(-1) in H. incana flowers. The data presented here show that Tl content of plants growing in semi-arid conditions can be significantly influenced by precipitation. In dry years, plant Tl accumulation may be significantly reduced. PMID:17123576

  20. Vibration disease: plasma electrolytes and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkov, D; Kostova, V; Razboynikova, F; Dimitrov, D; Petrov, I

    1994-01-01

    102 patients with vibration disease (mean age 46 +/- 7, length of service in different jobs using vibration tools 17 +/- 7 years) were studied. Plasma electrolytes and trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chloride, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt and manganese) and plasma osmolality were investigated, as well as some specific tests indicative of vibration exposure--cold provocation test, vibration sense, thermoasymmetry (left/right hand), skin electric resistance and hand and finger blood flow (Doppler-ultrasound sonometry). In a large number of patients increased values for the following variables were found--magnesium in 43%, zinc in 45%, cobalt in 57%, manganese in 70% and plasma osmolality in 66%. It is suggested that vibration affects mineral metabolism. However, these disturbances in mineral metabolism are secondary to other pathological changes in the body. PMID:8029523

  1. Incompatible Trace Element Abundances in Hawaiian Olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Huang, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of trace elements partitioning between olivine and silicate melt is clouded by large variations in values of partition coefficients presented in the literature. In general, partition coefficients from phenocryst-matrix results are higher than those from experimental equilibration and in-situ measurements (such as LA-ICP-MS and Ion-probe) (Blard and Farley, 2008; Lee et al., 2007). This discrepancy is possibly caused by the presence of melt or micromineral inclusions in the analyzed phenocrysts, or contamination of grain boundaries by enriched glasses or accessory phases or uranium pick up from alteration of olivines. To further investigate why analysis of natural phenocrysts usually results in relative high apparent D’s for incompatible trace elements, six aliquots of olivine grains from a single sediment sample of Waimea river watershed, on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii, were analyzed by solution ICP-MS at Harvard University for trace element concentrations. Two aliquots of olivines were leached in 1% oxalic acid for 45-60 min at 90 OC before dissolution. Leached and unleached olivines mostly show positive linear correlations in plots of incompatible trace elements versus La, which possibly indicates mixing lines between olivine and one end-member with higher incompatible element concentration (possibly melt inclusion). Assuming La concentration in olivine is zero, we estimate concentration of other incompatible elements in olivines using intercepts of these mixing lines. We obtain that U and Th concentration in the olivines to be about 1 ppb and 0.1 ppb respectively, corresponding to apparent DUol/melt and DThol/melt of 0.003 and 0.0001 if host lave has U of 0.3 ppm and Th of 1ppm (Gayer et al.,2008). Recently, helium isotopic measurements were made in these olivines (Gayer et al., 2008) and the results yield a basin-wide average erosion rate of 0.056 mma-1 for Waimea river watershed. Gayer et al. (2008) argued that

  2. Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veillon, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

  3. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  4. Spatial distribution of trace elements and risk assessment in agricultural soils affected by sulphide exploitation in Riotinto (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; López, María.; Galán, Emilio; González, Félix

    2010-05-01

    The decadence of mining activity in the Riotinto Mining District (SW Spain) during the end of the last century has led to citrus agriculture as the new social development. This new activity has been carried out around abandoned mines without the assessment of soil pollution. The aim of this work is to study the distribution of potentially toxic elements in soils of the Riotinto mining area and compare them with the element concentration absorbed by plants, in order to assess the potential risk involved in the use of the studied soils, defining also the most dangerous areas for agricultural activities. Twenty-seven agricultural soil samples were collected from the Riotinto area. Major and trace elements were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after 4 acid (HF-HClO4-HNO3-HCl) digestion, except As, Co and Cr that were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). In general, the total concentrations of the trace elements analysed exceeded the background concentration values for Andalusian soils and, on occasions, they surpassed the threshold values defined by percentile 95 for the geological domain of the South Portuguese Zone (Galán et al., 2008). Copper and Zn displayed median values of 99 and 150 mg/kg, respectively, and 44% of the samples surpassed the threshold of 147 and 173 mg/kg for Cu and Zn, respectively. Arsenic reached up to 204 mg/kg and Pb up to 598 mg/kg. The association As-Cu-Pb-Zn and their distribution close the Riotinto waste dumps (NE of the studied area) suggests an anthropogenic origin for these elements. On the contrary, Ni, Cr and Co showed also high values with median concentrations of 41, 113 and 23 mg/kg, respectively, but about 30-48% of the samples were below the baseline values proposed for these elements. The distribution of Fe-Co-Cr-Ni shows they are enriched in the SW part associated to volcanic rocks, which suggests a geogenic origin for them. In order to evaluate the

  5. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. PMID:27289526

  6. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Słojewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization for instance as a nucleus or nidus for the formation of the stone, or simply contaminate the stone structure. This review presents a comprehensive account of the basic principles of the basic data and the role of major and trace elements in lithogenesis. PMID:24578864

  7. Trace elements in magnetite as petrogenetic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges; Méric, Julien; Boutroy, Emilie; Potvin-Doucet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the distribution of 25 trace elements in magnetite (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sn, Hf, Ta, W, and Pb), using laser ablation ICP-MS and electron microprobe, from a variety of magmatic and hydrothermal ore-forming environments and compared them with data from the literature. We propose a new multielement diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust, designed to emphasize the partitioning behavior of trace elements between magnetite, the melt/fluid, and co-crystallizing phases. The normalized pattern of magnetite reflects the composition of the melt/fluid, which in both magmatic and hydrothermal systems varies with temperature. Thus, it is possible to distinguish magnetite formed at different degrees of crystal fractionation in both silicate and sulfide melts. The crystallization of ilmenite or sulfide before magnetite is recorded as a marked depletion in Ti or Cu, respectively. The chemical signature of hydrothermal magnetite is distinct being depleted in elements that are relatively immobile during alteration and commonly enriched in elements that are highly incompatible into magnetite (e.g., Si and Ca). Magnetite formed from low-temperature fluids has the lowest overall abundance of trace elements due to their lower solubility. Chemical zonation of magnetite is rare but occurs in some hydrothermal deposits where laser mapping reveals oscillatory zoning, which records the changing conditions and composition of the fluid during magnetite growth. This new way of plotting all 25 trace elements on 1 diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust and elements in order of compatibility into magnetite, provides a tool to help understand the processes that control partitioning of a full suit of trace elements in magnetite and aid discrimination of magnetite formed in different environments. It has applications in both petrogenetic and provenance studies, such as in the exploration of ore deposits and in

  8. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Bertol, A. P. L.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  9. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriens, Bas; Lenz, Markus; Charlet, Laurent; Berg, Michael; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the average volatile fluxes of selenium (<0.12 μg m-2 day-1), sulphur (<37 μg m-2 day-1) and arsenic (<0.54 μg m-2 day-1) from a pristine peatland are considerable and consistent over two summers. We compare these fluxes with the total concentrations in the peat and show that selenium is up to 40 times more efficiently volatilized than arsenic, and over 100 times more efficiently volatilized than sulphur. We further show that the volatilization of selenium and arsenic increases with temperature, implying that emissions of these health-relevant trace elements will increase with global warming. We suggest that biomethylation and volatilization in wetlands play a crucial role in the mobilization and global biogeochemical cycling of trace elements.

  10. Phytomanagement of trace elements in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological trace elements (TEs) occur at minor concentrations (< 1000 mg/kg) in organisms, yet they may have a major effect on life, both as essential nutrients and environmental contaminants. Excess consumption of and exposure to TEs has a detrimental effect on humans. Human activities such as mini...

  11. Trace Elements: The Little Things that Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines recent findings regarding the importance of trace elements to good health. Copper, chromium, and zinc are discussed. Described also are multi-disciplinary experiments in progress at the Human Nutrition Laboratory, a federal facility in Grand Forks, North Dakota. (CS)

  12. The lithophile trace elements in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Jambon, A.; Bollinger, C.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the abundances of a selected set of lithophile trace elements (namely REEs, Y, Rb, Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, Nb, Th, U) in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC-13 EH and 11 EL). EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is observed and suggests a mobility of many of the elements studied during the history of these rocks. For example, EL6 chondrites exhibit light-REE and Nb depletions, negative Eu anomalies, and positive Y anomalies. More important trace element fractionations are observed in metamorphosed EH like St Marks (Rb depletion), LAP 02225 (Rb, Nb, Zr, Eu, light REE depletions) and Galim (b), which displays large Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb and light REE depletions. Leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the contributions of sulfides in the whole rock budgets. These phases control not only the REE budget, but also important fractions of the other elements we studied. These fractions strongly depend on the type of the rock (EH or EL, and metamorphic grade). For many elements, the sulfide contributions increase with the metamorphic grades. The trace element abundances of silicate residues are extremely variable. Negative Sm and Yb anomalies are observed in EL3 and EH3 residues, and are certainly the results of early nebular processes. Such anomalies are lacking in residues obtained with most metamorphosed EC, underlining the importance of trace element redistributions during metamorphism. In addition, EL6 residues display distinctive positive Y anomalies that could be potentially ascribed to a less chalcophile behavior than Ho in the conditions that prevailed during EL metamorphism. EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is obtained and indicates undeniably a mobility of many of the elements studied during the complex thermal history

  13. Cognitive impairment, genomic instability and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Meramat, A; Rajab, N F; Shahar, S; Sharif, R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline and deficiencies or excess in trace elements are two of the factors relating to it. In this review, we report and discuss the role of micronutrients in cognitive impairment in relation to genomic stability in an aging population. Telomere integrity will also be discussed in relation to aging and cognitive impairment, as well as, the micronutrients related to these events. This review will provide an understanding on how these three aspects can relate with each other and why it is important to keep a homeostasis of micronutrients in relation to healthy aging. Micronutrient deficiencies and aging process can lead to genomic instability. PMID:25560816

  14. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As. PMID:26482641

  15. Trace element concentrations in melanotic swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.M.; Parkinson, T.F.; Veit, H.P.

    1983-10-01

    A number of investigations have been made on the role of certain trace elements in oncogenesis. In prior work, it was found that manganese and zinc concentrations in human skin cancers differed markedly from the values in normal tissue./sub 1/ The purpose of the present research was to determine trace element concentrations in skin and other tissues of normal and melanotic miniature swine. In-vivo determinations of skin tissue were carried out using x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) while tissue biopsies were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). If significant differences between normal and cancerous skin tissues can be established, the former method should prove valuable as a rapid noninvasive diagnostic method.

  16. Trace Element Diffusion in Basaltic Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holycross, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted high pressure, high temperature experiments to determine simultaneously the diffusivities of 24 trace elements (Sc, V, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, U) in liquids of basaltic composition. Pre-synthesis runs were conducted in graphite capsules in a piston-cylinder apparatus to create two glasses having relatively high and low trace element contents. These glasses were then powdered and paired in diffusion couples by repacking in graphite capsules. All diffusion experiments were executed in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1 GPa pressure and temperatures ranging from 1250-1500º C. Concentration gradients that developed in the glasses were characterized using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). Diffusion coefficients were determined from concentration profiles and show Arrhenian behavior within experimental error. Errors were assigned based on the linear fit of five time series experiments conducted over 500-9000 s to accurately represent the total experimental reproducibility of our results. Data show the highest activation energies are obtained for high field strength elements. Values for the pre-exponential factor, D0, also peak for the high field strength elements. We suggest that trace element diffusion in basaltic melts follows the compensation law (Winchell, 1969), with log D0 exhibiting linear dependence on activation energy. Calculated diffusivities indicate that transport through basaltic melt could be an effective mechanism for fractionating high field strength elements over geologically relevant time scales. Winchell (1969) High Temp. Sci. 1: 200-215

  17. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    PubMed

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, P<0.001), but higher Fe (1.3 (0.4, 4.7) vs 1.1 (0.5, 8.4)μg/mL, P=0.003) and Se (85.7 (43.0, 256.7) vs 77.8 (24.3, 143.8)ng/mL, P=0.002) values compared with elderly controls. The logistic regression analysis identified the combination of Cu and Se as significant predictor variables associated with successful aging (P=0.001), while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed that Cu and Se (either alone or in combination) were independent variables associated with healthy aging. An 'improved' trace element profile (reduced Cu and elevated Se, which are involved in key physiological processes) could play a role in the resistance to disease showed by centenarian 'dodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. PMID:27049133

  18. Trace element nutrition of infants--molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Newborn infants are exposed to widely varying intakes of trace elements, but little is known about their ability to homeostatically adjust to these intakes. Recent discoveries of several metal ion transporters in the small intestine are likely to enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating trace element absorption. Iron absorption is regulated by divalent metal ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Studies on human infants have shown that young infants cannot regulate iron absorption, whereas older infants can. Our studies on infant rat pups show that there is no regulation of DMT1 and FPN1 at young age, but that this develops at older age. These findings may explain adverse effects of iron supplementation on growth in young human infants. Zinc absorption in the small intestine is regulated by the transporters ZnT1, ZnT2, ZnT4 and Zip-4 and zinc status affects the expression of these transporters in an attempt to achieve zinc homeostasis. Copper absorption is regulated by the transporters Ctrl, Atp7A and Atp7B, and exposure to copper at early age affects the expression and cellular localization of these proteins, affecting copper uptake and transport. To date, most studies on homeostatic regulation of trace mineral absorption have been done in cell systems and animal models; further studies on human infants are needed. The consequences of trace element interactions during infancy also need to be investigated in more detail. PMID:16240664

  19. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  20. Trace Elements in Nails as Biomarkers in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of trace elements in relation to human health has been increasingly recognized. Accurate and adequate quantification of trace elements are crucial in clinical research. Design This review was to discuss the rationale of using nail trace elements as biomarkers in clinical studies. Results For most trace elements, dietary instruments can not appropriately capture the intakes because of the minimal amounts and wide variations in the same foods grown in different area as well as the non-dietary exposures. Therefore, biomarkers may be essential in studying trace elements. Although there are notable differences among trace elements in the availability of biomarkers, increasing evidence supports that nail particularly toenail concentrations of most trace elements are useful biomarkers of exposure in which a single sample is assumed to represent long-term exposure. Conclusions As compared to other potential biomarkers of trace elements, nail measurement has certain advantages in clinical research. PMID:20813017

  1. Survey of chemical speciation of trace elements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Information concerning the chemical state of trace elements in biological systems generally has not been available. Such information for toxic elements and metals in metalloproteins could prove extremely valuable in the elucidation of their metabolism and other biological processes. The shielding of core electrons by binding electrons affect the energy required for creating inner-shell holes. Furthermore, the molecular binding and the symmetry of the local environment of an atom affect the absorption spectrum in the neighborhood of the absorption edge. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation excitation can be used to provide chemical speciation information for trace elements at concentrations as low as 10 ppM. The structure and position of the absorption curve in the region of an edge can yield vital data about the local structure and oxidation state of the trace element in question. Data are most easily interpreted by comparing the observed edge structure and position with those of model compounds of the element covering the entire range of possible oxidation states. Examples of such analyses are reviewed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  2. [Trace elements deficiency in children receiving nutritional management].

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouji

    2016-07-01

    The trace elements is very important in growth of children, especially receiving nutritional management, including parenteral or enteral nutrition. Therefore, clinicians treating children should recognize regarding both the function and deficiency of trace elements. In this article, in nutritional management of children, the basic and recent knowledge was described regarding the function of some important trace elements, including zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. In addition, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments in each trace element deficiency were also described. PMID:27455814

  3. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  4. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  5. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  6. Effect of trace elements on growth of marine eukaryotes, tharaustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Naoki; Taoka, Yousuke; Honda, Daiske; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    We determined the effect of trace elements on the growth of thraustochytrids. The growth of the strains cultured with the trace elements was much higher than that of the strains cultured without any trace element. Iron and zinc were particularly important to obtaining the optimum growth of thraustochytrids. PMID:23639421

  7. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  8. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  9. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, A.

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a posibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  10. Trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru; Wolf, Rainer; Warren, Paul H.; Anders, Edward

    1992-01-01

    New chemical analyses for up to 26 trace elements, including seldom-determined highly siderophile elements Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pd, and Ge, for 59 lunar samples are reported. Most of these samples are polymict breccias from Apollo 16. Remarkably few have Group 7 (extremely low Au/Ir) meteoritic components. Several samples have uncommonly high Au/(Ir + Re) ratios, even higher than group 1L. Volatile-element enrichments are found in several fragments from rusty rock 66095. A matrix sample from fragmental breccia 60639 shows Cd and In enrichments, also observed previously in samples of anorthosite and mare basalt from the same breccia. Evidently, for these highly labile elements, chemical exchange has affected clasts that for most other elements are pristine.

  11. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    PubMed Central

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies. PMID:26911251

  12. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  13. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  14. Trace element accumulation in aquatic plants: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ganje, T.J.; Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Trace elements in sediments and its overlying waters are important constituents of an aquatic plant ecosystem. This review was undertaken to evaluate trace element accumulation in aquatic plants and ascertain to what extent sediment and its overlying waters play in trace element accumulation by aquatic plant species. Aquatic vascular plants tend to accumulate trace elements in relation to the trace element concentration of the water body and sediment in which they are grown and the extent of exposure to the water body. Trace element composition of bryophytes and algae is also closely related to composition of their aquatic environment. It is increasingly apparent that sediments and overlying waters alter the bioavailability of trace elements to aquatic plants in both natural and artificial water bodies, particularly where industrial and agricultural waters are discharged into waterways.

  15. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used.

  16. Trace Element Chemistry in Urban Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhana, B.; Husain, L.

    2006-12-01

    Unlike in the United States, the concentration of trace elements in urban air is still high enough in South Asian cities to study the impact of trace elements on climate and human health. Hence, continuous sampling of PM2.5 (particulate matter of <2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter)was carried out using low volume sampler in winter (2005-2006) in Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, which is highly impacted by urban and agricultural emissions and has remained unexplored in terms of atmospheric chemistry. Aerosols collected on this campaign are likely to carry the signatures of emissions from Afghanistan, North and Central Pakistan, North India in addition to the local pollution sources. During sampling from December 2005 to January 2006, it was possible to collect several samples during brief fog episodes. Samples were analyzed for 25 elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High pollutant concentrations were observed throughout the study, for instance, Cr concentrations up to 1.4 μgm-3, As, 135 ngm-3, Cd, 93 ngm-3, Sn, 988 ngm-3 and Sb, 157 ngm-3. Pb and Zn concentrations respectively up to 12 and 48 μgm-3 were observed. Calculation of enrichment factor and crustal correction illustrate the attribution of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb to non-crustal sources. Air parcel back trajectories, interelemental relationships and meteorological observations have been used to explain the sources and the impacts of fog chemistry and mixing heights on atmospheric processing of trace elements in PM2.5. Atmospheric stagnation appeared to be one of factors causing episodic high concentrations. Crustal correction and interelemental relationships apparently suggest the emissions from coal and oil combustion, industrial processes, building construction sites and biomass burning as the prime role players in the atmospheric pollution in

  17. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-ji; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Xiao, Rui; Tang, Zhi-yong; Ren, Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and fly ash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements were investigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. One coefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. These elements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile. Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be located between groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, the more relative enrichment of trace elements (except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms of trace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of trace elements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not always improve the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Trace elements should be classified in accordance with factors. PMID:15137647

  18. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions.

    PubMed

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  19. Trace element distributions in primitive achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    The primitive achondrites have approximately chondritic bulk chemical composition but achondritic textures. Clayton et al. show that nine of these meteorites, the acapulcoites and the lodranites, have similar oxygen isotopic compositions. The acapulcoites appear to be highly metamorphosed, but undifferentiated meteorites of chondritic composition; whereas, the lodranites appear to have lost a feldspathic partial melt. In order to learn more about metamorphic processes and partial melt removal, we have measured the trace element compositions of constituent phases of a number of primitive achondrites by ion microprobe. We have analyzed two acapulcoites, Acapulco and ALH81261 (paired with ALH77081), and three londranites, Lodran, LEW88280, and MAC88177. In addition, we analyzed LEW88663, which has the bulk composition, mineral chemistry, and oxygen isotopic composition of L-chondrites, but is metal-free and has an achondrite texture; and Divnoe, a plagioclase-poor, olivine-rich primitive achondrite with an oxygen isotopic composition similar to that of the group IAB iron meteorites. These meteorites show a variety of REE patterns in their constituent phases, and there are consistent differences between acapulcoites and lodranites that are consistent with removal of a LREE- and Eu-enriched melt that is apparently responsible for the low plagioclase content of lodranites.

  20. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  1. Minor and trace elements in some meteoritic minerals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Mason, B.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the information available (Mason, 1971) on trace elements in different types of meteorites, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elements among the individual mineral phases. The mineral phases including olivine, orthopyroxene, clinipyroxene, troilite, nickel-iron, plagioclase, chromite, and the phosphates were separated from several meteorites. The purified minerals were analyzed for trace and minor elements by spark source mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elements are classified as siderophile, lithophile, and chalcophile.

  2. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Pei, Ma; MacArthur, J. D.; Roeder, P. L.; Mariano, A. N.

    1993-04-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, > 0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found.

  3. EVALUATION OF TRACE-ELEMENT INTERACTIONS USING CULTURED ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to consider the interactions of toxic trace elements in an evaluation of the toxicity of environmental pollutants. The in vitro toxicity screening system, using the rabbit alveolar macrophage, provides a particularly useful system for evaluating trace-element inte...

  4. Trace elements distribution in Cu-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrašinović, Aleksandar M.; Utigard, Torstein A.

    2011-10-01

    The trace elements distribution in Cu-Si alloys is analyzed after mixing Si with Cu. The mass balance and atomic distribution showed that the highest concentration of trace elements was at the phase boundaries between Si and Cu-Si intermetallic. The concentrations of 21 trace elements in the refined Si were below detection limit of the ICP technique where 11 elements were below 1ppm at and another 7 elements were below 2ppm at. The amount of other elements decreased several times in the refined Si, compared to that in initial metallurgical grade silicon. The level of trace elements in refined Si allows utilization of the Si photo-catalytic characteristics for solar energy generation.

  5. [Trace elements in artificial nutrition. Art and practice].

    PubMed

    Saudin, F; Gelas, P; Boulétreau, P

    1988-01-01

    The trace elements known to be necessary for man are iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt and iodine. This review article, which excludes iron, deals with the need for supplemental trace elements during artificial feeding, and the way they should be administered. The biological importance of these trace elements is argued on the basis of their biochemical involvement and the clinical pictures seen in accidental or experimental deficiency states. Assessing a patient's trace element status is rather difficult. The relative merits of different laboratory investigations is discussed: plasma, erythrocyte, capillary and urinary levels, specific enzyme activities, loading tests. The different situations when trace elements are required, assessing the amount needed and the possible toxic risks, are presented from a literature survey. PMID:3144195

  6. Trace element partitioning between ionic crystal and liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Philpotts, J. A.; Yin, L.

    1978-01-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between ionic crystals and the melt has been correlated with lattice energy of the host. The solid-liquid partition coefficient has been expressed in terms of the difference in relative ionic radius of the trace element and the homogeneous and heterogeneous strain of the host lattice. Predictions based on this model appear to be in general agreement with data for alkali nitrates and for rare-earth elements in natural garnet phenocrysts.

  7. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  8. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cdmore » (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators.We find it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.« less

  9. Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; Field, Catherine; Manns, Braden; Thadhani, Ravi; Gill, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. Methods All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at least one of the following elements in whole blood, serum, or plasma: antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. We calculated differences between hemodialysis patients and controls using the differences in mean trace element level, divided by the pooled standard deviation. Results We identified 128 eligible studies. Available data suggested that levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium were higher and that levels of selenium, zinc and manganese were lower in hemodialysis patients, compared with controls. Pooled standard mean differences exceeded 0.8 standard deviation units (a large difference) higher than controls for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, and lower than controls for selenium, zinc, and manganese. No studies reported data on antimony, iodine, tellurium, and thallium concentrations. Conclusion Average blood levels of biologically important trace elements were substantially different in hemodialysis patients, compared with healthy controls. Since both deficiency and excess of trace elements are potentially harmful yet amenable to therapy, the hypothesis that trace element status influences the risk of adverse clinical outcomes is worthy of investigation. PMID:19454005

  10. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  11. Bioavailability of trace elements in surface sediments from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Grotti, Marco; Soggia, Francesco; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Udisti, Roberto

    2013-12-15

    The bioavailability of trace elements in marine sediments from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard Islands, Norwegian Arctic) was assessed and discussed. Total concentrations of several elements were determined in two granulometric fractions and their bioavailability evaluated by both applying a sequential-selective extraction procedure and using a biomimetic approach based on proteolytic enzymes. Total concentration values and solid speciation patterns indicated overall that the anthropogenic impact of trace elements in the investigated area is negligible, although a minor enrichment with respect to crustal values was found for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and V. Enrichment of trace elements in the <63-μm fraction compared to the coarser one was evident for As, Cd, Cr, and Ni. The evaluation of the bioavailable fractions showed that a large part of the total content of trace elements cannot enter the aquatic food chain and emphasised the risk of overestimating the environmental impact of heavy metals if the assessment is only based on total concentrations. PMID:24210011

  12. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  13. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  14. Major and trace elements of selected pedons in the USA.

    PubMed

    Burt, R; Wilson, M A; Mays, M D; Lee, C W

    2003-01-01

    Few studies of soil geochemistry over large geographic areas exist, especially studies encompassing data from major pedogenic horizons that evaluate both native concentrations of elements and anthropogenically contaminated soils. In this study, pedons (n = 486) were analyzed for trace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, Ti, Zr) elements, as well as other soil properties. The objectives were to (i) determine the concentration range of selected elements in a variety of U.S. soils with and without known anthropogenic additions, (ii) illustrate the association of elemental source and content by assessing trace elemental content for several selected pedons, and (iii) evaluate relationships among and between elements and other soil properties. Trace element concentrations in the non-anthropogenic dataset (NAD) were in the order Mn > (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu) > (Pb, Co) > (Cd, Hg), with greatest mean total concentrations for the Andisol order. Geometric means by horizon indicate that trace elements are concentrated in surface and/or B horizons over C horizons. Median values for trace elements are significantly higher in surface horizons of the anthropogenic dataset (AD) over the NAD. Total Al, Fe, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, pH, and clay exhibit significant correlations (0.56, 0.74, 0.50, 0.31, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively) with total trace element concentrations of all horizons of the NAD. Manganese shows the best inter-element correlation (0.33) with these associated total concentrations. Total Fe has one of the strongest relationships, explaining 55 and 30% of the variation in total trace element concentrations for all horizons in the NAD and AD, respectively. PMID:14674533

  15. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D.; Robinson, L.

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  16. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  17. TRACE ELEMENT STUDY AT A PRIMARY COPPER SMELTER. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a project undertaken to explore the distribution of trace elements in environmental emissions from a primary copper smelter. The efforts were concentrated on the reverberatory furnace and the electrostatic precipitator controlling emissions from...

  18. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  19. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  20. The influence of trace elements of fluoride uptake by teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Crawford, A.

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the effect of various trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth, the concentrations F and other trace elemenys have been simultaneously determined in different regions of the teeth from children of South Australia. Teeth cross sectioned along the median plane have been used in these investigations, and their inside enamel, dentine and amelodentinal junctions investigated separately for the trace elemental composition. Fluoride has been determined by observing the 6-7 MeV gammas for the 19F(p, αγ) 16O reaction, C by activation through the 12C( 3He, n) 14O reaction, while other trace elements have been measured by the thick target PIXE technique. Linear correlation coefficients have been calculated between the F concentrations in teeth, and those of other trace elements observed. Fluoride is found to correlate best with C, Cu and Pb, poorly with Fe, Sr, Ni and Ag, while with Br and Zn it has -ve coefficients. Student's t-test has been applied to the data to examine the significance of the variation of Fand other trace elements amongst different dental tissues from healthy and diseased teeth.

  1. Preparation of fingernails for trace element analysis.

    PubMed

    Bank, H L; Robson, J; Bigelow, J B; Morrison, J; Spell, L H; Kantor, R

    1981-10-26

    There are substantial differences in the reported elemental composition of human nails. Most investigators have used extensive washing procedures to minimize environmental contamination, however, such washing poses the risk of extraction of elements bound to the nail matrix. To determine if a portion of this variability could be accounted for by the "washing solutions" used by different investigators, nails were washed in nine solvents previously used for cleaning nails and their residual elemental composition measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or energy dispersion analysis. In general, treatment with organic solvents resulted in less elemental loss than did treatment with aqueous detergents, while aqueous acids caused the greatest loss. Organic solvents more readily extracted iron and magnesium than calcium, copper and zinc. Virtually all of the magnesium was extracted by distilled water or aqueous detergents. PMID:7296886

  2. Trace Element Loss in Urine and Effluent Following Traumatic Injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Purpose: Few data are available to establish recommendations for trace element intake during critical illness. This study quantified loss of several elements and assessed the adequacy of manganese and selenium in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods: Men receiving TPN after trau...

  3. The distribution of trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, H.-J.

    1981-09-01

    Twelve carbonaceous chondrites, among them representatives of nearly all known petrologic types, were analyzed for twenty trace elements by spark source mass spectrography combined with the isotope dilution method. Data on different element groups (refractory, moderately volatile and volatile) show that the distribution of the trace elements in the carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of Renazzo, can be well explained by Anders' two-component model. This is also valid for the highly metamorphosed CV5 chondrite Karoonda. Furthermore, it is observed that the Zr/Hf-ratios in the carbonaceous chondrites increase with increasing petrologic type, which is interpreted as the result of mixing two components with different Zr/Hf-ratios.

  4. Environmental influence on trace element levels in human hair

    SciTech Connect

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1986-12-01

    Trace element content of human hair depends on many factors. It has been shown by a large number of investigators that environmental factors play an important role. Elements from air particulates, water, shampoo or other media get incorporated into the hair structure. Here a model is proposed in which different contributions to trace element levels in human hair are factorized and the environmental contribution to the radial and longitudinal concentration profiles can be calculated. With the proper understanding of environmental contamination, hair analysis has better chances of being used as a diagnostic tool.

  5. Major and trace elements in igneous rocks from Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Telander, K.; Weiss, C.; Jacobs, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of major and trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks from Apollo 15. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for minerals separated from sample 15085. Four samples have concentrations of trace elements that are similar to those of KREEP. The samples of mare basalt from Apollo 15 have higher concentrations of FeO, MgO, Mn, and Cr and lower concentrations of CaO, Na2O, K2O, and rare-earth elements (REE) as compared to the samples of mare basalt from Apollos 11, 12, and 14. The samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their normative compositions. One group is quartz normative and has low concentrations of FeO while the other is olivine normative and has high concentrations of FeO. The trace element data indicate that the samples of olivine normative basalt could be from different portions of a single lava flow.

  6. Trace elements in human hair: an international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Imai, S.; Ohmori, Y.; Masuda, T.; Vinson, J.A.; Mehra, M.C.; Puri, B.K.; Kaniewski, A.

    1986-06-01

    Hair as a biological tissue is unique in the sense that it serves as an accumulator for trace elements, and in addition, it is formed in relatively short period of time and remains isolated from the metabolic events in the human body. In view of the interest in the distribution of trace elements in human hair an international survey was conducted to study their distribution in populations of different origin. Hair samples drawn from North America (USA, Canada), Europe (Poland) and Asia (Japan and India) were analyzed for 21 trace elements. An attempt was also made to observe a correlation, if any, between elemental concentration, age, sex and living habits of the individuals in a particular country.

  7. Trace elements in wild grasses: a phytoavailability study on a remediated field.

    PubMed

    Burgos, P; Pérez-de-Mora, A; Madejón, P; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

    2008-04-01

    There have been significant efforts to establish a widely usable method for the prediction of trace element bioavailability in soil. In this work, we used extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to estimate bioavailable concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in a soil moderately contaminated with trace elements 1 and 2 years after the application of three amendments. The experiment took place in a field plot of a soil affected by the toxic spill of the Aznalcóllar mine. Four treatments were established: three with amendments (biosolid compost, sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) and a control without amendment. Trace element concentrations of two representative species in each year (Lamarckia aurea and Poa annua in 2004 and Lamarckia aurea and Bromus rubens in 2005) were analyzed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil and vegetation. Trace element concentrations in plants growing in the amended subplots were lower than those in plants from nonamended subplots. As a rule, concentrations of CaCl2-soluble Cd, Cu, and Zn in soil were positively correlated with trace elements in plants, whereas EDTA extraction was scarcely correlated with plant concentration. For species of grasses, especially L. aurea, CaCl2 seems to be a more suitable extractant to predict trace element bioavailability in this contaminated soil. PMID:18253844

  8. Occurrence, transport, and fate of trace elements, Blue River Basin, Summit County, Colorado: an integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.; Driver, N.E.; Bails, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Mining activities in the Blue River Basin, Summit County, Colorado, have affected the trace-element chemistry and biota along French Gulch and the Blue River. Elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were present in the bed and suspended sediments. Bed sediment trace-element concentrations were high in the streams in and near mining activities in the basin and remained high as water flowed into Dillon Reservoir about 3.5 km downstream. Bed-sediment (< 63 μm) data were useful in assessing the distribution of trace elements in the basin. Suspended-sediment measurements provided information as to the transport of the trace elements. Filtered (< 0.45 μm) water-column trace-element concentrations were orders of magnitude less than the sediment concentrations. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in the water column at some sites exceeded stream water-quality standards. Elevated trace-element concentrations in the sediment and water column are a source of contamination and must be considered in water-quality management of the Blue River Basin.

  9. Trace element-sulfide mineral association in eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-03-01

    Eastern oil shales including the Chattanooga Shale in Tennessee and the various other time-equivalent black shales in the central portion of the United States represent a major source of hydrocarbons. A primary concern for the development of eastern oil shale and all fossil fuels is the high concentration of sulfide minerals and associated with these materials. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate trace elements in sulfide minerals from a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee and (2) establish mineral residence and stratigraphic distribution of selected trace elements. Previous researchers have suggested the residency of the trace elements As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn as being sulfide minerals, either as separate distinct phases, inclusions, or isomorphous substitution. The most significant contribution derived from the present study is the direct observation and association of selected trace and minor elements with sulfide minerals. Rather than an indirect or inferred trace element- sulfide mineral association, sulfide mineral phases were isolated allowing the morphology and composition to be directly evaluated. 9 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Apollo 16: a trace element perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of some inferences regarding the Apollo 16 site that can be arrived at from incompatible element-geochemical data is presented. We use a set of elements not exploited to address some of the questions about the geology of the Apollo 16 site and the evolution of the highlands crust. Others have recognized the great difficulty in disentangling the complex history of the highlands on the basis of petrographic and compositional data. We have previously attempted to reconcile a relatively few interelement relationships with information from many other sources. The Apollo 16 site and the significance of Apollo 16 samples have been examined from the perspectives of data on Cl, P, Ru and Os for the most part and also, in a few cases, data on the heavy metals Pb, Tl and Bi.

  11. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  12. Ureilites - Trace element clues to their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssens, Marie-Josee; Hertogen, Jan; Wolf, Rainer; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Anders, Edward

    1987-01-01

    The question of the origin of ureilites was reexamined using new data obtained by radiochemical NAA for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Pd, Os, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn in two vein separates from Haveroe and Kenna and a bulk sample of Kenna. Vein material was found to be enriched in all elements analyzed, except Zn, and to account for most of the carbon, noble gases, and, presumably, siderophiles in the meteorite. The results support the earlier interpretation of Higuchi et al. (1976) on the composition of ureilite parent body (similar to C3V or H3, but not C3O chondrites).

  13. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  14. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    PubMed

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation. PMID:27317053

  15. Trace element concentration of central Appalachian coal beds

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M.; Miller, M.S.

    1996-09-01

    As a result of more stringent environmental regulations, there is increasing demand for coal beds with lower sulfur and trace element concentrations. Unfortunately, due to technical difficulties associated with the detection of elemental composition in parts-per-million, reliable trace element is scarce. Examination of the U.S.G.S. COALQUAL database of Appalachian coals was conducted for the following metals: antimony, arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. Within an area of approximately 14,000 square miles, 1,500 raw (core, underground and surface mine) coal samples with geographic coordinates were examined, and more than 100 named coal seams from Tennessee, southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia were investigated. Some samples were obtained from formerly active mines which have since been depleted. Researchers have identified approximately 80 coal-related minerals including clays, carbonates, phosphates, chlorides, silicates, sulfates, and sulfides and, of these, sulfides have been found in chemical association with some trace elements. Quality trends over a broad region provide insights into geochemical and depositional processes which may have influenced trace element content. Furthermore, recently published E.P.R.I. data from {open_quotes}as-shipped{close_quotes} coal samples (located by state only) demonstrate similar patterns at the state level. Analysis of these data generally indicates a geographic and stratigraphic preference for coal beds with lower levels of trace elements along the southern edge of the Appalachian coal fields. While these quality trends may be a reasonably good first approximation, additional sampling is needed in minable reserve areas to further identify coal seams which possess favorable trace metal concentrations.

  16. Vitamins and trace elements: practical aspects of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mette M; Shenkin, Alan

    2006-09-01

    The role of micronutrients in parenteral nutrition include the following: (1) Whenever artificial nutrition is indicated, micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and trace elements, should be given from the first day of artificial nutritional support. (2) Testing blood levels of vitamins and trace elements in acutely ill patients is of very limited value. By using sensible clinical judgment, it is possible to manage patients with only a small amount of laboratory testing. (3) Patients with major burns or major trauma and those with acute renal failure who are on continuous renal replacement therapy or dialysis quickly develop acute deficits in some micronutrients, and immediate supplementation is essential. (4) Other groups at risk are cancer patients, but also pregnant women with hyperemesis and people with anorexia nervosa or other malnutrition or malabsorption states. (5) Clinicians need to treat severe deficits before they become clinical deficiencies. If a patient develops a micronutrient deficiency state while in care, then there has been a severe failure of care. (6) In the early acute phase of recovery from critical illness, where artificial nutrition is generally not indicated, there may still be a need to deliver micronutrients to specific categories of very sick patients. (7) Ideally, trace element preparations should provide a low-manganese product for all and a manganese-free product for certain patients with liver disease. (8) High losses through excretion should be minimized by infusing micronutrients slowly, over as long a period as possible. To avoid interactions, it would be ideal to infuse trace elements and vitamins separately: the trace elements over an initial 12-h period and the vitamins over the next 12-h period. (9) Multivitamin and trace element preparations suitable for most patients requiring parenteral nutrition are widely available, but individual patients may require additional supplements or smaller amounts of certain micronutrients

  17. Controls on Fe(II)-Activated Trace Element Release from Goethite and Hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-03-26

    Electron transfer and atom exchange (ETAE) between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxides induces surface growth and dissolution that affects trace element fate and transport. We have recently demonstrated Ni(II) cycling through goethite and hematite (adsorbed Ni incorporates into the mineral structure and preincorporated Ni releases to solution) during Fe(II)-Fe(III) ETAE. However, the chemical parameters affecting net trace element release remain unknown. Here, we examine the chemical controls on Ni(II) and Zn(II) release from Ni- and Zn-substituted goethite and hematite during reaction with Fe(II). Release follows a rate law consistent with surface reaction limited mineral dissolution and suggests that release occurs near sites of Fe(III) reductive dissolution during Fe(II)-Fe(III) ETAE. Metal substituent type affects reactivity; Zn release is more pronounced from hematite than goethite, whereas the opposite trend occurs for Ni. Buildup of Ni or Zn in solution inhibits further release but this resumes upon fluid exchange, suggesting that sustained release is possible under flow conditions. Mineral and aqueous Fe(II) concentrations as well as pH strongly affect sorbed Fe(II) concentrations, which directly control the reaction rates and final metal concentrations. Our results demonstrate that structurally incorporated trace elements are mobilized from iron oxides into fluids without abiotic or microbial net iron reduction. Such release may affect micronutrient availability, contaminant transport, and the distribution of redox-inactive trace elements in natural and engineered systems.

  18. Mercury and trace elements in crayfish from northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Bergen, D.R.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Meckstroth, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We collected two species of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, from Cache and Putah Creeks, California, and analyzed them for mercury and trace elements. Trace elements were higher in carcasses in 40 cases, higher in tails in 5 cases, and not different in 35 cases; no concentration exceeded levels considered harmful. Mercury concentrations were similar among sites, with no overall sex or species effect in tails. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were higher in tails at all sites. Methylmercury concentrations in crayfish tails (0.156-0.256 ??g/g) exceeded concentrations reported in health advisories for consumption of fish and crayfish from these watersheds. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  19. Trace elements in rims and interiors of Chainpur chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, L. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1984-05-01

    Trace elements were measured in the rims and interiors of nine chondrules separated from the Chainpur LL-3 chondrite. Whole rock samples of Chainpur and samples of separated rims were also measured. Chondrule rims are moderately enriched in siderophile and volatile elements relative to the chondrule interiors. The enriched volatile elements include the lithophilic volatile element Zn. The moderate enrichment of volatiles in chondrule rims and the lack of severe depletion in chondrules can account for the complete volatile inventory in Chainpur. These results support a three-component model of chondrite formation in which metal plus sulfide, chondrules plus rims and matrix silicates are mixed to form chondrites.

  20. Trace and Major Elements in Food Articles in Latvia: Root Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the content of trace and major elements in plants is dependent on several factors, such as type of species, soil properties, climate conditions, agricultural and agrichemical factors, pollution. The aim of the study was to quantify element content of root vegetables grown in farmlands and allotment gardens in Latvia. Samples of onion bulbs and carrot roots were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Quantitative amounts of 17 trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) and 5 major elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) were determined. It was detected that carrot roots contained higher amounts of several elements than onion bulbs. Differences in element content of vegetables were also detected between the subgroups of samples grown in farmlands versus samples grown in allotment gardens. Data revealed that onions grown in farmlands were more affected by contaminants.

  1. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    SciTech Connect

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale & Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  3. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  4. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  5. Emission spectrographic determination of trace elements in lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Annell, C.; Helz, A.

    1970-01-01

    Eighteen minor or trace elements were detected and determined by emission spectroscopy. Direct d-c arc excitation of powdered samples was used with three variations in the procedure. Thirteen lunar samples consisting of four fine-grained igneous rocks, one medium-grained igneous rock, seven breccias, and one sample of fines were analyzed. The zinc and nickel concentrations in the breccias were approximately one order of magnitude greater than the concentrations of these elements in igneous rocks.

  6. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  7. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  8. Effect of sewage sludge on trace element mobility in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritse, R.G.; Vriesema, R.; Dalenberg, J.W.; de Roos, H.P.

    1982-07-01

    Adsorption of Be, F, B, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Tc, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, and P was measured in a sandy soil and a sandy loam soil at concentration levels closely corresponding to those to be expected for field conditions. Mobilities of the elements in the soils were calculated from the adsorption data. Of the trace elements studied, F, B, and Tc were found to be very mobile in both the sandy and sandy loam sils. Manganese, Sr, and Sb were highly mobile only in the sandy soil, and Mo in the sandy loam soil. In general, sludge solutions appeared to increase the mobility of elements in a soil. This is due to a combination of complexation by dissolved organic compounds, high background concentrations, and high ionic strengths of the soil solutions. The relative effects of these factors vary strongly among elements. Equations were derived predicting the rates of accumulation in soils and accompanying increases in the soil solutions of trace elements added with sewage sludge. When adsorption was related to soil organic matter content, for many trace elements the strength of adsorption was found to depend only on pH, increasing with increasing pH.

  9. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  10. Trace-Element Concentrations in Northwest Africa 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wang, A.; Gillis, J. J.; Haskin, L. A.; Fagan, T. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    2001-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations (INAA) are presented for four samples of the NWA 032 lunar meteorite. The mare basalt has a moderately high Th concentration (1.9 ppm) and a higher Th/REE ratio than any other known mare basalt. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. REMOVAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime neutralization, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange were studied for their effectiveness in removing mg/l levels of ten specific trace elements from spiked acid mine drainage under typical operating conditions. The specified toxic materials were arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromi...

  12. Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, Abdullahi; Al-Saad, Samira

    2005-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of natural trace elements has been implicated in the etiology of autism. This study explores whether concentration levels of toxic metals in the hair of children with autism significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In-hair concentration levels of antimony, uranium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury,…

  13. Accumulation of trace elements by Pistia stratiotes: implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2004-10-01

    The toxicity of eight potentially toxic trace elements (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) to Pistia stratiotes was examined to determine if this plant showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate waste water and/or natural water bodies polluted with these heavy metals. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically and amended with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM of each heavy metal individually for 21 days. Root elongation as well as emergence of new roots decreased significantly with increase in metal concentrations. The plant had the lowest and the highest tolerance indices for Hg and Zn respectively. The study indicated reduction in the rate of leaf expansion relative to metal type, their concentrations and the duration of exposure. A significant reduction in biomass production was observed in metal treated plants compared with the control plants. The relative growth rate of P. stratiotes was retarded by heavy metals under study. All trace elements accumulated to higher concentrations in root tissue rather than in shoot. Trace element accumulation in tissues and the bioconcentration factors were proportional to the initial concentration of individual metals in the growth medium and the duration of exposure. In terms of trace element removal, P. stratiotes presented differential accumulation and tolerance levels for different metals at similar treatment conditions. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. PMID:15673213

  14. Trace elements removal from water using modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Buchler, P M

    2008-02-01

    This paper present the possible alternative options for the remove of trace elements from drinking water supplies in the trace. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causing various adverse effects on living bodies. The performance of three filter bed methods was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon, powder carbon steel and ceramic spheres in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The modified powdered block carbon is a satisfactory and economical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water due to its low unit cost of about $23 and compatibility with the traditional household filtration system. PMID:18613611

  15. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  16. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  17. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Carmen A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life. PMID:27144270

  18. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burton, Carmen A; Hoefen, Todd M; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Baumberger, Katherine L; Backlin, Adam R; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life. PMID:27144270

  19. Trace elements in stormflow, ash, and burned soil following the 2009 station fire in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  20. Association of trace elements with iron oxides during rock weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, R.D.; Helmke, P.A.; Jackson, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    The association of trace elements with Fe oxides during the early stages of rock weathering was determined by analysis of fresh diabase and granite rocks, their associated whole and size-separated saprolites, and goethite by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence. The same elements are found to be associated with Fe oxides when the results are interpreted by analysis of correlation, by the distribution of elements in the various size fractions by the effects of removing free Fe oxides, and by direct analysis of geothite from the saprolite. The elements Co, Cr, Mn, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of diabase, and As, Co, Cr, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of granite are associated with Fe oxides. The concentrations of Mn are too low in this system to separate the effects of Mn oxides from those of Fe oxides.

  1. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  2. Trace and minor elements in sphalerite from metamorphosed sulphide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockington, Julian A.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2014-12-01

    Sphalerite is a common sulphide and is the dominant ore mineral in Zn-Pb sulphide deposits. Precise determination of minor and trace element concentrations in sulphides, including sphalerite, by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a potentially valuable petrogenetic tool. In this study, LA-ICP-MS is used to analyse 19 sphalerite samples from metamorphosed, sphalerite-bearing volcanic-associated and sedimentary exhalative massive sulphide deposits in Norway and Australia. The distributions of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ga, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi are addressed with emphasis on how concentrations of these elements vary with metamorphic grade of the deposit and the extent of sulphide recrystallization. Results show that the concentrations of a group of trace elements which are believed to be present in sphalerite as micro- to nano-scale inclusions (Pb, Bi, and to some degree Cu and Ag) diminish with increasing metamorphic grade. This is interpreted as due to release of these elements during sphalerite recrystallization and subsequent remobilization to form discrete minerals elsewhere. The concentrations of lattice-bound elements (Mn, Fe, Cd, In and Hg) show no correlation with metamorphic grade. Primary metal sources, physico-chemical conditions during initial deposition, and element partitioning between sphalerite and co-existing sulphides are dominant in defining the concentrations of these elements and they appear to be readily re-incorporated into recrystallized sphalerite, offering potential insights into ore genesis. Given that sphalerite accommodates a variety of trace elements that can be precisely determined by contemporary microanalytical techniques, the mineral has considerable potential as a geothermometer, providing that element partitioning between sphalerite and coexisting minerals (galena, chalcopyrite etc.) can be quantified in samples for which the crystallization temperature can be independently

  3. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments. PMID:25065800

  4. Correlation of trace elements in hair with colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K.W.; Shore, R.E.; Redrick, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppM were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis A PIXE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.

    2008-03-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India - Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

  6. Trace element analysis by PIXE in several biomedical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.; Beguin, Y.; Roelandts, I.; Delbrouck, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Since 1980 in the University of Liége trace element analysis by PIXE has been developed in several directions, among these: the elemental composition of lung parenchyma, hilar lymph nodes, blood content in hematological disorders and renal insufficiency. The content in trace elements of lung tumor and surrounding tissue is measured and compared to similar content previously obtained on unselected patients of comparable ages. The normalization of the bromine deficiency observed in hemodialized patients is achieved by using a dialyzing bath doped with NaBr in order to obtain a normal bromine level of 5.7 μg/ml. The content of Cu, Zn, Br and Se in blood serum from more than 100 patients suffering from malignant hemopathy has been measured. The results are compared with a reference group. These oligoelements have also been measured sequentially for patients under intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. [Comparative study on trace elements in benefit traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen-Xiu

    2007-07-01

    The contents of trace elements Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in 20 kinds of benefit traditional Chinese medicines were determined by FAAS. The recovery rates obtained by standard addition method is between 96.8% and 104.3%, and the RSD is lower than 2.0%. The results of the determination show that benefit traditional Chinese medicines are rich in trace elements such as Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe. Hematonic has the highest content of Fe. The content of Zn, Mn and Fe is relatively high in Qi-invigorating drugs. The content of Zn and Mn is relatively high in maletonic, while Yin-nourishing drugs have lower content of Fe. The results will provide scientific data for the study on the elements in benefit traditional Chinese medicines and on their relativity of efficacy of medicine. PMID:17944431

  8. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  9. Trace-element abundances in several new ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, William V.; Hill, Dolores H.

    1993-01-01

    Four new ureilites are analyzed for trace-element abundances. Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90054 is an augite-rich ureilite and has high rare earth element (REE) abundances with a pattern expected of augite. FRO 90036 and Acfer 277 have REE patterns similar to the V-shape pattern of other ureilites. Nuevo Mercurio (b) has very high REE abundances, but they look like they are due to terrestrial alteration. The siderophile-element pattern of these ureilites are similar to those of known ureilites.

  10. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  11. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. II. SEVENTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN FOUR NEW JERSEY COMMUNITIES (1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventeen trace elements - arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickle (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn) - were measured in human sca...

  12. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.

    1999-11-14

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  13. Vaporization, condensation, and emission of trace elements from coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Senior, C.L.; Morency, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The emissions of many trace elements found in coal are regulated under the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Because the emission of an element is related to its volatility, minimization of trace element emissions from coal gasification systems requires a thorough understanding of the volatilization and condensation processes. Choosing Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal as a standard, entrained flow gasification experiments were conducted in a laboratory flow reactor under different oxidant-to-fuel ratios. Fly ash particles generated during gasification were sampled, nitrogen-quenched at approximately 10{sup 4} K/s, and size-segregated on-line using a cascade impactor and polycarbonate filter. A carbon trap was used to retain any residual vapors. Examination of the concentration of trace elements in the ash as a function of fly ash particle size revealed the differing extent of volatilization for different elements. For example, greater than 20% of the Se, Zn, and As vaporized under these conditions. In contrast, less than 1% of the U and Cr vaporized. Using these experimental data to define initial conditions, equilibrium calculations were conducted to identify the most probable gas-phase species for the elements Zn, As, and Se. These results were, in turn, sued to set input conditions for experiments designed to assess the feasibility of capturing these three elements with a sorbent at 550--650 C, temperatures associated with high-temperature sulfur removal. These experiments indicated that all three elements could be removed from the gas stream with silicate sorbents, suggesting that coal ash might be an effective sorbent material.

  14. Trace elements in diabetic cardiomyopathy: An electrophysiological overview

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Ozdemir, Semir

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that Diabetes Mellitus leads to a specific cardiomyopathy apart from vascular disease and bring about high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent clinical and experimental studies have extensively demonstrated that this cardiomyopathy causes impaired cardiac performance manifested by early diastolic and late systolic dysfunction. This impaired cardiac performance most probably have emerged upon the expression and activity of regulatory proteins such as Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. Over years many therapeutic strategies have been recommended for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Lately, inorganic elements have been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects due to their suggested ability to regulate glucose homeostasis, reduce oxidative stress or suppress phosphatases. Recent findings have shown that trace elements exert many biological effects including insulin-mimetic or antioxidant activity and in this manner they have been recommended as potential candidates for treatment of diabetes-induced cardiac complications, an effect based on their modes of action. Some of these trace elements are known to play an essential role as component of enzymes and thus modulate the organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides, they can also manipulate redox state of the channels via antioxidant properties and thus contribute to the regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis and cardiac ion channels. On account of little information about some trace elements, we discussed the effect of vanadium, selenium, zinc and tungstate on diabetic heart complications. PMID:23961319

  15. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace element contents of elderly males in Beijing urban area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Yu, Haotian; Yang, Guohua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Wenjiao; Su, Tianjiao; Ma, Weifeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Liying; He, Li; Ma, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Trace element levels are associated with the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, but related mechanisms remain unknown. Trace elements may interfere with growth, development and maintenance of bones. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma trace element levels are associated with bone mineral density in elderly males in Beijing. After epidemiologically investigating 91 elderly males with age ranging from 50 years to 80 years, we obtained a total of 30 healthy (group 1), 31 osteopoenic (group 2) and 30 osteoporotic (group 3) subjects. Blood was collected, and serum concentrations of trace elements were detected. Elderly males in the three groups were carefully matched in terms of body mass index. Iron, manganese, zinc, copper, selenium, cadmium and lead were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by QDR-2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation between BMD and serum element contents was analysed using SPSS16.0. The plasma levels of manganese, zinc, copper, selenium and lead were similar in all of the groups (P>0.05). Cadmium was significantly and negatively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae (P<0.05). Moreover, cadmium and iron contents significantly differed in osteoporotic and healthy groups. These elements may directly and correlatively affect BMD in elderly males. Many trace elements may directly and correlatively influence BMD. Future studies should be conducted to evaluate serum and bone levels of these trace elements to determine the relationship of these trace elements with osteoporosis. PMID:26770561

  17. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    elements and other sources of bias and variability in the sampling process. Trace elements have both natural and anthropogenic sources that may affect the sampling process, including the sample-collection and handling materials used in many trace-element monitoring studies. Trace elements also react with these materials within the timescales typical for collection, processing and analysis of runoff samples. To study the characteristics and potential effects of trace elements in highway and urban runoff, investigators typically sample one or more operationally defined matrixes including: whole water, dissolved (filtered water), suspended sediment, bottom sediment, biological tissue, and contaminant sources. The sampling and analysis of each of these sample matrixes can provide specific information about the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in runoff and receiving waters. There are, however, technical concerns specific to each matrix that must be understood and addressed through use of proper collection and processing protocols. Valid protocols are designed to minimize inherent problems and to maximize the accuracy, precision, comparability, and representativeness of data collected. Documentation, including information about monitoring protocols, quality assurance and quality control efforts, and ancillary data also is necessary to establish data quality. This documentation is especially important for evaluation of historical traceelement monitoring data, because trace-element monitoring protocols and analysis methods have been constantly changing over the past 30 years.

  18. Laser ablation and selective excitation directed to trace element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, V. H. S.

    1980-08-01

    A trace (element) analyser based on laser ablation and selectively excited radiation is proposed as an ultramicro-ultratrace technique for quantitative element analysis. Measurements of trace quantities of chromium in samples of NBS standard reference material (steel), doped skim milk powder and doped flour were undertaken. There is a linear 45 deg slope for Log/Log plot dependence of signal versus concentration that extends at least up to 1.3% (concentration by weight) in the case of chromium. The detection limit for the current unoptimized system is in the ppm range which corresponds to the absolute detection limit of 10 to the 13th power g. Although no chemical interference effects were observed, two physical interference effects were evident: differential mass vaporization and inhomogeneous spatial and temporal distribution of fast expanding analyte. The differential Doppler shift between the atoms along the line of observation reduces self-absorption even at high analyte concentrations.

  19. Trace element mobility in soils seven years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; García-Sánchez, A; Querol, X; Moyano, A

    2008-11-01

    The long-term influence of the Aznalcóllar mine spill on soils was studied seven years after the accident in the area of Vado del Quema. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed after the cleaning operations and soils where this process was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Sludge and soil horizons were characterised, determining their physico-chemical parameters, mineralogy and the total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover, leaching studies were performed using batch tests. The main mineralogical changes detected in the soil beneath the weathered sludge are the neo-formation of jarosite, gypsum and sainfeldite, together with the almost total depletion of calcite. An important acidification of soil has been also produced, especially in the uppermost soil layers. These two factors show to be the main responsible for the vertical distribution and leachability displayed by trace elements. Critical total concentrations were found for most trace elements in the soil still affected by the sludge weathering. Furthermore, the Cd and Zn leachable contents showed to be extremely high. Therefore, in those areas affected by the mine spill where the removal of sludge was not accomplished properly, special care should be paid to trace elements highly mobile in acidic conditions. Additional restoration measures should be undertaken to avoid further pollutant dispersion. PMID:18774588

  20. Using water, bryophytes, and macroinvertebrates to assess trace element concentrations in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, J.R.; Spahr, N.E.; Mize, S.V.; Boulger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined trace elements concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure at 32 sites in 22 streams in Colorado. Sites affected by mining activities (mining sites) and sites that were minimally disturbed (nonmining sites) were selected for the assessment. Water and transplanted aquatic bryophyte samples were analyzed for trace elements. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected to assess the effects of trace elements on the aquatic community of the stream. All samples of aquatic bryophytes had detectable concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Principal components analysis of chemical and physical properties classified sites into three groups. The first group represented sites that were unaffected to minimally affected by mining activities; the second group was characterized by sites with Cd, Pb and Zn predominant in the mineralogy; and the third group was characterized by sites with Cu predominant in the mineralogy. Six macroinvertebrate families were common in the study area. Median values of total abundance, taxa richness and mayfly and stonefly abundance were reduced at mining sites. Abundances of Heptageniidae, Chloroperlidae and Rhyacophila and Baetis sp. also were reduced at sites with elevated trace element concentrations. Tanytarsini chironomids were most abundant at reference and minimally-disturbed sites.

  1. Vitamins, trace elements, and antioxidant status in dementia disorders.

    PubMed

    Tabet, N; Mantle, D; Walker, Z; Orrell, M

    2001-09-01

    Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, have been proposed for the treatment of dementia disorders. Although other vitamins and trace elements may also have antioxidant-enhancing activities, it is not known whether the overall antioxidant status in dementia patients is associated with the intake level of these vitamins and trace elements. In this study, we assessed the levels of vitamins and trace elements in the diet of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and a group of carers, along with blood levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results show that the dietary intake was decreased for most measured vitamins and trace elements in severe AD, but not in other dementia groups. In addition, we found no significant difference in the levels of TAC between any of the dementia groups. There was, however, a significant correlationbetween intake of vitamin B1, vitamin B12, zinc, and selenium and blood levels of TAC in the VaD group, but not in the AD and DLB groups. Furthermore, no association was observed in any of the dementia groups between zinc and copper intake and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity, or between dietary selenium intake and glutathione peroxidase activity. The activities of these two endogenous antioxidant enzymes do not seem to be influenced by intake levels of relevant substances. The data indicate that the influence of dietary vitamins and metal ions on the overall antioxidant status is limited to VaD patients only. Clinical trials are needed to ascertain the value of antioxidant supplementation in VaD patients. PMID:11768374

  2. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  3. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  4. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  5. Adsorption of trace elements from poultry litter by montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhaskaran; Gupta, Gian

    2006-01-16

    Poultry litter (PL) is used as fertilizer on agricultural lands because of its high nutrient content. However, the litter also contains trace elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. On land application of PL, these trace elements may be absorbed by crops, leach into groundwater, or enter the aquatic system as run-off. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of montmorillonite clay-mineral (CM) in reducing the release of trace elements from PL. Cd, Cu, and Zn showed significant decreases of 29, 34, and 22%, respectively, in PL aqueous leachate (compared with the control-PL without CM) on mixing with 0.05 g CM but no change in As, Co, and Cr concentrations was observed. Lead showed a significant increase in PL aqueous leachate on mixing with 0.2 g CM but Pb concentration was two orders of magnitude less than in CM aqueous leachate alone. On washing, the settled precipitate (PL+CM) in the centrifuge tubes with water (desorption study) most of the adsorbed metals (Cd 85%, Cu 61%, and Zn 100%) were released. The results of this study show that the addition of CM resulted in significant adsorption of Cd and Cu from PL. PMID:16298051

  6. Concentrations of trace elements in Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Henry F., Jr.; Edgington, David N.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    The concentration of 15 trace elements was determined by activation analysis of samples of whole fish and fish livers from three of the Great Lakes: Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The average concentrations of 7 elements in 19 whole fish from 3 species were as follows: uranium, 3 ppb (parts per billion); thorium, 6 ppb; cobalt, 28 ppb; cadmium, 94 ppb; arsenic, 16 ppb; chromium, 1 ppm; and copper, 1.3 ppm. The average concentrations of 8 elements in 40 liver samples from 10 species of fish were as follows: uranium, ~ 2 ppb; thorium, a?? 2 ppb; cobalt, 40 ppb; copper, 9 ppm; zinc, 30 ppm; bromine, 0.4 ppm; arsenic, 30 ppb; and cadmium, 0.4 ppm. Other elements observed in most of the samples were: antimony, 5-100 ppb; gold, 2-5 ppb; lanthanum, 1-20 ppb; rhenium, 0.5-5 ppb; rubidium, 0.06-4 ppm; and selenium, 0.1-2 ppb. Trace element concentrations varied with species and lake. Uranium and thorium varied with species, but not for the same species from different lakes. The levels of copper, cobalt, zinc, and bromine varied little between species and lakes. The concentration of cadmium, arsenic, and chromium varied between species and with species between lakes.

  7. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of trace elements in barbecue charcoals.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Annabel; Turner, Andrew

    2013-11-15

    Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16 μg g(-1) for Cd to 3240 μg g(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007 μg g(-1) for Cd to 28 μg g(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing. PMID:24140519

  8. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

  9. Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. [Titanites; bitite

    SciTech Connect

    Lemarchand, F.; Villemant, B.; Calas, G.

    1987-05-01

    Mineral/groundmass partition coefficients for U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, Rb, REE, Co and Sc have been systematically measured in olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, Ti-magnetites, titanite, zircon and feldspars, in basaltic to trachytic lavas from alkaline series (Velay, Chaine des Puys: Massif Central, France and Fayal: Azores). Average partition coefficients are defined within the experimental uncertainty for limited compositional ranges (basalt-hawaiite, mugearites, benmoreite-trachyte), and are useful for trace element modelling. The new results for U, Th, Ta, Zr and Hf partition coefficients show contrasting behaviour. They can thus be used as ''key elements'' for identifying fractionating mineral phases in differentiation processes (e.g. Ta and Th for amphibole and mica). Partition coefficient may be calculated using the two-lattice model suggested by NIELSEN (1985). Such values show a considerably reduced chemical dependence in natural systems, relative to weight per cent D values. The residual variations may be accounted for by temperature or volatile influence. This calculation greatly enhances modelling possibilities using trace elements for comparing differentiation series as well as for predicting the behaviour of elements during magmatic differentiation.

  10. Trace element speciation in combustion processes - review and compilations of thermodynamic data

    SciTech Connect

    Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Rainer Backman

    2007-12-15

    Chemical equilibrium calculations are often used to determine the fate of trace metals in combustion processes and to study the effects of different process variables and varying fuel compositions. This paper compares thermodynamic data on compounds containing the trace elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb from different database sources. The results showed significant differences in Gibbs free energy (G) values between existing databases in both number of compounds included in the databases and thermodynamic data. The differences also significantly affected the outcome of the equilibrium calculations. 24 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, P. L.; Weisend, R.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Trace element cycling in marine particles is influenced by atmospheric deposition, vertical export, biological uptake and remineralization, scavenging, and lateral transport processes. To investigate the cycling of lithogenic particles in the central North Pacific Ocean, surface and vertical profile samples of marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected July-August 2012 during the HOE-DYLAN cruises at Station ALOHA. In the late summer, atmospheric dust inputs from the Gobi desert (which peak during the spring, April-May) were sparse, as indicated by low surface particulate Ti (pTi) concentrations. In contrast, surface pAl concentrations did not follow pTi trends as expected, but appear to be dominated by scavenging/uptake of dissolved Al during diatom blooms. Surface pMn concentrations were low, but vertical profiles of pMn and pMn/pTi reveal a strong sedimentary source at 200 m, originating from the Hawaiian continental shelf through a combination of redox mobilization and resuspension processes. The redox active elements Ce and Co can have chemistries similar to that of Mn, but in these samples the pCe and pCo distributions were distinct from Mn and each other in both surface trends and vertical profiles. Surface pREE (e.g., La, Ce, Pr) were highest during the earliest sampling events and quickly decreased to consistently low concentrations, while vertical distributions were characterized by scavenging onto biotic particles and mid-depth inputs. The surface particulate Co trend is similar to those of pAl and pP, while the pCo vertical profiles reflect surface enrichment but low concentrations and little variability at depth. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the biological influence over particulate trace element cycling (Weisend et al., "Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA").

  12. Geochemical Peculiarities of the Distribution of Trace Elements in Caustobioliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    This research covers the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative contents of trace elements (TE) in naphtides. This work is based on the analysis and generalization of the large volume of scientific literature as well as on the author's analytical research covering oils and organic matter of rocks of different fascial composition and thermal maturity, collected from the wide range of depths in the fields of Volgo-Ural, Western Siberia, Timan-Pechiora, South Caspian, North Caucasian-Mangyshlak, and other oil and gas-bearing basins (OGB). Analysis of TE contents of oils, coals, oil-and-black shales - caustobioliths of the single genetic series - has been undertaken. The scientific and practical interest in the information on shale formations is connected with the prospects that they offer for extraction and industrial utilization of the trace elements. It is shown that the ontogenesis of naphtides is accompanied by the functional transformation of both the organic components (hydrocarbons) and non-organic components (various metal and non-metal compositions). Possible origins of accumulation of trace elements in oils were evaluated. Classification of oils of oil-and-gas bearing basins of different tectonic structure based on their physical and chemical properties as well as the contents and ratios of their "biogenesis" elements (V, Ni, Fe) were performed. It was shown that the differentiation of naphtides is due to lithophascial conditions of deposition of the original organic matter and also due to diagenic, cathagenic and hypergenic processes of the evolution of the hydrocarbons. The most significant redistribution in the concentrations of some of the metals occur during the hypergenic transformations of oils. Existence of oils with different metallogeny is related to the contents of the original organic matter and the processes of the transformation of hydrocarbon fluids during the course of geological development of the OGB.

  13. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  14. What We Have Learned About the Existing Trace Element Partitioning data During the Population Phase of traceDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Trischman, T.

    2015-12-01

    The database traceDs is designed to provide a transparent and accessible resource of experimental partitioning data. It now includes ~ 90% of all the experimental trace element partitioning data (~4000 experiments) produced over the past 45 years, and is accessible through a web based interface (using the portal lepr.ofm-research.org). We set a minimum standard for inclusion, with the threshold criteria being the inclusion of: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without knowledge of composition of the phases, and the temperature and pressure of formation/equilibration. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. In the process of populating the database, we have learned a number of things about the existing published experimental partitioning data. Most important are: ~ 20% of the papers do not satisfy one or more of the threshold criteria. The standard format for presenting data is the average. This was developed as the standard during the time where there were space constraints for publication in spite of fact that all the information can now be published as electronic supplements. The uncertainties that are published with the compositional data are often not adequately explained (e.g. 1 or 2 sigma, standard deviation of the average, etc.). We propose a new set of publication standards for experimental data that include the minimum criteria described above, the publication

  15. Occurrence and fate of some trace elements during pyrolysis of Yima coal, China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiwei; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Yu; Yang, Jianli

    2008-11-15

    Modes of occurrence and transformation behaviors of selected trace elements during coal pyrolysis were studied. The element content in coal and chars was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental occurrence in raw coal was analyzed through a sequential extraction procedure and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectroscopy (ICP-AAS). The trace elements in Yima coal are separated into five fractions: water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonate, organic material, and residue. All the elements studied mainly exist in the residue fraction. With regard to heavy-metal elements studied, the residue fraction takes about 50-80% and the organic fraction takes about 15-40%; other chemical forms occurred at a very low level. Only Mn and Ni showed a sizable distribution of water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and carbonate fraction. During coal pyrolysis, part of the element became released from the coal body and some other parts became enriched in chars. All the elements showed a increasing release ratio with the temperature ascending; at the same pyrolysis temperature, the release ratio of heavy-metal elements is higher than that of the rare earth elements (REEs). At 900{degree}C, the volatilizable fraction of the coal body is nearly depleted, the pyrolysis almost came to an end and the release intensity was approaching zero. All the elements showed a enrichment in chars and the enrichment ratioincreases with the temperature ascending. The modes of occurrence of the element is a key role affecting the transformation during pyrolysis. With regard to REEs, there is a negative correlation between the elements left in chars and the residue fraction in raw coal, indicatingthat the element content left in chars for REEs is a result of the element distribution in the residue fraction in raw coal. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Trace element characteristics of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle in the Rio Grande rift region

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    Trace element analyses of 10 mafic volcanic rocks from the Colorado Plateau transition zone, Colorado Plateau, Rio Grande rift, and Great Plains were obtained to characterize the trace element characteristics of asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle beneath these regions. Characterization of these mantle reservoirs using the trace element contents of basalts allows one to track the response of the lithosphere to continental rifting and extension.

  17. Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Lee, B.-G.; Fisher, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

  18. Prospecting for hyperaccumulators of trace elements: a review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Specific plant species that can take up and accumulate abnormally high concentrations of elements in their aboveground tissues are referred to as "hyperaccumulators". The use of this term is justified in the case of enormous element-binding capacity of plants growing in their natural habitats and showing no toxicity symptoms. An increasing interest in the study of hyperaccumulators results from their potential applications in environmental biotechnology (phytoremediation, phytomining) and their emerging role in nanotechnology. The highest number of plant species with confirmed hyperaccumulative properties has been reported for hyperaccumulators of nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium. More limited data exist for plants accumulating other elements, including common pollutants (chromium, lead and boron) or elements of commercial value, such as copper, gold and rare earth elements. Different approaches have been used for the study of hyperaccumulators - geobotanical, chemical, biochemical and genetic. The chemical approach is the most important in screening for new hyperaccumulators. This article presents and critically reviews current trends in new hyperaccumulator research, emphasizing analytical methodology that is applied in identification of new hyperaccumulators of trace elements and its future perspectives. PMID:24938121

  19. Orthopyroxenes as recorders of diogenite petrogenesis: Trace element systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Layne, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    Eucrite, howardite, and diogenite members of the achondrites are considered, by many, to be genetically related. Therefore, each provide a piece of the puzzle for reconstructing magmatic processes on the eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship between eucrites and diogenites can be viewed within the context of two distinctly different models: (1) fractional crystallization; and (2) partial melting. In fractional crystallization models, eucrites and diogenites represent a complementary continuum of planetary fractional crystallization products in which the diogenites represent crystal accumulations during the crystallization of eucritic magmas at shallow to deep levels in the EPB. Alternatively, experimental studies may be interpreted as indicating eucrites represent peritectic partial melts of a primitive, chondritic EPB mantle. Within this type of model, the diogenites are also generally considered to be cumulates; however, their petrogenetic relationship to the eucrites is less clear. Sack et al. proposed that the olivine diogenites represent residua from the partial melting events that produced eucritic liquids. Initial trace element studies of orthopyroxene (OPX) are consistent with this model. However, this trace element modeling of the olivine diogenites is nonunique. As a further test of these models, we did the following three things: (1) analyzed OPX from cumulate diogenites to compare with the olibine diogenite data; (2) improved ion microprobe analytical techniques for the analysis of elements critical to our interpretations; and (3) selected more relevant Kd's for OPX-eucritic melt.

  20. Trace element depth profiles in presolar silicon carbide grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley J.; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C.

    2012-10-01

    We have analyzed eleven presolar SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Si isotopic compositions of the grains indicate that they are probably of an AGB star origin. The average abundances of Mg, Fe, Ca, Al, Ti, and V are strongly influenced by their condensation behavior into SiC in circumstellar environments. Depth profiles of Li, B, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, and Fe in the SiC grains show that trace elements are not always homogenously distributed. In approximately half of the SiC grains studied here, the trace element distributions can be explained by condensation processes around the grains' parent stars. These grains appear to have experienced only minimal processing before their arrival in the presolar molecular cloud, possibly due to short residence times in the interstellar medium. The remaining SiC grains contained elevated abundances of several elements within their outer 200 nm, which is attributed to the implantation of energetic ions accelerated by shockwaves in the interstellar medium. These grains may have spent a longer period of time in this region, hence increasing the probability of them passing through a shockfront. Distinct groups of presolar SiC grains whose residence times in the interstellar medium differ are consistent with previous findings based on noble gas studies, although some grains may also have been shielded from secondary alteration by protective outer mantles.

  1. Tracking Iceland Plume Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle plume. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-plume interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the plume conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical plume tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland plume conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the plume conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting region. Above the plume conduit, plume-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting region faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the plume conduit than away from the plume conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the plume conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the plume conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the plume conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The plume track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland Plume has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of

  2. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment. PMID:27438794

  3. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal

    PubMed Central

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross–validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment. PMID:27438794

  4. Kinetic determinations of trace element bioaccumulation in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    reference sites in national monitoring programs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the total suspended solids load, which can affect mussel feeding activity, assimilation, and trace element concentration in the dissolved and particulate phases, can significantly influence metal bioaccumulation for particle-reactive elements such as Ag and Am. For all metals, concentrations in mussels are proportionately related to total metal load in the water column and their assimilation efficiency from ingested particles. Further, the model predicted that over 96% of Se in mussels is obtained from ingested food, under conditions typical of coastal waters. For Ag, Am, Cd, Co and Zn, the relative contribution from the dissolved phase decreases significantly with increasing trace element partition coefficients for suspended particles and the assimilation efficiency in mussels of ingested trace elements; values range between 33 and 67% for Ag, 5 and 17% for Am, 47 and 82% for Cd, 4 and 30% for Co, and 17 and 51% for Zn.

  5. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  6. Volatiles and trace elements in melt inclusions from Siberian Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, S.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Svensen, H.

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) was synchronous with the largest known mass extinction, at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Understanding the volatile budget of the eruptions and hence their potential effects on climate is of critical importance. The volcanism spanned an enormous territory (5 million km2) over 0.8 Ma and the magmas feeding the eruptions were heterogeneous in their chemistry in space and time. In terms of volatiles in pre-eruptive magmas, there are multiple possible sources: the mantle (including metasomatized lithosphere) and crustal rocks and sediments. Discriminating between these sources requires not only microanalysis of volatiles in melt inclusions, but also analysis of trace elements. Crucially, the magmas sampled for this study did not intersect and assimilate evaporite deposits or brines prior to emplacement as sills or eruption as lavas, in contrast to previous studies, which might allow mantle-derived volatile heterogeneity to be preserved in the melts. We present a new dataset of clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusion geochemistry. Crystalline inclusions in clinopyroxene with Mg# from 69.2 to 82.6 were homogenized at temperatures of 1190°C and fO2 of FMQ-1 in a high temperature gas mixing furnace. We show that, for this particular suite of lavas, considerable variability exists in trace and volatile element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Nb/Y, Ba/La, F/Nd, Cl/K) that may be explained entirely by mantle heterogeneity. The most depleted melts (e.g. low La/Yb) have the highest range and values of S/Dy, Cl/K and F/Nd ratios; and the most "enriched" melts (highest La/Yb) exhibit low volatile/trace element ratios. These trends are consistent with mixing between end member sources: low degrees of melting of a volatile-poor source and high degrees of melting of a volatile-rich component with a depleted trace element signature (which might be consistent with minimally devolatilised recycled oceanic crust). There is no clear

  7. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Karoonda /C4/ chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matza, S. D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of ten volatile/mobile trace elements and of nonvolatile Co in the Karoonda (C4) meteorite were determined, and the atomic abundances relative to C1 are compared with values for the Murchison (C2) and Allende (C3) meteorites. Empirical Bi, In, and Tl data for Karoonda and heated Allende and Murchison are compared with theoretical curves for condensation from a gas of cosmic composition at low pressures. It is suggested that Karoonda might derive from low-temperature open-system metamorphism of pristine C3-like material.

  8. Common trace elements alleviate pain in an experimental mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tamba, Bogdan I; Leon, Maria-Magdalena; Petreus, Tudor

    2013-04-01

    Trace elements represent a group of essential metals or metaloids necessary for life, present in minute amounts. Analgesic adjuvants can enhance the effect of other pain drugs or be used for pain control themselves. Previous studies on the effects of trace elements on nociception and their potential use as analgesic adjuvants have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that three vital trace elements (Zn²⁺, Mg²⁺, Cu²⁺) have direct antinociceptive effects. Groups of eight Swiss mice were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with incremental concentrations of Zn²⁺ sulfate (0.5, 2.0 mg/kg), Zn²⁺ citrate (0.125, 0.5 mg/kg), Mg²⁺ chloride (37.5, 75, 150 mg/kg), Cu²⁺ chloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg), and Cu²⁺ sulfate (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) or saline (control). Evaluations were made by hot plate (HP) and tail flick (TF) tests for central antinociceptive effect, writhing test (WT) for visceral antinociceptive effect, and activity cage (AC) test for spontaneous behavior. Zn²⁺ induced pain inhibition in HP/TF tests (up to 17%) and WT (up to 25%), with no significant differences among the salts used. Mg²⁺ salts induced pain inhibition for all performed tests (up to 85% in WT). Cu²⁺ salts showed antinociceptive effects for HP/TF (up to 28.6%) and WT (57.28%). Only Mg²⁺ and Cu²⁺ salts have displayed significant effects in AC (Mg²⁺ anxiolytic/depressant effect; Cu²⁺ anxiolytic effect). We interpret these data to mean that all tested trace elements induced antinociceptive effects in central and visceral pain tests. Our data indicate the potential use of these cheap adjuvants in pain therapy. PMID:23362003

  9. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  10. Trace Element Geochemistry of Martian Iddingsite in the Lafayette Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite contains abundant iddingsite, a fine-grained intergrowth of smectite clay, ferrihydrite, and ionic salt minerals. Both the meteorite and iddingsite formed on Mars. Samples of iddingsite, olivine, and augite pyroxene were extracted from Lafayette and analyzed for trace elements by instrumental neutron activation. Our results are comparable to independent analyses by electron and ion microbeam methods. Abundances of most elements in the iddingsite do not covary significantly. The iddingsite is extremely rich in Hg, which is probably terrestrial contamination. For the elements Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn, the composition of the iddingsite is close to a mixture of approximately 50% Lafayette olivine + approximately 40% Lafayette siliceous glass + approximately 1O% water. Concordant behavior among these elements is not compatible with element fractionations between smectite and water, but the hydrous nature and petrographic setting of the iddingsite clearly suggest an aqueous origin. These inferences are both consistent, however, with deposition of the iddingsite originally as a silicate gel, which then crystallized (neoformed) nearly isochemically. The iddingsite contains significantly more magnesium than implied by the model, which may suggest that the altering solutions were rich in Mg(2+).

  11. Physiology and metabolism of essential trace elements: an outline.

    PubMed

    Aggett, P J

    1985-08-01

    Man depends on at least nine trace elements--iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, chromium, selenium, molybdenum and cobalt--for optimum metabolic function. These elements serve a variety of functions including catalytic, structural and regulatory activities in which they interact with macromolecules such as enzymes, pro-hormones, pre-secretory granules and biological membranes. These micronutrients are involved, therefore, in all major metabolic pathways at levels which are so fundamental that the features of deficiency of many of them are protean and non-specific. In considering the metabolism of the elements themselves, they fall into two groups: those which exist normally as cations and those present as anions. The latter group are absorbed relatively easily and whole-body homeostasis is mediated mainly by renal excretion. The cations need specific pathways for absorption and their homeostasis is effected by gastrointestinal and biliary secretion. Some elements are absorbed more efficiently as organic complexes. The net achievement of the metabolic pathways for each element is to deliver it to its functional site(s) by exploiting its physicochemical characteristics to avoid interactions with other inorganic nutrients. PMID:3905079

  12. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Małgorzata I.; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  13. Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.

  14. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  15. Thermodynamics of selected trace elements in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Lewis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The thermochemistry of several hundred compounds of twelve selected trace elements (Ge, Se, Ga, As, Te, Pb, Sn, Cd, Sb, Tl, In, and Bi) has been investigated for solar composition material along a Jupiter adiabat. The results indicate that AsF3, InBr, TlI, and SbS, in addition to CO, PH3, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HCl, HF, and H3BO3 proposed by Barshay and Lewis (1978), may be potential chemical tracers of atmospheric dynamics. The reported observation of GeH4 is interpreted on the basis of new calculations as implying rapid vertical transport from levels where the temperature is greater than or equal to 800 K. Upper limits are also set on the abundances of many gaseous compounds of the elements investigated.

  16. Signatures of Evolutionary Adaptation in Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Trace Element Homeostasis in Liver.

    PubMed

    Engelken, Johannes; Espadas, Guadalupe; Mancuso, Francesco M; Bonet, Nuria; Scherr, Anna-Lena; Jímenez-Álvarez, Victoria; Codina-Solà, Marta; Medina-Stacey, Daniel; Spataro, Nino; Stoneking, Mark; Calafell, Francesc; Sabidó, Eduard; Bosch, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Essential trace elements possess vital functions at molecular, cellular, and physiological levels in health and disease, and they are tightly regulated in the human body. In order to assess variability and potential adaptive evolution of trace element homeostasis, we quantified 18 trace elements in 150 liver samples, together with the expression levels of 90 genes and abundances of 40 proteins involved in their homeostasis. Additionally, we genotyped 169 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the same sample set. We detected significant associations for 8 protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), 10 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and 15 micronutrient quantitative trait loci (nutriQTL). Six of these exceeded the false discovery rate cutoff and were related to essential trace elements: 1) one pQTL for GPX2 (rs10133290); 2) two previously described eQTLs for HFE (rs12346) and SELO (rs4838862) expression; and 3) three nutriQTLs: The pathogenic C282Y mutation at HFE affecting iron (rs1800562), and two SNPs within several clustered metallothionein genes determining selenium concentration (rs1811322 and rs904773). Within the complete set of significant QTLs (which involved 30 SNPs and 20 gene regions), we identified 12 SNPs with extreme patterns of population differentiation (FST values in the top 5% percentile in at least one HapMap population pair) and significant evidence for selective sweeps involving QTLs at GPX1, SELENBP1, GPX3, SLC30A9, and SLC39A8. Overall, this detailed study of various molecular phenotypes illustrates the role of regulatory variants in explaining differences in trace element homeostasis among populations and in the human adaptive response to environmental pressures related to micronutrients. PMID:26582562

  17. Signatures of Evolutionary Adaptation in Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Trace Element Homeostasis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sabidó, Eduard; Bosch, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Essential trace elements possess vital functions at molecular, cellular, and physiological levels in health and disease, and they are tightly regulated in the human body. In order to assess variability and potential adaptive evolution of trace element homeostasis, we quantified 18 trace elements in 150 liver samples, together with the expression levels of 90 genes and abundances of 40 proteins involved in their homeostasis. Additionally, we genotyped 169 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the same sample set. We detected significant associations for 8 protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), 10 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and 15 micronutrient quantitative trait loci (nutriQTL). Six of these exceeded the false discovery rate cutoff and were related to essential trace elements: 1) one pQTL for GPX2 (rs10133290); 2) two previously described eQTLs for HFE (rs12346) and SELO (rs4838862) expression; and 3) three nutriQTLs: The pathogenic C282Y mutation at HFE affecting iron (rs1800562), and two SNPs within several clustered metallothionein genes determining selenium concentration (rs1811322 and rs904773). Within the complete set of significant QTLs (which involved 30 SNPs and 20 gene regions), we identified 12 SNPs with extreme patterns of population differentiation (FST values in the top 5% percentile in at least one HapMap population pair) and significant evidence for selective sweeps involving QTLs at GPX1, SELENBP1, GPX3, SLC30A9, and SLC39A8. Overall, this detailed study of various molecular phenotypes illustrates the role of regulatory variants in explaining differences in trace element homeostasis among populations and in the human adaptive response to environmental pressures related to micronutrients. PMID:26582562

  18. Microstructural evolution and trace element mobility in Witwatersrand pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Hough, Robert M.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructural analysis of pyrite from a single sample of Witwatersrand conglomerate indicates a complex deformation history involving components of both plastic and brittle deformation. Internal deformation associated with dislocation creep is heterogeneously developed within grains, shows no systematic relationship to bulk rock strain or the location of grain boundaries and is interpreted to represent an episode of pyrite deformation that predates the incorporation of detrital pyrite grains into the Central Rand conglomerates. In contrast, brittle deformation, manifest by grain fragmentation that transects dislocation-related microstructures, is spatially related to grain contacts and is interpreted to represent post-depositional deformation of the Central Rand conglomerates. Analysis of the low-angle boundaries associated with the early dislocation creep phase of deformation indicates the operation of <010>{100} slip systems. However, some orientation boundaries have geometrical characteristics that are not consistent with simple <010>{100} deformation. These boundaries may represent the combination of multiple slip systems or the operation of the previously unrecognized <001>{120} slip system. These boundaries are associated with order of magnitude enrichments in As, Ni and Co that indicate a deformation control on the remobilization of trace elements within pyrite and a potential slip system control on the effectiveness of fast-diffusion pathways. The results confirm the importance of grain-scale elemental remobilization within pyrite prior to their incorporation into the Witwatersrand gold-bearing conglomerates. Since the relationship between gold and pyrite is intimately related to the trace element geochemistry of pyrite, the results have implications for the application of minor element geochemistry to ore deposit formation, suggest a reason for heterogeneous conductivity and localized gold precipitation in natural pyrite and provide a framework for

  19. Trace element analysis on speleothems using micro-XRF scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Dudashvilli, Alexey; Cheng, Hai; Wolff, Christian; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2015-04-01

    Non-destructive micro-XRF scanning is a well-established, accurate and efficient method for high-resolution geochemical analyses on finely laminated sediments, e.g. for distinguishing detrital and authigenic layers in lake sediments. To test this method's applicability on speleothems, micro-XRF scanning analyses were performed on finely polished speleothems using the EAGLE-III-XL micro-XRF scanner at GFZ Potsdam. This scanner can perform multi-element analyses over a predefined sampling profile at sampling rates between 20 and 250 micro m trace of samples no larger than 30 x 30 cm. We measured profiles on two late to mid Holocene stalagmites from caves of the Keklik and Uluu Too mountains near Osh (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) with a spot size of 53 micro m. We ran each profile at least twice to obtain replicate measurements of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr. The caves are situated in Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous limestone formations at the SE rim of the Fergana Basin. Both speleothems are characterized by distinct alternating light and darker colored laminae that also reveal strong variations of trace elements and potentially provide information concerning variations in dust load, soil development, vegetation, precipitation and infiltration. One speleothem shows elevated Cl and S contents during relatively dry periods associated with salt dust input, probably derived from the Aral Sea region. Identification of the dry periods is further supported by stable oxygen and carbon isotope data. The multi-proxy chemical analyses suggest that Holocene humidity variations in this region are linked to variable strength of the North Atlantic westerlies regime. However, further validation of element variations in speleothems based on host rock and soil chemistry, monitored drip water composition and local climatic variations are needed to improve climatic and of environmental interpretations.

  20. Trace Elements in Foraminiferal and Coral Calcium Carbonate in View of Their Biomineralization Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, J.; Bentov, S.; Braun, A.; Grinstein, M.; Segev, E.; Koheler-Rink, S.; Schoon, R.; de-Beer, D.

    2006-12-01

    Biomineralization processes affect trace elements (e.g. Mg, Sr, Cd, Ba) distribution in foraminiferal and coral shells. These "vital effects" reduce the reliability of paleoceanographic reconstructions based on trace elements proxies. Our recent observations on calcification physiology in both groups provide a mechanistic framework for understanding the biological variability. In parallel micro-analytical techniques (i.e. SIMS, LA- ICP-MS, nano-SIMS, EPMA and others), reveal large intra-shell variability associated with the biomineralization process. This information, (together with in-situ and laboratory proxy calibration experiments), allow for the formulation of a conceptual model for trace elements incorporation into these biogenic carbonates. Both foraminifera and corals precipitate two types of CaCO3 that are completely different in their mode of formation and in their chemical composition. In foraminifera, primary calcite is precipitated in close association with the organic matrix, and is enriched in Mg, S, Na and possibly other trace elements. Secondary calcite is precipitated on the primary calcite, mainly by a process of seawater vacuolization. The secondary calcite, (roughly 95 % of the calcite in the shell), with calcitic-radial texture, is composed of low-Mg calcite with low concentrations of S, Na, and other trace elements. The proportion between the two calcite types may change with environmental parameters (e.g. temperature). Similarly in corals calcification starts at the centers of calcification (COC) which are associated with higher proportion of the organic matrix, and display different chemical composition (i.e. enrichment in Sr, S, Na and Mg) compared to the bulk aragonite skeleton. Ca and other trace elements may reach the calcification site in one of two pathways or their combinations: 1.via direct seawater supply to the calcification space by vacuolization in foraminifera and by parallel pathways between epithelial cells in corals. 2. by

  1. Determination of Trace Elements in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devrim, Saribal; Can, Akyolcu Mehmet; Birsen, Aydemir

    2007-04-01

    Many trace elements have activatory or inhibitory roles in enzyme activities and changes in hemorehology and relation of them with defense system molecules in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: While, 25 male COPD patients (during acute attack) were taken as a Patient Group, another healthy 25 male taken as Control Group. Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-680 Shimadzu). Results: While decreased Fe (100.00 +/- 36.98; 123.26 +/- 37.58 μg/dL) (M+/-SD) and Zn (96.31+/-31.92 116.12+/-28.17 μg/dL) (M+/-SD), while increased Cu (117.92+/- 25.02; 101.27+/-8.29 μg/dL) (M+/-SD) concentrations were determined in patient samples than that of control group values (p<0.05), (p<0.01). Conclusion: According to findings of present study it may be said that: In organism while trace elements perform their activities on biomaterials they also possible carry out competition against others.

  2. Dynamic coupling of bulk chemistry, trace elements and mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.; Heck, H. V.; Nowacki, A.; Wookey, J. M.; Elliott, T.; Porcelli, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fully dynamical models that not only track the evolution of chemical heterogeneities through the mantle, but also incorporate the effect of chemical heterogeneities on the dynamics of mantle convection are now emerging. Since in general analytical solutions to these complex problems are lacking, careful testing and investigations of the effect and usefulness of these models is needed. We extend our existing numerical mantle convection code that can track fluid flow in 3D spherical geometry and tracks both bulk chemical components (basal fraction) and different trace elements. The chemical components fractionate upon melting when and where the solidus is crossed. Now, the chemical information will effect the flow of the fluid in the following ways: The bulk composition will link to density and the (radioactive) trace element abundance to heat production. Results will be reported of the effect of different density structures; either starting with a primordial dense layer at the base of the mantle, having all density variation originate from melting (basalt production), or a combination between these two end-member scenarios. In particular we will focus on the connection between large scale bulk chemical structures in the (deep) mantle and the evolution of the distribution of noble gasses (He and Ar). The distribution of noble gasses depend upon 1) assumptions on the initial distributions in the mantle, 2) the mantle flow, 3) radioactive production and, 4) outgassing to the atmosphere upon melting close to the surface.

  3. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  4. Apollo 16 returned lunar samples - Lithophile trace-element abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, S.; Kouns, C. W.; Lum, R. K. L.; Bickel, A. L.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Lithium, K, Rb, Sr, Ba, rare-earth, Zr, and Hf abundances have been determined by mass-spectrometric isotope-dilution for Apollo 16 soils, anorthosite 61016, and 'basalt' 68415 whole-rock and separated pyroxene and plagioclase. Our sample of 61016 is similar to some other lunar anorthosites in lithophile trace-element concentrations but at a slightly lower level. It was probably accumulated from a little differentiated basalt. Basalt 68415 might be a homogeneous mixture of KREEP and anorthosite material; it appears to have crystallized under conditions as reducing as those holding for mare-basalts. The soil fines cover only a limited compositional range. No obvious chemical differences were noted between the Descartes and Cayley formations. Most of the compositional variation of the soils can be accounted for in terms of the addition of plagioclase. The existence of very high alumina basalt as an independent magma-type appears debatable in view of its KREEP-like lithophile trace-element relative concentrations and the observed lunar radioactivity distribution.

  5. Forensic discrimination of copper wire using trace element concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Joshua R; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Saunders, Christopher P; Snyder, Deanna L; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-08-19

    Copper may be recovered as evidence in high-profile cases such as thefts and improvised explosive device incidents; comparison of copper samples from the crime scene and those associated with the subject of an investigation can provide probative associative evidence and investigative support. A solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for measuring trace element concentrations in high-purity copper was developed using standard reference materials. The method was evaluated for its ability to use trace element profiles to statistically discriminate between copper samples considering the precision of the measurement and manufacturing processes. The discriminating power was estimated by comparing samples chosen on the basis of the copper refining and production process to represent the within-source (samples expected to be similar) and between-source (samples expected to be different) variability using multivariate parametric- and empirical-based data simulation models with bootstrap resampling. If the false exclusion rate is set to 5%, >90% of the copper samples can be correctly determined to originate from different sources using a parametric-based model and >87% with an empirical-based approach. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the developed method for the comparison of copper samples encountered as forensic evidence. PMID:25007219

  6. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, G. J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G. A. V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P. V. B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-06-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) in the cancerous tissues when compared with normal tissues. The excess levels of trace elements observed in the cancerous breast tissues could either be a cause or a consequence of breast cancer. Regarding their role in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer, one possible interpretation is that the elevated levels of Cu, Fe and Cr could have led to the formation of free radicals or other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that adversely affect DNA thereby causing breast cancer, which is mainly attributed to genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors.

  7. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition of Hawaiian hotspot zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Bindeman, I. N.; Shamberger, P. J.; Hammer, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The trace element and isotopic compositions of zircon are increasingly used to delimit the provenance of detrital minerals in sedimentary rocks, as well as the dynamics and timescales of magmagenesis and metamorphism. Numerous studies document the characteristics of zircon hosted by continental and MORB-related rocks, but the characteristics of zircon generated in magmas from oceanic hotspots are relatively unknown. We present the trace element and O-isotope compositions of Hawaiian zircon from gabbroic and dioritic xenoliths sampled by Holocene basalts at Hualalai volcano. The plutonic zircon yield U-Pb and 238U-230Th ages of ca. 250 ka and 40 ka and grew from intrusions of highly fractionated alkalic magma lodged at >10 km depths (Shamberger & Hammer, 2006; Vazquez et al., 2007). Individual Hualalai zircon are euhedral to anhedral with inclusions of feldspars, pyroxenes, and trachytic glass. Zoning apparent in cathodoluminescence images is generally indistinct, but a significant minority of crystals has rims with relatively high luminescence. Ion microprobe analyses of individual zircon crystals reveal trace element zoning that generally correlates with luminescence. Up to 20-fold variation in HREE concentrations, with overall positive correlation between Eu/Eu* and Ti and inverse correlation between Hf and Ti, characterize Hualalai zircon. These relations are similar to those reported for zircon from some felsic suites related by cooling-induced fractionation. Luminescent rims have relatively low REE, Hf, and Y, but have Ti concentrations like their corresponding interiors. Ti-in-zircon thermometry yields temperatures between 800-1000°C after adjustments for sub-unity TiO2 and SiO2 activities using silicate-oxide equilibria. These temperatures are generally consistent with temperatures derived from two-feldspar and glass-pyroxene pairs included by single zircon crystals. Despite compositional differences, zircon interiors and luminescent rims yield 238U-230Th

  8. Biomonitoring of trace elements in Vietnamese freshwater mussels*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the pollution situation in the northern part of Vietnam with focus on trace elements including heavy metals. A freshwater bivalve species of the Unionidae family ( Pletholophus swinhoei), abundant in this part of the country and frequently used for human consumption, was chosen as biomonitor. Ten specimens each were collected at two rural sites, Duy Minh, approximately 40 km south of the capital Hanoi, and An Thin, situated approximately 11 km south of the Pha Lai power plant. The concentrations of 20 elements were measured using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Significant site-specific differences were found for the elements As, Ba, Be, Br, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, P and Sr. A comparison with other in situ biomonitoring studies using Unionidae bivalves showed that the concentrations of most elements were within the same order of magnitude, whereas heavy metal concentrations were distinctively low, suggesting the absence of major anthropogenic pollution sources in this area. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn were below the levels regarded as harmful according to the international standards for metals in mollusks compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

  9. Investigation of trace inorganic elements in street doses of heroin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kar-Weng; Tan, Guan-Huat; Wong, Richard C S

    2013-03-01

    Sixteen trace elements found in 309 street heroin samples, piped water and contaminated water were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All the street heroin samples were found to contain high levels of sodium, a reflection of the use of sodium bicarbonate during heroin synthesis. Additionally, this element was also found to be one of the potential contaminants acquired from the piped water. Calcium could be derived from lime while iron, aluminum and zinc could have come from the metallic container used in the processing/cutting stage. The levels of these elements remained low in the heroin and it could be due to the dilution effects from the addition of adulterants. Statistical validation was performed with six links of related heroin samples using principal component analysis to find the best pretreatment for sample classification. It was obtained that normalization followed by fourth root showed promising results with 8% errors in the sample clustering. The technique was then applied to the case samples. Finally, the result suggested that the case samples could have originated from at least two major groups respectively showing unique elemental profiles at the street level. PMID:23380066

  10. Biogeochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms: Major and Trace Element Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hot spring biofilms are of obvious biological origin, but of surprising composition. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of chemotrophic and phototrophic biofilms. We have found that the majority of biofilm mass is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Comparisons of biofilms with the compositions of their geochemical surroundings help identify trace elements that are anomalously enriched or depleted. These anomalies provide insight into the processes of active or passive elemental accumulation by biofilms, which could be used to understand microbial processes of element uptake or to identify evidence for life in hydrothermal deposits in the rock record. Five separate hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park were incorporated into this study: 'Bison Pool' and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 93.2 to 56.2 C, pH = 7.4 to 8.3), Flatcone Geyser and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 94.3 to 44.3 C, pH = 7.9 to 8.8, Boulder Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 92.1 to 64.9 C, pH = 8.2 to 8.7), Octopus Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 91.4 to 62.8 C, pH = 7.7 to 8.2), and two unnamed locations in the Obsidian Pool area we have dubbed 'Green Cheese' (temp. = 64.5 to 54.9 C, pH = 5.9 to 6.2) and 'Happy Harfer Pool' (temp. = 59.9 to 48.3 C, pH = 5.5 to 6.3). Analysis of water, biofilm, and contextual samples collected from and around these hot springs offer intriguing patterns of elemental behavior, both similar and dissimilar, among the varying systems. Examples of these patterns include elements that behave the same across all hot spring systems (B, C, Ni, Cu, Ge, Sb, and W), elements with behavior that was consistent throughout most (four of five) of the hot spring systems

  11. [Supplementation of trace elements in the general medicine].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements are the essential nutrients. Now, 9 elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Go, Cr, Mn, Mo, are recognized as essential trace elements. Serum concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu are about 100 μg/dL, and have important physiological roles. Zinc needs special care because over 300 enzymes contain Zn, and zin deficiency cause various disorders. In advancing age serum Zn concentration decrease. Although the daily requirement of zinc is 10-15 mg in adults, it is necessary to supply much more zinc than adult, by the reason of low intake and low absorption in the elderly. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, many zinc deficient patients suffered from decubitus ulcers, dermatitis, alopecia, taste disorders etc. A 86 y.o. female with deep sacral decubitus ulcer was shown in this report. Her decubitus ulcer was completely recovered after daily administration of polaprezinc containing 34 mg Zn for 18 months, A 76 y.o. female brought about severe hypocupuremia. Serum Cu concentration decreased from 112 μg/dL to 7 μg/dL after 5 months daily administration of 34 mg Zn. Serum Zn concentration elevated from 47 μg/dL to 117 μg/dL, and Cu/Zn ratio decreased 2.38 to 0.06. After stopped zinc supplementation, serum Cu rapidly increased in a 2 month period. At the same time, serum Zn decreased quickly. It was the interesting fact that anemia improved associated with the increase of serum Cu. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, it is necessary to supply zinc in order to prevent respiratory infections such as pneumonia. PMID:27455795

  12. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. PMID:27312081

  13. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  14. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  15. Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K.

    1999-04-01

    Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

  16. Trace elements in disseminated sulfides, magnetite, and massive sulfides, West Shasta district, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Botinelly, T.; Siems, D.F.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of pyrite separates from massive sulphide layers vary stratigraphically in trace-element content, and show an enrichment of many of the elements in the centre of the layers. Trace-element contents of pyrite of massive sulphide deposits, of magnetite from a magnetite deposit, and of disseminated sulphides differ, presumably reflecting different origins. Trace-element contents of pyrite separates also differ among the sampled massive sulphide deposits. -G.J.N.

  17. Methods of Data Processing for Trace Elements Analysis Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiaohong; Yu, Qi; Song, Yang; Zhao, Huafeng; Zhang, Min; Liao, Yanbiao

    2015-11-01

    With the development of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), increasing numbers of researchers have begun to focus on problems of the application. We are not just satisfied with analyzing what kinds of elements are in the samples but are also eager to accomplish quantitative detection with LIBS. There are several means to improve the limit of detection and stability, which are important to quantitative detection, especially of trace elements, increasing the laser energy and the resolution of spectrometer, using dual pulse setup, vacuuming the ablation environment etc. All of these methods are about to update the hardware system, which is effective but expensive. So we establish the following spectrum data processing methods to improve the trace elements analysis in this paper: spectrum sifting, noise filtering, and peak fitting. There are small algorithms in these three method groups, which we will introduce in detail. Finally, we discuss how these methods affect the results of trace elements detection in an experiment to analyze the lead content in Chinese cabbage. supported by National High-Tech R&D Program (863 Program), China (No. 2013AA102402)

  18. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Yelton, Jennifer L.

    1988-12-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between trace element residency and concentration to trace element release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. All leachates were analyzed to determine total trace element concentrations. The results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage.

  19. Chemistry of trace elements in coalbed methane product water.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Ian; Reddy, Katta J; Skinner, Quentin D

    2003-02-01

    Extraction of methane (natural gas) from coal deposits is facilitated by pumping of aquifer water. Coalbed methane (CBM) product water, produced from pumping ground water, is discharged into associated unlined holding ponds. The objective of this study was to examine the chemistry of trace elements in CBM product water at discharge points and in associated holding ponds across the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Product water samples from discharge points and associated holding ponds were collected from the Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), and Little Powder River (LPR) watersheds during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Samples were analyzed for pH, Al (aluminum), As (arsenic), B (boron), Ba (barium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), F (fluoride), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese), Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), and Zn (zinc). Chemistry of trace element concentrations were modeled with the MINTEQA2 geochemical equilibrium model. Results of this study show that pH of product water for three watersheds increased in holding ponds. For example the pH of CBM product water increased from 7.21 to 8.26 for LPR watershed. Among three watersheds, the CBM product water exhibited relatively less change in trace element concentrations in CHR watershed holding ponds. Concentration of dissolved Al, Fe, As, Se, and F in product water increased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For example, concentration of dissolved Fe increased from 113 to 135 microg/L. Boron, Cu, and Zn concentrations of product water did not change in BFR watershed holding ponds. However, concentration of dissolved Ba, Mn, and Cr in product water decreased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For instance, Ba and Cr concentrations decreased from 445 to 386 microg/L and from 43.6 to 25.1 microg/L, respectively. In the LPR watershed, Al, Fe, As, Se, and F concentrations of product water increased substantially in holding ponds. For example, Fe concentration increased from 192 to 312 microg/L. However, concentration of

  20. Boron, bromine, and other trace elements as clues to the fate of chlorine in mid-ocean ridge vent fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    Fluids from mid-ocean ridge hot springs typically have Cl concentrations which depart significantly from seawater values. These variations may be due in part to phase separation processes and/or precipitation and dissolution of chloride-bearing minerals. Both of these processes likely produce systematic and recognizable variations in the distributions of trace elements which should be evident in vent fluid chemistries. To better understand how supercritical phase separation can affect trace element distributions, we conducted an experiment involving a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid containing trace quantities of Sr, Ba, B, Li, and Br, which was allowed to separate into vapor and brine phases at 425, 440, and 450{degree}C by systematically adjusting pressure. All of the measured trace elements were concentrated into the brine phase relative to the vapor phase. The relative order of partitioning into the brine was Ba > Sr > Ca > K > Na,Cl > Li > Br > B.

  1. Trace Element Concentrations in Liver of 16 Species of Cetaceans Stranded on Pacific Islands from 1997 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Angela M K; Bryan, Colleen E; West, Kristi; Jensen, Brenda A

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of anthropogenic contaminants on marine ecosystems are a concern worldwide. Anthropogenic activities can enrich trace elements in marine biota to concentrations that may negatively impact organism health. Exposure to elevated concentrations of trace elements is considered a contributing factor in marine mammal population declines. Hawai'i is an increasingly important geographic location for global monitoring, yet trace element concentrations have not been quantified in Hawaiian cetaceans, and there is little trace element data for Pacific cetaceans. This study measured trace elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb) in liver of 16 species of cetaceans that stranded on U.S. Pacific Islands from 1997 to 2013, using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) (n = 31), and direct mercury analysis atomic absorption spectrometry (DMA-AAS) (n = 43). Concentration ranges (μg/g wet mass fraction) for non-essential trace elements, such as Cd (0.0031-58.93) and Hg (0.0062-1571.75) were much greater than essential trace elements, such as Mn (0.590-17.31) and Zn (14.72-245.38). Differences were found among age classes in Cu, Zn, Hg, and Se concentrations. The highest concentrations of Se, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb were found in one adult female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) at concentrations that are known to affect health in marine mammals. The results of this study establish initial trace element concentration ranges for Pacific cetaceans in the Hawaiian Islands region, provide insights into contaminant exposure of these marine mammals, and contribute to a greater understanding of anthropogenic impacts in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:26283019

  2. Trace element partitioning behavior of coal gangue-fired CFB plant: experimental and equilibrium calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-10-01

    Energy recovery is a promising method for coal gangue utilization, during which the prevention of secondary pollution, especially toxic metal emission, is a significant issue in the development of coal gangue utilization. In the present study, investigation into trace element partitioning behavior from a coal gangue-fired power plant in Shanxi province, China, has been conducted. Besides the experimental analysis, thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was also conducted to help the further understanding on the effect of different parameters. Results showed that Hg, As, Be, and Cd were highly volatile elements in the combustion of coal gangue, which were notably enriched in fly ash and may be emitted into the environment via the gas phase. Cr and Mn were mostly non-volatile and were enriched in the bottom ash. Pb, Co, Zn, Cu, and Ni were semi-volatile elements and were enriched in the fly ash to varying degrees. Equilibrium calculations show that the air/fuel ratio and the presence of Cl highly affect the element volatility. The presence of mineral phases, such as aluminosilicates, depresses the volatility of elements by chemical immobilization and competition in Cl. The coal gangue, fly ash, and bottom ash all passed the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and their alkalinity buffers the acidity of the solution and contributes to the low solubility of the trace elements. PMID:26006077

  3. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  4. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  5. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Bholghati howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Paul, Rick L.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn by RNAA are determined in two kinds of material from the Bholghati howardite: a carbonaceous chondrite clast (BH-4) that originated by primary nebular condensation/accretion processes; whole-rock samples and clasts resulting from parent-body processes, especially igneous differentiation. Trace element contents in Bholghati whole-rock (matrix) samples and/or white eucritic clasts in it are high for an achondrite, and variable. These characteristics are indicative of random condensation of volcanic emanations admixed with preexisting eucrite, diogenite, and howardite layers in the HED parent body. Other HED samples show similar patterns, and the conclusion that these reflect extensive volcanism in an asteroidal-sized object is supported by other Consortium noble gas and cosmochronologic measurements.

  6. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  7. Composition and trace element content of coal in Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, L.-Y.; Chen, C.-F.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the trace element contents of local coal, four coal samples were collected from operating mines in NW Taiwan. Detailed petrographic and chemical characterization analyses were then conducted. Analytical results indicate that (1) the samples were high volatile bituminous coal in rank with ash content ranging from 4.2 to 14.4% and with moisture content ranging from 2.7 to 4.6%; (2) the macerals were mostly composed of vitrinite with vitrinite reflectance less than 0.8%; (3) the sample of Wukeng mine has the highest Fe2O3 (29.5%), TI (54.8 ppm), Zn (140 ppm), and As (697 ppm) contents in ash and Hg (2.3 ppm) in the coal. If used properly, these coals should not present health hazards.

  8. The trace elements: A new chapter in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fox, F W

    1975-09-20

    Formerly reported by analysts as being present as "traces", the minute amounts of many elements present in plant and animal materials can now be detected and estimated with a remarkable degree of sensitivity and accuracy. Some of this heterogenous group of metals and nonmetals have been shown to be essential for life or for the well-being of animals, including man; others possess toxic properties, while yet others are probably there as contaminants. Although present in such extremely small quantities, those known to be essential play highly individualistic as well as astonishingly varied roles in our metabolic processes; they must, therefore, take their place with the other nutrients needed in our diet. PMID:1166364

  9. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns.

  10. Zircon trace element evidence for Hadean infracrustal differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, D.; Scherstén, A.

    2009-12-01

    We have analysed zircon from Itsaku, West Greenland, where a major hiatus separates an Upper Albian to Lower Cenomanian deltaic sandstone succession from an Upper Campanian to Paleocene marine turbidite succession. The lower deltaic succession contains zircon that display an age range that is typical for the southern West Greenland. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses dominate the Archaean rocks in this region, and we assume that the zircon were dominantly drawn from these gneisses. Above the hiatus, the zircon form a simple distribution with a 1.87 Ga mean, which is in perfect agreement with the A-type granite at the nearby Prøven Igneous Complex (Thrane et al., 2005, Contrib. Min. Petrol. 149, 541-555). Furthermore, Ti in zircon thermometry has a mean of 845 degrees C, which is similar to zircon saturation temperatures of 790- 880 degrees C (n = 4) calculated from bulk rock data and the independently estimated ~850 degrees C for the intrusion. We conclude that the Prøven Igneous Complex is the source of the zircon in the turbidite succession. We determined trace element abundances in these zircon grains, to assess the usefulness of zircon trace element abundances for determining the provenance of zircon of different origin. Each group display a wide range of trace element abundances, which reflect source rock heterogeneities and magma chamber dynamics. Trace element ratios and patterns are overlapping to a large extent, but there are some distinctive features that might be petrogenetically significant. Both groups have high U/Yb compared to oceanic crust zircon, which seems to be afeature of zircon of continental crust origin (c.f. Grimes et al., 2006; Geology 35, 643-646). There are, however, differences between the TTG and Prøven zircon groups. For example, the TTG zircon generally have higher Sr/Nd and Eu/Eu*. These contrasts are in keeping with those of their source rocks, and reflect magmatic and crustal differentiation. Furthermore, each

  11. Collection and analysis of marine particles for trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefry, John H.; Trocine, Robert P.

    Field and laboratory practices for the collection and analysis of suspended particles from the marine environment have evolved considerably during the past two decades. However, many of these practices have not been discussed or disseminated in great detail throughout the literature. The timely organization of a workshop on "The Analysis and Characterization of Marine Particles" encourages reevaluation and sharing of collective experiences. We have been fortunate to collect particles from a wide variety of environments including the Mississippi River and Delta [Trefry and Presley, 1976; Trefry et al., 1985, 1986], the hypersaline Orca Basin [Trefry et al., 1984] , and hydrothermal vent plumes in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans [Trefry et al., 1985; Nelsen et al., 1986/1987; Trocine and Trefry, 1988]. Some of our practices and thoughts follow, focusing primarily on sampling and analysis for trace elements. Some additional details for Sampling hydrothermal plumes are also provided.

  12. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Volatile Trace Elements in H Chondrites: Implications for Parent Body Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-07-01

    The perception among meteoriticists is that contents of the volatile trace elements systematically decrease with shock and particularly petrologic type. This perception affects views that investigators have of the early history and structure of the H chondrite parent body. Measurement of a variety of volatile trace elements in a statistically significant number of samples accompanied by chemometric data analysis techniques developed for interpretation of trace- element data [1] should maximize the amount of genetic information available from the volatile trace elements and offer clues to the early thermal history of the H chondrite parent body. Volatile trace-element data exist for 58 H chondrite falls: the complete dataset includes Co, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (listed in increasing order of volatility) [2,3]. This dataset includes 13 H4, 32 H5, and 13 H6 chondrites, which cover the full range of shock facies from a through f. To examine the effect that shock has on volatile trace-element concentrations in H4-6 chondrites, we have compared data for the least-shocked samples (shock facies a-b) with the most shocked samples (shock facies c-f) using both univariate (Student's t-test) and multivariate techniques (linear discriminant analysis). The results demonstrate no reason to doubt the null hypothesis of no difference in volatile trace-element composition between shocked and unshocked H4-6 chondrites at any reasonable significance level. This situation contrasts sharply with the strong difference found between shocked and unshocked L chondrites [4]. The role of shock in establishing volatile trace- element contents in H and L chondrites clearly differs. Univariate comparisons between H4, H5, and H6 chondrites demonstrate that only Cs varies significantly with petrologic type (prob. > F 0.0006) with concentration decreasing monotonically with increasing petrographic type. Box- and-whisker plots of volatile trace-element contents reveal a general

  13. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. PMID:23128739

  14. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability. PMID:27005788

  15. EVALUATION OF TRACE ELEMENT RELEASE FROM FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of four trace elements: lead, beryllium, mercury, and fluorine. The chemical fate of minor and trace elements is important in assessing the environmental impact of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) process and, for certain elements, i...

  16. Methods for detecting the mobility of trace elements during medium-temperature pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Konopka, K.L.; Cahill, R.A.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1983-01-01

    The mobility (volatility) of trace elements in coal during pyrolysis has been studied for distances of up to 40 cm between the coal and the trace element collector, which was graphite or a baffled solvent trap. Nineteen elements not previously recorded as mobile were detected. ?? 1983.

  17. A comparison of trace element concentrations in biota from four irrigation projects in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.; Jennings, M.; Dickerson, K.

    1994-12-31

    Irrigation drainwater can or has the potential to cause the mobilization of trace elements into the food chain and adversely affect fish and aquatic birds. Because of the semi-arid climate, irrigation is a necessary component of agriculture in Wyoming. Biota from four irrigation projects in Wyoming were collected and analyzed for trace element concentrations between 1988 and 1990. The irrigation projects included: the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County; the Riverton Reclamation Project, Fremont County; the Shoshone Irrigation Project, Park and Bighorn counties; and the Wind River Irrigation Project, Fremont County. Selenium concentrations were elevated in aquatic vegetation, aquatic invertebrates, bird eggs, bird livers and fish from the Kendrick Reclamation Project. Reproductive impairment and embryo teratogenesis was documented at the Kendrick Reclamation Project. Trace element concentrations in most biological samples from the three other irrigation projects were less than levels suspected of causing adverse effects. However, at the Riverton Reclamation Project, selenium concentrations in some samples of aquatic vegetation, aquatic invertebrates, fish and fish eggs exceeded concentrations associated with adverse effects. Differences in selenium concentrations in the four irrigation projects can be explained by the extent of seleniferous formations and soils, and the presence of closed basin wetlands.

  18. Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiller, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids.

  19. Relationship of redox-sensitive trace elements in soils and plants to petroleum production in Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Klusman, R.W.; Saeed, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    Surface geochemical exploration methods for petroleum are based essentially on the observation that lighter hydrocarbons contained in oil and gas fields migrate toward the surface of the earth through structures such as faults and fractures. The hydrocarbons leaking toward the surface create a slightly reducing zone directly above the deposit, which in turn affects the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in the soil. This in turn affects trace element uptake by native plants of the area. Previous workers have found non-methane hydrocarbons leaking from the Eagle Springs and other fields in Railroad Valley, Nevada. The Eagle Springs field is about 1.5 km wide and 3 km long. Sagebrush and surface soils were sampled over an area of 5 km by 5 km at 500-m intervals. A DTPA-extract of the soil samples and nitric acid digestion of the plants were analyzed for 17 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The distribution of redox-sensitive trace elements forms halo patterns around the Eagle Springs field. An evaluation on the use of trace elements in soils and plants as a surface exploration technique will be presented. Determination of the impact of soil contamination of plants and correcting for this allow use of plant materials in surface geochemical exploration. These methods provide a low-cost tool for complementing other exploration data in the Basin and Range environment.

  20. Fate of trace elements during the combustion of phytoremediation wood.

    PubMed

    Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien; Rogaume, Yann; Provent, Anne-Sonia; Pascual, Christophe

    2012-12-18

    We investigated the fate of trace elements (TE) in poplar wood on the conversion of biomass to heat in a 0.2 MW combustion unit equipped with a fabric filter. The phytoremediation wood was harvested from a TE-contaminated agricultural site planted with a high-density poplar stand. The combustion technology used in the present experiment allows for an efficient separation of the various ash fractions. The combustion process concentrates Cu, Cr, and Ni in the bottom ash, heat exchanger ash, and cyclone ash fractions. Therefore, the impact of the fabric filter is negligible for these elements. Conversely, Cd, Pb, and Zn are significantly recovered in the emission fraction in the absence of the fabric filter above the emission limits. The use of a fabric filter will allow the concentration of these three TEs in the ashes collected below the filter, thus complying with all regulatory thresholds, i.e., those from the large combustion plant EU directive. Because the TE concentrations in the different fractions differed significantly, it is recommended that these fractions be treated separately, especially when recycling of ashes from phytoremediation wood through application in agriculture is envisaged. PMID:23153074

  1. Breccias 73215 and 73255 - Siderophile and volatile trace elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Petrie, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen siderophile and volatile trace elements (Os, Re, Ir, Pd, Ni, Au, Sb, Ge, Se, Ag, In, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl) and U were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in a spheroidal aphanitic clast and a clast of coarse-grained anorthositic gabbro from breccia 73215 and in three types of aphanite and two clasts of fine-grained anorthositic gabbro from breccia 73255. In common with most Apollo 17 fragment-laden melt rocks, the aphanites from 73215 and 73255 predominantly contain a Group 2 meteoritic component, which is apparently derived from the Serenitatis impact. All aphanitic lithologies contain the same meteoritic component, and are probably cogenetic. The clasts of fine-grained anorthositic gabbro contain substantial amounts (2% to 6% Cl equivalent based on Au) of a pre-Serenitatis Group 3 component. The clast of coarse-grained anorthositic gabbro is low in siderophile elements (0.4% Cl equivalent), and the meteoritic component (Group 5) is not well-defined. A strong correlation exists between Ir and Au in both the aphanites and the anorthositic gabbro clasts, which argues against the breccias 73215 and 73255 being open systems for Au

  2. Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tayyaba; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Lin, Chai Wen; Qamar, Zeeshan

    2016-08-01

    This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common prevalent oral health problems such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and malodour. It is being used in various oral health care products to control the formation of dental plaque and inhibiting the formation of dental calculus. It has the potential to sustain and maintain its elevated concentrations for a longer time particularly in the dental plaque and saliva on delivery from the mouth rinses and toothpastes. It has been reported that low concentrations of zinc have the capability to reduce dissolution and promote remineralization under caries simulating conditions. Most importantly low Zn2+ levels in the serum are useful as a tumour marker. Thus taking a note of its potentials, it can be concluded that zinc is a precious element for the maintenance of oral health. PMID:27524540

  3. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  4. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk.

    PubMed

    Saha, Priyanka; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-03-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations. PMID:20047839

  6. Water sources in a small Mediterranean watershed traced back with Sr isotopes, major and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Luck, Jean-Marc; Ben Othman, Dalila; Joseph, Christian; Negrel, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change, this study presents the ability of major/trace elements together with strontium isotopes to trace back water paths at small scale and to deconvolve the geochemical signal of a small watershed subject to intense flash floods episodes (Peyne, Hérault, France). Two small sub-basins draining distinct lithologies in their heads (Plio-Villafranchian conglomerate versus Triassic gypsum-rich marls and dolomites) and the same Miocene lithology downstream are investigated. Major elements and Ca/Na vs. Mg/Na ratios classically applied at large scale to distinguish carbonate from silicate weathering, allow here discriminating the three main lithologies from the two sub-basins. Trace elements Rb and Sr coupled to calcium, also allow this lithological discrimination but in addition the Ca/Rb vs. Sr/Rb tracers appear to be much more discriminant for the various hydrological conditions. Thus, in combination with detailed lithological descriptions, they allow identifying the different facies that imprint the water signature through water-rock interaction according to the hydrological conditions. Strontium isotopes and Rb/Sr ratio, discriminate more precisely the drained lithologies of the 2 sub-basins. Firstly, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios allow identifying the nature of the lithologies and their main component(s) contributing to the Sr budget in water and thus imprint the isotopic signature. Secondly, Sr isotopes evidenced two distinct Miocene facies: the detritric faction (sandy marls), and the marine carbonates. The geochemical signatures of the brook samples draining both compartments were compared to the signature of the Peyne River outlet just before the confluence into the Hérault River. It appears that the signature of the Peyne River, integrating all the water draining the basin, is relatively stable whatever the hydrological conditions and mainly marked by the Miocene formations. Sr isotopes further highlight that this signature seems to result

  7. Trace elements as predictors of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Yu, Jeremy Y.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Nankervis, Alison J.; Hanssen, Kristian F.; Henriksen, Tore; Lorentzen, Bjørg; Garg, Satish K.; Menard, M. Kathryn; Hammad, Samar M.; Scardo, James A.; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies, but is increased several-fold in women with pre-gestational type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Increased oxidative stress and altered maternal plasma trace elements that modulate the antioxidant system have been implicated in PE. In non-diabetic women, increased plasma copper and iron, and decreased manganese, selenium, and zinc have been associated with PE in cross-sectional studies. In a longitudinal study, we hypothesized that plasma levels of trace elements differ between T1DM women with vs. without subsequent PE. Samples were collected during the first (gestation 12.2 ± 1.9 weeks, (mean ± SD)), second (21.6 ± 1.5 weeks), and third (31.5 ± 1.7 weeks) trimesters of pregnancy, all before the onset of PE. We compared 23 T1DM women who subsequently developed PE with 24 T1DM women who remained normotensive; and we included 19 non-diabetic (non-DM) normotensive pregnant women as reference controls. Trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). In T1DM women with subsequent PE vs. normotensive, only plasma zinc was significantly higher at the first trimester, while copper:zinc and copper:HDL-cholesterol ratios were higher throughout gestation (all p<0.05). These findings persisted after adjustment for covariates. Higher copper:zinc ratios may contribute to oxidative stress in T1DM women who develop PE. Ratio of pro- to anti-oxidant factors may predict risk for PE in diabetic pregnancies more effectively than individual trace element levels. PMID:25912764

  8. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers. PMID:19731016

  9. The Accretion and Differentiation of Mars: Trace element constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuff, J.; Wood, B. J.; Wade, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to use the increasing amounts of information on the composition of the Martian surface as a means to determine the history of Martian accretion and differentiation. The approach requires an estimate of the average composition of the Martian mantle combined with experimental data on the partitioning of a wide range of elements between metallic and silicate liquids and between silicate crystals and melts. When applied to the Earth this methodology indicates that Earth started accreting as a small reduced body and progressively added more oxidised and volatile-rich material as it grew. We began by testing the Martian mantle composition proposed by Dreibus and Wänke (D&W; [1]) using experimental phase equilibrium data [2] to test whether the observed basaltic compositions can be derived from such a mantle. We find that the experimentally observed phase compositions allow calculation of a simple differentiation path, dominated by olivine and pyroxene fractionation, which explains most major and minor element compositional trends in both the Martian surface basalts (Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum) and the SNC basaltic meteorites: in short, the Martian samples may be derived from a Martian mantle similar to that proposed by D&W (i.e. richer in FeO than the terrestrial mantle). Using the major element model as a starting point, we then calculated trace-element fractionation trends, using experimentally determined mineral-melt partition coefficients, in order to back-calculate the trace-element concentrations in the Martian mantle. In agreement with previous work, our calculated Martian mantle contains higher Cr and lower Ni and Mo than the Terrestrial mantle. Differences in Ni (and Zn) between the Martian surface samples and the SNCs are most likely due to hydrothermal alteration of the former (e.g., serpentinization in the case of increased Ni in the Martian surface samples). We also calculate that the Martian mantle has similar or lower

  10. Trace Element Condensation in Circumstellar Envelopes of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    It is now well established that meteorites contain reduced presolar grains, such as graphite and silicon carbide (SiC), which are probably formed by condensation of dust in the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich AGB stars. Here we model condensation in envelopes of carbon stars, with an emphasis on trace elements. Since absolute elemental abundances in stellar atmospheres are generally not known, we assume solar abundances (Anders and Grevesse 1989), except for carbon. A C/O ratio of 2, consistent with the mean and median values of 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, for 61 carbon stars (Gow 1977) was used. The C/O ratio was increased by adding carbon because astrophysicists believe that carbon produced in helium-burning zones may be mixed to the surfaces of C stars (e.g. Lucy 1976). We used physical parameters for the circumstellar shell of the high mass-loss rate, prototypical carbon star IRC +10216 (e.g. Keady et al. 1988, Dominik et al. 1990) and theoretical considerations by Salpeter (1974a,b) to construct a P-T-model of the envelope (see Fig. 1). Thermodynamic equilibrium condensation calculations for a reduced gas include ~600 gaseous and solid compounds of the elements H, C, N, O, S, P, F, Cl, Fe, Mg, Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and REE. Refractory oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides were considered as condensates. The calculations were done from T = 800 to 2500 K, and P= 10^-5 to 10^-13 bars. The effects of nucleation on condensation temperatures were calculated using the nucleation model discussed by Salpeter (1974a,b) and Cameron and Fegley (1982). The temperature drop required for condensation depends on (P,T, density) in the expanding envelope and also on the abundance, density, and surface energy (Es) of the nucleating compound. The range of E(sub)s values for NaCl-type carbides are about 800-1700 erg/cm^2 (Livey & Murray 1956); however, these data are generally poorly known. Another important variable is the sticking coefficient (s

  11. Trace Elements and Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Organisms from a Tropical Coastal Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    van Hattum, B.; de Boer, J.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Rezende, C. E.; Salomons, W.

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were analyzed in sediments, invertebrates, and fishes from a tropical coastal lagoon influenced by iron ore mining and processing activities to assess the differences in trace element accumulation patterns among species and to investigate relations with trophic levels of the organisms involved. Overall significant negative relations between trophic level (given by 15N) and trace element concentrations in gastropods and crustaceans showed differences in internal controls of trace element accumulation among the species of different trophic positions, leading to trace element dilution. Generally, no significant relation between δ15N and trace element concentrations was observed among fish species, probably due to omnivory in a number of species as well as fast growth. Trace element accumulation was observed in the fish tissues, with higher levels of most trace elements found in liver compared with muscle and gill. Levels of Fe, Mn, Al, and Hg in invertebrates, and Fe and Cu in fish livers, were comparable with levels in organisms and tissues from other contaminated areas. Trace element levels in fish muscle were below the international safety baseline standards for human consumption. PMID:20217062

  12. Selective dissolution and characterization of trace elements in hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Sorini, S.S.

    1986-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solid phase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated in the laboratory under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO/sub 3/-extractable, H/sub 2/O-extractable, NaOH-extractable, EDTA-extractable, HNO/sub 3/-extractable, and residual (nonextractable) phases. This procedure is purported to identify trace elements that reside in the soluble, easily exchangeable, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, sulfide, and silicate phases, respectively. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale are compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. The trace elements examined in this study included barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. The extractabilities of the major elements - aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, and silicon - were also examined to provide evidence of solid phase elemental associations with trace elements. A significant result of this study is that the mineralogical residencies of trace elements in retorted oil shale were altered in response to hydration and recarbonation. Thus, the behavior of trace elements in retorted oil shale disposal environments may not be adequately predicted through the application of extraction procedures that assess potential trace element leachability. The results of this study also justify the further characterization of trace element selective extractabilities using procedures that partition trace elements residing in the HNO/sub 3/-extractable and residual fractions. 21 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to

  14. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. I. FIFTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN NEW YORK, N.Y. (1971-72)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have revealed that hair trace element concentrations can reflect exposure in cases of frank poisoning and deficiency. Correlations have been found also in some populations living in regions where metallurgic processes are conducted. This study reports significant...

  15. The geochemical cycling of trace elements in a biogenic meromictic lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Murray, J.W.; Paul, B.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical processes affecting the behavior and speciation of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in Hall Lake, Washington, USA, are assessed by examining dissolved and acid soluble particulate profiles of the elements and utilizing results from thermodynamic calculations. The water column of this meromictic lake is highly stratified and contains distinctive oxic, suboxic, and anoxic layers. Changes in the redox state of the water column with depth affect the distribution of all the elements studied. Most noticeable are increases in dissolved Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations across the oxic-suboxic boundary, increases in dissolved As, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, and V concentrations with depth in the anoxic layer, significant decreases in dissolved Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the anoxic region below the sulfide maximum, and large increases in acid soluble particulate concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the anoxic zone below the sulfide maximum. Thermodynamic calculations for the anoxic region indicate that all redox sensitive elements exist in their reduced forms, the primary dissolved forms of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are metal sulfide solution complexes, and solid sulfide phases of Cu, Fe, Mo, and Pb are supersaturated. Calculations using a vertical diffusion and reaction model indicate that the oxidation rate constant for Mn(II) in Hall Lake is estimated to be 0.006 d-1 and is at the lower end of the range of microbial oxidation rates observed in other natural systems. The main geochemical processes influencing the distribution and speciation of trace elements in Hall Lake appear to be transformations of dissolved elements between their oxidation states (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, V), cocycling of trace elements with Mn and Fe (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn), formation of soluble metal sulfide complexes (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), sorption (As, Co, Cr, Ni, V), and precipitation (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Zn). ?? 1994.

  16. High-pressure acid dissolution of refractory alumina for trace element determination

    SciTech Connect

    Foner, H.A.

    1984-04-01

    A new high-pressure vessel (bomb) is described which uses nitrogen gas as the pressurizing medium and has the capability of measuring both the compensating pressure and the bomb temperature during heating. It is possible to dissolve quite large pieces (0.5 g) of unground (i.e., uncontaminated) single-crystal ..cap alpha..-alumina. The physical, electrical, and manufacturing properties of aluminas are all much affected by the levels of impurities present, and hence the determination of trace elements in these materials is of great practical importance.

  17. Abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and trace elements in Illinois Basin coals, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.L.

    1997-12-31

    Abundances of sulfur, chlorine and 52 trace elements in 220 channel and drill-core samples of high volatile bituminous coals (Pennsylvanian age) from the Illinois Basin, USA, are evaluated for the purpose of better understanding geologic processes affecting trace element variation in the coal seams. Mean elemental abundances in Illinois Basin coals are listed in a table. Most Illinois Basin coals are high-sulfur (> 3% total sulfur). Peat was influenced by seawater during early diagenesis. However, low-medium sulfur coal (<3% total sulfur) occurs in restricted areas along the Walshville Channel, which is a contemporaneous river in the peat swamp. A comparison of trace element abundances between high-sulfur and low-medium sulfur coals showed that only seven elements (boron, sulfur, iron, molybdenum, mercury, thallium, and uranium) are clearly more abundant in high-sulfur coal than in low-medium sulfur coal. Apparently, boron, sulfur, molybdenum, and uranium in high-sulfur coals were derived from seawater that inundated the peat swamp and terminated peat accumulation. Iron, mercury, and thallium had a terrestrial source and were incorporated in pyrite during diagenesis. Their enrichment in high-sulfur coal is related to pyrite formation in a reducing environment. The chlorine content in Illinois Basin coals, including channel and drill core samples, varies from 0.01% to 0.8% (on a dry basis). Coal samples from surface mines (< 50 meter depth) are usually low in chlorine content (<0.1%). Samples from underground mines (> 50 meter depth) have a chlorine content ranging between 0.1% to 0.5%. Variation of chlorine content in each of the two coal seams shows that chlorine content increases with depth because the chloride in coal is in equilibrium with the chloride in the groundwater, which is also depth dependent. A low chlorine content in shallow regions of a coal seam is a result of leaching by fresh groundwater.

  18. The release of trace elements in the process of coal coking.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  19. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    PubMed Central

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  20. Trace elements in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributary streams, California, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, D.G.; Gilliom, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Bed sediments were sampled at 24 sites on the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries in October 1985 to assess the distribution of trace elements and factors affecting their concentrations. The proportion of less than 62-micrometer sediment was significantly (alpha = 0.05) correlated with organic-carbon concentrations. Bed sediments from tributaries originating in the Sierra Nevada were much coarser than sediments in streams draining the Coast Range and western valley. Selenium concentrations in water have been measured. Interrelations among trace elements were examined using principal component analysis. 57% of the variance was accounted for in the first two principal components, which together show a distinct separation between sites dominated by Coast Range sediments and sites dominated by Sierra Nevada sediments. The third and fourth components accounted for 21% of the variance and distinguished the mixed-source sediments of the intermittent upper San Joaquin River from other parts of the river system. Generally, elements in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributaries were similar in concentration to elements in San Joaquin Valley soils, and concentrations were far below hazardous waste criteria. Concentrations were lower than in sediments from some polluted urban rivers and water more comparable to other rural agricultural rivers. 35 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Characterization of trace elements in chicken and duck litter ash.

    PubMed

    Faridullah; Irshad, Muhammad; Yamamoto, Sadahiro; Honna, Toshimasa; Eneji, A Egrinya

    2009-01-01

    For safe and sustainable management of poultry litter, it is important to evaluate and understand the chemical forms and concentrations of their constituent trace elements during treatment for disposal. This experiment was carried out to compare changes in metal (Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Ni) fractions in chicken and duck litter after incineration at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900 degrees C. The metals were stepwise fractionated into exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate precipitated and residual forms by extracting with 0.5M KNO3, de-ionized water, 0.5M NaOH, 0.05M Na2 EDTA and 4M HNO3, respectively. The content of total metal and other elements (i.e., Ca, Mg and K) were was also determined. Results showed an increasing trend in the total concentrations of metals with increasing temperature with higher amounts in chicken litter ash (CLA) than duck litter ash (DLA). Higher temperatures significantly reduced the levels of H2O-soluble Mn, Zn and Ni and enhanced those of Cu and Pb. The metal fractions extracted by EDTA and HNO3 increased directly with increasing temperature while the fraction extracted with KNO3 and NaOH decreased with ashing. For Cu, Mn, Pb and Ni, the amount extracted varied in the order EDTA>HNO3>NaOH>KNO3>H2O, but the absolute amounts differed between CLA and DLA. Peak concentrations of the total metals were achieved at the highest burning temperature. The amount of H2O soluble Ca and Mg decreased and K increased in both CLA and DLA with temperature. Total and exchangeable forms of cations increased with increasing temperature. Total Ca was highest in DLA, whereas total Mg and K were higher in CLA. This study indicated that incinerating poultry litter before soil application may have mixed effects on the vulnerable metal fractions by increasing or decreasing some fractions, depending on poultry type. PMID:18538557

  2. Nuclear microscopy in trace-element biology — from cellular studies to the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf

    1993-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of trace and major elements in cells are of great interest in cell biology. PIXE can provide elemental concentrations in the bulk of cells or organelles as other bulk techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and nuclear activation analysis. Supplementary information, perhaps more exciting, on the intracellular distributions of trace elements can be provided using nuclear microscopy. Intracellular distributions of trace elements in normal and malignant cells are presented. The toxicity of mercury and cadmium can be prevented by supplementation of the essential trace element selenium. Some results from an experimental animal model are discussed. The intercellular distribution of major and trace elements in isolated blood cells, as revealed by nuclear microscopy, provides useful clinical information. Examples are given concerning inflammatory connective-tissue diseases and the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  3. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  4. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  5. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  6. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  7. Atmospheric trace elements at Enewetak Atoll: 2. Transport to the ocean by wet and dry deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, R.; Duce, R. A.; Ray, B. J.; Unni, C. K.

    1985-02-01

    The concentrations of trace elements in precipitation and dry deposition are presented for samples collected at Enewetak Atoll (11°N, 162° E) during SEAREX experiments in 1979. The concentrations of Al, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, and Th in rain are dominated by crustal material, and for these elements, wet deposition evidently exceeds dry deposition. For most of these elements the present rates of atmospheric deposition at Enewetak are similar to their mean rate of accumulation in sediments over the past 5-10,000 years, suggesting that the air-to-sea exchange of particles is closely tied to the sedimentary cycle of the mid-Pacific. Noncrustal sources govern the concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Se, and Cd in wet and dry deposition samples. Analyses of dry deposition collected from a flat plastic plate indicate that the amount of material recycled from the sea surface varies markedly between samples, and even though these estimates do not necessarily reflect the dry deposition to the ocean surface, the results suggest that recycled sea spray often amounts to more than 50% of the total dry deposition of the enriched elements. Recycled sea spray also makes up a significant fraction of the total wet deposition of the enriched elements. The net deposition rates of elements such as Cu and Zn are greater than or equal to their inputs from vertical mixing, but the net deposition of Pb clearly exceeds the input from upwelling. The current net deposition rates of the enriched elements are also similar to their rates of removal to sediments. These results indicate that air-sea exchange processes may significantly affect the chemistry of trace metals in the open ocean.

  8. CORRELATION OF COAL PROPERTIES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY NEEDS FOR SULFUR AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews existing reports and data on the occurrence of sulfur and trace elements in U.S. coals and on the effect of coal properties on trace element partitioning during coal use. Emphasis was on: (1) the effect of depositional conditions on the formation and compositio...

  9. Constraints on the bioavailability of trace elements to terrestrial fauna at mining and smelting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; Schoof, R.; LaTier, A.; Mellott, R.; Shields, W.; Ruby, M.

    1995-12-31

    At mining and smelting sites, the bioavailability of waste-related trace elements to terrestrial wildlife is limited by mineralogy of the waste material and the geochemistry of the waste-soil mixture. For example, encapsulation of trace elements in inert mineral matrices limits the assimilation of particle-associated trace elements that are ingested by wildlife. The bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, and zinc at mining and smelting sites in Oklahoma and Montana was evaluated based on analysis of waste material, soil chemistry, and concentrations of trace elements in whole-body samples of key food web species. Concentrations of trace elements were generally elevated relative to reference area values for selected species of vegetation, insects, spiders, and small mammals. Soil-to-tissue bioconcentration factors derived from field data at these sites were generally low (< 1), with the exception of cadmium in vegetation. For all of the trace elements evaluated, wildlife exposure models indicate that the potential for transfer of contaminants to wildlife species of public concern and high trophic-level predators is limited. Moreover, laboratory feeding experiments conducted with cadmium and lead indicate that the assimilation of waste-related trace elements by mammals is relatively low (24--47 percent for lead in blood and bone; 22--44 percent for cadmium in kidney). The relatively low bioavailability of trace elements at mining and smelting sites should be considered when estimating exposure of ecological receptors and when deriving soil cleanup criteria based on measured or modeled ecological risk.

  10. Measurement of Trace Elements During the Development and Immune Response of Heliothis virescens Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While many studies have examined the effect of microbial infections on the status of trace elements in mammalian tissues, similar studies have not been performed in insects. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify changes in trace elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and ...

  11. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  13. TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. SECOND ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1976--SEPTEMBER 30, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the trace elements and major minerals in bulk refuse and coal samples from the Illinois Basin were completed. This activity was followed by studies to elucidate the structural relationships and associations among the trace elements. Several series of weathering and le...

  14. Temperature and Gravity Dependence of Trace Element Abundances in Hot DA White Dwarfs (94-EUVE-094)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    EUV spectroscopy has shown that DA white dwarfs hotter than about 45,000 K may contain trace heavy elements, while those hotter than about 50,000 K almost always have significant abundances of trace heavy elements. One of our continuing challenges is to identify and determine the abundances of these trace constituents, and then to relate the observed abundance patterns to the present conditions and previous evolutionary histories of the hot DA white dwarfs.

  15. Trace Element Compositions of Pallasite Olivine Grains and Pallasite Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Pallasites are mixtures of metal with magnesian olivine. Most have similar metal compositions and olivine oxygen isotopic compositions; these are the main-group pallasites (PMG). The Eagle Station grouplet of pallasites (PES) have distinctive metal and olivine compositions and oxygen isotopic compositions. Pallasites are thought to have formed at the core-mantle boundary of their parent asteroids by mixing molten metal with solid olivine of either cumulatic or restitic origin. We have continued our investigation of pallasite olivines by doing in situ trace element analyses in order to further constrain their origin. We determined Al, P, Ca, Ga and first row transition element contents of olivine grains from suite of PMG and PES by LA-ICP-MS at JSC. Included in the PMG suite are some that have anomalous metal compositions (PMG-am) and atypically ferroan olivines (PMG-as). Our EMPA work has shown that there are unanticipated variations in olivine Fe/Mn, even within those PMG that have uni-form Fe/Mg. Manganese is homologous with Fe2+, and thus can be used the same way to investigate magmatic fractionation processes. It has an advantage for pallasite studies in that it is unaffected by redox exchange with the metal. PMG can be divided into three clusters on the basis of Mn/Mg; low, medium and high that can be thought of as less, typically and more fractionated in an igneous sense. The majority of PMG have medium Mn/Mg ratios. PMG-am occur in all three clusters; there does not seem to be any relationship between putative olivine igneous fractionation and metal composition. The PMG-as and one PMG-am make up the high Mn/Mg cluster; no PMG are in this cluster. The high Mn/Mg cluster ought to be the most fractionated (equivalent to the most Fe-rich in igneous suites), yet they have among the lowest contents of incompatible lithophile elements Al and Ti and the two PMG-as in this cluster also have low Ca and Sc contents. This is inconsistent with simple igneous

  16. Trace element landscape of resting and activated human neutrophils on the sub-micrometer level.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, M J; De Samber, B; Garrevoet, J; Vergucht, E; Vekemans, B; De Rycke, R; Björn, E; Sandblad, L; Wellenreuther, G; Falkenberg, G; Cloetens, P; Vincze, L; Urban, C F

    2015-06-01

    Every infection is a battle for trace elements. Neutrophils migrate first to the infection site and accumulate quickly to high numbers. They fight pathogens by phagocytosis and intracellular toxication. Additionally, neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to inhibit extracellular microbes. Yet, neutrophil trace element characteristics are largely unexplored. We investigated unstimulated and phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) on the sub-micron spatial resolution level. PMA activates pinocytosis, cytoskeletal rearrangements and the release of NETs, all mechanisms deployed by neutrophils to combat infection. By analyzing Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, P, S, and Ca, not only the nucleus but also vesicular granules were identifiable in the elemental maps. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed a neutrophil-specific composition of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn in comparison with J774 and HeLa cells, indicating a neutrophil-specific metallome complying with their designated functions. When investigating PMA-activated neutrophils, the SR-XRF analysis depicted typical subcellular morphological changes: the transformation of nucleus and granules and the emergence of void vacuoles. Mature NETs were evenly composed of Fe, P, S, and Ca with occasional hot spots containing Zn, Fe, and Ca. An ICP-MS-based quantification of NET supernatants revealed a NETosis-induced decrease of soluble Zn, whereas Fe, Cu, and Mn concentrations were only slightly affected. In summary, we present a combination of SR-XRF and ICP-MS as a powerful tool to analyze trace elements in human neutrophils. The approach will be applicable and valuable to numerous aspects of nutritional immunity. PMID:25832493

  17. Effects of nitrate addition and iron speciation on trace element transfer in coastal food webs under phosphate and iron enrichment.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Zuo, Yue-Gang; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2013-06-01

    Coastal organisms are often exposed to both iron enrichment and eutrophication. Trace elements transfer in coastal food webs are critical for marine life and therefore influence coastal ecosystem function and the global carbon cycle. However, how these exposures affect algal element uptake and the subsequent element transfer to marine copepods (Tigriopus japonicus) is unknown. Here we investigated the effects of nitrate addition and iron speciation (Fe (OH)3 or EDTA-Fe) on the biological uptake of Cu, Zn, and Se under phosphate and iron enrichment, using Thalassiosira weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, and Chlorella vulgaris as model marine algae. Algal element adsorption/absorption generally increased with increasing macronutrient concentrations. Algal element assimilation efficiencies depended on iron speciation and marine algae species. Element assimilation efficiencies of copepods were significantly correlated to the intracellular element concentrations in algal cells. Element uptake and transfer were controlled by eutrophication, iron speciation, and algal species in coastal food webs. PMID:23332676

  18. Some aspects of statistical distribution of trace element concentrations in biomedical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Braziewicz, J.; Banaś , D.; Kubala-Kukuś , A.; Góź Dź , S.; Pajek, M.; Zadrozsolarna, M.; Jaskóla, M.; Czyzsolarewski, T.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in biomedical samples were studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Used analytical methods were compared in terms of their detection limits and applicability for studying the trace elements in large populations of biomedical samples. In a result, the XRF and TRXRF methods were selected to be used for the trace element concentration measurements in the urine and woman full-term placenta samples. The measured trace element concentration distributions were found to be strongly asymmetric and described by the logarithmic-normal distribution. Such a distribution is expected for the random sequential process, which realistically models a level of trace elements in studied biomedical samples. The importance and consequences of this finding are discussed, especially in the context of comparison of the concentration measurements in different populations of biomedical samples.

  19. Geochemistry of trace elements in the highland lunar rocks based on SRXFA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, L. S.; Kudryashova, A. F.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Baryshev, V. B.; Zolotarev, K. V.

    1998-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation (SRXFA) has been applied for determination of trace elements in the highland lunar rocks (Luna 20 and Apollo 16). On the basis of the distribution of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb in 69 lunar highland fragments six geochemical groups of rocks with various aluminium and trace element contents were distinguished for each station. They have various levels of trace element content. This suggests the various petrological processes: cumulation of rock-forming minerals and partial melting of source rocks. The last process lead up to enriching in trace elements in rocks formed from these melts. The distribution of trace elements in highland and mare rocks of the Moon were compared.

  20. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  1. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

    PubMed Central

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal–plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials. PMID:26868040

  2. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials. PMID:26868040

  3. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M.

    2016-02-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials.

  4. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland, northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to buffer and immobilize substances of natural and anthropogenic origin to prevent their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since Arctic ecosystems are considered to be highly sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterises background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5-69.5° N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on the element content of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest median concentrations of Fe and Mn were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) while the highest median values of Ni, Pb and Zn were found in soils of both the ice-complex and the Holocene estuarine terrace of the Lena River delta region, as well as in the southernmost study unit of the hinterland area. Detailed observations of trace metal distribution on the micro scale showed that organic matter content, soil texture and iron-oxide contents influenced by cryogenic processes, temperature, and hydrological regimes are the most important factors determining the metal abundance in permafrost-affected soils. The observed range of trace element background concentrations was similar to trace metal levels reported for other pristine northern areas.

  5. Problems in Trace Element EPMA: Modeling Secondary Fluorescence with PENEPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.

    2007-12-01

    In EPMA the incident electron beam scatters, producing the "electron interaction volume". However, X-rays produced within that volume may spread tens to hundreds of microns and produce secondary fluorescence in other materials. This can be ignored in many/most cases where major element compositions are being measured. However, when minor or especially trace elements are being measured by EPMA, secondary fluorescence needs to be considered. In some cases it can be eliminated by separating the materials and mounting them by themselves, or by reducing the kV to minimize fluorescence. However, in many cases these efforts are not possible. In those cases, modeling the EPMA experience by Monte Carlo simulation is useful. PENEPMA is a Fortran program based upon the PENELOPE radiation transport model of Salvat et al (2006). It differs from other MC electron interaction programs in that it follows each electron and photon and records all interactions at each point in the "particle's path". It also permits complicated geometries with many materials. Both continuum and characteristic secondary fluorescence can be tracked, and at the end of a run, compared to x-rays produced only from primary electrons. This has important applications in geology and petrology. Llovet and Galan (2003) used it to correct calculations for olivine-cpx thermobarometry. Recent attention has been given to Ti in zircon as a geothermometer. PENEPMA has now been used to model 2 different situations: (1) rutiles present on or near zircon, (2) ilmenite present near zircon. In the first case, several geometries are modeled: a 30 micron diameter zircon (Ti-free) is surrounded by Ti-bearing silicate glass (yielding an apparent 452 ppm Ti in zircon core); with five 30 um surrounding rutiles at 15 micron distance (yielding an apparent 948 ppm Ti in zircon core); if the silicate glass were replaced by epoxy, the apparent Ti would increase to 1179 ppm. In a second case, the effect of zircon with nearby ilmenite

  6. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  7. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shabnam; Richards, Brian K; Steenhuis, Tammo S; McBride, Murray B; Baveye, Philippe; Dousset, Sylvie

    2004-11-01

    Leaching of sludge-borne trace elements has been observed in experimental and field studies. The role of microbial processes in the mobilization of trace elements from wastewater sludge is poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine trace element mobilization from sludge subjected to treatments representing microbial acidification, direct chemical acidification and no acidification, and to determine the readsorption potential of mobilized elements using calcareous sand. Triplicate columns (10-cm diameter) for incubation and leaching of sludge had a top layer of digested dewatered sludge (either untreated, acidified with H2SO4, or limed with CaCO3; all mixed with glass beads to prevent ponding) and a lower glass bead support bed. Glass beads in the sludge layer, support layer or both were replaced by calcareous sand in four treatments used for testing the readsorption potential of mobilized elements. Eight sequential 8-day incubation and leaching cycles were operated, each consisting of 7.6 d of incubation at 28 degrees C followed by 8 h of leaching with synthetic acid rain applied at 0.25 cm/h. Leachates were analyzed for trace elements, nitrate and pH, and sludge layer microbial respiration was measured. The largest trace element, nitrate and S losses occurred in treatments with the greatest pH depression and greatest microbial respiration rates. Cumulative leaching losses from both microbial acidification and direct acidification treatments were > 90% of Zn and 64-80% of Cu and Ni. Preventing acidification with sludge layer lime or sand restricted leaching for all trace elements except Mo. Results suggested that the primary microbial role in the rapid leaching of trace elements was acidification, with results from direct acidification being nearly identical to microbial acidification. Microbial activity in the presence of materials that prevented acidification mobilized far lower concentrations of trace elements, with the exception of Mo. Trace elements

  8. Determination of aragonite trace element partition coefficients from speleothem calcite-aragonite transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Scholz, Denis; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Cheng, Hai; Oster, Jessica; Immenhauser, Adrian; Richter, Detlev K.; Haeger, Tobias; Hoffmann, Dirk; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2016-04-01

    Speleothem trace element variability has often been linked to environmental changes. While research has focused on element incorporation into speleothem calcite, our current knowledge of trace element variability in speleothem aragonite is limited to a few studies only. Here we present, to our knowledge, for the first time quantitative estimates of distribution coefficients for speleothem aragonite (DMg, DBa, DSr, and DU). These were derived from ten calcite-to-aragonite transitions from seven speleothems from Morocco, Germany, Spain, France and India. Our calculations indicate the following distribution coefficients: DMg = 1.01E-04 ± 9.0E-05, DBa(Ar) = 0.91 ± 0.53, DSr(Ar) = 1.38 ± 0.53, and DU(Ar) = 6.26 ± 4.53. These results are discussed in the context of speleothem growth rates, Rayleigh distillation effects, temperature, drip water elemental composition and drip water pH. We conclude that speleothem aragonite DMg(Ar) is below one, DSr(Ar) is close to unity, and DU(Ar) is above one. For DBa(Ar), such a conclusion is difficult. Speleothem growth rate may affect aragonite DSr in samples forming at a growth rate lower than 20 μm/a. Our results also indicate that calcite DSr and calcite DBa are affected by the Mg content of calcite. This has important implications for studies attempting to quantify processes like prior calcite precipitation. In particular, DSr and DBa cannot be transferred from caves developed within a limestone host rock to caves developed within a dolostone host rock.

  9. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M.; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A

  10. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

    2009-08-15

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate. PMID:19261379

  11. Trace element behavior in hydrothermal experiments: Implications for fluid processes at shallow depths in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.-F.; Castillo, P. R.; Gieskes, J. M.; Chan, L. H.; Spivack, A. J.

    1996-05-01

    Chemical evaluation of fluids affected during progressive water-sediment interactions provides critical information regarding the role of slab dehydration and/or crustal recycling in subduction zones. To place some constraints on geochemical processes during sediment subduction, reactions between décollement sediments and synthetic NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions at 25-350°C and 800 bar were monitored in laboratory hydrothermal experiments using an autoclave apparatus. This is the first attempt in a single set of experiments to investigate the relative mobilities of many subduction zone volatiles and trace elements but, because of difficulties in conducting hydrothermal experiments on sediments at high P-T conditions, the experiments could only be designed for a shallow (˜ 10 km) depth. The experimental results demonstrate mobilization of volatiles (B and NH 4) and incompatible elements (As, Be, Cs, Li, Pb, Rb) in hydrothermal fluids at relatively low temperatures (˜ 300°C). In addition, a limited fractionation of light from heavy rare earth elements (REEs) occurs under hydrothermal conditions. On the other hand, the high field strength elements (HFSEs) Cr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr are not mobile in the reacted fluids. The observed behavior of volatiles and trace elements in hydrothermal fluids is similar to the observed enrichment in As, B, Cs, Li, Pb, Rb, and light REEs and depletion in HFSEs in arc magmas relative to magmas derived directly from the upper mantle. Thus, our work suggests a link between relative mobilities of trace elements in hydrothermal fluids and deep arc magma generation in subduction zones. The experimental results are highly consistent with the proposal that the addition of subduction zone hydrous fluids to the subarc mantle, which has been depleted by previous melting events, can produce the unique characteristics of arc magmas. Moreover, the results suggest that deeply subducted sediments may no longer have the composition necessary to generate

  12. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  13. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh).

    PubMed

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. PMID:26748006

  14. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Medvedeva, Yulia S; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Yu; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals' organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data indicate a

  15. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

    PubMed Central

    Skalny, Andrey A.; Medvedeva, Yulia S.; Alchinova, Irina B.; Karganov, Mikhail Yu.; Ajsuvakova, Olga P.; Skalny, Anatoly V.; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data indicate a

  16. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. PMID:26197334

  17. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  18. Determination of trace elements in three mushroom samples of basidiomycetes from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Hou, Yunhua

    2011-09-01

    We have determined the trace element composition of three mushrooms of Basidiomycetes, used in traditional Chinese medicine using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Metal concentrations in mushrooms were 203-401 mg/kg for iron, 22-51 mg/kg for manganese, 84-116 mg/kg for zinc, 24.1-41.3 mg/kg for copper, 1.6-5.6 mg/kg for lead, 3.3-4.4 mg/kg for chromium, 9.3-11.5 mg/kg for nickel, 0 mg/kg for vanadium, and 55.3-71 mg/kg for magnesium. The trace metal concentrations in mushrooms are hardly affected by the ecosystem and soil where they grew, as well as by the mushroom species and trace metal species. The results can be used to set new standards to control the quality of the three mushrooms of Basidiomycetes-Ganoderma lucidum, Coprinus comatus, and Grifola frondosa. PMID:20665124

  19. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory. PMID:18479045

  20. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  1. Scale as a factor in designing sampling programs for determination of annual trace element fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Concentration data of suspended sediment-associated trace elements are a requisite for estimation of annual chemical fluxes. Fluvial suspended sediment and associated trace elements display marked shortterm spatial and temporal variability, suggesting that determination of annual fluxes requires high frequency depth and width integrated sampling and subsequent chemical analyses. When time scales are shifted from hours or days to a year, short-term variability is less important. A 2 year study on the Arkansas River indicates that it may be possible, after detailed site characterization of mean/median sediment chemical data, to estimate annual fluxes of trace elements solely through monitoring of discharge and suspended sediment concentration.

  2. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  3. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  4. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  5. Trace element content of leaves of desert shrubs in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Garland, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of leaves of desert shrubs showed strong differences in macroelements according to species and location on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) site in south-central Washington. Halophytes were characterized by high levels of K, Cl, Br, Mn, and Na, and glycophytes by high levels of Ca and Mg. However, trace element content was not significantly different. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) leaves from Wyoming and the ALE site were not greatly different in trace element content. Natural leaf fall collections can be used to monitor changing levels of trace element content induced by coal combustion steam-electric plants.

  6. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  7. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dubick, M.A.; Hunter, G.C.; Casey, S.M.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-02-01

    Altered trace elements and ascorbic acid metabolism have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, their role in the disease process, or the effect of atherosclerosis on their tissue levels within plaque, is poorly understood. The presence study analyzes the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, and ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissue samples from 29 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and 14 patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD). It was observed that the Fe and Mn concentrations in AAA and AOD tissue were higher than the levels in nondiseased control aorta, whereas Cu and Zn levels in AAA and AOD tissue were similar to the levels in controls. The Zn:Cu ratio was significantly lower in the AAA tissue in comparison to both AOD and control tissue. In addition, AAA and AOD tissue had low ascorbic acid levels and low Cu, Zn-SOD activity with Cu,Zn-SOD:Mn-SOD ratios of 0.27 and 0.19, respectively, compared to a ratio of 3.20 in control aorta. These data indicate that aorta affected by aneurysms and occlusive disease have altered trace element and ascorbic acid concentrations, as well as low Cu,Zn-SOD activity. Although these observations do not directly support the hypothesis that AAA is associated with aortic Cu deficiency they do suggest a role for oxygen radicals or increased lipid peroxidation in occlusive and aneurysmal disease of the aorta.

  9. Detergentless ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace elements from edible oils using lipase as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve

    2015-11-01

    A new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ti, V and Zn) from edible oils by producing detergentless micro-emulsions via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using a water phase containing Lipase at pH 3 as an extractant was developed. The trace elements in the water phase post-extraction were determined against matrix matched standards using ICP-MS. In the first step of the work, the parameters that affect extraction, such as pH, the volume of 1% lipase in the water phase and the ultrasonic and centrifugation times were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (µg kg(-1)) were 0.46, 0.03, 0.007, 0.028, 0.67, 0.038, 0.022, 0.14, 0.17, 0.05 and 0.07 for Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3 Sb/m). A certified reference material (EnviroMAT HU-1 Used oil) was analysed to check the accuracy of the developed method. Results obtained were in agreement with certified values with a t-test showing that no significant differences at the 95% confidence levels were found. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and salmon oil. PMID:26452813

  10. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies. PMID:25190539

  11. Control of trace element toxicity in Chesapeake Bay by dominant phytoplankton. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.G.; Riedel, G.F.; Connell, D.B.; Ferrier, D.P.

    1992-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and arsenic (As), but not chromium (Cr), underwent large changes in chemical form during the development and senescence of natural phytoplankton blooms. In general, the percentage of organically-associated Cu was lowest during periods of rapid cell growth and highest during periods of cell decline or periods of dominance by red tide-forming dinoflagellates, a pattern tied to periods of release of organic compounds during either bloom senescence or during unusual algal blooms. Chromium, in contrast, was unreactive. The end result of biological mediation of both As and Cu was to increase the proportion of the element present in a less toxic form, at least to phytoplankton, thus affecting the potential toxicity of either element to a natural ecosystem. The results of the project provide a framework for the construction of general predictive models of likely trace element behavior in productive ecosystems and provide a conceptual theory of how such toxic contaminants may affect ecosystem structure and food webs within Chesapeake Bay. Predictive models of ecosystem impact will require further experimentation with multi-trophic level food chains.

  12. An evaluation of atmospheric deposition of trace elements into the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S; Landsberger, S

    1999-01-01

    High-volume air samplers were used to collect aerosol samples on Whatman 41 air filters at the Canadian air sampling stations Burnt Island, Egbert, and Point Petre. Once collected, the samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis. Air concentrations of over 30 trace elements were determined. A special focus was made to utilize Compton suppression gamma-ray spectroscopy and epithermal irradiations to enhance the detection limits of neutron activation analysis. These techniques allowed for the determination of trace elements at very low levels. Results of the study of the trace-metal dry deposition into Lakes Huron and Ontario indicated that the majority of the total deposition resulted from crustal materials. However, dry deposition is also a significant pathway for many toxic anthropogenic trace metals into the Great Lakes. PMID:10676498

  13. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11-30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect (<0.3%) in all tissues, while higher Z (K) had a larger effect (>3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D90) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. This work was part of an invited presentation at the ‘International Workshop on Recent Advances in Monte Carlo Techniques for Radiation Therapy’, held in Montreal, June 8-10, 2011.

  14. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other

  15. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  16. [Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Cetaceans by ICP-MS and Health Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu-long; Ning, Xi; Gui, Duan; Mo, Hui; Li, Yu-sen; Wu, Yu-ping

    2015-09-01

    The liver, kidney and muscle samples from seven cetaceans were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of V, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Ni, Mn, Se, Hg and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the health risk assessment for Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, Se in the liver was conducted. The results of international lobster hepatopancreas standard (TORT-2) showed acceptable agreement with the certified values, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of eleven kinds of trace elements were less than 3.54%, showing that the method is suitable for the determination of trace elements in cetaceans. The experimental results indicated that different tissues and organs of the dolphins had different trace elements, presenting the tissue specificity. There is a certain inter-species difference among different dolphins about the bioaccumulation ability of the trace elements. The distribution of trace elements in whales presented a certain regularity: the contents of most elements in liver, kidney were much higher than the contents of muscle tissues, Cu, Mn, Hg, Se, and Zn exhibit the higher concentrations in liver, while Cd was mainly accumulated in kidney. And according to the health risk assessment in liver, the exceeding standardrate of selenium and copper in seven kinds of whales was 100%, suggesting that these whales were suffering the contamination of trace elements. The experimental results is instructive to the study of trace elements in cetaceans, while this is the first report for the concentrations in organs of Striped dolphin, Bottlenose dolphin, Fraser's Dolphin and Risso's dolphin in China, it may provide us valuable data for the conservation of cetaceans. PMID:26669139

  17. [Analysis of a disturbance of trace element balance in patients with ischemic stroke with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kuramshina, D B; Novikova, L B; Nikonov, A A; Torshin, I Iu; Gromova, O A

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance of trace element balance increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease and, above all, ischemic stroke (IS). A comparative analysis of clinical and demographic parameters and trace element composition of hair was performed in the group of 30 ischemic stroke patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and 30 stroke patients without hypertension (mean age 55±7 years). The stroke patients with hypertension were characterized by the elevated body mass index (28.5±4.1 kg/m2, AI, 26.0±2.9 kg/m2, p=0.006), higher incidence of coronary heart disease (p=0.04). Alcohol consumption more than 3 drinks a week was associated with a 5-fold increase of the risk of stroke with hypertension (95% CI 1.0-27, p=0.035). The results revealed a number of statistically significant differences in trace element profile in the studied groups of patients: deficits of essential magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, a statistically significant increase in sodium levels, toxic and conditionally toxic trace elements (cadmium, mercury, bismuth, barium, etc.). One of the probable factors that lead to the accumulation of toxic trace elements in stroke patients is the increased consumption of alcohol including that of substandard quality. The data obtained also show the feasibility of implementing screening programs to assess micronutrient status (including trace elements) for early detection of pathological abnormalities in the elemental homeostasis that might lead to an increased risk of ischemic stroke and hypertension. PMID:22677769

  18. Using trace elements in skin to discriminate the populations of minke whales in southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Watanabe, Izumi; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of 12 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, and Hg) were determined in liver and skin tissues of minke whales from various regions within the Antarctic Ocean. Cd concentrations in livers of southern minke whale were apparently higher than those in cetaceans from other regions, while Hg concentrations were lower. There were significant positive correlations between body length and concentrations of Cd and Hg in the liver. The concentrations of all trace elements in the skin were lower than those in other cetaceans reported previously. Significant positive correlations between liver and skin were found for Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, and Cs, implying that the concentrations of these trace elements in the skin reflect those of internal organs. Large interannual variation of the accumulation pattern of trace elements in the skin was observed for the southern minke whales from Area V. There were significant differences in the skin element concentrations among Areas III, IV, and V, especially for males. Also, discriminant analysis between geographically two different groups collected during 1995/1996 austral summer season, based on the concentrations of trace elements in the skin, allowed for a correct classification of 90% of these minke whales. These results suggest that measurement of trace elements in skin samples could provide valuable information on the status of contamination and possible geographic differences in the accumulation levels in southern minke whales. PMID:11824827

  19. Determination of trace elements in triglycine sulfate solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Shawky H.

    1993-01-01

    Ten elements were divided into 2 groups. The elements in the first group included iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and gold. The elements in the second group included zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium, and gold. Five ppm of each element in each group was spiked in a 1 percent triglycine sulfate (TGS) solution. Glycine was removed with 1-naphthyl isocyanate in ether medium. The glycine derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine was removed by filtration, and the filtrates were analyzed for the different elements. Analysis of these elements was performed by using the 5100 Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of these experiments was the observation that there was a decrease in the concentration of chromium and gold, which was interpreted to be due to the chelation of these elements by the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine. Further research is needed to determine the concentration of other elements in triglycine sulfate (TGS) solutions. These elements will include lithium, sodium, rubidium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, aluminum, and silicon. These are the most likely elements to be found in the sulfuric acid used in manufacturing the TGS crystal. Moreover, we will extend our research to investigate the structural formula of the violet colored chelated compounds, which had been formed by interaction of the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine with the different elements, such as gold, chromium.

  20. Trace elements and Pb isotopes in soils and sediments impacted by uranium mining.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, A; Pourcelot, L; Probst, A; Prunier, J; Le Roux, G

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contamination in As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and REE, in a high uranium activity (up to 21,000Bq∙kg(-1)) area, downstream of a former uranium mine. Different geochemical proxies like enrichment factor and fractions from a sequential extraction procedure are used to evaluate the level of contamination, the mobility and the availability of the potential contaminants. Pb isotope ratios are determined in the total samples and in the sequential leachates to identify the sources of the contaminants and to determine the mobility of radiogenic Pb in the context of uranium mining. In spite of the large uranium contamination measured in the soils and the sediments (EF≫40), trace element contamination is low to moderate (2trace elements are associated with the most mobile fractions of the sediments/soils, implying an enhanced potential availability. Even if no Pb enrichment is highlighted, the Pb isotopic signature of the contaminated soils is strongly radiogenic. Measurements performed on the sequential leachates reveal inputs of radiogenic Pb in the most mobile fractions of the contaminated soil. Inputs of low-mobile radiogenic Pb from mining activities may also contribute to the Pb signature recorded in the residual phase of the contaminated samples. We demonstrate that Pb isotopes are efficient tools to trace the origin and the mobility of the contaminants in environments affected by uranium mining. PMID:27220101

  1. Physiological Effects of Trace Elements and Chemicals in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, M. M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The physiological effects on humans and animals of trace amounts of organic and unorganic pollutants in natural and waste waters are examined. The sensitivity of particular organs and species is emphasized. Substances reviewed include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, fluorides, nitrates and organics, including polychlounated biphenyls.…

  2. The relationship between soil geochemistry and the bioaccessibility of trace elements in playground soil.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Mingot, Juan; Chacón, Enrique; Charlesworth, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    A total of 32 samples of surficial soil were collected from 16 playground areas in Madrid (Spain), in order to investigate the importance of the geochemistry of the soil on subsequent bioaccessibility of trace elements. The in vitro bioaccessibility of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated by means of two extraction processes that simulate the gastric environment and one that reproduces a gastric + intestinal digestion sequence. The results of the in vitro bioaccessibility were compared against aqua regia extractions ("total" concentration), and it was found that total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn were double those of bioaccessible values, whilst that of Cr was ten times higher. Whereas the results of the gastric + intestinal extraction were affected by a high uncertainty, both gastric methods offered very similar and consistent results, with bioaccessibilities following the order: As = Cu = Pb = Zn > Co > Ni > Cr, and ranging from 63 to 7 %. Selected soil properties including pH, organic matter, Fe and CaCO(3) content were determined to assess their influence on trace element bioaccessibility, and it was found that Cu, Pb and Zn were predominantly bound to organic matter and, to a lesser extent, Fe oxides. The former fraction was readily accessible in the gastric solution, whereas Fe oxides seemed to recapture negatively charged chloride complexes of these elements in the gastric solution, lowering their bioaccessibility. The homogeneous pH of the playground soils included in the study does not influence trace element bioaccessibility to any significant extent except for Cr, where the very low gastric accessibility seems to be related to the strongly pH-dependent formation of complexes with organic matter. The results for As, which have been previously described and discussed in detail in Mingot et al. (Chemosphere 84: 1386-1391, 2011), indicate a high gastric bioaccessibility for this element as a consequence of its strong association with calcium

  3. Distribution of toxic trace elements in soil/sediment in post-Katrina New Orleans and the Louisiana Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, T.; Shu, S.; Shi, H.; Wang, Jingyuan; Adams, C.; Witt, E.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a comprehensive assessment of seven toxic trace elements (As, Pb, V, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Hg) in the soil/sediment of Katrina affected greater New Orleans region 1 month after the recession of flood water. Results indicated significant contamination of As and V and non-significant contamination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb at most sampling sites. Compared to the reported EPA Region 6 soil background inorganic levels, except As, the concentrations of other six elements had greatly increased throughout the studied area; St. Bernard Parish and Plaquemines Parish showed greater contamination than other regions. Comparison between pre- and post-Katrina data in similar areas, and data for surface, shallow, and deep samples indicated that the trace element distribution in post-Katrina New Orleans was not obviously attributed to the flooding. This study suggests that more detailed study of As and V contamination at identified locations is needed. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Aerosol emissions by tropical forest and savanna biomass burning: Characteristic trace elements and fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Echalar, F.; Gaudichet, A.; Cachier, H.

    1995-11-15

    This report characterizes and compares trace element emissions from fires of three different types of savannas and from the southwestern amazonian rain forest. This study tries to verify a fingerprint that may characterize savanna fires or tropical biomass burning.

  5. Diel cycling of trace elements in streams draining mineralized areas: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Nimick, David A.; Parker, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Many trace elements exhibit persistent diel, or 24-h, concentration cycles in streams draining mineralized areas. These cycles can be caused by various physical and biogeochemical mechanisms including streamflow variation, photosynthesis and respiration, as well as reactions involving photochemistry, adsorption and desorption, mineral precipitation and dissolution, and plant assimilation. Iron is the primary trace element that exhibits diel cycling in acidic streams. In contrast, many cationic and anionic trace elements exhibit diel cycling in near-neutral and alkaline streams. Maximum reported changes in concentration for these diel cycles have been as much as a factor of 10 (988% change in Zn concentration over a 24-h period). Thus, monitoring and scientific studies must account for diel trace-element cycling to ensure that water-quality data collected in streams appropriately represent the conditions intended to be studied.

  6. Understanding Biogeochemical Transformations Of Trace Elements In Multi Metal-Rich Geomaterials Under Stimulated Redox Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and anthropogenic influences on hydrological conditions can induce periodic or long-term reduced conditions in geologic materials. Such conditions can cause significant impacts on biogeochemical processes of trace elements in subsurface or near surface environments. The...

  7. COEUR D'ALENE LAKE, IDAHO. HYPOLIMNETIC CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN, NUTRIENTS, AND TRACE ELEMENTS, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reconnaissance study of Coeur dAlene Lake, Idaho (17010303) done from May through November 1987 assessed water quality throughout the lake. Particular emphasis was on hypolimnetic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace elements. Study results enabled refinem...

  8. TRACE ELEMENT STUDY AT A PRIMARY COPPER SMELTER. VOLUME II. REPORT APPENDIX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was undertaken to explore the distribution of trace elements in environmental emissions from a primary copper smelter. The efforts were concentrated on the reverberatory furnace and the electrostatic precipitator controlling emissions from the reverberatory furnace. ...

  9. Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates (AOAs) in the Efremovka (CVR) Chondrite: First SIMS Trace-Element Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Floss, C.; Hutson, M.

    2008-03-01

    SIMS trace-element results for six inclusions in Efremovka imply that condensation was important in the formation of AOAs and that precursor compositions or mode of origin were different for olivine in AOAs and in chondrules.

  10. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  11. TRACE AND POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH URANIUM DEPOSITS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmentally sensitive trace elements molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium are concentrated with uranium in ore deposits in South Texas. Cattle grazing in some pastures in mining areas have contracted molybdenosis, a cattle disease resulting from an imbalance of molybdenum an...

  12. Trace element geochemistry of soils and plants in Kenyan conservation areas and implications for wildlife nutrition.

    PubMed

    Maskall, J; Thornton, I

    1991-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in soils, plants and animals in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves in Kenya are assessed using geochemical mapping techniques. Soil trace element concentrations are shown to be related to soil parent material and possibly to pedological and hydrological factors. At Lake Nakuru National Park, plant trace element concentrations vary with plant species and the geochemical conditions that influence uptake are discussed. Impala at Lake Nakuru National Park and black rhino at Solio Wildlife Reserve are shown to have a lower blood copper status than animals from other areas. The trace element status of wildlife is assessed also with respect to critical concentrations used for domestic ruminants. It is suggested that at Lake Nakuru National Park, the low soil copper content and high molybdenum content of some plants contributes to the low copper status of impala and may also influence the nutrition of other species. PMID:24202842

  13. Study on water-rock interactions of trace elements in groundwater with leaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Zhang, L; Jiang, P; Papelis, C; Li, Y

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of trace elements leached from host rocks can indicate the source of flowing groundwater and provide the host rock's fingerprint information that may be useful in understanding the mixing patterns of different groundwaters and flowpaths. In this study, the leaching characteristics of three widely-distributed aquifer host rocks in Southern Nevada were investigated through leaching experiments of 13 trace elements under different experimental conditions (leaching time, pH, grain size, and rock mineralogy). The fraction of leached trace elements from different aquifer host rocks was calculated for examining the water-rock interaction in different conditions. The effect of host rock mineralogy on leachate composition was examined, which could provide useful information about groundwater source. Solute speciation and saturation indices were simulated using geochemical modeling to further explore the redistribution and leaching process of trace elements. PMID:24601971

  14. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ∼ 60 large and small rivers (< 100 to ≤ 150 000 km2 watershed area) of Western Siberia Lowland (WSL) during spring flood and summer and winter base-flow across a 1500 km latitudinal gradient covering continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. Analysis of ∼ 40 major and trace elements in dissolved (< 0.45 μm) fraction allowed establishing main environmental factors controlling the transport of metals and trace elements in rivers of this environmentally important region. No statistically significant effect of the basin size on most TE concentration was evidenced. Three category of trace elements were distinguished according to their concentration - latitude pattern: (i) increasing northward in spring and winter (Fe, Al, Ga (only winter), Ti (only winter), REEs, Pb, Zr, Hf, Th (only winter)), linked to leaching from peat and/or redox processes and transport in the form of Fe-rich colloids, (ii) decreasing northward during all seasons (Sr, Mo, U, As, Sb) marking the underground water influence of river feeding and (iii) elements without distinct trend from S to N whose variations within each latitude range were higher than the difference between latitudinal ranges (B, Li, Ti (except summer), Cr, V, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cs, Hf, Th). In addition to these general features, specific, northward increase during spring period was mostly pronounced for Fe, Mn, Co, Zn and Ba and may stem from a combination of enhanced leaching from the topsoil and vegetation and bottom waters of the lakes (spring overturn). A spring time northward decrease was observed for Ni, Cu, Zr, Rb. The southward increase in summer was strongly visible for Fe, Ni, Ba, Rb and V, probably due to peat/moss release (Ni, Ba, Rb) or groundwater feeding (Fe, V). The Principal Component Analysis demonstrated two main factors potentially controlling the ensemble of TE

  15. Change in field turbidity and trace element concentrations during well purging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Szabo, Z.; Ivahnenko, T.; Wilde, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    Various physical and chemical properties were monitored sequentially in the field during well purging as indicators of stabilization of the composition of the water in the well. Turbidity was monitored on site during purging of oxic water from three wells with screened intervals open to an unconfined aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of southern New Jersey to determine if stabilization of turbidity is a reliable indicator of the optimum purge time required to collect unbiased trace element samples. Concurrent split (one filtered, one unfiltered) samples collected during purging of the wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements so that the relationships between trace element concentrations and turbidity could be compared. Turbidity correlated with the whole water recoverable (WWR) concentration of trace element species, such as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) in the oxic ground water. Turbidity appeared to be independent of other field-measured characteristics of water such as conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The WWR concentrations of lead and copper, considered to be hydrophobic, correlated significantly with the sum of the WWR concentration of Fe, Al, and Mn. High values of field-measured turbidity were a key indicator of an overestimate of ambient hydrophobic trace element WWR concentrations. Stabilization of turbidity was a better indicator of stable, unfiltered trace element concentrations than were the other commonly measured field characteristics. At one well, turbidity was a better indicator of stable, filtered trace element concentrations than the other commonly measured field characteristics. As analytical methods for trace elements improve resulting in smaller MRLs (method reporting levels) and better precision, turbidity of ground water at values of less than 10 NTU (nepheiometric turbidity units) will become important in interpreting the significance of both unfiltered and filtered sample results.

  16. Analysis of the trace element content of coals from the Wabaunsee Group southeastern Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, S.S.; Carr, J.D.; Kelter, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight coal samples obtained from the Honey Creek, Lorton, Wamego, Elmo, and Nodaway coals of the Wabaunsee Group (Upper Pennsylvanian) were analyzed for their concentration of certain trace elements. Analysis of the data suggests (a) a general decrease of trace element concentrations away from the Precambrian Nemaha Arch in a basinward direction, and (b) the post-diagenetic emplacement of lead, zinc and cadmium typical of mid-continent coals.

  17. Solubility of aerosol trace elements: sources and deposition fluxes in the Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado-Caballero, María Dolores; López-García, Patricia; Patey, Matthew; Prieto, Sandra; Collado, Cayetano; Santana, Desire; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    To date there have been no long-term aerosol studies in the Canary Basin, and current estimates of soluble fluxes of Al, Mn, Fe, P and N for the region are based on limited data available from several oceanographic research cruises which have crossed the region during large transects of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, aerosol samples have been collected at two stations on the island of Gran Canaria regularly since 2006 (Taliarte, at sea level, and Pico de la Gorra, at 1930 m altitude). Samples have been analysed for total and soluble trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Ti). The high temporal resolution of this dataset represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of aerosol deposition of trace metals to the region. Solubility measurements from acetate buffer leaching experiments showed the same tendency in the percentage of soluble metals in the samples: a higher percentage solubility of metals in anthropogenic aerosols and at low dust loading. Moreover, categorisation of aerosol samples with a continental African origin according to air-mass back-trajectories (North of Africa, Central and Western Sahara and Sahel) showed a decreasing tendency in the percentage of soluble Al and Fe to the south. In addition, factors that can affect the percentage solubility values for crustal elements and comparisons with different methods were studied. Freezing the samples stored affects the measurements of Al and Fe solubility. This last result is important for the design of future aerosol sampling programmes and aerosol solubility experiments. Flux estimates for aerosol-derived soluble metals reveal that phosphate is highly depleted relative to Fe and N when compared with Redfield values. It appears that aerosol deposition is an important source of N and trace metals (Fe, Co, Mn and Al) to the NE subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This work has been supported by the European Commission FEDER funds (PCT MAC 2007-2013, ESTRAMAR Mac/3/C177).

  18. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. III. SEVENTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA AND CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA (1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventeen trace elements - arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron, (B), cadmium, (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and Zinc (Zn) - were measured in human s...

  19. The effect of sulphur in silicate melt on partitioning of Ni and other trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Bernard; Kiseeva, Ekaterina; Wohlers, Anke

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that variations in the sulphur contents of silicate melts affect the partitioning of trace chalcophile elements, particularly Ni, between silicate melt and crystalline phases such as olivine [1]. The general idea is that Ni (and other elements) complex with sulphur dissolved in the melt, thereby stabilising Ni in the melt and reducing the olivine-melt partition coefficient DNi. More recent experiments lead to the assertion that any sulphur effect, if present is small and can be ignored [2]. Experiments aimed at addressing this problem have, however, struggled with the difficulty that the maximum S contents of olivine- precipitating melts do not exceed ~0.5% even at sulphide saturation. Any effect is therefore difficult to establish unequivocally. Here we have taken advantage of the fact that experiments under strongly reducing conditions, where FeO activity in the silicate melt is very low lead to much higher concentrations of S than those associated with olivine precipitation. We have therefore investigated partitioning between sulphide melts and haplobasaltic silicate melt at concentrations of FeO between 0.3 and 10 weight% in order to investigate the "sulphur-effect" on partitioning. At the lowest FeO contents we are able to drive the S content of the melt to 10 weight% enabling the effects to be unequivocally established. We find that partitioning of strongly lithophile elements Nb, Ta, U, REE partition more strongly out of silicate melt as its S content increases. The effect is, surprisingly, predominantly due to the effect of S on the activity coefficient of FeO in the melt. In contrast strongly chalcophile Ni, Cu, Ag partition more strongly into the melt as its S content increases. This is due to a dramatic lowering of the activity coefficients of these elements in the silicate as S increases. Elements which show little effect of S include Pb, Co and In. The results enable us to predict the effects of sulphur on olivine-melt and

  20. Toxic effects of trace elements on newborns and their birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Yin, Shanshan; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping

    2016-04-15

    Some trace elements are essential for newborns, their deficiency may cause abnormal biological functions, whereas excessive intakes due to environmental contamination may create adverse health effects. This study was conducted to measure the levels of selected trace elements in Chinese fish consumers by assessing their essentiality and toxicity via colostrum intake in newborns, and evaluated the effects of these trace elements on birth outcomes. Trace elements in umbilical cord serum and colostrum of the studied population were relatively high compared with other populations. The geometric means (GM) of estimated daily intake (EDI, mgday(-1)) of the trace elements were in the safe ranges for infant Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). When using total dietary intake (TDI, mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)), zinc (Zn) (0.880mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) and selenium (Se) (6.39×10(-3)mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) were above the Reference Doses (RfD), set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that Se was negatively correlated with birth outcomes. Our findings suggested that overloading of trace elements due to environmental contamination may contribute to negative birth outcomes. PMID:26803687

  1. Trace Element Supplementation Following Severe Burn Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurmis, Rochelle; Greenwood, John; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements have an important physiological role after severe burn injury with patients routinely receiving supplementation. Although commonly prescribed after burn injury, variation exists among supplement composition, frequency, and the dosage administered. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of trace element supplementation on clinically meaningful outcomes in patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Supplementation of selenium, copper and zinc, either alone or combined, compared with placebo or standard treatment were eligible for inclusion. Predetermined primary outcome measures were mortality, length of stay, rate of wound healing, and complications. A comprehensive search strategy was undertaken. Methodological quality of eligible studies was appraised and relevant data extracted for meta-analysis. Eight studies met eligibility criteria for the review; four randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized experimental trials, including a total of 398 participants with an age range of 6 to 67 years. Parenteral supplementation of combined trace elements was associated with a significant decrease in infectious episodes (weighted mean difference: -1.25 episodes, 95% confidence intervals: -1.70, -0.80; P < .00001). The results of this review indicate that the use of parentally administered combined trace elements after burn injury confer positive effects in decreasing infectious complications. Combined parenteral trace element supplementation and combined oral and parenteral zinc supplementation have potentially clinically significant findings on reducing length of stay. Oral zinc supplementation shows possible beneficial effects on mortality. Definitive studies are required to accurately define optimal trace element supplementation regimens, dosages, and routes after burn injury. PMID:26056754

  2. Risk assessment of trace elements in cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Dawen; Wei, Yihua; Luo, Linguan; Dai, Tingcan

    2014-04-01

    The levels of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in eight species of cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. All the studied trace element levels in fish muscles from Jiangxi province did not exceed Chinese national standard and European Union standard, and they were often lower than previous studies. The calculated target hazard quotient values for all the studied trace elements in fish samples were much less than 1, suggesting that the studied trace elements in fish muscles from Jiangxi province had not pose obvious health hazards to consumers. As and Cd concentrations in northern snakehead were much higher than that in other fishes, demonstrating that this fish species could be valuable as a bioindicator of As and Cd in environmental surveys. In addition, the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, and moderate contents of other essential trace elements in crucian carp indicated that crucian carp could be a good nutrient source of essential trace elements for human health. PMID:24258771

  3. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Engracia; de Mora, Alfredo Pérez; Felipe, Efraín; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl(2)-soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. PMID:16005126

  4. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19-6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20-30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352-450 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  5. Trace Elements in the Fetal and Neonate Ruminant: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hidiroglou, M.

    1980-01-01

    The placental transfer and localization of four elements, Se, Fe, I and Zn in the ruminant fetus are described in this review. The problems facing the fetus or neonate born from cows or ewes with an inadequate supply of these elements during gestation are discussed. PMID:7020911

  6. Trace elemental characteristics of aerosols emitted from municipal incinerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of high temperature combustion aerosols, elemental composition of size differentiated aerosols emitted from a local municipal incinerator was studied. Aerosols were aerodynamically separated into eight diameter groups ranging from 0.43 mm to 20 mm, collected, and analyzed by charged particle induced X-ray emission technique. On line data collection and reduction codes generated aerial densities for elements from Na to U with sensitivities in the ng/cu m range for most elements. From the total weights of aerosols collected per stage, their size distribution was determined to be bimodal, with one group centered at a diameter of 0.54 mm and the other at a diameter of 5.6 mm. Measured elemental concentrations in various size ranges indicate that K and S show a strong tendency to concentrate on aerosol surfaces. A weaker trend for surface preference was also observed for Mn and Ni, but other elements show no such trend.

  7. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  8. Capillary microextraction (CME) and its application to trace elements analysis and their speciation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Zheng, Fei; He, Man; Zhang, Nan

    2009-09-14

    As a solvent-free miniaturized sample preparation technique, capillary microextraction (CME) has been hyphenated with different analytical instruments for trace elements analysis of environmental, biological, food and pharmaceutical samples. This review discusses the fundamentals and recent development of CME, including the theoretical basis, extraction modes (packed, open-tubular and monolithic CME) and capillary materials for CME. The emphasis is placed on the application of CME to trace/ultra-trace elements analysis and their speciation. Existing coating/monolithic materials used for CME are summarized together with a detailed overview of their preparation methods. PMID:19720168

  9. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26653752

  10. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  11. Assessment of sampling and analytical uncertainty of trace element contents in arable field soils.

    PubMed

    Buczko, Uwe; Kuchenbuch, Rolf O; Ubelhör, Walter; Nätscher, Ludwig

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of trace element contents in soils is required in Germany (and other countries) before sewage sludge application on arable soils. The reliability of measured element contents is affected by measurement uncertainty, which consists of components due to (1) sampling, (2) laboratory repeatability (intra-lab) and (3) reproducibility (between-lab). A complete characterization of average trace element contents in field soils should encompass the uncertainty of all these components. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the magnitude and relative proportions of uncertainty components for the metals As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn in three arable fields of different field-scale heterogeneity, based on a collaborative trial (CT) (standardized procedure) and two sampling proficiency tests (PT) (individual sampling procedure). To obtain reference values and estimates of field-scale heterogeneity, a detailed reference sampling was conducted. Components of uncertainty (sampling person, sampling repetition, laboratory) were estimated by variance component analysis, whereas reproducibility uncertainty was estimated using results from numerous laboratory proficiency tests. Sampling uncertainty in general increased with field-scale heterogeneity; however, total uncertainty was mostly dominated by (total) laboratory uncertainty. Reproducibility analytical uncertainty was on average by a factor of about 3 higher than repeatability uncertainty. Therefore, analysis within one single laboratory and, for heterogeneous fields, a reduction of sampling uncertainty (for instance by larger numbers of sample increments and/or a denser coverage of the field area) would be most effective to reduce total uncertainty. On the other hand, when only intra-laboratory analytical uncertainty was considered, total sampling uncertainty on average prevailed over analytical uncertainty by a factor of 2. Both sampling and laboratory repeatability uncertainty were highly variable

  12. Improved provenance tracing of Asian dust sources using rare earth elements and selected trace elements for palaeomonsoon studies on the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrat, Marion; Weiss, Dominik J.; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Dong, Shuofei; Chen, Hongyun; Najorka, Jens; Sun, Youbin; Gupta, Sanjeev; Tada, Ryuji; Sinha, Rajiv

    2011-11-01

    The Asian Monsoon forms an important part of the earth's climate system, yet our understanding of the past interactions between its different sub-systems, the East Asian and Indian monsoons, and between monsoonal winds and other prevailing wind currents such as the Westerly jet, is limited, particularly in central Asia. This in turn affects our ability to develop climate models capable of accurately predicting future changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and monsoon intensities in Asia. Provenance studies of mineral dust deposited in terrestrial settings such as peat bogs can address this problem directly, by offering the possibility to examine past deposition rates and wind direction, and hence reconstruct past atmospheric circulation patterns. However, such studies are challenged by several issues, most importantly the identification of proxies that unambiguously distinguish between the different potential dust sources and that are independent of particle size. In addition, a single analytical method that is suitable for sample preparation of both dust source (i.e. desert sand, soil) and receptor (i.e. dust archive such as peat or soil profiles) material is desirable in order to minimize error propagation derived from the experimental and analytical work. Here, an improved geochemical framework of provenance tracers to study atmospheric circulation patterns and palaeomonsoon variability in central Asia is provided, by combining for the first time mineralogical as well as major and trace elemental (Sc, Y, Th and the rare earth elements) information on Chinese (central Chinese loess plateau, northern Qaidam basin and Taklamakan, Badain Juran and Tengger deserts), Indian (Thar desert) and Tibetan (eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau) dust sources. Quartz, feldspars and clay minerals are the major constituents of all studied sources, with highly variable calcite contents reflected in the CaO concentrations. Chinese and Tibetan dust sources are enriched in middle

  13. Gaining Precision and Accuracy on Microprobe Trace Element Analysis with the Multipoint Background Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaz, J. M.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Donovan, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Electron microprobe trace element analysis is a significant challenge, but can provide critical data when high spatial resolution is required. Due to the low peak intensity, the accuracy and precision of such analyses relies critically on background measurements, and on the accuracy of any pertinent peak interference corrections. A linear regression between two points selected at appropriate off-peak positions is a classical approach for background characterization in microprobe analysis. However, this approach disallows an accurate assessment of background curvature (usually exponential). Moreover, if present, background interferences can dramatically affect the results if underestimated or ignored. The acquisition of a quantitative WDS scan over the spectral region of interest is still a valuable option to determine the background intensity and curvature from a fitted regression of background portions of the scan, but this technique retains an element of subjectivity as the analyst has to select areas in the scan, which appear to represent background. We present here a new method, "Multi-Point Background" (MPB), that allows acquiring up to 24 off-peak background measurements from wavelength positions around the peaks. This method aims to improve the accuracy, precision, and objectivity of trace element analysis. The overall efficiency is amended because no systematic WDS scan needs to be acquired in order to check for the presence of possible background interferences. Moreover, the method is less subjective because "true" backgrounds are selected by the statistical exclusion of erroneous background measurements, reducing the need for analyst intervention. This idea originated from efforts to refine EPMA monazite U-Th-Pb dating, where it was recognised that background errors (peak interference or background curvature) could result in errors of several tens of million years on the calculated age. Results obtained on a CAMECA SX-100 "UltraChron" using monazite

  14. Multielement extraction system for the determination of 18 trace elements in geochemical samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Viets, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system has been developed for use in geochemical exploration which separates a maximum number of trace elements from interfering matrices. Extraction curves for 18 of these trace elements are presented: Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ga, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te. The acid normality of the aqueous phase controls the extraction into the organic phase, and each of these 18 elements has a broad range of HCl normality over which it is quantitatively extracted, making it possible to determine all 18 trace elements from a single sample digestion or leach solution. The extract can be analyzed directly by flame atomic absorption or inductivity coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Most of these 18 elements can be determined by flameless atomic absorption after special treatment of the organic extract.

  15. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: sustainability and risks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Lepp, Nicholas W; Madejón, Engracia

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. PMID:21561696

  16. Attenuation of trace elements in coal fly ash leachates by surfactant-modified zeolite.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Donahoe, Rona J

    2012-08-30

    Potential leaching of trace elements from older, unlined fly ash disposal facilities is a serious threat to groundwater and surface water contamination. Therefore, effective methods for containing the pollutant elements within the unlined coal combustion products (CCPs) disposal facilities are required to minimize any potential impact of leachate emanating from such facilities into the nearby environment. Because surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has the potential to sequester both cationic and anionic trace elements from aqueous solutions, bench-scale batch and column experiments were performed to test its ability to remediate trace elements in leachates generated from both alkaline and acidic fly ash samples. Fly ash leachate treatment results showed the potential application of SMZ as an effective permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material to control the dispersion of heavy metals and metalloids from ash disposal sites. Quantitative comparison of the elemental composition of SMZ-treated and untreated leachates indicated that SMZ was effective in decreasing the concentrations of trace elements in fly ash leachates. Similarly, SMZ treatment column experiments showed the delayed peak leaching events and overall reductions in leachate concentrations of trace elements. The effectiveness of SMZ column treatments, however, decreased with time potentially due to the saturation of sorption sites. PMID:22721834

  17. Distribution of trace elements in soil from repeated sewage sludge applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, W.R.; Jacobs, L.W.

    1998-11-01

    The authors studied the horizontal and vertical distribution in a soil profile of trace elements as a result of their loading at phytotoxic levels to cropland. Municipal sludges containing high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn were applied to cropland from 1977 to 1986 at three rates plus an untreated control. Total elemental analysis of soils collected in 1989 and 1990 indicated that lateral distributions of trace elements had occurred. This lateral distribution was most likely a result of the physical movement of soil particles with agronomic operations. The elements, however, were not distributed below the sampling depth of from 15 to 30 cm. Mass balance calculations resulted in average trace element recoveries that ranged from 45 to 155% of the total applied. These calculations were highly variable, indicative of the highly variable nature of sludge composition, lack of total uniform sludge applications, soil movement due to tillage operations, and sampling methods. Because of the potential errors associated in mass balance calculations, recoveries that have been calculated in this and other studies that deviate substantially from 100% should reasonably be expected. Direct examination of the relatively few ways in which trace elements are lost from a soil may be more meaningful than mass balance calculations to determine the fate of trace elements applied to soil.

  18. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  19. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents' material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  20. Photosynthetic pigment laser-induced fluorescence indicators for the detection of changes associated with trace element stress in the diatom model species Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2016-05-01

    This work reports changes on cell number, growth rate, trace element content, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and carotenoid concentrations, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, and a mixture of all elements combined (Mix). The total levels of trace elements associated with the cells were significantly higher in the exposed than in control ones. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower in exposed P. tricornutum, suggesting that trace elements affected the microalgae physiology. The LIF emission spectra showed two typical emission bands in red (683-698 nm) and far-red (725-730 nm) regions. Deviations in LIF spectra and changes in F685/F735 ratio were investigated as indicators of trace element-induced changes. Fluorescence intensity emitted by exposed microalgae decreased in far-red region when compared to control cells, suggesting Chl a damage and impairment of pigment biosynthesis pathways by trace elements, confirmed by Chl a and carotenoid concentration decrease. Significant increase in F685/F735 ratio was detected for all elements except Zn and more accentuated for Co, Hg, and Mix. Significant deviations in wavelength emission maxima in red region were also more significant (between 8 and 13 nm) for Co, Hg, and Mix. Growth changes agreed with deviations in LIF spectra and F685/F735 ratio, supporting their applicability as indicators. This study clearly shows F685/F735 ratio and the deviations in wavelength emission maxima as adequate trace element stress indicators and P. tricornutum as a promising biomonitor model species. LIF-based techniques can be used as time-saving, highly sensitive, and effective alternative tool for the detection of trace element stress, with potential for remote sensing and trace element contamination screening in marine coastal areas. PMID:27075310

  1. Concentration of trace elements in water samples by reductive precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Skogerboe, R.K.; Hanagan, W.A.; Taylor, H.E.

    1985-12-01

    The use of borohydride reduction as a means of preconcentrating elements by precipitation as the element or as a boride has been explored. It has been shown that the optimized procedure reproducibly effects the precipitation of all 18 elements studied; only four of these exhibited recoveries less than 90%. The general ease of use, the demonstrated accuracy and precision, the high preconcentration factors available, the self-cleansing properties of the primary reagent, the granular character of the precipitate are all factors to recommend this approach. 25 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Trace element degassing patterns and volcanic fluxes to the atmosphere during the 2014 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Moune, Séverine; Haddadi, Baptiste; Gouhier, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    Erta Ale (Zelenski et al., Chem. Geol., 2013). In contrast, it significantly departs from observations at subduction-related volcanoes where Cl-rich gases enhance the volatility of trace metals. Degassing of trace elements at Holuhraun thus appears to be characteristic of hot spot magmatism where gases exhibit high S/Cl ratios. The volcanic output from the ongoing eruption was estimated by scaling metal-to-SO2 concentration ratios to the flux of SO2 (~1200 kg/s, Gouhier et al., EGU 2015). Daily emissions are in the range 50 g/d (W) - 200 kg/d (Cd), suggesting that the Holuhraun eruption is a major source of pollution to the local environment and atmosphere over Iceland. For instance, from the beginning of the eruptive crisis to the end of 2014, more than 25 tons of highly toxic Cd have been released to the atmosphere. Future work should be devoted to study both the plume dispersion and the long-range transport of metallic aerosols in order to check how this can affect populated areas.

  3. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  4. Responses of Trace Elements to Aerobic Maximal Exercise in Elite Sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    OTAĞ, Aynur; HAZAR, Muhsin; OTAĞ, İlhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, İlyas

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P<0.05 and P<0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  5. Potential health and environmental effects of trace elements and radionuclides from increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, R I

    1979-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of coal-derived trace and radioactive elements. A summary of our current understanding of health and environmental effects of trace and radioactive elements released during coal mining, cleaning, combustion, and ash disposal is presented. Physical and biological transport phenomena which are important in determining organism exposure are also discussed. Biological concentration and transformation as well as synergistic and antagonistic actions among trace contaminants are discussed in terms of their importance in mobility, persistence, availability, and ultimate toxicity. The consequences of implementing the President's National Energy Plan are considered in terms of the impact of the NEP in 1985 and 2000 on the potential effects of trace and radioactive elements from the coal fuel cycle. Areas of needed research are identified in specific recommendations. PMID:540619

  6. Modelling Coral Biomineralization: Mixed Kinetic/Equilibrium Trace Element Coprecipitation Models Reveal new Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, D. J.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    A mixed kinetic/equilibrium steady state model of trace-element co-precipitation in coral skeleton is presented, and tested against high spatial resolution observations of coral trace-element composition made previously by LA-ICP-MS. The model is implemented in PHREEQC, and simulates physicochemical precipitation from a small pocket of seawater which is isolated by the coral, and modified by enzyme exchange of 2 H+ for Ca2+. The model assumes that all aqueous trace-element species in the calcifying fluid are in full equilibrium and that selected trace element species compete kinetically for precipitation with the major aqueous species (Ca2+ for cation substituents and CO32- for anion substituents). No equilibrium is assumed for the CaCO3 skeleton. Carbon is supplied to the system by diffusion of CO2 into the high-pH calcifying fluid, and trace elements are continuously replenished through the addition of fresh seawater. The rate at which the coral operates the enzyme pump, and the rate at which it replenishes the seawater component are independent variables, and the steady state trace-element composition of the skeleton/calcifying fluid are evaluated over a 2D grid of variables spanning realistic rates of pumping and seawater influx. It is assumed that variations in the trace element composition of the coral skeleton are the result of shifts in the steady-state caused by changes to these variables. The results indicate an unexpected complexity in the response of the trace elements. First order predictions suggest that increasing the rate of calcification by increasing the enzyme pumping should result in a mutual dilution of most trace element species by pumped Ca2+ and diffused CO2. However, for high rates of pumping and low seawater replenishment, the model predicts a change in the trace-element response of the system as high CO32- concentrations drive calcification and deplete Ca2+. This added complexity makes rationalizing observations with models more difficult.

  7. Availability of trace elements in solid waste from fluidized bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rope, S.K.; Jornitz, R.S.; Suhre, D.T.

    1987-12-01

    This report presents data on the inorganic constituents (major and trace elements) of coal and solid waste from a coal-fired facility on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which uses the fluidized bed combustion process. Three factors were used to assess the potential environmental impacts of elements in coal waste: (1) the concentrations relative to those measured previously in surrounding soils of the INEL (the enrichment ratio); (2) the availability of elements from waste relative to soils; and (3) toxicity or essentiality to biota. Considering both enrichment and availability, Al, B, Be, Ca, Cr, Na, Mo, Se, Sr, and Ti are most likely to be affected in the local environment due to fly ash deposition and/or resuspension of FBC waste. Only B, Cr, Mo, and Se are likely to be of concern in terms of toxicity. The high concentrations of Cr and B in FBC waste are expected to be toxic to plants. Concentrations of Se and Mo present in FBC waste have been shown to produce levels in plants which can be toxic to herbivorous animals. 14 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Insights into Igneous Geochemistry from Trace Element Partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Hanson, B. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Partitioning of trivalent elements into olivine are used to explore basic issues relevant to igneous geochemistry, such as Henry's law. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Size fractionation of trace elements in the surface water and groundwater of the Ganjiang River and Xiushui River basins, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatova, E. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Sun, Z.; Mazurova, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    The research of trace element behaviour and size fractionation is significant to understand the processes in the water-rock system. Moreover, the aqueous speciation of trace elements is strongly related to their distribution and toxicity. In this research, trace elements behaviour and their size fractionation are investigated in the natural water (the surface water and shallow groundwater) of the Ganjiang River and Xiushui River basins. Trace element concentrations were measured by ICP-MS. The authors estimated the size fractionation of the trace elements between suspended forms (>0.45μm) and dissolved fractions, which included truly dissolved (1 kDa) and colloidal particles (0.45μm-1 kDa)), after filtration through a 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane filter. The distinct features of the trace element size fractionation were identified. The size fractionation of the trace elements under different conditions (in the surface water and shallow groundwater) was studied.

  10. Accuracy of trace element determinations in alternate fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the techniques used at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in trace metals analysis is presented, including the results of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry of blank levels and recovery experiments for several metals. The design of an Interlaboratory Study conducted by LeRC is presented. Several factors were investigated, including: laboratory, analytical technique, fuel type, concentration, and ashing additive. Conclusions drawn from the statistical analysis will help direct research efforts toward those areas most responsible for the poor interlaboratory analytical results.

  11. Analysis of trace elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed. These elements in their appropriate dosage range are considered to be beneficial to health. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were applied to determine the concentrations of various elements. Twenty-two Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs, resourced from the traditional high therapeutic quality areas or provinces were selected. Bioactive analysis focused on Lanthanum (La), Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se), especially in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and its associate disorders. The higher elemental concentration herbs, La in: Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae, Fructus Crataegi and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Sr in: Radix Puerariae and Folium Ginkgo Biloba. Zn in: Flos Carthami Tinctorii and Fructus Crataegi. Se in: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Portulaca Oleracea. The results mainly showed that Chinese herbs which are also therapeutic foods may be used as nutritional supplements for preventing and treating elemental deficiency, e.g., hyperlipidemia. More attention in this regard should be paid to herbs that contain La and are traditionally used for regulating cardiovascular disorders. The knowledge of the effects and concentrations of bioactive elements in foods and herbs could guide the selection of Chinese herbs in clinical practice in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine theories. Further studies should also be considered in relation to Sr, Zn and blood regulating herbs, which could prove to be beneficial. PMID:19655402

  12. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  13. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water. PMID:25514858

  14. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. AIRBORNE TRACE ELEMENTS IN GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS, OLYMPIC, AND GLACIER NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne trace elements were studied at remote sites in three U.S. National Parks where crustal weathering, sea spray, and long-range transport of anthropogenic emissions were likely to influence concentrations. Levels of all elements studied except Pb were smaller in Great Smoky...

  16. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. T...

  17. Trace element content of chondritic cosmic dust: Volatile enrichments, thermal alterations, and the possibility of contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element abundances in 51 chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP's) were measured by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). The data allow us to determine an average composition of chondritic IDP's and to examine the questions of volatile loss during the heating pulse experienced on atmospheric entry and possible element addition due to contamination during atmospheric entry, stratospheric residence, and curation.

  18. Trace-element distribution around a South Texas roll-type uranium deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, Charles S.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of trace elements around a south Texas roll-type uranium deposit was examined using semiquantitative emission spectroscopic analytical data complemented by some quantitative data. The results suggest that of the 50 elements analyzed, only beryllium and possibly vanadium are enriched in the altered rock on the updip side of the deposit.

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEDIMENTS NEAR FORT PULASKI NATIONAL MONUMENT OF SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of comprehensive information on environmental parameters and elemental distribution is a key to fully assess the capacity and condition of coastal ecosystems. The distribution of trace elements in sediments collected from various locations along Atlantic and brackish waters around Fort...

  20. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths. PMID:26456601

  1. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  2. Mass-spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media without preconcentration

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, G. O.

    1981-10-01

    Feasibility of using a low pressure glow discharge as an ion source for the mass spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media was investigated. A cryogenically cooled hollow cathode ion source was developed to analyze aqueous samples without external preconcentration. Aqueous solutions containing seventy elements were analyzed and the detection limits, sensitivity factors, and linear regression correlation coefficients were determined. A standard test solution of trace elements in water was analyzed and the concentrations of trace elements were calculated using the sensitivity factors determined previously. The results compared favorably within the error limits predicted by the semiquantitative survey methods used. Tap water and natural lake water samples were examined and minimal interference effects due to organic compounds and biological compounds were noted. A research ion optical system (RIOS) was developed as a flexible mass analyzer for the development of new ion sources. The RIOS is a double focussing mass analyzer designed utilizing the Mattauch-Herzog geometry with externally adjustable slit assemblies.

  3. Petrogenesis of Challis volcanics from central and southwestern Idaho - Trace element and Pb isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the lava flows and ash-flow tuffs in Idaho is conducted to determine the composition of the volcanics in terms of major and trace elements and Pb isotopic substances. Al2O3 is found to be low, MgO content is high, and the concentration of K2O is higher or equal to that of Na2O with respect to the lavas of mafic to intermediate composition. Trace elements and element ratios are compatible with the crustal component, and the Pb isotopic compositions suggest a lack of assimilation during crystallization. The evidence does not support the notion of a magma system related to subduction, and the data regarding Pb isotopes and trace elements point to a connection with the lithosphere. A model is proposed for the Challis volcanics in which they resulted from completely melting within the lithosphere and then extending during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic compression.

  4. [Spectrometric determination of trace elements in 'Jinguang' prunus mume var. bungo of different growth periods].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-lai; Fan, Wen-xiu; Gao, Qi-ming; Jing, Rui-jun; Lin, Zi-yu

    2005-07-01

    A study was carried out on the content of trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu of prunus mume var. bungo in different growth periods by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that the linear relationships of different elements within the limits of working curves are good and the range of the recovery is 98% -105%, hence showing that the results are satisfactory. The total content of these five trace elements increases as the fruit grows, but the concentration is related to the growth of fruit and fruit core, which provides us with valuable data. The contents of the trace elements essential to human body are relatively high, which shows that this fruit breed has a relatively high nutritive value. PMID:16241076

  5. Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants two years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; Soriano, M A

    2003-05-20

    The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. Two years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison. The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages. Shoot and root biomass of sunflower seedlings was significantly smaller in the affected soil than in the unaffected soil, but there was no significant difference at the mature stage. Oil production was greater in the spill-affected plants. We have not detected any 'fertilising' effect caused by the acid waters of the spill on the main nutrient (N, P and Ca) acquisition, as documented in 1998 for sunflower plants flooded by the spill. Sunflower plants growing in the spill-affected soil reached adequate levels of nutrients. None of the trace elements measured-As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Tl-reached levels either phytotoxic or toxic for humans or animals in seeds and the above-ground part of the spill-affected plants. We evaluate the potential use of sunflower plants for phytoremediation. The potential for phytoextraction is very low; however, it may be used for soil conservation. The production of oil (usable for industrial purposes) may add some value to this crop. PMID:12711438

  6. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  7. Distribution and mobility of selenium and other trace elements in shallow groundwater of the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deverel, S.J.; Milliard, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of shallow groundwater that underlies much of the irrigated area in the western San Joaquin Valley, CA, were analyzed for various major ions and trace elements, including selenium. Concentrations of the major ions generally were similar for groundwater collected in the two primary geologic zones - the alluvial fan and basin trough. Selenium concentrations are significantly (α = 0.05) higher in the groundwater of the alluvial-fan zone than in that of the basin-trough zone. The concentrations of oxyanion trace elements were significantly correlated (α = 0.05) with groundwater salinity, but the correlations between selenium and salinity and between molybdenum and salinity were significantly different (α = 0.05) in the alluvial-fan geologic zone compared with those in the basin-trough geologic zone. The evidence suggests that the main factors affecting selenium concentrations in the shallow groundwater are the degree of groundwater salinity and the geologic source of the alluvial soil material.

  8. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    ORNL`s High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations.

  9. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned. PMID:27497349

  10. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Trace elements in Northern Great Plains strip mine and livestock impoundment water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Hawkes, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    The water from 32 strip mine water impoundments and mine livestock watering ponds in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming were analyzed for trace elements. Because of the high concentrations of trace elements in coal and bentonite clay, the possibility exists for these elements to dissolve or be suspended in the water. Strip mine ponds were not significantly higher in trace element concentrations compared to livestock ponds. All but one of the 41 ponds sampled contained elemental concentrations that would be detrimental for livestock use or aquatic life use. Cadmium and lead were the elements most frequently in excess of water quality criteria. Lead was found in the study ponds about 35 times the median concentration of North American rivers. Manganese concentrations were found to exceed iron in many ponds, which is unusual in natural waters. The potential for detrimental concentrations of trace elements in pond water must be evaluated when designing land use management plans for ponds intended to be used by livestock or aquatic life.

  13. Essential and toxic trace element concentrations in different commercial veal cuts in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M; Benedito, J L; Pereira, V; García-Vaquero, M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate essential and toxic element concentration of ten commercially available veal cuts, together with diaphragm, cardiac muscle and liver tissue from 10 animals of "Galician Supreme Veal". Essential trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations ranged from 0.002-55.64mg/kg between muscles. Toxic element concentrations were very low, and high numbers of samples showed unquantifiable residues of Cd and Pb. Veal cuts including muscles with a high proportion of oxidative slow-twitch fibers (diaphragm and cardiac muscle) showed significantly higher essential trace element concentrations, the lower concentrations being found in veal cuts including glycolytic fast-twitch fibers (eye round). Our results suggest that essential and toxic trace element concentration could be used as a new meat quality parameter, or to add further value to certain products (i.e. livestock reared on extensive systems with high physical activity). PMID:27261950

  14. Effects of soil contamination by trace elements on white poplar progeny: seed germination and seedling vigour.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Cantos, Manuel; Jiménez-Ramos, María C; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M

    2015-11-01

    Seed germination is considered a critical phase in plant development and relatively sensitive to heavy metals. White poplar (Populus alba) trees tend to accumulate Cd and Zn in their tissues. We tested if soil contamination can affect P. alba progeny, reduced seed germination and explored the distribution of mineral elements in the seed. For this purpose, fruits and seeds from female P. alba trees were selected from two contaminated and one non-contaminated areas. Seeds from all the sites were germinated using only water or a nutritive solution (in vitro). Concentrations of nutrients and trace elements in the fruits and seeds were analysed. Seedling growth in vitro was also analysed. Finally, a mapping of different elements within the poplar seed was obtained by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Germination was similar between different progenies, refuting our hypothesis that seeds from a contaminated origin would have reduced germination capacity compared to those from a non-contaminated site. Seedling growth was not affected by the contaminated origin. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in fruits produced by P. alba trees in the contaminated sites were higher than by those from the non-contaminated site. However, the nutritional status of the trees was adequate in both cases. Cd in seedlings was higher in those from contaminated soils although lower than in fruits, indicating a certain exclusion from seeds. Preliminary results of the PIXE technique showed that Al and Zn were distributed uniformly in the seeds (Cd was not detected with this technique), while the nutrients P and S were concentrated in the cotyledons. PMID:26433900

  15. Concentrations of selected trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Skinner, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fish tissue and bed sediment samples were collected from 16 stream sites in the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins study area in 1998 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Bed sediment samples were analyzed for 45 trace elements, and fish livers and sportfish fillets were analyzed for 22 elements to characterize the occurrence and distribution of these elements in relation to stream characteristics and land use activities. Nine trace elements of environmental concern—arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc—were detected in bed sediment, but not all of these elements were detected in fish tissue. Trace-element concentrations were highest in bed sediment samples collected at sites downstream from significant natural mineral deposits and (or) mining activities. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc in bed sediment at some sites were elevated relative to national median concentrations, and some concentrations were at levels that can adversely affect aquatic biota. Although trace-element concentrations in bed sediment exceeded various guidelines, no concentrations in sportfish fillets exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency screening values for the protection of human health. Correlations between most trace-element concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue (liver and fillet) were not significant (r0.05). Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc in bed sediment were significantly correlated (r=0.53 to 0.88, p2=0.95 and 0.99, p<0.001) that corresponded to trace-element enrichment categories. These strong relations warrant further study using mine density as an explanatory variable to predict trace-element concentrations in bed sediment.

  16. Movement of Trace Elements During Residence in the Antarctic Ice: a Laboratory Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strait, Melissa M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work has determined that differences in the trace element distribution between Antarctic eucrites and non-Antarctic eucrites may be due to weathering during residence in the ice, and samples that demonstrate trace element disturbances do not necessarily correspond to eucrites that appear badly weathered to the naked eye. This study constitutes a preliminary test of the idea that long-term residence in the ice is the cause of the trace element disturbances observed in the eucrites. Samples of a non-Antarctic eucrite were leached in water at room temperature conditions. Liquid samples were analyzed for rare earth element abundances using ion chromatography. The results for the short-term study showed little or no evidence that leaching had occurred. However, there were tantalizing hints that something may be happening. The residual solid samples are currently being analyzed for the unleached trace metals using instrumental neutron activation analysis and should show evidence of disturbance if the chromatography clues were real. In addition, another set of samples continues to be intermittently sampled for later analysis. The results should give us information about the movement of trace elements under our conditions and allow us to make some tentative extrapolations to what we observe in actual Antarctic eucrite samples.

  17. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-08-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine. PMID:26811105

  19. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  20. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  1. The Role Of Mineralogy And Geochemistry In The Understanding Of The Trace Elements Soil Pollution And Remediation. Cases Study In Mining Areas Of Andalucia (South Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Galán, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical and mineralogical studies of soils potentially polluted by trace elements are basic to find the source of pollution, to understand the behaviour of the contaminants in the environment and, finally, to propose remediation and reclamation actions. This work reviews the role of the Mineralogy and Geochemistry to assess the hazard of soil contamination, focusing on several studies carried out in the Andalusian Community (South Spain). To assess the degree of contamination, regional and local geochemical baselines should be established in order to distinguish the geogenic from the anthropogenic contribution, particularly in mining areas where both sources overlap. In these areas, mineralogical studies of the primary phases releasing contaminant elements and the secondary phases precipitating will help to understand the processes affecting the contamination. Agricultural activities are also important sources of trace elements into soils. Several examples show they may be relevant even in mining areas. The metals reaching the soil tend to be accumulated, but they can mobilize under certain physical-chemical environments. The hazard of the contamination will depend on the availability of the trace elements, the adsorption processes and the stability of mineral phases storing the trace elements. Several results show that the availability of trace elements is usually higher in contaminated sites than in geogenic soils, regardless the total concentration. Mineralogical and geochemical studies are then interesting to understand the processes affecting the contamination, as well as to prevent the hazard to the population.

  2. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    PubMed

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation. PMID:11874038

  3. Luna 20 soil - Abundance of 17 trace elements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Anders, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of two Luna 20 fine soil and breccia samples for the abundance of 17 mainly siderophile and volatile elements that are strongly depleted in lunar surface rocks and hence represent sensitive indicators of meteoritic materials. These results are compared with those previously obtained for Apollo 16 soils. Some of the source rocks of Luna 20 regolith are identified.

  4. Assessment of coal cleaning for trace element control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.; Arnold, B.

    1998-12-01

    Current methods of cleaning coal already reduce the concentration of most of the elements named as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments because most of these elements are associated with ash-forming or sulfur-bearing minerals. Advanced methods of physical cleaning may prove even more effective than conventional cleaning technologies, in HAPs control, especially if the coal is crushed before cleaning. The most significant disadvantage of conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods for HAPs control is that reductions of 90% or greater from as-fired coal may not be possible. Chemical and biologic methods of cleaning coal can potentially remove greater amounts of at least some HAPs elements than conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods. At least one promising chemical process (HAPs-Rx) has been developed and tested at laboratory scale that has the potential of removing over half of the mercury and arsenic remaining in coal after conventional cleaning. An assessment of the cost and effectiveness of conventional, advanced, and the HAPs-Rx chemical process was performed using laboratory data and computer simulations. The study found that the cost of removing a pound of mercury from coal by cleaning often compared favorably with cost projections by the Environmental Protection Agency for removing a pound of mercury by activated carbon injection.

  5. New analytical methods for determining trace elements in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L.S.; Riley, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    New and improved analytical methods, based on modem spectroscopic techniques, have been developed to provide more reliable data on the levels of environmentally significant elements in Australian bituminous thermal coals. Arsenic, selenium and antimony are determined using hydride generation atomic absorption or fluorescence spectrometry, applied to an Eschka fusion of the raw coal. Boron is determined on the same digest using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES). ICPAES is also used to determine beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc, after fusion of a low temperature ash with lithium borate. Other elements of concern including cadmium, uranium and thorium are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on a mixed acid digest of a low temperature ash. This technique was also suitable for determining elements analyzed by the ICPAES. Improved methods for chlorine and fluorine have also been developed. Details of the methods will be given and results of validation trials discussed on some of the methods which are anticipated to be designated Australian standard methods.

  6. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( P<0.001-0.005). Data reflect a definite correlation between elemental composition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  7. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Dustfall Trace Elements During Winter in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Chen, Fan-tao; Shu, Tong-tong; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Wen-hui

    2015-08-01

    The dustfall content is one of the evaluation indexes of atmospheric pollution. Trace elements especially heavy metals in dustfall can lead to risks to ecological environment and human health. In order to study the distribution characteristics of trace elements, heavy metals pollution and their sources in winter atmospheric dust, 49 dustfall samples were collected in Beijing City and nearby during November 2013 to March 2014. Then the contents (mass percentages) of 40 trace elements were measured by Elan DRC It type inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS). Test results showed that more than half of the trace elements in the dust were less than 10 mg x kg(-1); about a quarter were between 10-100 mg x kg-1); while 7 elements (Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba) were more than 100 mg x kg(-1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Bi, Cd and Mo of winter dustfall in Beijing city.were respectively 4.18, 4.66, 5.35, 6.31, 6.62, and 8.62 times as high as those of corresponding elements in the surface soil in the same period, which went beyond the soil background values by more than 300% . The contribution of human activities to dustfall trace heavy metals content in Beijing city was larger than that in the surrounding region. Then sources analysis of dustfall and its 20 main trace elements (Cd, Mo, Nb, Ga, Co, Y, Nd, Li, La, Ni, Rb, V, Ce, Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba) was conducted through a multi-method analysis, including Pearson correlation analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. Research results indicated that sources of winter dustfall in Beijing city were mainly composed of the earth's crust sources (including road dust, construction dust and remote transmission of dust) and the burning of fossil fuels (vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion and industrial processes). PMID:26591998

  8. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments: identification of extra-terrestrial and volcanic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, S. V.; Doehne, E. F.

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and stable isotope analyses were performed on a series of sediment samples crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary from critical sections at Aumaya and Sopelano, Spain. The aim is to possibly distinguish extraterrestrial vs. volcanic or authigenic concentration of platinum group and other elements in K-T boundary transitional sediments. These sediments also have been shown to contain evidence for step-wise extinction of several groups of marine invertebrates, associated with negative oxygen and carbon isotope excursions occurring during the last million years of the Cretaceous. These isotope excursions have been interpreted to indicate major changes in ocean thermal regime, circulation, and ecosystems that may be related to multiple events during latest Cretaceous time. Results to date on the petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene sediments indicate that diagenesis has obviously affected the trace element geochemistry and stable isotope compositions at Zumaya. Mineralogical and geochemical analysis of K-T boundary sediments at Zumaya suggest that a substantial fraction of anomalous trace elements in the boundary marl are present in specific mineral phases. Platinum and nickel grains perhaps represent the first direct evidence of siderophile-rich minerals at the boundary. The presence of spinels and Ni-rich particles as inclusions in aluminosilicate spherules from Zumaya suggests an original, non-diagenetic origin for the spherules. Similar spherules from southern Spain (Caravaca), show a strong marine authigenic overprint. This research represents a new approach in trying to directly identify the sedimentary mineral components that are responsible for the trace element concentrations associated with the K-T boundary.

  9. Volcanic ash fall events identified using principal component analysis of a high-resolution speleothem trace element dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Robert A.; Baldini, James U. L.; Frappier, Amy B.; Müller, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Large multivariate trace element datasets produced by LA-ICP-MS speleothem analysis can pose difficulties for analysis and interpretation. Processes acting on various timescales and magnitudes affect trace element concentrations, and deconvolving the most important controls is often complex. Here Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to identify the modes and timings of variation which best explain the overall variability in an exceptionally high-resolution (10 μm vertical resolution) multivariate trace element record produced by LA-ICP-MS from a modern (1979-2001) Belizean stalagmite with excellent age control. Principal Component 1 (PC1) in this dataset is defined by a weak correlation between multiple elements, and may reflect non-carbonate material incorporated within the speleothem. Elevated PC1 scores in ATM-7 occur following regional volcanic eruptions with ash clouds extending over the cave site, as demonstrated using NASA remote sensing data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and HYSPLIT trajectory modelling. Spikes in PC1 occur at the beginning of the wet season, and this may reflect a seasonal flushing event that transports volcanogenic material through the karst and incorporates it within the speleothem. Our results suggest that PCA can simplify exploration of large laser ablation datasets, and that PCA is a valuable tool for identifying the dominant controls on stalagmite trace element chemistry. Future studies should evaluate how transferable this technique is to other sites with different environmental conditions where volcanic ashfall has occurred. This research potentially adds tephrochronology to the stalagmite dating toolkit or, conversely, opens the door to using stalagmites to identify previously unknown or uncertainly dated eruptions.

  10. Atmospheric dry deposition of trace elements at a site on Asian-continent side of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Asakura, Kazuo

    2011-02-01

    The sources of dry-deposited trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and V) and the factors controlling their dry deposition fluxes were investigated on the basis of two-year observations (April 2004-March 2006) at a site on the Asian-continent side of Japan, which has been strongly affected by air pollutants from the Asian continent. Dry deposition sampling was conducted using a water surface sampler connected to a wet-only precipitation sampler. The dry deposition of As, Cd, Pb and Sb showed a small contribution to atmospheric deposition (0.25-0.44 as ratios of annual dry/wet deposition fluxes). Moreover, the dry deposition fluxes of those elements increased negligibly during the period when their atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentrations increased owing to transport from the Asian continent. Thus, the dry deposition of As, Cd, Pb and Sb from the Asian continent was not significant, because their overall dry deposition velocities are relatively low (mostly <1 cm s -1). Conversely, the annual dry deposition fluxes of Cr, Cu and Ni exceeded their annual wet deposition fluxes (2.5-12.4 as ratios of annual dry/wet deposition fluxes). Those overall dry deposition velocities were much higher (3.2-9.7 cm s -1), and the crustal enrichment factors (EFs) frequently exceeded ten. These results suggest that the dry deposition of Cr, Cu and Ni is dominated by considerably coarse particles from local anthropogenic sources. For Mn and V, the dry and wet depositions contributed almost equally to the annual deposition fluxes. Their monthly dry deposition fluxes correlated significantly with that of Al ( P < 0.001), and the EFs were close to unity, suggesting a large contribution of background soil to their dry deposition. The dry deposition fluxes of all the trace elements were dependent not on their atmospheric PM concentrations but on their overall dry deposition velocities. The particle size distributions of the elements in the atmosphere are likely the most

  11. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We report that trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. In conclusion, we conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples.

  12. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We report that trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral responsemore » of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. In conclusion, we conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples.« less

  13. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. We conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples. PMID:25600825

  14. Trace elemental distribution in the scalp hair of bipolars using PIXE technique.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A S; Naga Raju, G J; Sattar, S Abdul; Sarita, P; Prasada Rao, A Durga; Ray, Dinesh Kumar; Reddy, B Seetharami; Reddy, S Bhuloka

    2014-04-01

    Trace metals play a significant role in neurological disorders. There is very limited information available on the role of macro and trace elements in bipolar disorders. The objective of this investigation was to identification, quantification of essential trace elements in the scalp hair samples of the patients and compare with those of normal subjects. We made a hypothesis about the role played by essential trace metals whose concentrations are significantly different to those of normals in the disease process. The analysis was carried out in the scalp hair samples of 26 male and 26 female patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE). The concentration of Cu (p < 0.002) was found to be higher in the hair samples of male bipolar disorder patients while the concentrations of Mn (p < 0.001), Fe (p < 0.005), Zn (p < 0.0001) and Se (p < 0.005) were found to be lower than those in normal subjects. The concentration of Cu (p < 0.0001) was higher in the hair samples of female bipolar patients but depressed levels of Fe (p < 0.005), Ni (p < 0.05), Zn (p < 0.00001) and Se (p < 0.05) were observed compared to controls. Cu/Zn ratio was found to be higher in the hair samples of male and female patients compared with normals. While the imbalance of certain trace elements leads to generation of more free radicals, the imbalance of some other trace elements causes changes in dopamine (neurotransmitter) activity. It is essential to monitor before and periodically during treatment the levels of essential trace elements for effective treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:24548755

  15. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  16. Atmospheric wet deposition of trace elements to a suburban environment, Reston, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, K.M.; Rice, K.C.; Kennedy, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wet deposition from a suburban area in Reston, Virginia was collected during 1998 and analyzed to assess the anion and trace-element concentrations and depositions. Suburban Reston, approximately 26km west of Washington, DC, is densely populated and heavily developed. Wet deposition was collected bi-weekly in an automated collector using trace-element clean sampling and analytical techniques. The annual volume-weighted concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb were similar to those previously reported for a remote site on Catoctin Mt., Maryland (70km northwest), which indicated a regional signal for these elements. The concentrations and depositions of Cu and Zn at the suburban site were nearly double those at remote sites because of the influence of local vehicular traffic. The 1998 average annual wet deposition (??gm-2yr -1) was calculated for Al (52,000), As (94), Cd (54), Cr (160), Cu (700), Fe (23,000), Mn (2000), Ni (240), Pb (440), V (430), and Zn (4100). The average annual wet deposition (meqm-2yr-1) was calculated for H+ (74), Cl- (8.5), NO3- (33), and SO42- (70). Analysis of digested total trace-element concentrations in a subset of samples showed that the refractory elements in suburban precipitation comprised a larger portion of the total deposition of trace elements than in remote areas. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  18. Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Jizhong; Yu, Yingxin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in animal-derived food in Shenzhen, Southern China. The concentrations of 14 trace elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Se and Ti) in a total of 220 meat samples, collected from the local markets of Shenzhen were determined. Cu, Fe and Zn were the major elements, with concentrations approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of other elements. However, the daily intakes of Cu, Fe and Zn merely via the consumption of the meat products were lower than the recommended nutrient intake values provided by the 2013 Chinese Dietary Guide. Among the non-essential trace elements, Cd was accumulated in animal viscera, and the concentration ratios of chicken gizzard/chicken, chicken liver/chicken, pig kidney/pork and pig liver/pork were 41.6, 55.2, 863 and 177, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of As were found in aquatic products, especially in marine fish. The concentration of As in marine fish was slightly higher than the limits recommended by China, USA and Croatia. The health risk assessment of trace elements through the consumption of meat products by adult residents in Shenzhen was evaluated by using the target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The total THQ was greater than 1, implying a potential health risk. Approximately 66% of total THQ values, mainly from As, were from the consumption of aquatic products. PMID:26401636

  19. Trace Element Uptake in Marine Bivalve Shells Constraints from Field- and Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klünder, M.; Hippler, D.; Witbaard, R.; Frei, D.; Immenhauser, A.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of the trace element signatures recorded in calcium carbonate skeletons of marine organisms as archives of past and present environmental conditions, such as temperature, salinity or nutrition level. Because of their global occurrence in the modern and ancient oceans, the trace element chemistry of bivalve shells might be used as a potential proxy for present and past environmental conditions. If the composition of bivalve shells, for instance, can be shown to represent the environment in which they lived, then shells can be used to investigate conditions in the lifetime of the animal. And as the shell material is sequentially deposited, an understanding of the internal shell structure will enable time- resolution of the analyses. Therefore, the trace element signature of bivalve shells may provide an important record of climate changes and global geochemical cycles. One of the difficulties of using the trace element signatures of bivalve shells as proxies for environmental conditions is that little is known about the mechanisms by which the trace elements are incorporated into the shells. There has been quite an amount of research into the use of bivalve shell chemistry as proxy for one or more environmental parameters, but there are relatively few datasets in which both bivalve shells and the water in which the animals lived have been analysed. It is as yet not clear to what extent the trace element incorporation into bivalve shells is governed by biological processes, like growth rate and metabolism of the animals, or by physical and crystal chemical parameters. An added difficulty is that the existing data do suggest that trace element uptake in bivalve shells may be species specific. Therefore, studies that investigate the relationships between the content of these elements in the shells and the ambient water and the possible incorporation mechanisms are needed if the potential that bivalve shells offer as

  20. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. PMID:16828209

  1. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency. PMID:27455794

  2. Determination of thorium and other select trace elements in human tissues by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, S.E.; Grimm, C.A.; Filby, R.H.

    1997-12-01

    Iyengar pointed out the significance of multidisciplinary approaches to biological trace element research and the problems that may be associated with much of the early trace element data (until the early 1970s). Problems identified included the analysis of spurious samples (e.g., hair) based on their availability with no consideration of the biological basis for the investigations and the uncontrolled collection of biological samples by investigators unable to assess the biological integrity of the sample and inadequate quality assurance/quality control. A significant inadequacy is that many trace element analysis studies have been performed on biopsies or samples that may not be representative of the whole organ, or that distribution data have been derived from pooled analyses of organs from many individuals.

  3. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  4. Nanometer-sized materials for solid-phase extraction of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei

    2015-04-01

    This review presents a comprehensive update on the state-of-the-art of nanometer-sized materials in solid-phase extraction (SPE) of trace elements followed by atomic-spectrometry detection. Zero-dimensional nanomaterials (fullerene), one-dimensional nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, inorganic nanotubes, and nanowires), two-dimensional nanomaterials (nanofibers), and three-dimensional nanomaterials (nanoparticles, mesoporous nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, and dendrimers) for SPE are discussed, with their application for trace-element analysis and their speciation in different matrices. A variety of other novel SPE sorbents, including restricted-access sorbents, ion-imprinted polymers, and metal-organic frameworks, are also discussed, although their applications in trace-element analysis are relatively scarce so far. PMID:25577358

  5. Detection and characterization of trace element contamination on silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Andy; Baur, Katharina; Brennan, Sean; Pianetta, Piero; Homma, Takayuki; Kubo, Nobuhiro

    2003-01-24

    Increasing the speed and complexity of semiconductor integrated circuits requires advanced processes that put extreme constraints on the level of metal contamination allowed on the surfaces of silicon wafers. Such contamination degrades the performance of the ultrathin SiO2 gate dielectrics that form the heart of the individual transistors. Ultimately, reliability and yield are reduced to levels that must be improved before new processes can be put into production. It should be noted that much of this metal contamination occurs during the wet chemical etching and rinsing steps required for the manufacture of integrated circuits and industry is actively developing new processes that have already brought the metal contamination to levels beyond the measurement capabilities of conventional analytical techniques. The measurement of these extremely low contamination levels has required the use of synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) where sensitivities 100 times better than conventional techniques have been achieved. This has resulted in minimum detection limits for transition metals of 8x107 atoms/cm2. SR-TXRF studies of the amount of metal contamination deposited on a silicon surface as a function of pH and oxygen content of the etching solutions have provided insights into the mechanisms of metal deposition from solutions containing trace amounts of metals ranging from parts per trillion to parts per billion. Furthermore, by using XANES to understand the chemical state of the metal atoms after deposition, it has been possible to develop chemical models for the deposition processes. Examples will be provided for copper deposition from ultra pure water and acidic solutions.

  6. Preparation steps in environmental trace element analysis - facts and traps.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, M

    2001-07-01

    The laboratory of CERVA is for several decades involved in the Belgian environmental research. The activity was associated to national monitoring programs dealing with trace metal pollution of all compartments of the environment (sea and river waters, sediments and organisms but also soils, plants, animal and food samples). Such a monitoring dealing with the total analyte contents in samples needed a comprehensive development of the whole methodology associated to the analyses using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques. This includes measurement but also preparation steps. The latter is the subject of this work. Long-term experience has shown that precisely sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because it is responsible for the largest and often hidden sources of errors. Errors due to contaminations may be usually overcome if necessary precautions are taken concerning reagents, tools and the manner of working. The problem is different for analyte losses: in this case, the responsible factor is an inappropriate methodology. This is particularly true for preparation of solid samples that have to be brought in a solution in order to satisfy needs of introduction systems of most spectroscopic techniques utilized in routine laboratories. For some types of samples (e.g. animal tissues), the dissolution is not a problem: it may be readily achieved by several procedures. This is not the case for samples that contain silicates in their matrix (e.g. soils, sediments, plants) because their complete dissolution cannot be ensured by a simple procedure. This review describes the present knowledge regarding possibilities and errors that concern preparation steps. In addition, possible effects of the preparation procedure on the quality of measurement are also systematically discussed. PMID:18968324

  7. Trace Elements in Coal - Modes of Ocurrence Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C.; Mroozkowski, S.J.; Crowley, S.S.; Belkin, H.E.; Bullock, J.H., Jr.; Motooka, J.M.

    1997-07-24

    The objective is to provide modes of occurrence information for the CQ Inc. (CQ) effort being performed under DOE Contract entitled HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors. This work attempts to provide semi-quantative date on modes of occurrence of 15 elements. Coals investigated include as-mined coals and cleaned fines from the Northern Appalachian and Southern Application, and Eastern Interior regions, and as-mined and natural fines from the Powder River Basin. Study techniques include scanning electron microscopy, electron micropole analysis, and leaching procedures. Microprobe data analysis indicate that pyrite grains in Northern Appalachian and Eastern Interior, and Powder River Basin coals and most of the pyrite grains of the Southern Appalachian coal contain low As concentrations, generally in the 100-500 ppm range. However, the Southern Appalachian coal contains some pyrite grains with much higher As contents, in excess of 4.0 wt. percent As. Micropole analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate that arsenic is primarily associated with pyrite in the bituminous coals. These techniques also indicate that Cr is primarily associated with illite. Other HAP`s elements have multiple associations.

  8. Trace elements in coal - model of occurrence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Crowley, S.S.; Belkin, H.E.

    1997-06-21

    The overall objective of this project is to provide modes of occurrence information for the CQ Inc. (CQ) effort being performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95153, entitled `HAPs-R{sub x} : Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors`. This work attempt to provide semi-quantitative data on modes of occurrence of 15 elements. Coals investigated include as-mined coals and cleaned fines from the Northern Appalachian and Southern Appalachian, and Eastern Interior coal regions, and as-mined and natural fines from the Powder River Basin. Study techniques include scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and leaching procedures. Microprobe data indicate that pyrite grains in the Northern Appalachian, Eastern Interior and Powder River Basin coals and most of the pyrite grains in the Southern Appalachian coal contain low As concentrations, generally in the 100-500 ppm range. However, the Southern Appalachian coal contains some pyrite grains with much higher As contents, in excess of 4.0 wt. percent As. Microprobe analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate that arsenic is primarily associated with pyrite in the bituminous coals. These techniques also indicate that Cr is primarily associated with illite. Other HAP`s elements have multiple associations.

  9. Brief communication: Choice of washing method of hair samples for trace element analysis in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Sen, J; Das Chaudhuri, A B

    2001-07-01

    Determination of inseparable exogenous and endogenous levels of toxic trace elements such as lead in human scalp hair has been used to understand and assess population exposure to such elements. For any such analysis, washing of the hair samples to remove superficial contamination is the foremost requirement. However, the use of such washing methods prior to elemental analysis removes minute quantities of trace elements from the hair strands. This degree of loss is dependent on the washing method employed. In the present study, the element lead has been determined in human scalp hair after three methods of hair washing. It is apparent that the nonionic detergent-acetone method is best suited for securing valid lead analysis results in human scalp hair. PMID:11424080

  10. Trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles - Zinc depletion as a possible indicator of atmospheric entry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Major-element abundances in 11 C, C?, and TCA cosmic dust particles have been measured using SEM and TEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) systems. The Fe/Ni ratio, when coupled with major element abundances, appears to be a useful discriminator of cosmic particles. Three particles classified as C?, but having Fe/Ni peak height ratios similar to those measured on the powdered Allende meteorite sample in their HSC EDX spectra, exhibit chondritic minor-/trace-element abundance patterns, suggesting they are extraterrestrial. The one particle classified as C-type, but without detectable Ni in its JSC EDX spectrum, exhibits an apparently nonchondritic minor-/trace-element abundance pattern. A class of particles that are chondritic except for large depletions in the volatile elements Zn and S has been identified. It is likely that these particles condensed with a C1 abundance pattern and that Zn and S were removed by some subsequent process.

  11. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.J.

    1980-02-01

    Abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma forms the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. The task of the trace element geochemist is to solve mathematically the inverse problem. Given trace element abundances in a magma, what is the ode of its source region. The most successful modeling has been performed for small planetary bodies which underwent relatively simple igneous differentiation events. An example is the eucrite parent body, a planet which produced basals at approx. =4.6 Gy. and has been quiescent ever since. This simple differentiation history permits the calculation of its bulk composition (a feldspathic peridotite) and has led to the tentative identification of asteroid 4 Westa as the eucrite parent body. The differentiation of iron meteorite groups in parent body cores is amenable to similar treatment. The 'anomalous' behavior of Cr, suggests that IIIA, B irons and main group pallasites equilibrated with troilite, spinel, ferromagnesian silicates, or some combination thereof. The moon has undergone more complex differentiation, and quantitative geochemical modeling is correspondingly more difficult. Nevertheless, modeling the two-stage evolution of mare basals raises the possibility that the primordial moon did not have chondritic relative abundances of such refractory elements as Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The nonchondritic element ratios are characteristic of planetary, not nebular, fractionation processes and are consistent with the derivation of the moon from a precursor planet, possibly the earth.

  12. Geochemical fractions and risk assessment of trace elements in soils around Jiaojia gold mine in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feifei; Kong, Linghao; Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Soils located adjacent to the Jiaojia gold mine were sampled and analyzed to determine the degree of which they were contaminated by trace elements (Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in Shandong Province, China. All 18 samples exhibited mean Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in excess of local background values, while the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were below the background values. In addition, the concentrations of trace elements in gold smelter (GS) soils were higher than in the gold mine (GM) soils. The result from a modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure was that with the exception of Cu in soils near the smelter, the trace elements were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. After residual fraction, most Hg was mainly humic acid and strong organic fraction, while most As was the humic acid. Cd was associated with the water soluble, ion exchange, and carbonate fractions compared with the other trace elements. Furthermore, Cu, Pb, and Zn were more concentrated in the humic acid and Fe/Mn oxide fraction. The fractions of trace elements were affected by soil pH and Ec (Electrical conductivity). The humic acid fraction of Hg as well as the ion exchange fraction of Cd and Zn displayed negative correlations with soil pH. The strong organic fraction of Hg, the Fe/Mn oxide fraction of Cd, and the carbonate fraction of Zn were positively related to the soil Ec. The strong organic fraction and ion exchange fraction of Zn were negatively related to soil Ec. However, the ion exchange and carbonate fractions of As showed significant positive correlations with soil pH. A calculated individual availability factor (A f (i) ) is used; the values of each trace element in the soils are in the following order: Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Hg. When combined with a risk assessment code, data suggest that Hg, As, Pb, and Zn levels showed low risk for the environment, whereas Cd levels in soils adjacent to the GM and Cu levels in soils adjacent to the GS showed

  13. Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, R.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton in oligotrophic marine deserts depend on remote sources to supply trace nutrients. To examine these sources, marine particulate matter samples from the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA) were collected during the July-August 2012 HOE-DYLAN cruises and analyzed for a suite of trace (e.g., Fe, Mn) and major (e.g. Al, P) elements. Daily surface SPM samples were examined for evidence of atmospheric deposition and biological uptake, while five vertical profiles were examined for evidence of surface vertical export and subsurface horizontal transport from nearby sources (e.g., margin sediments, hydrothermal plumes). Maxima in surface particulate P (a biological tracer) corresponded with a diatom bloom, and surprisingly also coincided with maxima in particulate Al (typically a tracer for lithogenic inputs). The surface particulate Al distributions likely result from the adsorption of dissolved Al onto diatom silica frustules, not from atmospheric dust deposition. In addition, a subsurface maximum in particulate Al and P was observed four days later at 75m, possibly resulting from vertical export of the surface diatom bloom. The distributions of other bioactive trace elements (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu) will be presented in the context of the diatom bloom and other biological, chemical and physical features. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the cycling of trace elements in lithogenic particles (Morton et al., "Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA").

  14. Experimental determination of trace element partition coefficients between spinel and silicate melt: the influence of chemical composition and oxygen fugacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijbrans, C. H.; Klemme, S.; Berndt, J.; Vollmer, C.

    2015-04-01

    We present new experimentally determined trace element partition coefficients between spinel and silicate melt. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures between 1220 and 1450 °C. To study the effect of redox conditions on trace element partitioning, we performed experiments under different redox conditions, with fO2 ranging from log -12 to log -0.7. The effect of different spinel compositions is also investigated. Our results show that spinel of all compositions readily incorporates the transition metals Ni, Co and Ga and the corresponding partition coefficients are >1. D Ni,Co,Ga are not significantly affected by changing melt composition, crystal composition or redox conditions. However, the multivalent trace elements V and Mo show a strong effect of redox conditions on their partitioning behavior with D V and D Mo highest at very reducing conditions and considerably lower at more oxidizing conditions. Partition coefficients for the high field strength elements Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta and the elements Sc and Lu strongly depend on crystal composition, with D Ti and D Sc >1 for very Fe3+- or Cr-rich (and Al-poor) spinels, but one to two orders of magnitude lower in systems with Al-rich spinels. We present some examples on how our data may be used to reconstruct redox conditions of spinel formation. We also present some results on the partitioning of Pt and Rh between spinel and melt. D Rh depends strongly on redox conditions, while D Pt is not significantly affected.

  15. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nurshafiq Ezam; Siong, Khoo Kok; Siong, Wee Boon

    2014-02-01

    Lichens have been used as effective biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73+0.85 mg/kg), Ce (3.65+1.91 mg/kg), Co (0.29+0.12 mg/kg), Cr (5.92+3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92+0.25 mg/kg), Eu (0.03+0.02 mg/kg), Fe (1280+760 mg/kg), Hf (0.37+0.18 mg/kg), La (1.52+0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7+4.8 mg/kg), Sc (0.33+0.19 mg/kg), Sm (0.28+0.16 mg/kg), Th (1.21+0.62 mg/kg) and Zn (116+27 mg/kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable biomonitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area.

  16. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  17. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  18. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinex, S. A.; Helz, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in 177 surface sediment samples from throughout Chesapeake Bay are reported. Analyses were made of both unfractionated samples and the <63 μm fractions. Analytical uncertainty, always less than ±10%, controlled reproducibility in analyses of the <63 μm fractions, but sampling variance controlled reproducibility in the unfractionated samples, especially when coarse-grained sediments were being analyzed. Sediments in the northernmost part of the bay are enriched relative to average continental crust in all elements except Cr. This reflects the composition of dissolved and suspended material being delivered to that region by the Susquehanna River. The enriched sediments appear not to be transported south of Baltimore in significant quantily. Zinc, cadmium, and lead are enriched relative to average crust throughout the bay and in most other estuaries in the eastern United States.

  19. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. PMID:20623320

  20. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  1. Trace element content of Flavoparmelia caperata (L. ) Hale due to industrial emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, R.E.; Hendricks, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    Trace element concentrations of the lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata, were determined by neutron activation analysis before and after stringent particulate controls were employed in an industrialized section of the Ohio River Valley. Initial studies in 1973 showed elevated concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, iron, vanadium, and titanium in lichens collected near coal-fire power plants. Elevated values for cerium, chromium, and lanthanum were found in samples near a ferro-alloys foundry. A repeat study in 1987 demonstrated that lichen trace element concentrations were much lower after improved particulate controls were installed on the power plants and ferro-alloys foundry.

  2. Indirect laser-induced breakdown of transparent thin gel layer for sensitive trace element detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Negre, Erwan; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Optical emissions from major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected when the gel was spread in thin film on a metallic substrate and a plasma was induced on the substrate surface using nanosecond infrared pulsed laser. Such emissions are due to indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. Temperature higher than 15 000 K determined in the plasma allows considering sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  3. Controls on trace-element partitioning in cave-analogue calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Christopher C.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2013-11-01

    We report trace-element data from a series of carbonate growth experiments in cave-analogue conditions in the laboratory with the goal of better understanding environmental controls on trace-element incorporation in stalagmites. The experimental setup closely mimics natural processes (e.g. precipitation driven by CO2-degassing, low ionic strength solution, thin solution-film) but with a tight control on growth conditions (temperature, pCO2, drip rate, calcite saturation index and the composition of the initial solution). Calcite is dissolved in deionized water in a 20,000 ppmV pCO2 environment, with trace-elements (Li, Na, Mg, Co, Sr, Cd, Ba, U) at appropriate concentrations to mimic natural cave drip-waters. This solution is dripped onto glass plates (coated with seed-calcite) in a lower pCO2 environment at 7, 15, 25 and 35 °C and drip rates of 2, 6 and 10 drips per minute. D(Sr) was shown to be statistically invariant over the full range of temperature and growth rate studied. No relationship between Sr/Ca and growth rate is therefore expected in stalagmite samples over comparable growth rates. D(Mg) has a relationship with temperature defined by D(Mg) = 0.01e0.02[±0.006]T, but temperature is not expected to be the dominant control on Mg/Ca in cave calcite due to the larger impact of calcite precipitation on Mg/Ca. Over short timescales, in conditions where temperature is well buffered, the fraction of calcium remaining in solution (f) is likely to be the dominant control on Mg/Ca and other trace-element ratios. But differences in the response of trace-elements to f and T may allow their combined use to assess past cave conditions. High Cd/Castalagmite is particularly indicative of low amounts of prior calcite precipitation and Cd/Ca would be a useful addition to trace-element studies of natural stalagmites. Significant scatter is observed in trace-element ratios during the laboratory experiments, which cannot be explained by simple Rayleigh distillation. This

  4. Changes in sediment-associated trace element concentrations in the Seine river basin (1994-2001)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meybeck, Michel; Horowitz, A.J.; Grosbois, C.; Gueguen, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1980's, based on the concentrations of particulate-associated Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn relative to very low natural background levels, the Seine River Basin was one of the most impacted in the world. Over the past 20 years, there has been a general decline in these elevated concentrations that parallels declines in Paris sewage sludge trace element levels. Within the basin, marked differences in spatial and temporal geochemical patterns have been observed: (1) between major tributaries, (2) between trace elements, and (3) with stream order and population density, all of which illustrate the complexity of the geochemical processes ongoing in the basin.

  5. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Q.; Cheng, H. S.; Xia, H. N.; Jiang, J. C.; Gao, M. H.; Yang, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries.

  6. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion. PMID:27213675

  7. Interactions between accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in Salix caprea after inoculation with rhizosphere microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    De Maria, Susanna; Rivelli, Anna Rita; Kuffner, Melanie; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter W.; Gorfer, Markus; Strauss, Joseph; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Although the beneficial effects on growth and trace element accumulation in Salix inoculated with microbes are well known, little information is available on the interactions among trace elements and major nutrients. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inoculation with rhizobacteria Agromyces sp. AR33, Streptomyces sp. AR17, and the combination of each of them with the fungus Cadophora finlandica PRF15 on biomass production and the accumulation of selected trace elements and major nutrients (Cd, Zn, Fe, Ca, K and Mg) in Salix caprea grown on a moderately polluted soil. Dry matter production was significantly enhanced only upon inoculation with Agromyces AR33. Microbial treatments differently affected the accumulation of Zn and Cd in plants. Both the inoculation with Streptomyces AR17 and the co-inoculation of C. finlandica with Agromyces AR33 were most efficient in enhancing the accumulation of Zn and Cd in leaves. These two treatments showed also a higher translocation factor from roots to the leaves for both Cd and Zn. Concentrations of major nutrients in shoots were generally increased in the treatments with the fungus compared to those without, except for K in plants inoculated with bacterial strain Streptomyces AR17. Co-inoculation of C. finlandica plus Agromyces AR33 resulted in a better accumulation of both Zn and Cd and Ca, K and Mg in shoots. This study suggests that the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd can be improved by inoculation with selected microbial strains. PMID:21612812

  8. Interactive effect of ultraviolet-B and mineral nutrients on accumulation and translocation of trace elements in wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Dheeraj; Agrawal, S B

    2014-05-01

    Field study was conducted in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. cv. HD 2329 and HUW 234) by supplimenting UV-B irradiation with different levels of mineral nutrients in order to evaluate the accumulation and translocation of trace elements. sUV-B significantly affected accumulation and translocation of most of the metals studied. Application of nutrients at higher doses enhanced the accumulation of trace elements in plants and grains of both cultivars. A higher dose of nutrient along with sUV-B resulted in increased accumulation of lead both in plants and grains, cadmium and chromium in grains, and copper in plants and decreased accumulation of cadmium in plants, copper in grains, chromium in plants and iron in plants and grains of both the tested cultivars. Nickel concentration increased in plants of HUW 234 due to simultaneous stress. Trace element concentration did not differ noticeably in the tested cultivars but the stress response differed perceptibly. Cultivar HD 2329 showed more significant interaction than HUW 234. PMID:24813006

  9. Benthic foraminifera and trace element distribution: a case-study from the heavily polluted lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Coccioni, Rodolfo; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Marsili, Andrea; Mana, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Living benthic foraminiferal assemblages were studied in surface samples collected from the lagoon of Venice (Italy) in order to investigate the relationship between these sensitive microorganisms and trace element pollution. Geochemical analysis of sediments shows that the lagoon is affected by trace element pollution (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) with the highest concentrations in its inner part, which corresponds to the Porto Marghera industrial area. The biocenosis are largely dominated by Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica and Cribroelphidium oceanensis and, subordinately, by Aubignyna perlucida, Ammonia parkinsoniana and Bolivina striatula. Biotic and abiotic factors were statistically analyzed with multivariate technique of cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The statistical analysis reveals a strong relationship between trace elements (in particular Mn, Pb and Hg) and the occurrence of abnormalities in foraminiferal tests. Remarkably, greater proportions of abnormal specimens are usually found at stations located close to the heaviest polluted industrial zone of Porto Marghera. This paper shows that benthic foraminifera can be used as useful and relatively speedy and inexpensive bio-indicators in monitoring the health quality of the lagoon of Venice. It also provides a basis for future investigations aimed at unraveling the benthic foraminiferal response to human-induced pollution in marine and transitional marine environments. PMID:19733368

  10. Effects of sample storage and shell orientation on LA-ICPMS trace element measurements on deep-sea mussels

    PubMed Central

    Génio, Luciana; Simon, Klaus; Kiel, Steffen; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical markers are being increasingly applied to fundamental questions in population and community ecology in marine habitats because they allow inferences on individuals dispersal, but vital effects, small sample size and instrumental limitation are still challenging particularly in deep-sea studies. Here we use shells of the deep-sea bivalve Idas modiolaeformis to assess potential effects of sample storage, mineralogy, and valve orientation on LA-ICPMS measurements. Trace element concentrations of 24Mg, 43Ca, 88Sr, 137Ba, 208Pb, and 238U are not affected by the two most commonly used storage methods of biologic deep-sea samples (frozen at –20°C and fixed in 95% ethanol); thus combined analysis of differently preserved specimens is possible when the number of individuals is insufficient and distinct sample fixation is needed for multiple purposes. Valve orientation had a strong impact on quantification of trace elements in the calcitic but not in the aragonitic layer of adult shells. Hence, to enable comparisons between adult shells and entirely aragonitic embryonic shells, a reference map of site-specific signatures can potentially be generated using the aragonitic layer of the adult shells. Understanding ontogenetic changes and environmental effects in trace element incorporation is critical before geochemical fingerprinting can be used as a tool for larval dispersal studies in the deep-sea. PMID:26643064

  11. Lunar ferroan anorthosite petrogenesis: clues from trace element distributions in FAN subgroups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floss, C.; James, O.B.; McGee, J.J.; Crozaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) and selected other trace elements were measured in plagioclase and pyroxene from nine samples of the lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite of rocks. Samples were selected from each of four FAN subgroups previously defined by James et al. (1989). Plagioclase compositions are homogeneous within each sample, but high- and low-Ca pyroxenes from lithic clasts typically have different REE abundances from their counterparts in the surrounding granulated matrices. Measured plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene concentration ratios for the REE have steeper patterns than experimentally determined plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene partition coefficients in most samples. Textural and trace element evidence suggest that, although subsolidus equilibration may be responsible for some of the discrepancy, plagioclase compositions in most samples have been largely unaffected by intermineral redistribution of the REE. The REE systematics of plagioclase from the four subgroups are broadly consistent with their deviation through crystallization from a single evolving magma. However, samples from some of the subgroups exhibit a decoupling of plagioclase and pyroxene compositions that probably reflects the complexities inherent in crystallization from a large-scale magmatic system. For example, two anorthosites with very magnesian mafic minerals have highly evolved trace element compositions; major element compositions in plagioclase also do not reflect the evolutionary sequence recorded by their REE compositions. Finally, a noritic anorthosite breccia with relatively ferroan mafic minerals contains several clasts with high and variable REE and other trace element abundances. Although plagioclase REE compositions are consistent with their derivation from a magma with a KREEPy trace element signature, very shallow REE patterns in the pyroxenes suggest the addition of a component enriched in the light REE.

  12. Spatial distribution of dust-bound trace elements in Pakistan and their implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Kanwal, Ayesha; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Sohail, Mohammad; Ullah, Rizwan; Ali, Syeda Maria; Alamdar, Ambreen; Ali, Nadeem; Fasola, Mauro; Shen, Heqing

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to assess the spatial patterns of selected dust-borne trace elements alongside the river Indus Pakistan, their relation with anthropogenic and natural sources, and the potential risk posed to human health. The studied elements were found in descending concentrations: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cd. The Index of Geo-accumulation indicated that pollution of trace metals were higher in lower Indus plains than on mountain areas. In general, the toxic elements Cr, Mn, Co and Ni exhibited altitudinal trends (P < 0.05). The few exceptions to this trend were the higher values for all studied elements from the northern wet mountainous zone (low lying Himalaya). Spatial PCA/FA highlighted that the sources of different trace elements were zone specific, thus pointing to both geological influences and anthropogenic activities. The Hazard Index for Co and for Mn in children exceeded the value of 1 only in the riverine delta zone and in the southern low lying zone, whereas the Hazard Index for Pb was above the bench mark for both children and adults (with few exceptions) in all regions, thus indicating potential non-carcinogenic health risks. These results will contribute towards the environmental management of trace metal(s) with potential risk for human health throughout Pakistan. PMID:26901073

  13. Trace elemental imaging of coralline hydroxyapatite by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chou, J; Austin, C; Doble, P; Ben-Nissan, B; Milthorpe, B

    2014-07-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations, as well as their distribution in different biomaterials aimed for clinical applications, is a challenging task in both the areas of biological and materials research. In this research, LA-ICP-MS was employed for image mapping of the trace element distribution in a hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite material aimed for tissue-scaffolding applications. Quantification using synthetic matrix-matched standards was successfully applied for the determination and distribution of elements of interest, Sr and Mg, that influences the mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite-based bone graft materials. The results showed that the instrument can successfully analyse trace elements and a relatively good image can be produced that identifies their distribution. The LA-ICP-MS method can provide an easy and effective tool, in the field of biomaterials with respect to distribution of trace elements, to better understand tissue-implant interactions, and will open up a new window for in vitro and in vivo analysis and imaging of different tissues and structures. PMID:22899384

  14. Trace elemental analysis of bituminuos coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Kneis, H.; Martin, B.; Nobiling, R.; Traxel, K.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical millieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite-are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China. ?? 1981.

  15. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of waterfowl, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were analyzed in the breast feather of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n = 15), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, n = 4), and spot-billed ducks (Anas poecilorhyncha, n = 13) found dead in Gimpo, Korea. All of the mallards and eight of the 13 spot-billed ducks had embedded shot. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were significantly different among waterfowl species. Mallards with embedded shot had relatively higher Pb, Cr, Mn, and Fe concentrations than the other species. Cd and Cr in feathers of waterfowl species were within the range reported for other birds, and no specimen exceeded the tentative threshold effect levels of Cd (2 μg/g dry weight (dw)) and Cr (2.8 μg/g dw) for birds. However, Pb in feathers of all four mallards and two spot-billed ducks exceeded the threshold for deleterious effects (>4 μg/g dw). Essential elements such as Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe in the feather of waterfowl species were not at toxic levels and within the background or normal range for the homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:25208517

  16. Trace-element partitioning in pantellerites and trachytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahood, G.A.; Stimac, J.A. )

    1990-08-01

    In order to investigate the effect of increasing melt peralkalinity on partitioning, partition coefficients have been determined using neutron activation analyses of coexisting phenocrysts and glass of five samples from Pantelleria spanning the range trachyte to pantellerite. Alkali feldspar partition coefficients for Fe, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Eu vary with melt peralkalinity due to changes in melt polymerization and to the systematic increase in X{sub or} and decrease in X{sub an} of the feldspar. In going from trachyte to pantellerite, Fe partition coefficients increase from 0.04 to 0.10, presumably because Fe{sup +3} increasingly substitutes in the feldspar tetrahedral site as melt activity of Al declines and Fe concentrations increase. Partition coefficients for trivalent light REEs (rare earth elements) decrease and the partitioning pattern becomes flatter, the most evolved samples having some of the lowest published values for feldspar. The hundredfold decline in Eu partition coefficients (2.5 to 0.024) and the decrease in the size of the positive partitioning anomaly are attributed to increasing Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} in the melt as it becomes more peralkaline, as well as to concomitant decrease in the Ca content of feldspar. As a result, the behavior of Eu during fractional crystallization of peralkaline suites is fundamentally different from that in metaluminous suites; absolute abundances rise and the size of the negative Eu anomaly changes little with fractionation beyond pantelleritic trachyte.

  17. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using μ-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marina Piacenti da; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system (μ-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 μm output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 μm in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  18. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-17

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  19. How are trace elements mobilized during the postweaning fast in Northern elephant seals?

    PubMed

    Habran, Sarah; Crocker, Daniel E; Debier, Cathy; Das, Krishna

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups undergo a substantial intertissue reorganization of protein, minerals, and other cellular components during their postweaning development, which might entail the mobilization of associated contaminants. The authors investigated the changes in concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) in a longitudinal study on 22 northern elephant seal pups during the postweaning fast. Slight changes in most element concentrations were observed in blood throughout the fast. Circulating levels of Hg, Se, and Cu appeared less altered during the postweaning fast than measured during suckling. Despite the considerable fat utilization, element concentrations, except Fe, in blubber remained stable throughout the fast, which suggests that elements are mobilized from blubber as efficiently as lipids. As indicators of the placental transfer, concentrations in lanugo hair revealed the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during fetal development. In addition, the new pelage, rapidly produced after weaning, appeared to be an important elimination route for toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb. The high mineral content detected in pup hair suggests that this species would be more exposed to trace elements than other phocids (except Cd and Pb). Nevertheless, this statement needs further monitoring and toxicological studies to determine better the exposition to trace elements and its potential impact on the health of the northern elephant seal. PMID:22833380

  20. [Comparison and correlative analysis of trace elements in five kinds of radix curcumae].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-mei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2008-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine materials (TCM) contained abundant trace elements needed in human body. Mixed acid (HNO3:HClO4) was added into samples treated by microwave digestion, and a systematic study was carried out by selection of the most appropriate working conditions and optimization of the sample mass. Some inorganic elements in 5 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang, Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. and Curcuma chuanyujin C. K Hsieh et H. Zhang) necessary to lives were determined by flames atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Elements, such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were detected. The results show that there are similar elements in the five kinds of radix curcumae, while differences only exist in a few elements contents. The correlative analysis of trace elements in samples was carried out by cluster analysis of the 4 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang and Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. ) in codex populations in a cluster, different from the unofficial sample (Curcuma chuanyujin C. K. Hsieh et H. Zhang). The cluster analysis results are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the traditional taxonomy results. The results showed that the analytic method is advisable. This paper provides scientific basis for deeply studing the relation between trace elements and drug effect of radix curcumae. PMID:19093592

  1. Zircon trace element chemistry at sub-micrometer resolution for Tarawera volcano, New Zealand, and implications for rhyolite magma evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Sonja; Schmitt, Axel K.; Shane, Phil; Lindsay, Jan M.

    2014-04-01

    Zoned crystals can be important recorders of magmatic processes in space and time. However, in most situations, the temporal dimension is difficult to quantify. Here, we have employed secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling to excavate parallel pits into non-polished crystal faces of zircon to obtain ~5 μm resolution U-Th disequilibrium ages (one pit) that can be correlated with trace element zoning at sub-μm resolution derived from a second pit. Data from 17 crystals representing each of the four rhyolite eruptions of Tarawera volcano, an intra-caldera edifice within the Okataina Volcanic Centre, reveal diverse zircon growth conditions over time. Most crystals display rimward depletions in Zr/Hf and Ti, broadly consistent with cooling and crystallization. However, a significant fraction of crystals lacks these patterns and displays rimward trace element variations consistent with isothermal or prograde crystallization. Oscillatory zonation patterns in Y, Th, and U are superimposed on the Zr/Hf and Ti trends. Despite the limited number of crystals analyzed in this way, the striking lack of ubiquitous trace element zoning patterns in crystals from the same hand sample implies that fractional crystallization upon cooling was punctuated by magma recharge and crystal mixing affecting different parts of the magma reservoir. By combining data from all crystals, a systematic change to more heterogeneous trace element abundances is revealed by zircon crystal domains <45 ka following the Rotoiti caldera-forming eruption. This contrasts with the more uniform conditions of zircon crystallization lasting >100 ka prior to caldera formation and is best explained by the post-caldera system consisting of small, isolated melt pockets that evolved independently. An important conclusion is that the zircon `cargo' in volcanic rocks reflects thermally and compositionally divergent processes that act near simultaneously in a magma storage region and not exclusively the

  2. Trace elements in the Mississippi River Delta outflow region: Behavior at high discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, Alan M.; Boyle, Edward A.

    1991-11-01

    Samples for dissolved trace element analysis were collected in surface waters of the plume of the Mississippi River during a period of high river discharge. These field data are compared with results of laboratory mixing experiments. The studies show that Cu, Ni, and Mo are largely unreactive in the plume. Surprisingly, Fe also appears to show little reactivity; the pronounced flocculation removal of Fe frequently observed in other estuaries is not seen in this system. This difference may be a consequence of the alkaline nature of the Mississippi which results in low dissolved Fe concentrations in the river (<50 nmol/kg). Zinc, another particle-reactive element, also shows little reactivity. This lack of reactivity for Zn, as well as Cu and Ni, is partly a result of the short residence time of plume waters in shallow areas affected by sedimentary interactions. The chromium distribution shows apparent non-conservative behavior indicative of estuarine removal; however, temporal variation in river concentrations is a more likely explanation for this behavior. For some other elements, complex distributions occur as a consequence of the interplay of physical-chemical and/or biological processes with the dynamic mixing regime. For Cd, desorption from the suspended load plays a major role in determining the distribution. However, sedimentary input may also play a role in the spatial variability of Cd. For V, biological uptake in the plume exerts a strong influence on its distribution. At the time of this study, uptake was large enough to consume both the river flux of V as well as a substantial amount of vanadium supplied by the ocean.

  3. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Tapiero, Haim; Tew, Kenneth D

    2003-11-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant nutritionally essential elements in the human body. It is found in all body tissues with 85% of the whole body zinc in muscle and bone, 11% in the skin and the liver and the remaining in all the other tissues. In multicellular organisms, virtually all zinc is intracellular, 30-40% is located in the nucleus, 50% in the cytoplasm, organelles and specialized vesicles (for digestive enzymes or hormone storage) and the remainder in the cell membrane. Zinc intake ranges from 107 to 231 micromol/d depending on the source, and human zinc requirement is estimated at 15 mg/d. Zinc has been shown to be essential to the structure and function of a large number of macromolecules and for over 300 enzymic reactions. It has both catalytic and structural roles in enzymes, while in zinc finger motifs, it provides a scaffold that organizes protein sub-domains for the interaction with either DNA or other proteins. It is critical for the function of a number of metalloproteins, inducing members of oxido-reductase, hydrolase ligase, lyase family and has co-activating functions with copper in superoxide dismutase or phospholipase C. The zinc ion (Zn(++)) does not participate in redox reactions, which makes it a stable ion in a biological medium whose potential is in constant flux. Zinc ions are hydrophilic and do not cross cell membranes by passive diffusion. In general, transport has been described as having both saturable and non-saturable components, depending on the Zn(II) concentrations involved. Zinc ions exist primarily in the form of complexes with proteins and nucleic acids and participate in all aspects of intermediary metabolism, transmission and regulation of the expression of genetic information, storage, synthesis and action of peptide hormones and structural maintenance of chromatin and biomembranes. PMID:14652165

  4. A review of the distribution coefficients of trace elements in soils: influence of sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Tsadilas, Christos D; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the behavior and reactions of separate soil components with trace elements (TEs) and their distribution coefficients (Kds) in soils is a key issue in assessing the mobility and retention of TEs. Thus, the fate of TEs and the toxic risk they pose depend crucially on their Kd in soil. This article reviews the Kd of TEs in soils as affected by the sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties. The sorption mechanism, determining factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions on the sorption and Kd of TEs are also discussed here. This review demonstrates that the Kd value of TEs does not only depend on inorganic and organic soil constituents, but also on the nature and characteristics of the elements involved as well as on their competition for sorption sites. The Kd value of TEs is mainly affected by individual or competitive sorption systems. Generally, the sorption in competitive systems is lower than in mono-metal sorption systems. More strongly sorbed elements, such as Pb and Cu, are less affected by competition than mobile elements, such as Cd, Ni, and Zn. The sorption preference exhibited by soils for elements over others may be due to: (i) the hydrolysis constant, (ii) the atomic weight, (iii) the ionic radius, and subsequently the hydrated radius, and (iv) its Misono softness value. Moreover, element concentrations in the test solution mainly affect the Kd values. Mostly, values of Kd decrease as the concentration of the included cation increases in the test solution. Additionally, the Kd of TEs is controlled by the sorption characteristics of soils, such as pH, clay minerals, soil organic matter, Fe and Mn oxides, and calcium carbonate. However, more research is required to verify the practical utilization of studying Kd of TEs in soils as a reliable indicator for assessing the remediation process of toxic metals in soils and waters. PMID:24168932

  5. Gases and trace elements in soils at the North Silver Bell deposit, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Dilbert, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Soil samples were collected over the North Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit near Tucson, Arizona. Volatile elements and compounds in gases derived from the soils and metallic elements in the soils were analyzed in order: (1) to see which volatile constituents of the soils might be indicative of the ore body or the alteration zones; and (2) to distinguish the ore and alteration zones by comparison of trace elements in the soil. Plots of analytical data on trace elements in soils indicated a typical distribution pattern for metals around a porphyry copper deposit, with copper, molybdenum, and arsenic concentrations higher over the ore body, and zinc, lead, and silver concentrations higher over the alteration zones. Higher than average concentrations of helium, carbon disulfide, and sulfur dioxide adsorbed on soils were found over the ore body, whereas higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbonyl sulfide were found over the alteration zones. ?? 1984.

  6. Clouding tracing: Visualization of the mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a highly interactive method for computer visualization of the basic physical process of dispersion and mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems. It is based on transforming the vector field from a traditionally Eulerian reference frame into a Lagrangian reference frame. Fluid elements are traced through the vector field for the mean path as well as the statistical dispersion of the fluid elements about the mean position by using added scalar information about the root mean square value of the vector field and its Lagrangian time scale. In this way, clouds of fluid elements are traced and are not just mean paths. We have used this method to visualize the simulation of an industrial incinerator to help identify mechanisms for poor mixing.

  7. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başgel, S; Erdemoğlu, S B

    2006-04-15

    Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

  8. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy determination of trace element composition of argan oil.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, A; Ghanjaoui, M E; El Rhazi, M; de la Guardia, M

    2010-02-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after microwave assisted acid digestion has been developed to determine the trace element content of Moroccan argan oil. Limit of detection values equal or lower than few mg/kg were obtained for all elements under study. To assure the accuracy of the whole procedure, recovery studies were carried out on argan oil samples spiked at different concentration levels from 10 to 200 µg/L. Quantitative average recovery values were obtained for all elements evaluated, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology for the determination of trace elements in argan oil samples. Aluminum, calcium, chromium, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, sodium, vanadium and zinc were quantitatively determined in Moroccan argan oils being found that their concentration is different of that found in other edible oils thus offering a way for authentication and for the evaluation of possible adulterations. PMID:21339122

  9. Trace element accumulation in relation to trophic niches of shorebirds using intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Chambosse, Mélanie; Delaporte, Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the link between trace element concentrations and respective diets of two shorebird species present in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Redshank (Tringa totanus). Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 28 dunlins and 15 redshanks accidentally dead during catches by mist net. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers to determine whether differences in diet explained the variations in elemental levels. These results were compared to previous data obtained on two other shorebird species present on the same sites: the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) and the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). This study demonstrated that shorebirds of the Pertuis Charentais were characterized by differential trace element bioaccumulation. Arsenic and Se concentrations in internal tissues were elevated in red knots and dunlins, whereas redshanks displayed higher Cd concentrations. These trace element bioaccumulation discrepancies could mainly come from divergences of trophic habits between shorebirds. Species with the highest trophic position displayed the highest Hg concentrations in the liver, muscle and feathers demonstrating therefore the biomagnification potential of this metal, as opposed to Cd and Pb. The same trend was observed in muscle and feathers for Se and only in feathers for As. These data highlighted the need to study several tissues to obtain a full comprehension of trace element exposure and pathways especially for long-distance migrating species using various habitats and sites.

  10. Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: occurrence and distribution.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H E; Antweiler, R C; Roth, D A; Alpers, C N; Dileanis, P

    2012-05-01

    The impact of trace elements from the Iron Mountain Superfund site on the Sacramento River and selected tributaries is examined. The concentration and distribution of many trace elements-including aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, iron, gadolinium, holmium, potassium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, antimony, selenium, samarium, strontium, terbium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium-were measured using a combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Samples were collected using ultraclean techniques at selected sites in tributaries and the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, California, at six separate time periods from mid-1996 to mid-1997. Trace-element concentrations in dissolved (ultrafiltered [0.005-μm pore size]) and colloidal material, isolated at each site from large volume samples, are reported. For example, dissolved Zn ranged from 900 μg/L at Spring Creek (Iron Mountain acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir) to 0.65 μg/L at the Freeport site on the Sacramento River. Zn associated with colloidal material ranged from 4.3 μg/L (colloid-equivalent concentration) in Spring Creek to 21.8 μg/L at the Colusa site on the Sacramento River. Virtually all of the trace elements exist in Spring Creek in the dissolved form. On entering Keswick Reservoir, the metals are at least partially converted by precipitation or adsorption to the particulate phase. Despite this observation, few of the elements are removed by settling; instead the majority is transported, associated with colloids, downriver, at least to the Bend Bridge site, which is 67 km from Keswick Dam. Most trace elements are strongly associated with the colloid phase going

  11. Brain trace element concentration of rats treated with the plant alkaloid, vincamine.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Abdel-Hasseb A

    2010-09-01

    Trace elements are essential for normal brain functions. Tiny amounts of these elements help in the formation of neurotransmitters and involved in the antioxidant defense and intracellular redox regulation and modulation of neural cells. Vincamine is a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization by neural tissue to combat the effect of aging. Neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging characterized by a disturbance in trace element levels in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine the level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Selenium (Se), and chromium (Cr) in the brain of rats treated with vincamine. Vincamine was injected i.m. to rats at a dose of 15 mg/Kg bodyweight daily for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, rats were killed, and brains were ashed and digested by concentrated acids and analyzed for trace elements concentrations by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that Zn was the highest trace element in the brain of control rats (3.134 +/- 0.072 ppm) and Cr was the lowest (0.386 +/- 0.027 ppm). Vincamine administration significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the brain Fe concentration (1.393 +/- 0.165 ppm) compared to control (2.807 +/- 0.165 ppm). It was concluded that Zn was the highest trace element in the brain of rats. Vincamine administration resulted in approximately 50% reduction in brain Fe concentration which suggests its beneficial effect to prevent the oxidative stress of Fe in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. PMID:19902161

  12. Changes in trace elements during lactation in a marine top predator, the grey seal.

    PubMed

    Habran, Sarah; Pomeroy, Paddy P; Debier, Cathy; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-15

    Lactation in pinnipeds represents the most significant cost to mothers during the reproductive cycle. Dynamics of trace elements and their mobilization associated with energy reserves during such an intense physiological process remains poorly understood in marine mammals. The changes in tissue concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) were investigated in a longitudinal study during the lactation period and during the post-weaning fast period. Blood, milk, blubber, and hair samples were collected sequentially from 21 mother-pup pairs of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Isle of May in Scotland. Maternal transfer through the milk was observed for all trace elements, except for Cd. As an indicator of the placental transfer, levels in pup lanugo (natal coat) revealed also the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during the foetal development. The placental and mammary barriers against non-essential metal transfer to offspring appear to be absent or weak in grey seals. Examining the contamination levels showed that this grey seal population seems more highly exposed to Pb than other phocid populations (2.2 mg/kg dw of grey seal hair). In contrast, blood and hair levels reflected a lower Hg exposure in grey seals from the Isle of May than in harbour seals from the southeastern North Sea. This study also showed that trace element concentrations in blood and blubber could change rapidly over the lactation period. Such physiological processes must be considered carefully during biomonitoring of trace elements, and potential impacts that rapid fluctuations in concentrations can exert on seal health should be further investigated. PMID:23010392

  13. Trace elements in bed sediments and aquatic invertebrates from three streams in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S.

    1995-12-31

    In September 1992, the US Geological Survey, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment Program, collected crayfish (Pacifastacus Ieniusculus and Procambarus clarkii), asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), caddis-fly larvae (Hydropsyche spp.) and bed-sediment samples from the Truckee and Carson Rivers, and Las Vegas Wash in Nevada and analyzed them for selected trace elements. This report describes and compares the concentrations of arsenic, copper, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc in those samples. In the Truckee and Carson Rivers, concentrations of the six trace elements in aquatic invertebrate samples are similar to concentrations measured in bed sediments. In the Truckee River, concentrations of these elements in crayfish and bed-sediment samples were highest in the Reno-Sparks urban area. In the Carson River, arsenic and copper are highest in bed-sediment samples upstream of Carson City due to geothermal springs and acid-mine drainage from an abandoned sulfur mine; concentrations of manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc were highest in bed-sediment samples collected downstream of the Carson City urban area due to historic gold and silver mining, and urban runoff. The highest mercury concentration in crayfish tissue, 48 {micro}g/g dry weight, was measured in a sample from the lower Carson River. In Las Vegas Wash, bed-sediment concentrations were lower than those in the Truckee and Carson Rivers; but, trace-element concentrations in crayfish tissue tended to be higher than those in bed sediment. Samples collected during this study show that trace elements are enriched in the bed sediments of all three rivers and are bioavailable. Trace-element concentrations among samples of crayfish, asiatic clam, and caddis-fly larvae showed little similarity.

  14. Trace elements distributions at Datoko-Shega artisanal mining site, northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Boansi, Apea Ohene; Zango, M S

    2016-02-01

    Environmental geochemistry classifies elements into essential, non-essential and toxic elements in relationship to human health. To assess the environmental impact of mining at Datoko-Shega area, the distributions and concentrations of trace elements in stream sediments and soil samples were carried out. X-ray fluorescence analytical technique was used to measure the major and trace element concentrations in sediments and modified fire assay absorption spectrometry in soils. The results showed general depletion of major elements except titanium oxide (TiO2) compared to the average crustal concentrations. The retention of TiO2 at the near surface environment probably was due to the intense tropical weathering accompanied by the removal of fine sediments and soil fractions during the harmattan season by the dry north-east trade winds and sheet wash deposits formed after flash floods. The results also showed extreme contamination of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), plus strong contaminations of arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) in addition to moderate contamination of lead (Pb) in the trace element samples relative to crustal averages in the upper continental crust. However Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations tend to be high around the artisanal workings. It was recognised from the analysis of the results that the artisanal mining activity harnessed and introduces some potentially toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Pb mostly in the artisan mine sites. But the interpretation of the trace element data thus invalidates the elevation of As concentrations to be from the mine operations. It consequently noticed As values in the mine-impacted areas to be similar or sometimes lower than As values in areas outside the mine sites from the stream sediment results. PMID:25906709

  15. [Effect of chromium on the trace element homeostasis of biosubstrates in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied the levels of chromium in potable water, snow, soil, and the hair of inhabitants in 3 territorial economic zones of the Orenburg region, water and snow prooxidant loads, and the impact of excessive potassium bichromate intake on the imbalance of some elements in the blood and spleen of laboratory animals. There was dissimilar distribution between the media in relation to the area, as well as a pronounced imbalance of trace elements in the biosubstrates of experimental animals. PMID:23082675

  16. The partitioning of trace elements between clinopyroxene and trachybasaltic melt during rapid cooling and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, S.; Blundy, J. D.; Iezzi, G.; Scarlato, P.; Langone, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the variation in trace element partition coefficients measured at the interface between rapidly cooled clinopyroxene crystals and co-existing melts. Results indicate that, as the cooling rate is increased, clinopyroxene crystals are progressively depleted in Si, Ca and Mg counterbalanced by enrichments in Al (mainly tetrahedral Aliv), Na and Ti. Partition coefficients (Ds) for rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and transition elements (TE) increase with increasing cooling rate, in response to clinopyroxene compositional variations. The entry of REE into the M2 site is facilitated by a coupled substitution where either Na substitutes for Ca on the M2 site or Aliv substitutes for Si in the tetrahedral site. The latter substitution reflects an increased ease of locally balancing the excess charge at M2 as the number of surrounding Aliv atoms increases. Due to the lower concentration of Ca in rapidly cooled clinopyroxenes, divalent large ion lithophile elements (LILE) on M2 decrease at the expense of monovalent cations. Conversely, higher concentrations of HFSE and TE on the M1 site are facilitated as the average charge on this site increases with the replacement of divalent-charged cations by Alvi. Although crystallization kinetics modify clinopyroxene composition, deviations from equilibrium partitioning are insufficient to change the tendency of a trace element to be compatible or incompatible. Consequently, there are regular relationships between ionic radius, valence of the trace element and D. At both equilibrium and cooling rate conditions, Ds for isovalent cations define parabola-like curves when plotted against ionic radius, consistent with the lattice strain model, demonstrating that the partitioning of trace elements is driven by charge balance mechanisms; cation substitution reactions can be treated in terms of the energetics of the various charge-imbalanced configurations.

  17. Detection and quantification of trace elements in rice and rice products using x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foran, Kelly A.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to examine the presence of arsenic (As) and other trace elements (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc) in rice and rice products. A portable XRF analyzer was used to test samples, and amplitudes for the analyzed elements were identified in the resulting data. The detection limit of the system was sufficiently low to detect As in some rice and rice product samples.

  18. Trace element identification of three chemically distinct very low titanium (VLT) basalt glasses from Apollo 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-02-01

    Small VLT samples from Apollo 17 soils were analyzed for trace elements using newly developed high sensitivity INAA techniques. Three distinct groups of VLT compositions are identified. Cobalt contents clearly delineate the HICo, MECo, and LOCo groups, which are also clearly identifiable by their major and minor element compositions. The results allow conclusions to be drawn concerning the sequence of events that produced the regolith at the Apollo 17 landing site.

  19. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yosuke; Umezaki, Masahiro; Jiang, Hongwei; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Jin, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Li, Bai; Li, Yufeng; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead) and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper) elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599). Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine) element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper), sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males), body mass index (cadmium) and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium). The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium. PMID:25514155

  20. Trace element abundance determinations by Synchrotron X Ray Fluorescence (SXRF) on returned comet nucleus mineral grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Trace element analyses were performed on bulk cosmic dust particles by Proton Induced X Ray Emission (PIXE) and Synchrotron X Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). When present at or near chondritic abundances the trace elements K, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, and Br are presently detectable by SXRF in particles of 20 micron diameter. Improvements to the SXRF analysis facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source presently underway should increase the range of detectable elements and permit the analysis of smaller samples. In addition the Advanced Photon Source will be commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory in 1995. This 7 to 8 GeV positron storage ring, specifically designed for high-energy undulator and wiggler insertion devices, will be an ideal source for an x ray microprobe with one micron spatial resolution and better than 100 ppb elemental sensitivity for most elements. Thus trace element analysis of individual micron-sized grains should be possible by the time of the comet nucleus sample return mission.