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Sample records for affect tropospheric ozone

  1. Processes Affecting Tropospheric Ozone over Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diab, Roseanne D.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    This is a Workshop Report prepared for Eos, the weekly AGU magazine, The workshop took place between 26-28 January 2004 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa and was attended by 26 participants (http//www.geography.und.ac.za). Considerable progress has been made in ozone observations except for northern Africa (large data gaps) and west Africa (to be covered by the French-sponsored AMMA program). The present-day ozone findings were evaluated and reviewed by speakers using Aircraft data (MOZAIC program), NASA satellites (MOPITT, TRMM, TOMS) and ozone soundings (SHADOZ). Besides some ozone gaps, there are challenges posed by the need to assess the relative strengths of photochemical and dynamic influences on the tropospheric ozone budget. Biogenic, biofuels, biomass burning sources of ozone precursors remain highly uncertain. Recent findings (by NASA's Chatfield and Thompson, using satellite and sounding data) show significant impact of Indian Ocean pollution on African ozone. European research on pollutants over the Mediterranean and the middle east, that suggests that ozone may be exported to Africa from these areas, also needs to be considered.

  2. Ozone, Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1995-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, ground-based and balloon-borne measurements discovered that most of atmosphere's ozone is located in the stratosphere with highest concentrations located between 15 and 30 km (9,3 and 18.6 miles). For a long time, it was believed that tropospheric ozone originated from the stratosphere and that most of it was destroyed by contact with the earth's surface. Ozone, O3, was known to be produced by the photo-dissociation of molecular oxygen, O2, a process that can only occur at wavelengths shorter than 242 nm. Because such short-wave-length radiation is present only in the stratosphere, no tropospheric ozone production is possible by this mechanism. In the 1940s, however, it became obvious that production of ozone was also taking place in the troposphere. The overall reaction mechanism was eventually identified by Arie Haagen-Smit of the California Institute of Technology, in highly polluted southern California. The copious emissions from the numerous cars driven there as a result of the mass migration to Los Angeles after World War 2 created the new unpleasant phenomenon of photochemical smog, the primary component of which is ozone. These high levels of ozone were injuring vegetable crops, causing women's nylons to run, and generating increasing respiratory and eye-irritation problems for the populace. Our knowledge of tropospheric ozone increased dramatically in the early 1950s as monitoring stations and search centers were established throughout southern California to see what could be done to combat this threat to human health and the environment.

  3. Tropospheric Ozone Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Lefohn, A. S.; Scheel, H.; Brunke, E. G.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D. W.; Galbally, I.; Bodeker, G.; Redondas, A.; Simmonds, P.; Koide, T.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Harris, J. M.; Johnson, B. J.; Davies, J.; Cuevas, E.; Meyer, C.; Shadwick, D.

    2008-12-01

    Growing recognition of the role of "background" tropospheric ozone on climate forcing and as a boundary condition for air quality changes highlights the importance of obtaining a broad picture of tropospheric ozone changes. Key surface and ozonesonde observing sites with tropospheric ozone measurement records longer than ~15 years have been selected to characterize longer term tropospheric ozone changes over broad geographic regions. The sites chosen vary from those with minimal impact by local ozone pollution sources to those that are in relatively close proximity to ozone precursor emissions and are thus affected in part by these sources. Consideration is given to the extent to which various time series represent broad geographic scales. Some series with more limited geographic representativeness can provide valuable information because of the length of the record, particularly in an underrepresented region. The vertical profile information from the ozonesonde stations, which have some of the longest tropospheric ozone records, provides a unique perspective on ozone in the free troposphere that is much less influenced by more local conditions. The general slowing or flattening of ozone increases seen at a number of locations beginning in the early 1990s has generally continued. At Naha, Japan there has been a significant increase in recent years that has not been seen at other Japanese ozonesonde locations. At high latitudes over North America a decade long decline in tropospheric ozone beginning in the 1980s has generally reversed with amounts now similar to those at the beginning of the record. In the S.H. several sites in the mid latitudes have shown significant increases. Although some overall patterns on changes emerge on regional scales and in some cases on continental scales, more general conclusions on hemispheric and global scales do not emerge. This is likely consistent with the varied pattern of ozone lifetimes, precursor emission changes, and

  4. Global tropospheric ozone investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.

    1998-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most important trace gases in the troposphere, and it is responsible for influencing many critical chemical and radiative processes. Ozone contributes to the formation of the hydroxyl radical (OH), which is central to most chemical reactions in the lower atmosphere, and it absorbs UV, visible, and infrared radiation which affects the energy budget and atmospheric temperatures. In addition, O3 can be used as a tracer of atmospheric pollution and stratosphere troposphere exchange. At elevated concentrations, O3 can also produce detrimental biological and human health effects. The US National Research Council (NRC) Board on Sustainable Development reviewed the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [NRC, 1995], and it identified tropospheric chemistry as one of the high priority areas for the USGCRP in the next decade. The NRC identified the following specific challenges in tropospheric chemistry. Although we understand the reason for the high levels of 03 over several regions of the world, we need to better establish the distribution of O3 in the troposphere in order to document and understand the changes in the abundance of global tropospheric O3. This information is needed to quantify the contribution of O3 to the Earth' s radiative balance and to understand potential impacts on the health of the biosphere. Having recognized the importance of particles in the chemistry of the stratosphere, we must determine how aerosols and clouds affect the chemical processes in the troposphere. This understanding is essential to predict the chemical composition of the atmosphere and to assess the resulting forcing effects in the climate system. We must determine if the self-cleansing chemistry of the atmosphere is changing as a result of human activities. This information is required to predict the rate at which pollutants are removed from the atmosphere. Over nearly two decades, airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems have been used in

  5. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar.

  6. Elevated tropospheric ozone affects the concentration and allocation of mineral nutrients of two bamboo species.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Minghao; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yingchun; Chen, Shuanglin

    2017-01-15

    The increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) affects plant physiology and ecosystem processes, and consequently the cycle of nutrients. While mineral nutrients are critical for plant growth, the effect of elevated tropospheric O3 concentration on the uptake and allocation of mineral nutrients by plants is not well understood. Using open top chambers (OTCs), we investigated the effect of elevated O3 on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in mature bamboo species Phyllostachys edulis and Oligostachyum lubricum. Our results showed that elevated O3 decreased the leaf biomass of P. edulis and O. lubricum by 35.1% and 26.7%, respectively, but had no significant effect on the biomass of branches, stem or root. For P. edulis, elevated O3 increased the nutrient (Ca, Mg and Fe) concentration and allocation in leaf but reduced the concentration in other organs. In contrast, elevated O3 increased the nutrient concentration and allocation in the branch of O. lubricum but decreased that of other organs. We also found that that P. edulis and O. lubricum responded differently to elevated O3 in terms of nutrient (Ca, Mg and Fe) uptake and allocation. This information is critical for nutrient management and adaptation strategies for sustainable growth of P. edulis and O. lubricum under global climate change.

  7. Satellite constraint on the tropospheric ozone radiative effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rap, A.; Richards, N. A. D.; Forster, P. M.; Monks, S. A.; Arnold, S. R.; Chipperfield, M. P.

    2015-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone directly affects the radiative balance of the Earth through interaction with shortwave and longwave radiation. Here we use measurements of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer satellite instrument, together with chemical transport and radiative transfer models, to produce a first estimate of the stratospherically adjusted annual radiative effect (RE) of tropospheric ozone. We show that differences between modeled and observed ozone concentrations have little impact on the RE, indicating that our present-day tropospheric ozone RE estimate of 1.17 ± 0.03 W m-2 is robust. The RE normalized by column ozone decreased between the preindustrial and the present-day. Using a simulation with historical biomass burning and no anthropogenic emissions, we calculate a radiative forcing of 0.32 W m-2 for tropospheric ozone, within the current best estimate range. We propose a radiative kernel approach as an efficient and accurate tool for calculating ozone REs in simulations with similar ozone abundances.

  8. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in

  9. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  10. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    To study tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula (IP), NASA Langley TOR data have been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric ozone concentration over the entire IP was found in June (˜41 DU) and a minimum in December (˜29 DU). However the maximum tropospheric ozone concentration was found over West Atlantic Coast (WAC) (˜44 DU), followed by Mediterranean Coast (MC) (˜42 DU), North Atlantic Coast (NAC) (˜41 DU), Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) (˜40 DU) and Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) (˜39 DU) during June-July. The high concentration of tropospheric ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near IP is due to the presence of Azores anticyclone and related photochemistry and dynamics, and affects the observed higher tropospheric ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed with large variation over NAC (˜49%), followed by WAC (˜48%) and MC (˜41%) compared to CIP and PMR (˜38%) zones. When the data are compared over the IP for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR, zones. It has been observed that topography, climatology and population density distribution plays a crucial role in the variability of tropospheric ozone concentration over the IP.

  11. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  12. Plant responses to tropospheric ozone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone is the second most abundant air pollutant and an important component of the global climate change. Over five decades of research on the phytotoxicity of ozone in model plants systems, crop plants and forest trees have provided some insight into the physiological, biochemical and m...

  13. Secular variations of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrgian, A. Kh.

    1988-02-01

    The dependence of secular variations of tropospheric ozone on decreases of temperature and cloud growth in Central Europe is assessed on the basis of Vienna, Paris, and Athens data for 1853-1920. Decreases in ozone content occurring with a certain time lag after major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Krakatoa) are examined. The effect of the Tungusk-meteorite fall on ozone content is also discussed.

  14. Effects of stratospheric ozone recovery on photochemistry and ozone air quality in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S.; Huang, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2014-04-01

    There has been significant stratospheric ozone depletion since the late 1970s due to ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, stratospheric ozone is expected to recover towards its pre-1980 level in the coming decades. In this study, we examine the implications of stratospheric ozone recovery for the tropospheric chemistry and ozone air quality with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). With a full recovery of the stratospheric ozone, the projected increases in ozone column range from 1% over the low latitudes to more than 10% over the polar regions. The sensitivity factor of troposphere ozone photolysis rate, defined as the percentage changes in surface ozone photolysis rate for 1% increase in stratospheric ozone column, shows significant seasonal variation but is always negative with absolute value larger than one. The expected stratospheric ozone recovery is found to affect the tropospheric ozone destruction rates much more than the ozone production rates. Significant decreases in surface ozone photolysis rates due to stratospheric ozone recovery are simulated. The global average tropospheric OH decreases by 1.7%, and the global average lifetime of tropospheric ozone increases by 1.5%. The perturbations to tropospheric ozone and surface ozone show large seasonal and spatial variations. General increases in surface ozone are calculated for each season, with increases by up to 0.8 ppbv in the remote areas. Increases in ozone lifetime by up to 13% are found in the troposphere. The increased lifetimes of tropospheric ozone in response to stratospheric ozone recovery enhance the intercontinental transport of ozone and global pollution, in particular for the summertime. The global background ozone attributable to Asian emissions is calculated to increase by up to 15% or 0.3 ppbv in the Northern Hemisphere in response to the projected stratospheric ozone recovery.

  15. Climate Impacts on Tropospheric Ozone and Hydroxyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Bell, N.; Faluvegi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change may influence tropospheric ozone and OH via several main pathways: (1) altering chemistry via temperature and humidity changes, (2) changing ozone and precursor sources via surface emissions, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and light- ning, and (3) affecting trace gas sinks via the hydrological cycle and dry deposition. We report results from a set of coupled chemistry-climate model simulations designed to systematically study these effects. We compare the various effects with one another and with past and projected future changes in anthropogenic and natural emissions of ozone precursors. We find that white the overall impact of climate on ozone is probably small compared to emission changes, some significant seasonal and regional effects are apparent. The global effect on hydroxyl is quite large, however, similar in size to the effect of emission changes. Additionally, we show that many of the chemistry-climate links that are not yet adequately modeled are potentially important.

  16. Remote measurement of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.; Stewart, R. W.; Weng, C.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a differential absorption lidar employing a pulsed CO2 laser and a direct detection receiver is capable of significantly improving the existing data base on the tropospheric ozone burden. As a ground-based system, the lidar could obtain urban to regional scale O3 measurements with a vertical or horizontal resolution of at least 1 km in the troposphere. As a space-based system, it could obtain global scale coverage of the O3 burden below the stratospheric maximum of O3.

  17. Tropospheric ozone and vehicular emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1988-06-01

    The paper examines changes in the transportation system as a means of reducing tropospheric ozone in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It takes this issue as a paradigm for the broader national situation where there are environmental risks for which no plausible, politically or economically acceptable remedies exist. It summarizes the health risks of ozone, the current and prospective levels of control required to avoid them, the prospective contribution of transportation controls, and the information required to put the issue in a social benefits and costs framework for decision. 23 refs.

  18. Discoveries about Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Satellite and Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been producing near-real time tropospheric ozone satellite maps from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) sensor since 1997. This is most readily done for the tropics, where the stratospheric and tropospheric ozone column amounts can be discriminated readily. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: chttp://www.atmos.umd.edu/-trope>. Pollution in the tropics is influenced by biomass burning and by transport patterns that favor recirculation and in other cases reflect climate variability like the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation [Thompson et al., 2001]. Time permitting, examples of mid-latitude, intercontinental transport of ozone pollution sensed by TOMS will be shown. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Further insights into the role of chemical and dynamical influences have emerged from the first 4-5 years of SHADOZ data (less than 2000 ozone profiles): (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) convective variability affects tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Ocean; (d) a "tropical Atlantic Paradox" appears in December-January-February.

  19. Tropospheric Ozone and Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of pyrogenic (e.g., biomass burning) emissions in the production of tropospheric ozone in the tropics associated with the forest and savanna fires in the African, South American, and Indonesian regions. Using aerosol index (Al) and tropospheric column ozone (TCO) time series from 1979 to 2000 derived from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS measurements, our study shows significant differences in the seasonal and spatial characteristics of pyrogenic emissions north and south of the equator in the African region and Brazil in South America. In general, they are not related to the seasonal and spatial characteristics of tropospheric ozone in these regions. In the Indonesian region, the most significant increase in TCO occurred during September and October 1997, following large-scale forest and savanna fires associated with the El Nino-induced dry season. However, the increase in TCO extended over most of the western Pacific well outside the burning region and was accompanied by a decrease in the eastern Pacific resembling a west-to-east dipole about the date-line. The net increase in TCO integrated over the tropical region between 15 deg N and 15 deg S was about 6-8 Tg (1 Tg = 10(exp 12) gm) over the mean climatological value of about 72 Tg. This increase is well within the range of interannual variability of TCO in the tropical region and does not necessarily suggest a photochemical source related to biomass burning. The interannual variability in TCO appears to be out of phase with the interannual variability of stratospheric column ozone (SCO). These variabilities seem to be manifestations of solar cycle and quasibiennial oscillations.

  20. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  1. Ozone Profiles and Tropospheric Ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Sioris, C. E.; Sparr, R. J. D.; Kuregm, T. P.; Martin, R. V.; Newchurch, M. J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone profiles are derived from backscattered radiances in the ultraviolet spectra (290-340 nm) measured by the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment using optimal estimation. Tropospheric O3 is directly retrieved with the tropopause as one of the retrieval levels. To optimize the retrieval and improve the fitting precision needed for tropospheric O3, we perform extensive wavelength and radiometric calibrations and improve forward model inputs. Retrieved O3 profiles and tropospheric O3 agree well with coincident ozonesonde measurements, and the integrated total O3 agrees very well with Earth Probe TOMS and Dobson/Brewer total O3. The global distribution of tropospheric O3 clearly shows the influences of biomass burning, convection, and air pollution, and is generally consistent with our current understanding.

  2. Effect of Lower Stratospheric Ozone on Trends and Interannual Variability in Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Y.; Logan, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Increased emissions of ozone precursors may cause increases in tropospheric ozone. Ozonesonde measurements show that tropospheric ozone increased over Europe and Japan, but did not increase over the U.S., and decreased over Canada from 1970 to 1996 [Logan et al., 1999]. Regional differences in the amount of stratospheric ozone input to the troposphere may have contributed to the spatially inhomogeneous trends in tropospheric ozone. We investigate the effect of input of stratospheric ozone on tropospheric ozone using ozonesonde data and simulations for 1975-2025 by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC) Chemistry Transport Model (CTM) driven by Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) output [Stolarski et al., 2006]. In the GSFC-CTM simulations, tropospheric ozone and stratospheric ozone are treated as separate tracers (O3-trop and O3-strat, below). The seasonal cycle of lower stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the GSFC-CTM simulations generally agrees well with ozonesonde measurements but the model has a larger spring maximum than the observations. We found a significant correlation between time series of monthly ozone anomalies in the lower stratosphere (200 hPa) and in the mid-troposphere (500 hPa) over the U.S., Atlantic, and Europe, but lower correlations over Asia, in both the observations and the simulations. There are also inhomogeneous patterns for trends in the O3-strat tracer in the mid-troposphere. These analyses support the idea that variations in stratospheric input may be affecting interannual variability and trends in tropospheric ozone.

  3. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  4. Impact of climate variability on tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Volker

    2007-03-01

    A simulation with the climate-chemistry model (CCM) E39/C is presented, which covers both the troposphere and stratosphere dynamics and chemistry during the period 1960 to 1999. Although the CCM, by its nature, is not exactly representing observed day-by-day meteorology, there is an overall model's tendency to correctly reproduce the variability pattern due to an inclusion of realistic external forcings, like observed sea surface temperatures (e.g. El Niño), major volcanic eruption, solar cycle, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Additionally, climate-chemistry interactions are included, like the impact of ozone, methane, and other species on radiation and dynamics, and the impact of dynamics on emissions (lightning). However, a number of important feedbacks are not yet included (e.g. feedbacks related to biogenic emissions and emissions due to biomass burning). The results show a good representation of the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer, including the ozone hole, which plays an important role for the simulation of natural variability of tropospheric ozone. Anthropogenic NO(x) emissions are included with a step-wise linear trend for each sector, but no interannual variability is included. The application of a number of diagnostics (e.g. marked ozone tracers) allows the separation of the impact of various processes/emissions on tropospheric ozone and shows that the simulated Northern Hemisphere tropospheric ozone budget is not only dominated by nitrogen oxide emissions and other ozone pre-cursors, but also by changes of the stratospheric ozone budget and its flux into the troposphere, which tends to reduce the simulated positive trend in tropospheric ozone due to emissions from industry and traffic during the late 80s and early 90s. For tropical regions the variability in ozone is dominated by variability in lightning (related to ENSO) and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (related to Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric

  5. Influence of Mountains on Arctic Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, J. A.; Seabrook, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletion events were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be presented.

  6. Tracking the sources of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.; Churkina, G.; Coates, J.; Grote, R.; Mar, K.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Zhu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this set of studies we examine the attribution of tropospheric ozone to emissions of VOC using a tagging approach, whereby each VOC oxidation intermediate in model chemical mechanisms is tagged with the identity of its primary emitted compound, allowing modelled ozone production to be directly attributed to all emitted VOCs in the model. Using a global model we

  7. The High Resolution Tropospheric Ozone Residual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    The co-flight of the MLS stratospheric limb sounder and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provides the capability of computing the Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) in much greater detail [Ziemke et al., 2006]. Using forward trajectory calculations of MLS ozone measurements combined with OMI column ozone we have developed a high horizontal resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) which can provide even more detail than the standard TOR product. HTOR is especially useful for extra-tropical studies of tropospheric ozone transport. We find that both the Pacific pollution corridor (East Asia to Alaska) and the Atlantic pollution corridor (North America east coast to Europe) are also preferred locations for strat-trop folds leading to systematic overestimates of pollution amounts. In fact, fold events appear to dominate extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere day-to-day maps of HTOR. Model estimates of the tropospheric column are in reasonable agreement with the HTOR amounts when offsets due to different tropopause height calculations are taken into consideration.

  8. The High Resolution Tropospheric Ozone Residual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Ziemke, J.; Bhartia, P.; Froidevaux, L.; Levelt, P.

    2006-12-01

    The co-flight of the MLS stratospheric limb sounder and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provides the capability of computing the Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) in much greater detail [Ziemke et al., 2006]. Using forward trajectory calculations of MLS ozone measurements combined with OMI column ozone we have developed a high horizontal resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) which can provide even more detail than the standard TOR product. HTOR is especially useful for extra-tropical studies of tropospheric ozone transport. We find that both the Pacific pollution corridor (East Asia to Alaska) and the Atlantic pollution corridor (North America east coast to Europe) are also preferred locations for strat-trop folds leading to systematic over-estimates of pollution amounts. In fact, fold events appear to dominate extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere day-to-day maps of HTOR. Model estimates of the tropospheric column are in reasonable agreement with the HTOR amounts when offsets due to different tropopause height calculations are taken into consideration.

  9. Ozone density measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere of Natal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Motta, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Ozone densitities were measured in the troposphere and stratosphere of Natal using ECC sondes launches on balloons. The data analyzed so far show tropospheric densities and total ozone contents larger than expected.

  10. Semi-Lagrangian modelling of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudykiewicz, Janusz A.; Kallaur, A.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    1997-07-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of ozone in the lower part of the troposphere is considered as one of the most important issues of tropospheric chemistry. The chemical mechanisms of tropospheric ozone formation are complex, and highly variable meteorological conditions contribute additionally to difficulties in an accurate prediction of ozone episodes. An effective way to increase our understanding of the problem and eventually improve our ability to predict the concentration of tropospheric ozone and to formulate emission control strategies is by applying a comprehensive model representing accurately the interaction between meteorological processes and chemical reactions. This paper presents a 3-dimensional semi-Lagrangian, chemical tracer model (CTM) featuring an accurate transport algorithm, comprehensive oxidants chemistry and deposition modules. The CTM is executed in off line mode with a semi-Lagrangian, nonhydrostatic, mesoscale meteorological model that contains an extensive parameterization of physical processes (including a boundary layer scheme and clouds). The system of models was run for a time period of 6days in order to generate a tropospheric ozone field during a smog episode observed in the eastern part of North America, in the beginning of August 1988. The numerical simulation was performed on grids with resolution of 20 and 40km with 25 vertical levels. The emissions inventory considered in the simulation included point sources, surface biogenic sources, surface mobile sources and surface non-mobile sources. An evaluation of the model results against observations clearly indicates the ability of the system to simulate regional aspects of a tropospheric ozone episode. The model performance compares well to other models' results reported in the literature. An important achievement of this work is improving the physical realism of simulations by using highly accurate, nonoscillatory semi-Lagrangian advection transport algorithms.

  11. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  12. Long-term Changes in Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S.; Lefohn, A.; Galbally, I.; Scheel, E.; Bodeker, G.; Brunke, E.; Claude, H.; Tarasick, D.; Simmonds, P.; Anlauf, K.; Schmidlin, F.; Akagi, K.; Redondas, A.

    2006-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone measurements from a selected network of surface and ozonesonde sites are used to give a broad geographic picture of long-term variations. The picture of long-term tropospheric ozone changes is a varied one in terms of both the sign and magnitude of trends and in the possible causes for the changes. At mid latitudes of the S.H. three time series of ~20 years in length agree in showing increases that are strongest in the austral spring (August-October). Profile measurements show this increase extending through the mid troposphere but not into the highest levels of the troposphere. In the N.H. in the Arctic a period of declining ozone in the troposphere through the 1980s into the mid 1990s has reversed and the overall change is small. The decadal-scale variations in the troposphere in this region are related in part to changes in the lowermost stratosphere. At mid latitudes in the N.H., continental Europe and Japan showed significant increases in the 1970s and 1980s. Over North America rises in the 1970s are less than those seen in Europe and Japan, suggesting significant regional differences. In all three of these mid latitude, continental regions tropospheric ozone amounts appear to have leveled off or in some cases declined in the more recent decades. Over the North Atlantic three widely separated sites show significant increases since the late 1990s that may have peaked in recent years. In the N.H. tropics both the surface record and the ozonesondes in Hawaii show a significant increase in the autumn months in the most recent decade compared to earlier periods that drives the overall increase seen in the 30 year record. This appears to be related to a shift in the transport pattern during this season with more frequent flow from higher latitudes in the latest decade. The pattern of change, with the largest increases in the N.H. coming prior to the mid 1980s, suggests that increased positive radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone was felt

  13. Management of tropospheric ozone by reducing methane emissions.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Fiore, Arlene M

    2005-07-01

    Background concentrations of tropospheric ozone are increasing and are sensitive to methane emissions, yet methane mitigation is currently considered only for climate change. Methane control is shown here to be viable for ozone management. Identified global abatement measures can reduce approximately 10% of anthropogenic methane emissions at a cost-savings, decreasing surface ozone by 0.4-0.7 ppb. Methane controls produce ozone reductions that are widespread globally and are realized gradually (approximately 12 yr). In contrast, controls on nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) target high-ozone episodes in polluted regions and affect ozone rapidly but have a smaller climate benefit. A coarse estimate of the monetized global benefits of ozone reductions for agriculture, forestry, and human health (neglecting ozone mortality) justifies reducing approximately 17% of global anthropogenic methane emissions. If implemented, these controls would decrease ozone by -1 ppb and radiative forcing by approximately 0.12 W m(-2). We also find that climate-motivated methane reductions have air quality-related ancillary benefits comparable to those for CO2. Air quality planning should consider reducing methane emissions alongside NOx and NMVOCs, and because the benefits of methane controls are shared internationally, industrialized nations should consider emphasizing methane in the further development of climate change or ozone policies.

  14. Elevated Tropospheric Ozone over the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Tie, X.

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric column ozone (TCO) is derived from differential measurements of TOMS total column ozone and Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric column ozone. It is shown that TCO during summer months over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in northern midlatitudes is about the same (50 to 60 Dobson Units) as over the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia, where surface emissions of nitrogen oxides from industrial sources, biomass and biofuel burning and biogenic emissions are significantly larger. This nearly uniform zonal variation in TCO is modulated by surface topography of the Rocky and Himalayan mountains, and Tibetan plateau where TCO is reduced by 20 to 30 Dobson Units. The zonal variation in TCO is well simulated by a global chemical transport model called MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2). The model results are analyzed to delineate the relative importance of various processes contributing to observed zonal characteristics of TCO.

  15. Science Accomplishments from a Decade of Aura OMI/MLS Tropospheric Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Olsen, Mark A.; Oman, Luke D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Liu, X.; Wargan, K.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Pawson, Steven; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Newman, Paul A.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Cooper, Owen R.; Haffner, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone from combined Aura OMI and MLS instruments have yielded a large number of new and important science discoveries over the last decade. These discoveries have generated a much greater understanding of biomass burning, lightning NO, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange sources of tropospheric ozone, ENSO dynamics and photochemistry, intra-seasonal variability-Madden-Julian Oscillation including convective transport, radiative forcing, measuring ozone pollution from space, improvements to ozone retrieval algorithms, and evaluation of chemical-transport and chemistry-climate models. The OMI-MLS measurements have been instrumental in giving us better understanding of the dynamics and chemistry involving tropospheric ozone and the many drivers affecting the troposphere in general. This discussion will provide an overview focusing on our main science results.

  16. Tropical tropospheric ozone: Processes highlighted by covariations of ozone and its sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A.; Hudson, R.; Witte, J.

    2003-04-01

    Wavelet and spectral analyses techniques provide promising early results which empirically highlight those processes which determine upper tropospheric ozone. Tropical and subtropical tropospheric ozone are important radiatively active species, with particularly large effects in the upper third of the troposphere. Atmospheric chemistry investigations using 3-D models and local analyses have corroborated roles for large scale dynamics, vertical mixing and redistribution through convection, and advection of pollution ozone or its precursors. Temporal variability of O_3 has proved difficult to simulate. Thus, individual roles of lightning, biomass burning, and other pollution in providing precursor NO_x, radicals, and chain carriers (CO, hydrocarbons) remain unquantified by simulation, and it is theoretically reasonable that individual roles are magnified by a joint synergy. We report on empirical studies linking time variations apparent in several datasets: a TTO (Tropical Tropospheric Ozone) product derived from TOMS (the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network stations (Nairobi, Fiji), and auxiliary series with power to explain ozone-deterimining processes. These auxliary series are The OTD/LIS (Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor) measurements of the lightning NO_x source, the OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) measurement of high-topped clouds, and standard meteorological variables from the United States NCEP and Data Assimilation Office analyses. Concentrating on equatorial ozone, we compare the statistical evidence on the variability of tropospheric ozone. Important variations occur on approximately two-week, two-month (Madden-Julian Oscillation) and annual scales. We report initial results defining relative roles of the processed mentioned affecting O_3 using their covariance properties.

  17. Enhancement of free tropospheric ozone production by deep convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    It is found from model simulations of trace gas and meteorological data from aircraft campaigns that deep convection may enhance the potential for photochemical ozone production in the middle and upper troposphere by up to a factor of 60. Examination of half a dozen individual convective episodes show that the degree of enhancement is highly variable. Factors affecting enhancement include boundary layer NO(x) mixing ratios, differences in the strength and structure of convective cells, as well as variation in the amount of background pollution already in the free troposphere.

  18. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique during SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.

    2002-05-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS. The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column. We used the modified-residual method [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  19. Diurnal curves of tropospheric ozone in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, M.; McCune, B.; Vandetta, T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal curves of tropospheric ozone are characterized for the areas near coniferous forests in the western U.S. A given day of hourly data can be placed into one of 17 classes of diurnal curves simply by knowing the 24-h mean and coefficient of variation or range, or more precisely, by applying equations derived from the authors discriminant analysis. The variation among curves is shown to be related to theory of ozone formation, scavenging, and transport. Season, latitude, and position relative to source areas affect the form of the diurnal curve.

  20. Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone From Assimilation of Aura Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Chang, L.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bowman, K.

    2006-05-01

    Ozone is an atmospheric trace gas with multiple impacts on the environment. Global ozone fields are needed for air quality predictions, estimation of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface, climate-radiation studies, and ozone may also have an impact on longer-term weather predictions. We estimate global ozone fields in the stratosphere and troposphere by combining the data from the EOS Aura satellite with an ozone model using data assimilation. Ozone exhibits a large temporal variability in the lower stratosphere. Our previous work showed that assimilation of satellite data from limb-sounding geometry helps constrain ozone profiles in that region. We assimilated ozone data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) into the ozone system at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). Ozone is transported within a general circulation model (GCM) which includes parameterizations for stratospheric photochemistry, tropospheric chemistry, and a simple scheme for heterogeneous ozone loss. The focus of this study is on the representation of ozone in the lower stratosphere and tropospheric ozone columns. We plan to extend studies of tropospheric ozone distribution through assimilation of ozone data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Comparisons with ozone sondes and occultation data show that assimilation of Aura data provides a good representation of ozone gradients and variability in the lower stratosphere. We proceed by separating the contributions to temporal changes in the ozone field into those that are due to the model and those that are due to the assimilation of Aura data. We discuss the impacts of Aura data and their role in the representation of ozone variability in the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

  1. Tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from assimilation of Aura data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Chang, L.-P.; Hayashi, H.; Pawwson, S.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone is an atmospheric trace gas with multiple impacts on the environment. Global ozone fields are needed for air quality predictions, estimation of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface, climate-radiation studies, and may also have an impact on longer-term weather predictions. We estimate global ozone fields in the stratosphere and troposphere by combining the data from EOS Aura satellite with an ozone model using data assimilation. Ozone exhibits a large temporal variability in the lower stratosphere. Our previous work showed that assimilation of satellite data from limb-sounding geometry helps constrain ozone profiles in that region. We assimilated ozone data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) into the ozone system at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). Ozone is transported within a general circulation model (GCM) which includes parameterizations for stratospheric photochemistry, tropospheric chemistry, and a simple scheme for heterogeneous ozone loss. The focus of this study is on the representation of ozone in the lower stratosphere and tropospheric ozone columns. We plan to extend studies of tropospheric ozone distribution through assimilation of ozone data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Comparisons with ozone sondes and occultation data show that assimilation of Aura data reproduces ozone gradients and variability in the lower stratosphere well. We proceed by separating the contributions to temporal changes in the ozone field into those that are due to the model and those that are due to the assimilation of Aura data. The impacts of Aura data are illustrated and their role in the representation of ozone variability in the lower stratosphere and troposphere is shown.

  2. Influence of Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange on the Ozone Levels in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Nandita; Tzanis, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Decrease in stratospheric ozone will result in an amplification of the solar ultraviolet B radiation reaching the ground, which is a threat to the human society. On the other hand, ozone being toxic to the living system and an important contributor to anthropogenic global warming, high levels of tropospheric ozone will have adverse effects on the air quality and climate. Transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere will cause stratospheric ozone to decrease and tropospheric ozone to increase, which can in turn have serious consequences for life on earth. Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) is regarded as an important factor controlling the budget of ozone in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Study of STE events in India are so far restricted to coordinated campaigns and measurements over longer periods are relatively scarce. In the light of this observation, the paper is aimed to identify the Indian latitudes, which are most likely to be affected by STE, the frequency of occurrence of shallow and deep STE events and the depth up to which stratospheric ozone descends into the troposphere during these events over the period of 24 years. In addition, the contribution of STE events to the observed high surface ozone levels for cities covering from north to south of India will be presented.

  3. Impact of Tropospheric Aerosol Absorption on Ozone Retrieval from buv Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of tropospheric aerosols on the retrieval of column ozone amounts using spaceborne measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation is examined. Using radiative transfer calculations, we show that uv-absorbing desert dust may introduce errors as large as 10% in ozone column amount, depending on the aerosol layer height and optical depth. Smaller errors are produced by carbonaceous aerosols that result from biomass burning. Though the error is produced by complex interactions between ozone absorption (both stratospheric and tropospheric), aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption, a surprisingly simple correction procedure reduces the error to about 1%, for a variety of aerosols and for a wide range of aerosol loading. Comparison of the corrected TOMS data with operational data indicates that though the zonal mean total ozone derived from TOMS are not significantly affected by these errors, localized affects in the tropics can be large enough to seriously affect the studies of tropospheric ozone that are currently undergoing using the TOMS data.

  4. Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone using TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Robert D.; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Fishman and Larsen have proposed a new algorithm, called 'tropospheric residual method,' which retrieves the climatological tropospheric ozone by using SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data. In this paper, we will examine the feasibility of detection for tropospheric ozone using only TOMS data. From a case study over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of west Africa, it has been found that total ozone in the archived TOMS data has been overestimated over a region of marine-stratocumulus clouds.

  5. Linkages Between Ozone-depleting Substances, Tropospheric Oxidation and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere allows changes in stratospheric ozone abundances to affect tropospheric chemistry. Large-scale effects from such changes on chemically produced tropospheric aerosols have not been systematically examined in past studies. We use a composition-climate model to investigate potential past and future impacts of changes in stratospheric ozone depleting substances (ODS) on tropospheric oxidants and sulfate aerosols. In most experiments, we find significant responses in tropospheric photolysis and oxidants, with small but significant effects on methane radiative forcing. The response of sulfate aerosols is sizeable when examining the effect of increasing future nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We also find that without the regulation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) through the Montreal Protocol, sulfate aerosols could have increased by 2050 by a comparable amount to the decreases predicted due to relatively stringent sulfur emissions controls. The individual historical radiative forcings of CFCs and N2O through their indirect effects on methane (-22.6mW/sq. m for CFCs and -6.7mW/sq. m for N2O) and sulfate aerosols (-3.0mW/sq. m for CFCs and +6.5mW/sq. m for N2O when considering the direct aerosol effect) discussed here are non-negligible when compared to known historical ODS forcing. Our results stress the importance of accounting for stratosphere-troposphere, gas-aerosol and composition-climate interactions when investigating the effects of changing emissions on atmospheric composition and climate.

  6. Sensitivity of Northern Hemispheric Tropospheric Ozone To Anthropogenic Emissions as Observed by Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Worden, J. R.; Payne, V.; Bowman, K. W.; Kuai, L.; Jones, D. B. A.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric composition is rapidly changing in response to changes in industrialization, land-use, and climate. Tropospheric ozone is at the nexus of atmospheric chemistry, air-quality, and climate as it is not only the third most important greenhouse gas and a primary air pollutant, but also affects carbon dioxide by damaging plants and the lifetime of atmospheric methane by influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Observed trends in free-tropospheric ozone as observed by ozone-sondes and more recently by satellite measurements from the Aura TES and IASI instruments do not agree with models that are driven by observed changes in ozone pre-cursor emissions. As a consequence, estimates of ozone radiative forcing and the future trajectory of tropospheric ozone concentrations are highly uncertain. In this study, we explore the use of satellite observations of ozone and its pre-cursors for constraining the sensitivity of Northern hemispheric tropospheric ozone to anthropogenic emissions. New measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from the Aura TES instrument suggest that one explanation for the model/data mismatch in trends is reduced ventilation of reactive nitrogen into the free-troposphere over Asia. Ultimately, continued well validated observation of ozone and its pre-cursors from IASI, AIRS, CRIS, and Trop-OMI will be needed to solve this critical scientific question.

  7. Diagnosing changes in European tropospheric ozone: A model study of past and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummon, Fiona; Revell, Laura; Stenke, Andrea; Staehelin, Johannes; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the negative impacts of tropospheric ozone on human and ecosystem health have led to policy changes aimed at reducing emissions of ozone precursor gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). Although emissions of these species have significantly decreased in Europe and North America since the early 1990s, observational data indicate that free tropospheric ozone over Europe has not decreased as expected. Uncertainty remains as to how much of a role the transport of stratospheric ozone or tropospheric ozone from remote source regions has played in recent trends, as well as to how this will evolve in a changing climate. The global chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Chemistry Ozone Links) is used to investigate tropospheric ozone over Europe from 1960 to 2100. To fully disentangle the effects of both long-range transport and input from the stratosphere, simulations are run with ozone tracers from 21 different atmospheric regions. In addition to a standard reference run, several sensitivity simulations are run: one with emissions of NOx and CO held constant at 1960 levels, one with methane (CH4) held at constant 1960 levels (in addition to the NOx and CO), and a third with NOx and CO emissions from Asia fixed at 1960 levels. Results suggest that the largest contributions to European tropospheric ozone originate from the tropical and northern mid-latitude boundary layer and free troposphere. Contributions from these regions increase over the historical period (1960-2010), indicating that changes in source gas emissions have affected ozone concentrations in the European free troposphere most strongly. Contributions from these regions then decrease from 2010-2100, but remain considerably larger than input from the stratosphere, which is relatively small in all simulations throughout the entire simulated period (1960-2100). The stratospheric contribution does, however, increase slightly over the 21st century, in tandem with ozone

  8. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and Sonde Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The data reside at: http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this. In addition to leading the SHADOZ network, we have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Further perspective on the complexity of tropospheric ozone variability is shown using satellite observations.

  9. Modeling and Observational Study of the Stratospheric Ozone Influences on the Tropospheric Circulation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barodka, S.; Krasouski, A.; Shalamyansky, A.

    2013-12-01

    It seems to be universally recognized that stratospheric ozone distribution and tropospheric dynamical formations are interconnected and both affect each other in manifold processes of stratosphere-troposphere interactions. In particular, numerous observational studies suggest a clear relation between the total ozone column (TOC) field and the distribution of air-masses in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. The tropopause height being a result of two rival categories of processes (the tropospheric vertical convection and the radiative heating of the stratosphere resulting from the ozone cycle), it is natural that tropospheric and stratospheric phenomena can have an effect on each other. Indeed, it has been shown that virtually all local ozone anomalies (synoptic-scale deviations in the TOC field) correspond to local uplifts of the tropopause level, and a significant amount of research was dedicated to identification of local patterns in the stratospheric ozone distribution as the outcome of tropospheric synoptic formations and weather systems. However, in the present study we focus our attention to the opposite side of the interaction: the impact of stratospheric ozone distribution on the features of tropospheric circulation and the associated weather and regional climate conditions. For that purpose, we proceed from analyzes of the observational data performed at the A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, which suggest a distinct correlation between stratospheric ozone distribution, synoptic formations and air-masses boundaries in the upper troposphere and the temperature field of the lower stratosphere. Furthermore, we perform a series of numerical simulations of formation, evolution and decay of ozone anomalies of different spatial and temporal scales, introducing disturbances to the stratospheric ozone and temperature variable fields and tracing the propagation of this perturbation to tropospheric model levels. Aiming to simulate dynamical processes

  10. Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Tang, Xiaoyan; Wilson, Stephen R; Zanis, Prodromos; Bais, Alkiviadis F

    2003-01-01

    chemical composition of the atmosphere including aerosols will also have an impact. For example, tropospheric OH is the 'cleaning' agent of the troposphere. While increased UV-B increases the OH concentration, increases in concentration of gases like methane, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds will act as sinks for OH in troposphere and hence change air quality and chemical composition in the troposphere. Also, changes in the aerosol content of the atmosphere resulting from global climate change may affect ozone photolysis rate coefficients and hence reduce or increase tropospheric ozone concentrations.

  11. Tropospheric Ozone as a Short-lived Chemical Climate Forcer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.

  12. Ozone in the Pacific Troposphere from Ozonesonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Harris, J. M.; Voemel, H.; Koshy, K.; Simon, P.; Bendura, R.; Thompson, A. M.; Logan, J. A.; Hasebe, F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ozone vertical profile measurements obtained from ozonesondes flown at Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti and the Galapagos are used to characterize ozone in the troposphere over the tropical Pacific. There is a significant seasonal variation at each of these sites. At sites in both the eastern and western Pacific, ozone is highest at almost all levels in the troposphere during the September-November season and lowest during, March-May. There is a relative maximum at all of the sites in the mid-troposphere during all seasons of the year (the largest amounts are usually found near the tropopause). This maximum is particularly pronounced during, the September-November season. On average, throughout the troposphere at all seasons, the Galapagos has larger ozone amounts than the western Pacific sites. A trajectory climatology is used to identify the major flow regimes that are associated with the characteristic ozone behavior at various altitudes and seasons. The enhanced ozone seen in the mid-troposphere during September-November is associated with flow from the continents. In the western Pacific this flow is usually from southern Africa (although 10-day trajectories do not always reach the continent), but also may come from Australia and Indonesia. In the Galapagos the ozone peak in the mid-troposphere is seen in flow from the South American continent and particularly from northern Brazil. The time of year and flow characteristics associated with the ozone mixing ratio peaks seen in both the western and eastern Pacific suggest that these enhanced ozone values result from biomass burning. In the upper troposphere low ozone amounts are seen with flow that originates in the convective western Pacific.

  13. The Response of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone to ENSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Ziemke, J. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Waugh, D. W.; Lang, C.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    We have successfully reproduced the Ozone ENSO Index (OEI) in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) forced by observed sea surface temperatures over a 25-year period. The vertical ozone response to ENSO is consistent with changes in the Walker circulation. We derive the sensitivity of simulated ozone to ENSO variations using linear regression analysis. The western Pacific and Indian Ocean region shows similar positive ozone sensitivities from the surface to the upper troposphere, in response to positive anomalies in the Nino 3.4 Index. The eastern and central Pacific region shows negative sensitivities with the largest sensitivity in the upper troposphere. This vertical response compares well with that derived from SHADOZ ozonesondes in each region. The OEI reveals a response of tropospheric ozone to circulation change that is nearly independent of changes in emissions and thus it is potentially useful in chemistry-climate model evaluation.

  14. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  15. AN APPROACH FOR CHARACTERIZING TROPOSPHERIC OZONE RISK TO FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk tropospheric ozone poses to forests in the United States is dependent on the variation in ozone exposure across the distribution of the forests in question and the various environmental and climate factors predominant in the region. All these factors have a spatial natur...

  16. Discoveries about Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Satellite and Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been producing near-red time tropospheric ozone satellite maps from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) sensor since 1997. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument are at:. Pollution in the tropics is influenced by biomass burning and by transport patterns that favor recirculation and in other cases reflect climate variability like the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation [Thompson et al., 2001]. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical gradients in pollution. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Further insights into the role of chemical and dynamical influences have emerged from the first 4-5 years of SHADOZ data (more than 2000 ozone profiles). Highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric ozone suggest that dynamics is as important as pollution in determining tropical ozone distributions.

  17. The global consequences of increasing tropospheric ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Recent analyses of long term records of tropospheric ozone measurements in the Northern Hemisphere suggest that it is increasing at a rate of 1 to 2 percent per year. Because of this, it is argued that the amount of atmospheric warming due to increasing tropospheric ozone is comparable to, or possibly even greater than, the amount of warming due to the increase of carbon dioxide. Unlike all other climatically important trace gases, ozone is toxic, and increases in its concentration will result in serious environmental damage, as well as impairment of human health.

  18. Processes Affecting Tropospheric Ozone Inferred from Ozonesonde and Other Tracer Data from the R/V R H Brown Atlantic Cruise (37N-34S) in January-February 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Doddridge, B. G.; Luke, W. T.; Johnson, J. E.; Witte, J. C.; Reynolds, R. M.; Johnson, B.; Oltmans, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    During the Aerosols-99 trans-Atlantic cruise from Norfolk, VA, to Cape Town, South Africa, 22 ozonesondes were launched from the NOAA R/V R H Brown between 17 Jan and 6 Feb 1999, with all sondes but one reaching 30 km. A composite of ozone profiles along the transect shows high free tropospheric ozone (up to 100 ppbv at 9 km) between 5N and 20S, a coherent feature straddling either side of the ITCZ. Latitudinal variations of tropospheric ozone are interpreted using correlative measurements of surface ozone, CO, water vapor, and aerosol optical thickness (column absorbance) measured from the ship. Elevated ozone in the lower troposphere results from photochemical reactions of precursors emitted by biomass burning north of the ITCZ. However, the greatest ozone mixing ratios are in the mid-troposphere south of the ITCZ, which gives evidence of interhemispheric transport. Column-integrated tropospheric ozone, 35 DU from 0-16 km, agrees with that derived from the TOMS satellite by the modified-residual method [Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. NCEP wind fields, ship-launched radiosondes and back trajectories are consistent with a picture of recirculating air parcels centered in the tropical Atlantic region which is identified with the maximum wave-one amplitude in total ozone seen in sondes and by satellite.

  19. Tropospheric ozone simulation with a chemistry-general circulation model: Influence of higher hydrocarbon chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2000-09-01

    We present an improved version of the global chemistry-general circulation model of Roelofs and Lelieveld [1997]. The major model improvement is the representation of higher hydrocarbon chemistry, implemented by means of the Carbon Bond Mechanism 4 (CBM-4). Simulated tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote locations, which agreed well with observations in the previous model version, are not affected much by the chemistry of higher hydrocarbons. However, ozone formation in the polluted boundary layer is significantly enhanced, resulting in a more realistic simulation of surface ozone in regions such as North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Our model simulates a net global tropospheric ozone production of 73 Tg yr-1 when higher hydrocarbon chemistry is considered, and -36 Tg yr-1 without higher hydrocarbon chemistry. The simulated seasonality of surface CO agrees well with observations. However, the southern hemispheric maximum for O3 and CO associated with biomass burning emissions is delayed by 1 month compared to the observations, which demonstrates the need for a better representation of biomass burning emissions. Simulated peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations agree well with observed values, although the variability is underestimated. OH decreases strongly in the continental boundary layer due to its reaction with higher hydrocarbons. However, this is almost compensated by an increase of OH over oceans in the lower half of the troposphere. Consideration of higher hydrocarbon chemistry decreases the global annual tropospheric OH concentration by about 8% compared to a background tropospheric chemistry scheme. Further, the radiative forcing by anthropogenically increased tropospheric ozone on the northern hemisphere increases, especially in July. The forcing also increases on the southern hemisphere where biomass burning emissions produce tropospheric ozone, except between December and June, that is, outside the biomass burning season, when ozone

  20. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Climatology: Approaches Based on SHADOZ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hudson, Robert D.; Andrade, Marcos; Coetzee, Geert J. R.; Posny, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the central website, , for 12 stations that span the entire equatorial zone [Thompson et al., JGR, 108,8238, 2003]. The most striking features of tropospheric ozone profiles in SHADOZ are: (1) persistent longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; (2) intense short-term variability triggered by changing meteorological conditions and advection of pollution. The implications of these results for profile climatologies and trends are described along with several approaches to classifying ozone profiles: 1) Seasonal means during MAM (March-April-May) and SON (September-October-November); 2) Maxima and minima, identified through correlation of TOMS-derived TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) column depth with the sonde integrated tropospheric ozone column; and 3) Meteorological regimes, a technique that is effective in the subtropics where tropical and mid-latitude conditions alternate.

  1. Tropospheric Ozone Over the North Pacific from Ozonesdonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Harris, J. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Liu, H. Y.; Voemel, H.; Chan, C. Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Brackett, V. G.; Chang, W. L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the TRACE-P mission, ozone vertical profile measurements were made at a number of locations in the North Pacific. At most of the sites there is also a multi-year record of ozonesonde observations. From seven locations in the western Pacific (Hong Kong; Taipei; Jeju Island, Korea; and Naha, Kagoshima, Tsukuba, and Sapporo, Japan), a site in the central Pacific (Hilo, HI), and a site on the west coast of the U.S. (Trinidad Head, CA) both a seasonal and event specific picture of tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific emerges. At all of the sites there is a pronounced spring maximum through the troposphere. There are, however, differences in the timing and strength of this feature. Over Japan the northward movement of the jet during the spring and summer influences the timing of the seasonal maximum. The ozone profiles suggest that transport of ozone rich air from the stratosphere plays a strong role in the development of this maximum. During March and April at Hong Kong ozone is enhanced in a layer that extends from the lower free troposphere into the upper troposphere that likely has its origin in biomass burning in northern Southeast Asia and equatorial Africa. During the winter the Pacific subtropical sites (latitude -25N) are dominated by air with a low-latitude, marine source that gives low ozone amounts particularly in the upper troposphere. In the summer in the boundary layer at all of the sites marine air dominates and ozone amounts are generally quite low (less than 25 ppb). The exception is near large population centers (Tokyo and Taipei but not Hong Kong) where pollution events can give amounts in excess of 80 ppb. During the TRACE-P intensive campaign period (February-April 2001) tropospheric ozone amounts were rather typical of those seen in the long-term records of the stations with multi-year soundings.

  2. Distribution of tropospheric ozone over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyola, M. I.; Joseph, E.; Nalli, N. R.; Morris, V. R.; Stearns, C. A.; Barnet, C.; Wolfe, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Previous observational studies have shown the significance of planetary wave mechanics in the formation and transport of ozone and other constituents. Research suggests that Rossby waves (RW) create ozone filaments that are transported quasi-horizontally along isentropic surfaces, and gravity waves (GW) are associated vertical transport [Danielsen et al., 1991; Reid and Vaughan, 1991; Tsuda et al., 1994; Teitelbaum et al.,1996; Pierce and Grant, 1998; Grant et al., 1998; Fujiwara et al., 1998, Stone, 2006; Thompson et al., 2007, 2011]. This behavior, originally seen in mid-latitudes, has been also been observed in the tropical atmosphere. Furthermore, Tsuda et al. (1994) suggested the possibility that Kelvin waves (which are considered a special case of GW), may cause stratospheric airmasses to intrude into the troposphere, a phenomenon now referred to as 'stratospheric intrusions' or 'folding'. It is also a possibility that interactions between the tropical upper troposphere (UT) and the mid-latitude lower stratosphere (LS) associated with RW breaking (RWB) are a source of ozone in the tropical upper troposphere. Based on these processes, Thompson et al. [2007, 2011] proposes 4 major dynamical ozone formation mechanisms: stratospherically injected ozone due to stratosphere-troposphere interactions (STE), boundary layer ozone (BL), convectively lifted ozone (CL), and advected ozone. Obtaining quantitative approximations of the contribution of each process towards the total tropospheric ozone budget is not known accurately and is still an area of ongoing research. Although satellite instruments now provide high-temporal and spatial observations of tropospheric ozone and other atmospheric parameters, there are limitations in the vertical resolving power of most satellite sensors. Regular balloon-borne ozone and weather sensors can complement satellite instruments, providing high vertical resolution data that can be used to show the presence of laminar ozone in the

  3. Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, J. ); Watson, C.E. ); Larsen, J.C. ); Logan, J.A. )

    1990-03-20

    An analysis of more than 22,000 ozone profiles from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE 1) (1979-1981) and SAGE 2 (1984-1987) between 50{degree}N and 50{degree}S is used in conjunction with 9 years (1979-1987) of daily global depictions of total ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument abroad Nimbus 7 to investigate the spatial distribution and seasonal cycle of the integrated amount of ozone in the troposphere. In the tropics, highest concentrations are found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean downwind (west) of Africa and maximize during the time when biomass burning is most prevalent, between July and October. A different seasonal cycle in the tropics is also observed over Indonesia where a relative maximum is present in the March-April time frame, likewise consistent with when biomass burning is most prevalent. At mid-latitudes, highest concentrations are found downwind of Asia and maximize in the summer. Relatively higher amounts of tropospheric ozone are similarly observed downwind of North America and Europe. At mid-latitudes, the ratio between the amount of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere and the amount in the southern hemisphere is 1.4, in good agreement with in situ measurements. A detailed comparison of this satellite technique with available ozonesonde measurements suggests that the accuracy of this method for deriving the climatology of tropospheric ozone is probably better than 10% in the tropics and 15% at mid-latitudes. The authors also show that TOMS total ozone measurements in the tropics can often be used independently to provide important qualitative insight into the behavior of tropospheric ozone at these low latitudes.

  4. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of tropospheric ozone in the Canadian Arctic during springtime. Measurements at Eureka Weather Station revealed that mountains have a significant effect on the vertical structure of ozone above Ellesmere Island. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when the flow of air from over the sea ice was blocked by mountains. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be shown in the presentation, while one is described in this paper.

  5. The photochemistry of synoptic-scale ozone synthesis Implications for the global tropospheric ozone budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Browell, E. V.; Vukovich, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation of nonmethane hydrocarbons represents a source of tropospheric ozone that is primarily confined to the boundary layers of several highly industrialized regions. (Each region has an area greater than one million km/sq cm). Using a photochemical model, the global tropospheric ozone budget is reexamined by including the in-situ production from these localized regimes. The results from these calculations suggest that the net source due to this photochemistry, which takes place on the synoptic scale, is approximately as large as the amount calculated for global scale photochemical processes which consider only the oxidation of methane and carbon monoxide. Such a finding may have a considerable impact on our understanding of the tropospheric ozone budget. The model results for ozone show reasonable agreement with the climatological summer distribution of ozone and the oxides of nitrogen at the surface and with the vertical distribution of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons obtained during a 1980 field program.

  6. Subtropical Potential Vorticity Intrusion Drives Increasing Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Central Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Graf, Hans-F.; Lan, Xiaoqing; Gong, Hainan; Nath, Reshmita; Hu, Kaiming; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Drawn from multiple reanalysis datasets, an increasing trend and westward shift in the number of Potential Vorticity intrusion events over the Pacific are evident. The increased frequency can be linked to a long-term trend in upper tropospheric equatorial westerly wind and subtropical jets during boreal winter to spring. These may be resulting from anomalous warming and cooling over the western Pacific warm pool and the tropical eastern Pacific, respectively. The intrusions brought dry and ozone rich air of stratospheric origin deep into the tropics. In the tropical upper troposphere, interannual ozone variability is mainly related to convection associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Zonal mean stratospheric overturning circulation organizes the transport of ozone rich air poleward and downward to the high and midlatitudes leading there to higher ozone concentration. In addition to these well described mechanisms, we observe a long-term increasing trend in ozone flux over the northern hemispheric outer tropical (10–25°N) central Pacific that results from equatorward transport and downward mixing from the midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during PV intrusions. This increase in tropospheric ozone flux over the Pacific Ocean may affect the radiative processes and changes the budget of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals. PMID:26868836

  7. Subtropical Potential Vorticity Intrusion Drives Increasing Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Graf, Hans-F; Lan, Xiaoqing; Gong, Hainan; Nath, Reshmita; Hu, Kaiming; Wang, Lin

    2016-02-12

    Drawn from multiple reanalysis datasets, an increasing trend and westward shift in the number of Potential Vorticity intrusion events over the Pacific are evident. The increased frequency can be linked to a long-term trend in upper tropospheric equatorial westerly wind and subtropical jets during boreal winter to spring. These may be resulting from anomalous warming and cooling over the western Pacific warm pool and the tropical eastern Pacific, respectively. The intrusions brought dry and ozone rich air of stratospheric origin deep into the tropics. In the tropical upper troposphere, interannual ozone variability is mainly related to convection associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Zonal mean stratospheric overturning circulation organizes the transport of ozone rich air poleward and downward to the high and midlatitudes leading there to higher ozone concentration. In addition to these well described mechanisms, we observe a long-term increasing trend in ozone flux over the northern hemispheric outer tropical (10-25°N) central Pacific that results from equatorward transport and downward mixing from the midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during PV intrusions. This increase in tropospheric ozone flux over the Pacific Ocean may affect the radiative processes and changes the budget of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals.

  8. Tropospheric ozone pool over Arabian sea during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the remarkable and stable phenomenon-enhancement of the tropospheric ozone over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season. Satellite data (SCIAMACHY LNM, OMI/MLS and TES) showed a strong and clear ozone seasonality over AS with ~42 DU maxima in pre-monsoon season. With the help of MACC reanalysis data, our results showed that 3/4 of the enhanced ozone during this season is contributed at 0-8 km height. The main source of the ozone enhancement is believed to be a long range transport, together with a suitable meteorological condition for pollution accumulation. Local chemistry plays different roles over different altitudes. However we believe the contribution to the tropospheric ozone enhancement from the chemistry is low. The contribution of the STE is unclear. In addition, the interannual variation of the pre-monsoon tropospheric ozone enhancement over AS is discussed. The anomalies in 2005 and 2010 could be due to the dynamical variation of ozone caused by the El Niño events.

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  10. Recent Changes in Tropospheric Ozone in the Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of tropical tropospheric column ozone variability on time scales varying from a few days to a solar cycle. The study is based on more than 20 years (1979 to the present) of tropospheric column ozone time series derived from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method using total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data. Results indicate three distinct regions in the tropics with distinctly three different zonal characteristics related to seasonal, interannual and solar variabilities. These three regions are the eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and western Pacific. Tropospheric column ozone in the Atlantic region peaks at about the same time (September-October) from 20 N to 20 S. The amplitude of the annual cycle, however, varies from about 3 to 6 Dobson unit (DU) from north to south of the equator. In comparison, the annual cycle in both the eastern and western Pacific is generally week and the phase varies from peak values in March and April in the northern hemisphere to September and October in the southern hemisphere. The interannual pattern in the three regions are also very different. The Atlantic region indicates a quasi biennial oscillation in the tropospheric column ozone which is out of phase with the stratospheric ozone. This is consistent with the photochemical control of this region caused by high pollution and high concentration of ozone producing precursors. The observed pattern, however, does not seem to be related to the interannual variability in ozone precursors related to biomass burning. Instead, it appears to be a manifestation of the UV modulation of upper tropospheric chemistry on a QBO time scale caused by stratospheric ozone. During El Nino events, there is anomalously low ozone in the eastern Pacific and high values in the western Pacific indicating the effects of convectively driven transport. The observed increase of 10-20 DU in tropospheric column ozone in the Indonesian region in the western

  11. Enhance Retrieval Sensitivity to Lower Tropospheric Ozone from OMI Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.; Yang, K.

    2015-12-01

    An advanced algorithm to retrieve ozone profiles and tropospheric ozone from OMI radiance has been developed. The algorithm will be updated to improve sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone and reduce the interference from surface albedo. These efforts include: analyzing the spatiotemporal and spectral variation of fitting residuals in 270-350 nm to improve the characterization of OMI measurements errors, optimize fitting window using longer wavelengths up to 350 nm and explore alternative inversion techniques to further improve retrieval sensitivity. We will derive cloud and wavelength-dependent surface albedo parameters using the Ring effect and the O2-O2 absorption from longer wavelengths (340-365 nm) and apply them to ozone fitting windows instead of fitting them.

  12. On the role of climate variability on tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The response of tropospheric ozone to changing atmospheric circulation is poorly understood owing to a lack of reliable long-term observations. There is great current interest in quantifying the extent to which observed ozone trends over recent decades at northern mid-latitude sites are driven by changes in precursor emissions versus shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns. In this talk, I present a detailed analysis of the impact of interannual to decadal climate variability on tropospheric ozone, based on observations and a suite of chemistry-climate model hindcast simulations. Decadal shifts in circulation regimes modulate long-range transport of Asian pollution, leading to very different seasonal ozone trends at Mauna Loa Observatory in the subtropical Pacific Ocean. During autumn, the flow of ozone-rich air from Eurasia towards Hawaii strengthened in the mid-1990s onwards, as a result of the positive phase of the Pacific North American pattern, increasing ozone at Mauna Loa. During spring, weakening airflow from Asia in the 2000s, tied to La-Niña-like decadal cooling in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, offsets ozone increases at Mauna Loa that otherwise would have occurred due to rising Asian emissions. The circulation-driven variability in Asian pollution over the subtropical North Pacific regions manifests mainly as changes in the mean as opposed to in transport events. At high-elevation Western U.S. sites, intrusions of stratospheric ozone deep into the troposphere during spring exert a greater influence than Asian pollution, particularly on the high tail of observed surface ozone distribution. We show that year-to-year variability in springtime high-ozone episodes measured in Western U.S. surface air is tied to known modes of climate variability, which modulate meanders in the polar frontal jet conducive to deep stratospheric ozone intrusions. Specifically, the La Niña-related increase in the frequency of deep stratospheric intrusion events plays a

  13. Stratospheric ozone intrusions into the troposphere over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kois, B.; Litynska, Z.; Jaczewski, A.

    The budget of ozone water vapour and other substances in the UTLS region is influenced by the transport and mixing across the tropopause The research is based mainly on regular ozonesoundings performed in Legionowo Poland 52 40 N 20 97 E since 1979 Until May 1993 the OSE ozone sensor of Brewer Mast type has been used and since June 1993 the ozonesoundings are continued with the ECC sensors Special attention was paid to the ozonopause defined as the bottom layer of ozone rich stratospheric air In most cases the ozonopause can be found easily by visual inspection but in some cases the wavy structure of ozone profile or weak ozone gradient in the UTLS region make some difficulties Profiles of temperature and relative humidity can give additional information The analysis of mutual location of tropopause and ozonopause show cases of tropical advection high tropopause and cases of ozone intrusions into the troposphere low ozonopause For some episodes dispersed throughout the year the ozonopause descended down to the altitude of 4-6 km For studying the origin of the air masses coming over Poland the 3-D backward and forward trajectories are used A unique episode of deep stratospheric intrusion into the troposphere occurred on the 11 th October 2005 The ozone sonde launched at Legionowo on that day revealed record ozone amount in the troposphere 78 D and record ozone mixing ratio near 4km 160 ppbv During earlier episode on the 4 th August 1993 very high ozone values of 100-110 ppbv were observed at Legionowo in the layer

  14. Ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Robert D. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of a 2-part Conference Publication. This document contains papers presented at the 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium held at Charlottesville, Virginia, from June 4-13, 1992. The papers cover topics in both Tropospheric and Stratospheric research. These topics include ozone trends and climatology, ground based, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite measurements, Arctic and Antarctic research, global and regional modeling, and volcanic effects.

  15. Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the first part of a 2-part Conference Publication. This document contains papers presented at the 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium held at the Charlottesville, Virginia, from June 4-13, 1992. The papers cover topics in both Tropospheric and Stratospheric research. These topics include ozone trends and climatology, ground based, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite measurements, Arctic and Antarctic research, global and regional modeling, and volcanic effects.

  16. Contribution of stratospheric ozone to the interannual variability of tropospheric ozone in the northern extratropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Yukio; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    2008-09-01

    We examined the role of variability in the input of stratospheric ozone on the interannual variability of tropospheric ozone in the northern extratropics using correlations of monthly ozone anomalies for the lower stratosphere and the troposphere. We used output from a multiyear simulation of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Chemistry and Transport Model (CTM), and evaluated model results using ozonesonde data. The GSFC CTM explicitly calculates stratospheric ozone and simulates separate tracers of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone (O3-strat and O3-trop, respectively). The climatological seasonal cycle of ozone shows that O3-strat contributes significantly to the spring maximum of ozone at 500 hPa, ˜40% at high latitudes and ˜30% at midlatitudes. We find large regional differences in the correlation of ozone in the lower stratosphere and troposphere in the model that are supported by the ozonesonde data. Highest correlations are found from the eastern Atlantic to Europe, from the eastern Pacific to the western United States, and over the polar regions, in winter-spring. This spatial pattern is due to the input of O3-strat into the troposphere. The distribution and time lag of the correlations (highest with no lag for midlatitudes and a 1-2 month lag for polar regions) are consistent with the dynamical indicators of stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE), such as storm tracks in the midlatitudes and slow descending motion in the polar region. Our simple approach can be widely applied to diagnose the effect of STE on tropospheric ozone.

  17. Study of Tropospheric ozone (TOR) variability over Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Salgado, Rui; Antón, Manuel; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria

    2010-05-01

    To study tropospheric ozone (O3) variability and the increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration over the Iberian Peninsula, NASA Langley Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) data has been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric O3 amount over the entire Iberian Peninsula was found in June (~41 DU) and a minimum in December (~29 DU). Over North Atlantic Coast (NAC) and Mediterranean Coast (MC) the maximum tropospheric O3 amount was found in July (~41 DU) and June (~42 DU) and the minimum was found in December (~28 DU and ~30 DU, respectively). The West Atlantic Coast (WAC), Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) and Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) have an extended period of maximum tropospheric O3 amount, during June and July over WAC (~44 DU) and PMR (~39 DU), and during May, June and July over CIP (~40 DU). Similarly, WAC, PMR and CIP have an extended period of minimum tropospheric O3 amount, during December and January over WAC (~30 DU) and CIP (~29 DU) and November and December over PMR (~28 DU). The high concentration of ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near Iberian Peninsula are due to the presence of Azores anticyclone, extending in ridge through the Cantabrian Sea to the British Isles and West and Central Europe, and related photochemistry and dynamics, has profound effect on the observed higher ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric O3 amount has been observed with large variation over NAC (~49%), followed by WAC (~48%) and MC (~41%) compared to CIP and PMR (~38%). When the data are compared over the Iberian Peninsula for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR. It has been observed that

  18. Accurate Satellite-Derived Estimates of Tropospheric Ozone Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenically-produced tropospheric O3 are derived primarily from models. Here, we use tropospheric ozone and cloud data from several instruments in the A-train constellation of satellites as well as information from the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System to accurately estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing from tropospheric O3 for January and July 2005. We improve upon previous estimates of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios from a residual approach using the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) by incorporating cloud pressure information from OMI. Since we cannot distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources with the satellite data, our estimates reflect the total forcing due to tropospheric O3. We focus specifically on the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud effect on both the shortand long-wave radiative forcing. The estimates presented here can be used to validate present day O3 radiative forcing produced by models.

  19. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the SHADOZ Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: http://code9 16.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; La Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  20. Influence of Chlorine Emissions on Ozone Levels in the Troposphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine emissions from cooling towers are emitted mainly as hypochlous acid, not as molecular chlorine. Chlorine emissions from cooling towers in electric utilities in the U.S. are estimated to be 4,400 tons per year. Molecular chlorine increases more tropospheric ozone than hyp...

  1. Spatial distribution of tropospheric ozone in western Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, S.M.; Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    We quantified the distribution of tropospheric ozone in topographically complex western Washington state, USA (total area a??6000 km2), using passive ozone samplers along nine river drainages to measure ozone exposure from near sea level to high-elevation mountain sites. Weekly average ozone concentrations were higher with increasing distance from the urban core and at higher elevations, increasing a mean of 1.3 ppbv per 100 m elevation gain for all mountain transects. Weekly average ozone concentrations were generally highest in Cascade Mountains drainages east and southeast of Seattle (maximum=55a??67 pbv) and in the Columbia River Gorge east of Portland (maximum=59 ppbv), and lowest in the western Olympic Peninsula (maximum=34 ppbv). Higher ozone concentrations in the Cascade Mountains and Columbia River locations downwind of large cities indicate that significant quantities of ozone and ozone precursors are being transported eastward toward rural wildland areas by prevailing westerly winds. In addition, temporal (week to week) variation in ozone distribution is synchronous within and between all drainages sampled, which indicates that there is regional coherence in air pollution detectable with weekly averages. These data provide insight on large-scale spatial variation of ozone distribution in western Washington, and will help regulatory agencies optimize future monitoring networks and identify locations where human health and natural resources could be at risk.

  2. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Distribution on Features of Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Mitskevich, Yaroslav; Shalamyansky, Arkady

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study connections between stratospheric ozone distribution and general circulation patterns in the troposphere and aim to investigate the causal relationship between them, including the practical side of the influence of stratospheric ozone on tropospheric medium-range weather and regional climate. Analysis of several decades of observational data, which has been performed at the A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, suggests a clear relation between the stratospheric ozone distribution, upper stratospheric temperature field and planetary-scale air-masses boundaries in the troposphere [1]. Furthermore, it has been shown that each global air-mass, which can be attributed to the corresponding circulation cell in a conceptual model of tropospheric general circulation, has a distinct "regime" of ozone vertical distribution in the stratosphere [1-3]. Proceeding from atmospheric reanalyses combined with satellite and ground-based observations, we study time evolution of the upper-level frontal zones (stationary fronts) with the relevant jet streams, which can be treated as boundaries of global air-masses, in connection with the tropopause height and distribution of ozone in the stratosphere. For that, we develop an algorithm for automated identification of jet streams, stationary fronts and tropopause surface from gridded data (reanalyses or modelling results), and apply it for several cases associated with rapid changes in the stratospheric temperature and ozone fields, including SSW events over Eastern Siberia. Aiming to study the causal relationship between the features of tropospheric circulation and changes in the stratospheric ozone field, we estimate the time lag between these categories of processes on different time scales. Finally, we discuss the possibility to use the elementary circulation mechanisms classification (by B.L. Dzerdzeevski) in connection with analysis of the stratospheric ozone field and the relevant stratosphere-troposphere

  3. Influence of Stratospheric Ozone Distribution on Tropospheric Circulation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Mitskevich, Yaroslav; Shalamyansky, Arkady

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the cause-and-effect relationship between the stratospheric ozone distribution and tropospheric circulation, focusing our attention mainly on the possible "top-down" side of this interaction: the impact of the stratosphere on tropospheric circulation patterns and the associated weather and climate conditions. Proceeding from analysis of several decades of observational data performed at the A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, which suggests a clear relation between the stratospheric ozone distribution, temperature field of the lower stratosphere and air-masses boundaries in the upper troposphere, we combine atmospheric reanalyzes and ground-based observations with numerical simulations to identify features of the general circulation that can be traced back to anomalies in the stratospheric ozone field. Specifically, we analyze the time evolution of instantaneous position of the stationary upper-level atmospheric fronts, defining the boundaries of global tropospheric air masses associated with basic cells of general circulation. We assume that stratospheric heating in ozone-related processes can exert its influence on the location of stationary fronts and characteristics of general circulation cells by displacing the tropopause, which itself is defined by a dynamical equilibrium between tropospheric vertical convection and stratospheric radiative heating. As an example, we consider the Spring season of 2013. Unusually high total ozone column (TOC) values observed in Northern Hemisphere (NH) at the beginning of 2013 induced low tropopause level in the Atlantic region and southward displacement of the polar front, leading to an anomalously cold Spring in Europe. Furthermore, we study manifestations of this mechanism in the aftermath of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. In particular, the November 2013 SSW over Eastern Siberia, which is characterized by abrupt stratospheric temperatures change in the course of one day

  4. An improved tropospheric ozone database retrieved from SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Rozanov, Alexei; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Ebojie, Felix; Rahpoe, Nabiz; Bötel, Stefan; Burrows, John

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most important green-house gases and the main component of photochemical smog. It is either transported from the stratosphere or photochemically produced during pollution events in the troposphere that threaten the respiratory system. To investigate sources, transport mechanisms of tropospheric ozone in a global view, limb nadir matching (LNM) technique applied with SCIAMACHY instrument is used to retrieve tropospheric ozone. With the fact that 90% ozone is located in the stratosphere and only about 10% can be observed in the troposphere, the usage of satellite data requires highly qualified nadir and limb data. In this study we show an improvement of SCIAMACHY limb data as well as its influence on tropospheric ozone results. The limb nadir matching technique is also refined to increase the quality of the tropospheric ozone. The results are validated with ozone sonde measurements.

  5. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  6. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2012-08-01

    We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  7. Tropospheric Bromine Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol/mol (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4 %. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  8. Variability in Tropical Tropospheric Ozone as Observed by SHADOZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Coetzee, Geert J. R.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hudson, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the central website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Some results to date indicate reliability of the measurement and highly variable interactions between ozone and tropical meteorology. For example: 1. By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement was achieved [Thompson et al., 2003al; 2. Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian and most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in column amount over the course of a year [Thompson et al., 2002b]. 3. Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10- 15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this is the cause of the zonal wave-one feature in total ozone [Shiotani, 1992]. The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interpretations of SHADOZ time-series and approaches to classification suggested by SHADOZ data over Africa and the Indian Ocean will be described.

  9. Lightning and Other Influences On Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: Empirical Studies of Covariation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Hudson, Robert D.; Witte, Jacquelyne C.

    2003-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical tropospheric ozone are important radiatively active species, with particularly large effects in the upper third of the troposphere. Temporal variability of O3 has proved difficult to simulate day by day in process models. Thus, individual roles of lightning, biomass burning, and other pollution in providing precursor NO(x), radicals, and chain carriers (CO, hydrocarbons) remain unquantified by simulation, and it is theoretically reasonable that individual roles are magnified by a joint synergy. We use wavelet analysis and Burg-algorithm maximum entropy spectral analyses to describe time-scales and correlation of ozone with proxies for processes controlling its concentration. Our empirical studies link time variations apparent in several datasets: the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network stations (Nairobi, Fiji), and auxiliary series with power to explain ozone-determining processes, with some interpretation based on the TTO (Tropical Tropospheric Ozone) product derived from TOMS (the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The auxiliary series are The OTD/LIS(Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor) measurements of the lightning NO(x) source, the OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation)measurement of high-topped clouds, and standard meteorological variables from the United States NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) and Data Assimilation Office analyses. Concentrating on equatorial ozone, we compare the statistical evidence on the variability of tropospheric ozone. Important variations occur on approximately two-week, two-month (Madden-Julian Oscillation) and annual scales, and relations with OLR suggest controls associated with continental clouds. Hence we are now using the Lightning Imaging Sensor data set to indicate NO(x) sources. We report initial results defining relative roles of the process mentioned affecting O3 using their covariance properties.

  10. Effects of stratospheric ozone recovery on tropospheric chemistry and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S.; Wang, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone has decreased greatly since 1980 due to ozone depleting substances (ODSs). As a result of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, stratospheric ozone is expected to recover towards its pre-1980 level in the coming decades. We examine the implications of stratospheric ozone recovery for the tropospheric chemistry and ozone air quality with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Significant decreases in surface ozone photolysis rates due to stratospheric ozone recovery are simulated. Increases in ozone lifetime by up to 7% are calculated in the troposphere. The global average OH decreases by 1.74% and the global burden of tropospheric ozone increases by 0.78%. The perturbations to tropospheirc ozone and surface ozone show large seasonal and spatial variations. General increases in surface ozone are calculated for each season, with increases by up to 5% for some regions.

  11. Creating a Satellite-Based Record of Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, John; Edwards, David P.; Francis, Gene L.; Worden, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    The TES retrieval algorithm has been applied to IASI radiances. We compare the retrieved ozone profiles with ozone sonde profiles for mid-latitudes for the year 2008. We find a positive bias in the IASI ozone profiles in the UTLS region of up to 22 %. The spatial coverage of the IASI instrument allows sampling of effectively the same air mass with several IASI scenes simultaneously. Comparisons of the root-mean-square of an ensemble of IASI profiles to theoretical errors indicate that the measurement noise and the interference of temperature and water vapour on the retrieval together mostly explain the empirically derived random errors. The total degrees of freedom for signal of the retrieval for ozone are 3.1 +/- 0.2 and the tropospheric degrees of freedom are 1.0 +/- 0.2 for the described cases. IASI ozone profiles agree within the error bars with coincident ozone profiles derived from a TES stare sequence for the ozone sonde station at Bratt's Lake (50.2 deg N, 104.7 deg W).

  12. Seasonal Variability in Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis

    2015-04-01

    We report on the vertical distribution and seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone over the Middle East through one year of weekly ozonesondes launched from Doha, Qatar during 2014. A total of 49 2Z-V7 DMT/EN-SCI Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes employing a 1% buffered potassium iodide solution (KI), coupled with iMet-1-RS GPS radiosondes were launched around 1300 local time. The authors used the SkySonde telemetry software (developed by CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and developed robust in-house data quality assurance and validation methodologies. The average height of the thermal tropopause is between 15-17.5 km (125-85 hPa). Monthly average relative humidity around the tropopause shows an enhancement during the months of June through the beginning of October. Monthly average temperature profiles show the development of the subtropical subsidence inversion around 5-6 km (450-520 hPa) between the months of April through October. The subsidence inversion is strongest during the months of June and July and is accompanied by a sharp drop in relative humidity over a 100-300 m in the vertical. The monthly average ozone background concentration between the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and the subsidence inversion increases from 50 ppb in the winter to almost 80 ppb in the summer months. An enhancement of up to 50% in the average ozone in the mid-to-upper troposphere (above the subsidence inversion) is strongest during the summer months (June through September) and results in average concentrations between 80-100 ppb. In the upper troposphere (above 13 km/200 hPa) ozone concentrations are highest during the spring and summer months. This is coupled with a drop in the average height of the tropopause. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows the enhancement in mid-to-upper tropospheric ozone in the summer is due to persistent high pressure over the Middle East between the months of June through September. Evidence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

  13. Urban greening impacts on tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, R.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Morfopoulos, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cities are characterized by elevated air temperatures as well as high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Cities' greening in form of urban parks, street trees, and vegetation on roofs and walls of buildings is supposed to generally mitigate negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from certain popular urban plants in combination with the elevated concentrations of NOx have the potential to increase ground-level ozone concentrations - with negative impacts on health, agriculture, and climate. Policies targeting reduction of ground-level ozone in urban and suburban areas therefore must consider limiting BVOC emissions along with measures for decreasing NOx and VOC from anthropogenic sources. For this, integrated climate/ chemistry models are needed that take into account the species-specific physiological responses of urban plants which in turn drive their emission behavior. Current models of urban climate and air quality 1) do not account for the feedback between ozone concentrations, productivity, and BVOC emission and 2) do not distinguish different physiological properties of urban tree species. Instead environmental factors such as light, temperature, carbon dioxide, and water supply are applied disregarding interactions between such influences. Thus we may not yet be able to represent the impacts of air pollution under multiple changed conditions such as climate change, altered anthropogenic emission patterns, and new urban structures. We present here the implementation of the new BVOC emission model (Morfopolous et al., in press) that derives BVOC emissions directly from the electron production potential and consumption from photosynthesis calculation that is already supplied by the CLM land surface model. The new approach has the advantage that many environmental drivers of BVOC emissions are implicitly considered in the description of plant photosynthesis and phenology. We

  14. Distribution of total ozone and stratospheric ozone in the tropics - Implications for the distribution of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack; Larsen, Jack C.

    1987-01-01

    Climatologies of total columnar ozone and integrated stratospheric ozone amounts at low latitudes (15 deg N to 15 deg S), derived from satellite observations, are presented. A significant longitudinal variability in total ozone is present, with highest values generally located between 60 deg W and 60 deg E. The integrated stratospheric component of total ozone, on the other hand, does not exhibit a longitudinal preference for high values. Therefore it is hypothesized that the climatological longitudinal distribution of total ozone reflects the variability of the abundance of tropospheric ozone at low latitudes. Furthermore, it is speculated that in situ photochemical production of ozone resulting from biomass burning may be responsible for the observed enhancement of total ozone at these longitudes.

  15. Tropical tropospheric ozone from total ozone mapping spectrometer by a modified residual method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Robert D.; Thompson, Anne M.

    1998-09-01

    A modified residual method for deriving time-averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) has been refined [cf Kim et al., 1996] and applied to a 2-year period, 1991-1992. This period was selected because of the availability of a unique sonde record at tropical Atlantic and near-Atlantic sites: Natal, Brazil; Ascension Island; and Brazzaville. The essentials of the modified-residual method are (1) Fourier analysis to identify the latitude range for use of the method; (2) use of the wave-like pattern to estimate stratospheric ozone column and a background tropospheric ozone column, which is defined as the amount of ozone expected in the absence of chemical pollution; (3) assumption that the wave-one feature is tropospheric; and (4) the stratospheric and background tropospheric ozone amounts consistent with the constraint of the three station ozonesonde measurements for total tropospheric ozone. An excess ozone (pollution) signal is also derived from TOMS total ozone. Parameters derived from the modified residual method are evaluated with independent data to verify the quality of the TTO. Derived tropical stratospheric column ozone for 1991-1992 agrees very well with the corresponding UARS Microwave Limb Sounder and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment records (to within 5 Dobson units (DU) for the latter). Background tropospheric ozone, which exhibits a seasonally in 1991-1992, has a 24±4.8 DU mean value at wave maximum (˜0° longitude) and a 15.2±6.0 DU mean value at 180° longitude. The Atlantic value is remarkably similar to the climatological 26 DU previously inferred from subtropical sondes [Kim et al., 1996; Komhyr et al., 1989]. The ˜5 DU standard deviation is the accuracy of the modified-residual method and is the best that can be achieved given the 15-day averaging of the sondes (1σ = 5.3 DU). The wave-like pattern in 1991-1992 has a semiannual periodicity with zero wave amplitude in June and December.

  16. Global Health Benefits from Reductions in Background Tropospheric Ozone due to Methane Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2005-05-01

    Increases in background ozone throughout the troposphere are partially attributed to rising anthropogenic methane concentrations, which are projected to continue to increase in the future. Because methane is long-lived and affects background ozone, controls on methane emissions would reduce surface ozone concentrations fairly uniformly around the globe. Epidemiological research indicates that exposure to ozone increases incidence of respiratory ailments and premature mortality. In addition, exposure to ozone reduces agricultural yields and damages natural ecosystems. We use the MOZART-2 global atmospheric chemistry and transport model to estimate the effects on global surface ozone of perturbations in methane emissions. We consider a baseline scenario for 2000 and the 2030 A2 scenario (emissions from the IPCC AR-4 2030 atmospheric chemistry experiments), and examine the impact on ozone of decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions relative to this baseline by 20%. Using the simulated spatially-distributed decreases in surface ozone concentrations resulting from these reductions in methane emissions, we estimate the global benefits to human health in the methane emission reduction scenario. We focus on human mortality, and consider the sensitivity of our estimates to different assumptions of health effect thresholds at low ozone concentrations.

  17. Upper tropospheric ozone derived from the cloud slicing technique: Implications for large-scale convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-07-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60°S to 60°N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "cloud slicing." The cloud slicing method determines ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining colocated measurements of cloud top pressure and above-cloud column ozone. Measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud top pressure during 1979-1984 were merged to derive upper tropospheric ozone. Because of large footprint measurements from TOMS (˜100 km diameter on average), upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing coincides with large-scale convection events. These events are not necessarily representative of average atmospheric conditions in regions near and poleward of the tropospheric wind jets (around ±30° latitude), especially in winter and spring seasons when dynamical wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is most intense. The cloud slicing method with Nimbus 7 geometry in any case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the behavior of upper tropospheric ozone under condition of intense broad-scale convection. In the tropics the measured upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Outside the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone from cloud slicing shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest variance and largest amounts in the northern hemisphere. This seasonal cycle behavior under conditions of intense convection is different from general ozonesonde climatology which shows instead upper tropospheric ozone maximizing around early to middle summer months. The seasonal cycles and spatial characteristics in upper tropospheric ozone from cloud slicing are similar to

  18. Aerosol indirect effect on tropospheric ozone via lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Bian, H.; Ziemke, J. R.; Albrecht, R. I.; Pickering, K. E.; Oreopoulos, L.; Goodman, S. J.; Yu, H.; Allen, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant and major greenhouse gas and its radiative forcing is still uncertain. The unresolved difference between modeled and observed natural background O3 concentrations is a key source of the uncertainty. Here we demonstrate remarkable sensitivity of lightning activity to aerosol loading with lightning activity increasing more than 30 times per unit of aerosol optical depth over our study area. We provide observational evidence that indicates the observed increase in lightning activity is caused by the influx of aerosols from a volcano. Satellite data analyses suggest O3 is increased as a result of aerosol-induced increase in lightning and lightning produced NOx. Model simulations with prescribed lightning change corroborate the satellite data analysis. This aerosol-O3 connection is achieved via aerosol increasing lightning and thus lightning produced nitrogen oxides. This aerosol-lightning-ozone link provides a potential physical mechanism that may account for a part of the model-observation difference in background O3 concentration. More importantly, O3 production increase from this link is concentrated in the upper troposphere, where O3 is most efficient as a greenhouse gas. Both of these implications suggest a stronger O3 historical radiative forcing. This introduces a new pathway, through which increasing in aerosols from pre-industrial time to present day enhances tropospheric O3 production. Aerosol forcing thus has a warming component via its effect on O3 production. Sensitivity simulations suggest that 4-8% increase of tropospheric ozone, mainly in the tropics, is expected if aerosol-lighting-ozone link is parameterized, depending on the background emission scenario. We note, however, substantial uncertainties remain on the exact magnitude of aerosol effect on tropospheric O3 via lightning. The challenges for obtaining a quantitative global estimate of this effect are also discussed. Our results have significant implications

  19. Direct measurements of tropospheric ozone from TOMS data. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the past year, we have made measurements of the tropospheric total column of ozone during the biomass burning season in Africa (August to October). Fishman et. al. had reported previously that by taking a time average of the low spatial resolution data from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) on Nimbus-7 (referred to as the Grid-T data set), during the biomass burning season in Africa, a plume of ozone extends from the East coast of Africa into the Atlantic. In this report, we present an analysis that we have made using the measured TOMS radiances taken from the High Density TOMS data set (referred as the HDT data set), which examines this plume in more detail.

  20. Ozone depletion in tropospheric volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Alan; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Turnbull, Kate; von Glasow, Roland

    2010-11-01

    We measured ozone (O3) concentrations in the atmospheric plumes of the volcanoes St. Augustine (1976), Mt. Etna (2004, 2009) and Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and found O3 to be strongly depleted compared to the background at each volcano. At Mt. Etna O3 was depleted within tens of seconds from the crater, the age of the St. Augustine plumes was on the order of hours, whereas the O3 destruction in the plume of Eyjafjallajökull was maintained in 1-9 day old plumes. The most likely cause for this O3 destruction are catalytic bromine reactions as suggested by a model that manages to reproduce the very early destruction of O3 but also shows that O3 destruction is ongoing for several days. Given the observed rapid and sustained destruction of O3, heterogeneous loss of O3 on ash is unlikely to be important.

  1. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J.-H.; Wang, Y.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Rozanov, A.; Richter, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Thompson, A. M.; Hair, J. W.; Fenn, M. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Solberg, S.; Huey, L. G.; Liao, J.; Dibb, J. E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Al-Saadi, J.

    2012-07-01

    Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs) are due to catalytic ozone loss driven by halogen chemistry. The presence of ODEs is affected not only by in situ chemistry but also by transport including advection of ozone-poor air mass and vertical mixing. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) and the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) experiments (April 2008). Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectories calculations are used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. The implications of the analysis results for the validation of the retrieval of tropospheric column BrO are also discussed. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde) measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (~1 day) transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ halogen-driven loss is also evident in the diurnal variation of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. High-BrO regions revealed by satellite measurements tend to be collocated with first-year sea ice, particularly over the Chukchi Sea. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from these high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone with potential temperature and time-lagged tropospheric BrO column show that the vertical extent of local ozone loss is surprisingly deep (1-2 km) at Resolute and Churchill, Canada. The unstable boundary layer during ODEs at Churchill could potentially provide a source of free tropospheric BrO through convective transport and explain the significant negative correlation between free tropospheric ozone and tropospheric BrO column

  2. Effects of 1997-1998 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Min, W.; Read, W. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the 1997-1998 El Nino on tropospheric column ozone and tropospheric water vapor derived respectively from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Earth Probe and the Microwave Limb Scanning instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The 1997-1998 El Nino, characterized by an anomalous increase in sea-surface temperature (SST) across the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean, is one of the strongest El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of the century, comparable in magnitude to the 1982-1983 episode. The major impact of the SST change has been the shift in the convection pattern from the western to the eastern Pacific affecting the response of rain-producing cumulonimbus. As a result, there has been a significant increase in rainfall over the eastern Pacific and a decrease over the western Pacific and Indonesia. The dryness in the Indonesian region has contributed to large-scale burning by uncontrolled wildfires in the tropical rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Our study shows that tropospheric column ozone decreased by 4-8 Dobson units (DU) in the eastern Pacific and increased by about 10-20 DU in the western Pacific largely as a result of the eastward shift of the tropical convective activity as inferred from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. The effect of this shift is also evident in the upper tropospheric water vapor mixing ratio which varies inversely as ozone (O3). These conclusions are qualitatively consistent with the changes in atmospheric circulation derived from zonal and vertical wind data obtained from the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation analyses. The changes in tropospheric column O3 during the course of the 1997-1998 El Nino appear to be caused by a combination of large-scale circulation processes associated with the shift in the tropical convection pattern and surface/boundary layer processes associated with

  3. Decadal evolution of atmospheric ozone and remote sensing of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yibo

    1997-09-01

    In chapter 1, the decadal evolution of the Antarctic ozone hole is studied by using ozone column amounts obtained by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) in the southern polar region during late austral winter and spring (Days 240-300) for 1980-1991 using area- mapping techniques and area-weighted vortex averages. The vortex here is defined using the -50 PVU contour on the 500 K isentropic surface. There is a distinct change after 1985 in the vortex averaged column ozone depletion rate during September and October, the period of maximum ozone loss. The mean ozone depletion rate in the vortex between Day 240 and the day of minimum vortex-averaged ozone is about 1 DU/day at the beginning of the decade, increasing to about 1.8 DU/day by 1985, and then apparently saturating thereafter. The vortex-average column ozone during September and October has declined at the rate of 11.3 DU/yr (3.8%) from 1980 to 1987 and at a smaller rate of 2 DU/yr (0.9%) from 1987 to 1991. In chapter 2, we show that standard deviation of column ozone from the zonal mean (COSDZ) provides a measure of the longitudinal inhomogeneity in column ozone and dynamical wave activities in the atmosphere. Simulation of this quantity by three-dimensional (3-D) models could provide a sensitive check on the wave activities in the stratosphere that are responsible for ozone transport. Analysis of the TOMS data shows a profound secular change in COSDZ from 1979 to 1992. In the southern higher latitudes, COSDZ shows a significant increase around 65o in August and September, whereas the changes are much smaller in the northern higher latitudes in the boreal spring. In chapter 3, an estimate of tropospheric ozone levels over tropical pacific South America is obtained from the difference in the TOMS data between the high Andes and the Pacific Ocean. From 1979 to 1992 tropospheric ozone apparently increased by 1.47 ± 0.40 %/yr or 0.21 ± 0.06 DU/yr over South America and the surrounding oceans. We model

  4. Variability in Tropospheric Ozone over China Derived from Assimilated GOME-2 Ozone Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peet, J. C. A.; van der A, R. J.; Kelder, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    A tropospheric ozone dataset is derived from assimilated GOME-2 ozone profiles for 2008. Ozone profiles are retrieved with the OPERA algorithm, using the optimal estimation method. The retrievals are done on a spatial resolution of 160×160 km on 16 layers ranging from the surface up to 0.01 hPa. By using the averaging kernels in the data assimilation, the algorithm maintains the high resolution vertical structures of the model, while being constrained by observations with a lower vertical resolution.

  5. Contributions to twentieth century total column ozone change from halocarbons, tropospheric ozone precursors, and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, M. C.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Shepherd, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate ozone changes from preindustrial times to the present using a chemistry-climate model. The influence of changes in physical climate, ozone-depleting substances, N2O, and tropospheric ozone precursors is estimated using equilibrium simulations with these different factors set at either preindustrial or present-day values. When these effects are combined, the entire decrease in total column ozone from preindustrial to present day is very small (-1.8 DU) in the global annual average, though with significant decreases in total column ozone over large parts of the Southern Hemisphere during austral spring and widespread increases in column ozone over the Northern Hemisphere during boreal summer. A significant contribution to the total ozone column change is the increase in lower stratospheric ozone associated with the increase in ozone precursors (5.9 DU). Also noteworthy is the near cancelation of the global average climate change effect on ozone (3.5 DU) by the increase in N2O (-3.9 DU).

  6. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone and Smoke Interactions: Satellite Observations During the 1997 Indonesian Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Herman, J. R.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Kochhar, A. K.; Fujiwara, M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Biomass burning generates hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide that lead to tropospheric ozone pollution. Other combustion products form soot and various aerosol particles that make up smoke. Since early 1997 smoke and tropospheric ozone have been monitored in real-time from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) at toms.gsfc.nasa.gov (smoke aerosol) and metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo (tropospheric ozone). The striking increase in smoke and tropospheric ozone observed during the 1997 Indonesian fires was the first extreme episode observed. During the August-November period, plumes of excess ozone and smoke coincided at times but were decoupled at other times, a phenomenon followed with trajectories. Thus, trans-boundary evolution of smoke and ozone differed greatly. The second discovery of the 1997 TOMS record was a dynamical interaction of ozone with the strong El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) that led to a jump in tropospheric ozone in March 1997 over the entire Indian Ocean, well ahead of the intense burning period. A climatology of smoke and tropospheric ozone from a 1980's TOMS instrument shows offsets in the timing of these pollutants - further evidence that factors other than biomass burning exert a strong influence on tropical tropospheric ozone.

  7. Effects of the 2004 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Levelt, P. F.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    The global effects of the 2004 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and H2O based on Aura OM1 and MLS measurements are analyzed. Although it was a weak El Nino from a historical perspective, it produced significant changes in these parameters in tropical latitudes. Tropospheric ozone increased by 10-20% over most of the western Pacific region and decreased by about the same amount over the eastern Pacific region. H2O in the upper troposphere showed similar changes but with opposite sign. These zonal changes in tropospheric ozone and H2O are caused by the eastward shift in the Walker circulation in the tropical pacific region during El Nino. For the 2004 El Nino, biomass burning did not have a significant effect on the ozone budget in the troposphere unlike the 1997 El Nino. Zonally averaged tropospheric column ozone did not change significantly either globally or over the tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  8. Estimating the Tropospheric Ozone Distribution by the Assimilation of Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Hiroo; Stajner, Ivanka; Winslow, Nathan; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Pawson, Steven; Thompson, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is important to the environment, because it acts as a strong oxidant to control the concentrations of many reduced gases (methane, carbon monoxide, ... ), its radiative forcing plays a significant role in the greenhouse effect, and direct contact with ozone is harmful to human health. Tropospheric ozone, whose main sources are intrusion from the stratosphere and chemical production from source gases associated with urban pollution or biomass burning, varies on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Its transport and chemistry can be influenced by weather, seasonal, or multiannual variability. Despite the importance of tropospheric ozone, it contributes only about 10% of the total ozone loading in the atmosphere. Consequently, satellite instruments lose sensitivity below the stratospheric ozone peak, and provide little information about middle and lower tropospheric ozone. This talk will discuss recent modifications made to the satellite ozone data assimilation system at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) in order to provide better tropospheric ozone columns and profiles. We use a version of the system that assimilates only the data from the Solar Backscatter UltraViolet/2 (SBUV/2) instrument. The quality of the assimilated ozone in the tropical troposphere is evaluated by comparison with independent observations obtained from the Southern Hemispheric Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. It is shown that the quality of ozone fields is sensitive to the winds used in the transport model. Increasing the vertical resolution of the model also has a beneficial impact. The assimilated ozone in the lower troposphere was substantially improved by inclusion of tropospheric ozone production, loss, and dry deposition rates from the Harvard GEOS-CHEM model. The mechanisms behind these results will be examined and the implications for our understanding of tropospheric ozone will be discussed.

  9. Development of a portable instrument to measure ozone production rates in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ground-level ozone is a key species related to air pollution, causing respiratory problems, damaging crops and forests, and affecting the climate. Our current understanding of the tropospheric ozone-forming chemistry indicates that net ozone production occurs via reactions of peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2) with NO producing NO2, whose photolysis leads to O3 formation. Production rates of tropospheric ozone, P(O3), depend on concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and Volatile Organic Compounds (V OCs), but also on production rates of ROx radicals (OH + HO2 + RO2). The formation of ozone follows a complex nonlinear chemistry that makes strategies for reducing ozone difficult to implement. In this context, atmospheric chemistry models are used to develop emission regulations, but there are still uncertainties associated with the chemical mechanisms used in these models. Testing the ozone formation chemistry in atmospheric models is needed, in order to ensure the development of effective strategies for ozone reduction. We will present the development of an instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPR) in ambient air. The OPR instrument is made of three components: (i) two quartz flow tubes to sample ambient air, one exposed to solar radiation and one covered by a UV filter, (ii) a NO2-to-O3 conversion unit, and (iii) an ozone analyzer. The total amount of ozone exiting each flow tube is conserved in the form of Ox = NO2 + O3. Ozone production rates P(O3) are derived from the difference in Ox concentration between the two flow tubes, divided by the exposure time of air inside the flow tubes. We will present studies that were carried out in the laboratory to characterize each part of the instrument and we will discuss the performances of the OPR instrument based on experiments carried out using synthetic air mixtures of known composition (NOx and V OCs). Chemical modeling will also be presented to assess the reliability of ozone

  10. Long-term observations of tropospheric ozone: GAW Measurement Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Galbally, Ian E.; Schultz, Martin G.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) coordinates long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere which are relevant for understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Atmospheric observations of reactive gases (tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) coordinated by the GAW Programme complement local and regional scale air quality monitoring efforts. As part of the GAW quality assurance (QA) system detailed measurement guidelines for atmospheric trace species are developed by international expert teams at irregular intervals. The most recent report focuses on continuous in-situ measurements of ozone in the troposphere, performed in particular at continental or island sites with altitudes ranging from sea level to mountain tops. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are defined for different applications of the data (e.g. trend analysis and verification of global model forecasts). These DQOs include a thorough discussion of the tolerable level of measurement uncertainty and data completeness. The guidelines present the best practices and practical arrangements adopted by the GAW Programme in order to enable the GAW station network to approach or achieve the defined tropospheric ozone DQOs. The document includes information on the selection of station and measurement locations, required skills and training of staff, recommendations on the measurement technique and the necessary equipment to perform highest quality measurements, rules for conducting the measurements, preparing the data and archiving them, and more. Much emphasis is given to discussions about how to ensure the quality of the data through tracing calibrations back to primary standards, proper calibration and data analysis, etc. In the GAW Programme the QA system is implemented through Central Facilities (Central Calibration Laboratories, World and Regional

  11. On the transfer of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere near the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oltmans, Samuel J.; Raatz, Wolfgang E.; Komhyr, Walter D.

    1989-01-01

    A series of nearly daily ozone vertical profiles obtained at station T-3 on Fletcher's Ice Island (about 85 deg N, about 90 deg W) during the period January-March 1971 shows several significant ozone intrusions into the troposphere. These intrusions are not only associated with enhanced ozone amounts in the stratosphere but also require tropopause folding events to transport ozone into the troposphere. These folds in the arctic tropopause appear to be capable of contributing significantly to the ozone budget of the arctic troposphere during the late winter and spring seasons. The importance of tropopause folding for bringing ozone into the troposphere seen in the daily ozone profiles confirms the results found in the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program aircraft flights.

  12. Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities in Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of seasonal and interannual variability in tropical tropospheric column ozone (TCO). TCO time series are derived from 20 years (1979-1998) of total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data using the convective cloud differential (CCD) method. Our study identifies three regions in the tropics with distinctly different zonal characteristics related to seasonal and interannual variability. These three regions are the eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and western Pacific. Results show that in both the eastern and western Pacific seasonal-cycle variability of northern hemisphere (NH) TCO exhibits maximum amount during NH spring whereas largest amount in southern hemisphere (SH) TCO occurs during SH spring. In the Atlantic, maximum TCO in both hemispheres occurs in SH spring. These seasonal cycles are shown to be comparable to seasonal cycles present in ground-based ozonesonde measurements. Interannual variability in the Atlantic region indicates a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) signal that is out of phase with the QBO present in stratospheric column ozone (SCO). This is consistent with high pollution and high concentrations of mid-to-upper tropospheric O3-producing precursors in this region. The out of phase relation suggests a UV modulation of tropospheric photochemistry caused by the QBO in stratospheric O3. During El Nino events there is anomalously low TCO in the eastern Pacific and high values in the western Pacific, indicating the effects of convectively-driven transport of low-value boundary layer O3 (reducing TCO) and O3 precursors including H2O and OH. A simplified technique is proposed to derive high-resolution maps of TCO in the tropics even in the absence of tropopause-level clouds. This promising approach requires only total ozone gridded measurements and utilizes the small variability observed in TCO near the dateline. This technique has an advantage compared to the CCD method because the latter requires high

  13. Monitoring Ozone in the Lower Troposphere with IASI: Analysis of the Dynamical and Chemical Processes Controlling the Ozone Distribution over Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Cuesta, J.; Forêt, G.; Coman, A.; Beekmann, M.; Takigawa, M.; Wang, Y.; cai, Z.; Liu, Y.; Flaud, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone plays a major role in air quality by affecting human health and causing damages to ecosystems. In this framework, our main concern is to regionally characterize major pollution events and the inter-annual evolution of tropospheric ozone. For our studies, we primarily use IASI space-borne observations for monitoring daily distributions of ozone in the lower troposphere from the regional to the continental scale. IASI has been operating aboard the MetOp platform since October 2006. It is a nadir-viewing Fourier transform spectrometer measuring thermal infrared radiances. We have developed an altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips retrieval algorithm optimized to maximize the information one can extract from the lower part of the troposphere. Capabilities to monitor lower tropospheric ozone for air quality concerns have been demonstrated [1,2] with good performances in terms of vertical sensitivity. As well, we have shown that assimilation of IASI ozone observations in air quality models over Europe allows one to improve significantly simulated ozone distribution, even at the surface [3]. The step forward to use these observations is a systematic cross-analysis of the observed ozone distribution with model simulations in order to evaluate the processes that control the spatial and temporal distribution of lower tropospheric ozone, especially when large ozone amounts are observed. The part of the dynamical processes (vertical transport, impact of large source plumes, etc) versus the chemical processes (photochemical production) has to be quantified. For example, first analyses over the Mediterranean Basin in Europe that exhibits high tropospheric ozone especially during summer months, shows that the vertical transport from the upper to the lower troposphere combined with North-West to South-East transport play a significant part in the observed variability of ozone. In this paper, we focus mainly on Eastern Asia and Chinese megacities, one of the

  14. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J.-H.; Wang, Y.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Rozanov, A.; Richter, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Thompson, A. M.; Hair, J. W.; Fenn, M. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Solberg, S.; Huey, L. G.; Liao, J.; Dibb, J. E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Al-Saadi, J.

    2012-10-01

    Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs) are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advection of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC), and the Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARCIONS) experiments (April 2008). Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectory calculations are also used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. In situ observations from these field experiments are inadequate to validate tropospheric BrO columns derived from satellite measurements. In view of this difficulty, we construct an ensemble of tropospheric column BrO estimates from two satellite (OMI and GOME-2) measurements and with three independent methods of calculating stratospheric BrO columns. Furthermore, we select analysis methods that do not depend on the absolute magnitude of column BrO, such as time-lagged correlation analysis of ozone and tropospheric column BrO, to understand characteristics of ODEs. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde) measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO columns indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (∼1 day) transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ ozone loss is also evident in the diurnal variation difference between low (10th and 25th percentiles) and higher percentiles of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from adjacent high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone with

  15. Use of an Ozone-Like Tracer (SYNOZ) to Constrain Cross-Tropopause Flux in the GMI Tropospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. S.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Rotman, D. A.; Prather, M. J.; Rodriguez, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The net flux of ozone across the tropopause from the stratosphere to the troposphere is determined by both atmospheric dynamics and photochemistry. Because of the long local photochemical lifetime of ozone in this region, the effect of dynamics is dominant. The absolute ozone abundance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is of particular importance in controlling radical photochemistry and in radiative forcing affecting the temperature profile of the atmosphere. A numerical representation with high fidelity to the atmosphere is very desirable for model representation of tropospheric and stratospheric photochemical processes. Three-dimensional Chemical Transport Models (CTM), driven by General Circulation Model (GCM) meteorological variables, have produced a wide range in their prediction of this net flux relative to the range of values inferred from measurements and tracer correlations. A common experience has been a substantial overestimate, with subsequent overestimation of absolute ozone abundance in the troposphere, and the need for palliative measures. Where this problem arises from the nature of the circulation in GCM meteorological fields, Prather and coworkers have suggested the use of a passive ozone-like tracer, termed SYNOZ ( = SYNthetic OZone), to constrain the net global ozone flux in tropospheric CTM models. SYNOZ is numerically injected into the region of greatest stratospheric ozone production and allowed to flow throughout the model domain, being reduced near the surface to background levels. In its intended application, SYNOZ values are overlaid on the reactive tropospheric ozone variable near the tropopause, effectively replacing the stratospheric component of ozone chemistry. We will show the results of implementation and application of SYNOZ to the GMI tropospheric CTM model. The behaviors of the NCAR MACCM3, NASA DAO GEOS/STRAT, and NASA/GISS dynamical fields will be compared, illustrating the range of results that characterizes

  16. Intercontinental transport of tropospheric ozone: a study of its seasonal variability across the North Atlantic utilizing tropospheric ozone residuals and its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creilson, J. K.; Fishman, J.; Wozniak, A. E.

    2003-11-01

    Using the empirically-corrected tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) technique, which utilizes coincident observations of total ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric ozone profiles from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, the seasonal and regional distribution of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic from 1979-2000 is examined. Its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is also analyzed as a possible transport mechanism across the North Atlantic. Monthly climatologies of tropospheric ozone for five different regions across the North Atlantic exhibit strong seasonality. The correlation between these monthly climatologies of the TOR and ozonesonde profiles at nearby sites in both eastern North America and western Europe are highly significant (R values of +0.98 and +0.96 respectively) and help to validate the use of satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone. Distinct springtime interannual variability over North Atlantic Region 5 (eastern North Atlantic-western Europe) is particularly evident and exhibits similar variability to the positive phase of the NAO (R=+0.61, r=<0.01). Positive phases of the NAO are indicative of a stronger Bermuda-Azores high and a stronger Icelandic low and thus faster more zonal flow across the North Atlantic from west to east. This flow regime appears to be causing the transport of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic and onto Europe. The consequence of such transport is the impact on a downwind region's ability to meet their ozone attainment goals. This link between the positive phase of the NAO and increased tropospheric ozone over Region 5 could be an important tool for prediction of such pollution outbreaks.

  17. Intercontinental transport of tropospheric ozone: A study of its seasonal variability across the North Atlantic utilizing tropospheric ozone residuals and its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creilson, J. K.; Fishman, J.; Wozniak, A. E.

    2003-08-01

    Using the empirically-corrected tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) technique, which utilizes coincident observations of total ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric ozone profiles from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments, the seasonal and regional distribution of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic from 1979-2000 is examined. Its relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is also analyzed as a possible transport mechanism across the North Atlantic. Monthly climatologies of tropospheric ozone for five different regions across the North Atlantic exhibit strong seasonality. The correlation between these monthly climatologies of the TOR and adjacent ozonesonde profiles in both Region 1 (eastern North America-western North Atlantic) and Region 5 (eastern North Atlantic-western Europe) are highly significant (R values of +0.98 and +0.96, respectively) and help to validate the use of satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone. Distinct springtime interannual variability over North Atlantic Region 5 (eastern North Atlantic-western Europe) is particularly evident and exhibits similar variability to the positive phase of the NAO (R=+0.61, ρ =<0.01). Positive phases of the NAO are indicative of a stronger Bermuda-Azores high and a stronger Icelandic low and thus faster more zonal flow across the North Atlantic from west to east. This flow regime appears to be causing the transport of tropospheric ozone across the North Atlantic and onto Europe. The consequence of such transport is the impact on a downwind region's ability to meet their ozone attainment goals. This link between the positive phase of the NAO and increased tropospheric ozone over Region 5 could be an important tool for prediction of such pollution outbreaks.

  18. The impact of tropospheric planetary wave variability on stratospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, Michael B.; Schneider, Hans R.

    2002-06-25

    The goal of this project was to improve understanding of the role of the stratosphere in inducing long-term variations of the chemical composition of the troposphere. Changes in stratospheric transport occur on decadel timescales in response to changes in the structure of planetary wave patterns, forced in the troposphere. For many important tracers, such as column amounts of ozone, this variability of the transport leads to changes with signatures very similar to those induced by anthropogenic releases of chemicals into the atmosphere. During this project, a new interactive two-dimensional model of the dynamics, chemistry and radiation of the stratosphere was developed. The model was used to interpret available data of tracers. It was found that a fairly coherent picture of tracer distributions is obtained when a layer of reduced gravity wave drag is assumed for the lower stratosphere. The results suggest that the power of models to predict variability in tracer transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is limited until current theories of gravity wave breaking have been refined.

  19. Analysis of a 7 year tropospheric ozone vertical distribution at the Observatoire de Haute Provence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Ancellet, Gerard; Megie, Gerard

    1994-01-01

    A seven year (1984-90) climatology of tropospheric vertical ozone soundings, performed by electrochemical sondes at the OHP (44 deg N, 6 deg E, 700 m ASL) in Southern France, is presented. Its seasonal variation shows a broad spring/summer maximum in the troposphere. The contribution of photochemical ozone production and transport from the stratosphere to this seasonal variation are studied by a correlative analysis of ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, with emphasis on potential vorticity. This analysis shows the impact of dynamical and photochemical processes on the spatial and temporal ozone variability. In particular, a positive correlation (r = 04.0, significance greater than 99.9 percent) of ozone with potential vorticity is observed in the middle troposphere, reflecting the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the vertical ozone distribution.

  20. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: New Insights from Remote Sensing and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This talk will summarize our recent research in tropical tropospheric ozone studies in the field and from space. New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument will be highlighted (Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999). These are suitable for studying processes like ozone pollution resulting from biomass fires, seasonal and interannual variations and trends. Archived maps of tropospheric ozone over the tropics, from the Nimbus 7 observing period (1979-1992) are available in digital form at our website. Real-time processing of TOMS data has produced images of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) since early 1997, using Earth-Probe TOMS; these maps are also available on the homepage.

  1. "Cloud Slicing" : A New Technique to Derive Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for estimating tropospheric ozone profile information. All previous methods using satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wavenumber 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to approx. 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and approx. 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower

  2. Evaluation of Upper-Tropospheric and Lower-Stratospheric Ozone Profiles from a Global Ozone Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, Ivanka; Phelps, Carrie; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center provides global 3D ozone fields at six-hour time intervals. Data from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument are used in the assimilation. TOMS provides total column information and SBUV provides profile information, primarily above the ozone peak. Information below the ozone peak comes from the model. This paper will explore the realism of the assimilated ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere through validation with ozonesondes, Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) observations. This work is in preparation of using the assimilated ozone in the radiative calculation for the meteorological assimilation as well as in the derivation of tropospheric ozone.

  3. Tropospheric Ozone Increases over the Southern Africa Region: Bellwether for Rapid Growth in Southern Hemisphere Pollution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Balashov, Nikolay V.; Witte, J. C.; Coetzee, J. G. R.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in free-tropospheric (FT) ozone based on ozonesonde records from the early 1990s through 2008 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion (21 deg. S, 55 deg. E; approx. 2800 km NE of Irene in the Indian Ocean), have been reported. Over Irene a large increase in the urban-influenced boundary layer (BL, 1.5-4 km) was also observed during the 18-year period, equivalent to 30%decade-1. Here we show that the Irene BL trend is at least partly due to a gradual change in the sonde launch times from early morning to the midday period. The FT ozone profiles over Irene in 1990-2007 are re-examined, filling in a 1995-1999 gap with ozone profiles taken during the Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project over nearby Johannesburg. A multivariate regression model that accounts for the annual ozone cycle, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and possible tropopause changes was applied to monthly averaged Irene data from 4 to 11 km and to 1992-2011 Réunion sonde data from 4 to 15 km. Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle and upper troposphere (UT; 4-11 km over Irene, 4-15 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with increases 1 ppbv yr(exp. -1) over Irene and approx. 2 ppbv yr(exp. -1) over Réunion. These changes are equivalent to approx. 25 and 35-45%decade( exp. -1), respectively. Both stations also display smaller positive trends in summer, with a 45%decade(exp. -1) ozone increase near the tropopause over Réunion in December. To explain the ozone increases, we investigated a time series of dynamical markers, e.g., potential vorticity (PV) at 330-350 K. PV affects UT ozone over Irene in November-December but displays little relationship with ozone over Réunion. A more likely reason for wintertime FT ozone increases over Irene and Réunion appears to be long-range transport of growing pollution in the Southern Hemisphere. The ozone increases are consistent with trajectory

  4. Role of tropospheric ozone increases in 20th-century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Lacis, Andrew; Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto; Aguilar, Elliot

    2006-04-01

    Human activities have increased tropospheric ozone, contributing to 20th-century warming. Using the spatial and temporal distribution of precursor emissions, we simulated tropospheric ozone from 1890 to 1990 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) chemistry model. Archived three-dimensional ozone fields were then used in transient GISS climate model simulations. This enables more realistic evaluation of the impact of tropospheric ozone increases than prior simulations using an interpolation between preindustrial and present-day ozone. We find that tropospheric ozone contributed to the greater 20th-century warming in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics compared with the tropics and in the tropics compared with the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. Additionally, ozone increased more rapidly during the latter half of the century than the former, causing more rapid warming during that time. This is especially apparent in the tropics and is consistent with observations, which do not show similar behavior in the extratropics. Other climate forcings do not substantially accelerate warming rates in the tropics relative to other regions. This suggests that accelerated tropospheric ozone increases related to industrialization in the developing world have contributed to the accelerated tropical warming. During boreal summer, tropospheric ozone causes enhanced warming (>0.5°C) over polluted northern continental regions. Finally, the Arctic climate response to tropospheric ozone increases is large during fall, winter, and spring when ozone's lifetime is comparatively long and pollution transported from midlatitudes is abundant. The model indicates that tropospheric ozone could have contributed about 0.3°C annual average and about 0.4°C-0.5°C during winter and spring to the 20th-century Arctic warming. Pollution controls could thus substantially reduce the rapid rate of Arctic warming.

  5. Tropospheric ozone retrieval by using SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, Annette; Ebojie, Felix; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is photochemically produced during pollution events and transported from the stratosphere towards the troposphere. It is the third most important green house gases and the main component of summer smog. Global covered satellite measurements are well suitable to investigate sources, sinks, and transport mechanisms of tropospheric ozone in a global view, and to study a characteristic behaviour of the tropospheric ozone in regions. However, the usage of satellite data is associated to a large uncertainty as 90% ozone is located in the stratosphere and only the remaining part of 10% can be observed in the troposphere. The limb-nadir matching (LNM) technique is one of the methods suitable to retrieve tropospheric ozone distributions from space borne observations of the scattered solar light in the UV-visible spectral range. In this study we apply the LNM approach to alternating limb and nadir measurements performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument. A precise tropopause height is used to subtract the stratospheric ozone from the total ozone amount for each matching point. The focus of this work is to reduce the uncertainty of the resulting tropospheric ozone distributions by analysing possible error sources, refining both limb and nadir retrievals and the matching technique.

  6. The impact of the stratospheric ozone distribution on large-scale tropospheric systems over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, L. A.; Vieira, L. A.; Prestes, A.; Pacini, A. A.; Rigozo, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the large-scale changes of the climate can be attributed to the cumulative impact of the human activities since the beginning of the industrial revolution. However, the impact of natural drivers to the present climate change is still under debate, especially on regional scale. These regional changes over South America can potentially affect large vulnerable populations in the near future. Here, we show that the distribution of the stratospheric ozone can affect the climate patterns over South America and adjoin oceans. The impact of the stratospheric ozone distribution was evaluated employing the Global Atmospheric-Ocean Model developed by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS Model E). We conducted two numerical experiments. In the first experiment we used a realistic distribution of the stratospheric ozone, while in the second experiment we employed a uniform longitudinal distribution. We have integrated each model over 60 years. We find that the distribution of stratospheric ozone has a strong influence on the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). However, the Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) is not affected by the ozone's distribution.

  7. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Transport Traced from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument During the Nashville-1999 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method [("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere; Frolov et al., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly (i.e., not previously processed for TOMS ozone) to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. These events tend to occur in certain meteorological regimes. For example, mid-latitude pollution usually occurs on the backside of subtropical fronts, as low pv, usually moist air intrudes to the extra-tropics. July 1999 was a month characterized by robust pollution in the eastern US, with high ozone, as detected by TOMS, originating over south central states and moving up the Atlantic seaboard. This corresponds to 50-80 DU in tropospheric ozone column depth. In most cases, further transport occurred to the North Atlantic, with ozone plumes traveling to western Europe in 4-5 days. Examples of high ozone and transit across boundaries within the US, as well as US->Europe, give a regional context for model results and field measurements taken in the SE US during the Nashville-1999 campaign period. Validation of the TDOT maps is made with ozonesondes taken during that time. TDOT maps also show ozone pollution from Asia traveling to the western US in July 1999.

  8. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John T.; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O'Neil; Senff, Christoph J.; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy; Gronoff, Guillaume; Chen, Gao; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  9. Evaluation of ACCMIP Outgoing Longwave Radiation from Tropospheric Ozone Using TES Satellite Observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kevin W.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Worden, H. M.; Lamarque, J. F.; Young, P. J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Qu, Z.; delaTorre, M.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Collins, W. J.; Doherty, R.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Josse, B. M.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Strode, S. A.; Kulawik, S. S..; Worden, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    We use simultaneous observations of tropospheric ozone and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) sensitivity to tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to evaluate model tropospheric ozone and its effect on OLR simulated by a suite of chemistry-climate models that participated in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The ensemble mean of ACCMIP models show a persistent but modest tropospheric ozone low bias (5-20 ppb) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and modest high bias (5-10 ppb) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) relative to TES ozone for 2005-2010. These ozone biases have a significant impact on the OLR. Using TES instantaneous radiative kernels (IRK), we show that the ACCMIP ensemble mean tropospheric ozone low bias leads up to 120mW/ sq. m OLR high bias locally but zonally compensating errors reduce the global OLR high bias to 39+/- 41mW/ sq. m relative to TES data. We show that there is a correlation (Sq. R = 0.59) between the magnitude of the ACCMIP OLR bias and the deviation of the ACCMIP preindustrial to present day (1750-2010) ozone radiative forcing (RF) from the ensemble ozone RF mean. However, this correlation is driven primarily by models whose absolute OLR bias from tropospheric ozone exceeds 100mW/ sq. m. Removing these models leads to a mean ozone radiative forcing of 394+/- 42mW/ sq. m. The mean is about the same and the standard deviation is about 30% lower than an ensemble ozone RF of 384 +/- 60mW/ sq. m derived from 14 of the 16 ACCMIP models reported in a companion ACCMIP study. These results point towards a profitable direction of combining satellite observations and chemistry-climate model simulations to reduce uncertainty in ozone radiative forcing.

  10. TOLNET - A Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Profiling Network for Satellite Continuity and Process Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Kuang, Shi; Leblanc, Thierry; Alvarez, Raul J.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Burris, John F.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Johnson, Matthew; Pszenny, Alex

    2016-06-01

    Ozone lidars measure continuous, high-resolution ozone profiles critical for process studies and for satellite validation in the lower troposphere. However, the effectiveness of lidar validation by using single-station data is limited. Recently, NASA initiated an interagency ozone lidar observation network under the name TOLNet to promote cooperative multiple-station ozone-lidar observations to provide highly timeresolved (few minutes) tropospheric-ozone vertical profiles useful for air-quality studies, model evaluation, and satellite validation. This article briefly describes the concept, stations, major specifications of the TOLNet instruments, and data archiving.

  11. TOLNet - A Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Profiling Network for Satellite Continuity and Process Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Kuang, Shi; Wang, Lihua; LeBlanc, Thierry; Alvarez II, Raul J.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Brown, Steve; Johnson, Bryan; Burris, John F.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA initiated an interagency ozone lidar observation network under the name TOLNet to promote cooperative multiple-station ozone-lidar observations to provide highly time-resolved (few minutes) tropospheric-ozone vertical profiles useful for air-quality studies, model evaluation, and satellite validation.

  12. Improvement of OMI Ozone Profile Retrievals in the Troposphere and Lower Troposphere by the Use of the Tropopause-Based Ozone Profile Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bak, Juseon; Liu, X.; Wei, J.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Barnet, C.

    2011-01-01

    An advance algorithm based on the optimal estimation technique has beeen developed to derive ozone profile from GOME UV radiances and have adapted it to OMI UV radiances. OMI vertical resolution : 7-11 km in the troposphere and 10-14 km in the stratosphere. Satellite ultraviolet measurements (GOME, OMI) contain little vertical information for the small scale of ozone, especially in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) where the sharp O3 gradient across the tropopause and large ozone variability are observed. Therefore, retrievals depend greatly on the a-priori knowledge in the UTLS

  13. Increasing Springtime Ozone Mixing Ratios in the Free Troposphere Over Western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, O. R.; Parrish, D. D.; Stohl, A.; Trainer, M.; Nedelec, P.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J. P.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Tarasick, D.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Jaffe, D.; Gao, R.; Stith, J.; Ryerson, T.; Aikin, K.; Campos, T.; Weinheimer, A.; Avery, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the lowermost layer of the atmosphere - the troposphere - ozone is an important source of the hydroxyl radical, an oxidant that breaks down most pollutants and some greenhouse gases. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are toxic, however, and have a detrimental effect on human health and ecosystem productivity1. Moreover, tropospheric ozone itself acts as an effective greenhouse gas. Much of the present tropospheric ozone burden is a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors resulting in widespread increases in ozone concentrations since the late 1800s. At present, east Asia has the fastest-growing ozone precursor emissions. Much of the springtime east Asian pollution is exported eastwards towards western North America. Despite evidence that the exported Asian pollution produces ozone, no previous study has found a significant increase in free tropospheric ozone concentrations above the western USA since measurements began in the late 1970s. Here we compile springtime ozone measurements from many different platforms across western North America. We show a strong increase in springtime ozone mixing ratios during 1995-2008 and we have some additional evidence that a similar rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio has occurred since 1984. We find that the rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio is greatest when measurements are more heavily influenced by direct transport from Asia. Our result agrees with previous modelling studies, which indicate that global ozone concentrations should be increasing during the early part of the twenty-first century as a result of increasing precursor emissions, especially at northern mid-latitudes, with western North America being particularly sensitive to rising Asian emissions. We suggest that the observed increase in springtime background ozone mixing ratio may hinder the USA s compliance with its ozone air quality standard.

  14. Altitude troposphere ozone profiles over Kyiv-Goloseyev station by simultaneous Umkehr and FTIR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Shavrina, Angelina; Udodov, Evgeny; Liptuga, Anatoly; Kyslyi, Volodymyr; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Kravchenko, Volodymyr; Ivanov, Yuri; Synyavski, Ivan; Romanyuk, Yaroslav; Pavlenko, Yakov; Veles, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Total ozone column and ozone profile data have been obtained from both: (1) standard Dobson measurements and Umkehr method, and (2) using modeling of the ozone absorption spectral band profile near 9.6 microns with the MODTRAN4.3 Atmospheric Radiation Transfer Model based on the HITRAN molecular absorption database from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) observations. The simultaneous ground-based Dobson/Umkehr and FTIR ozone observations have been performed in 2014-2015 at the mid-latitude Kyiv-Goloseyev KGV GAW station for joint altitude troposphere ozone profiles analysis. To retrieve ozone column estimates and ozone profiles from FTIR observations, we used the satellite Aqua-AIRS water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles, and the simultaneous with FTIR observations the Umkehr ozone profiles and surface ozone measurements as input a priori information for the MODTRAN4.3 model. The altitude ozone profiles retrieved from Umkehr method and satellite measurements are in good correspondence in stratosphere layer. However the troposphere part of ozone profiles is uncertain and reproduced with large errors. Therefore we use the MODTRAN4.3 model for interpretation of observed FTIR absorption spectrum to retrieve and improve the troposphere part of ozone altitude distribution. The synergy of Umkehr, satellite and FTIR simultaneous observations including surface ozone measurements allows rendering the ozone profile features in troposphere that indicate the stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes. Season ozone profile variations observed from Umkehr measurements are discussed as well. This work was partly supported by the Polar FORCeS project no. 4012 of the Australian Antarctic Science Program.

  15. Increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America.

    PubMed

    Cooper, O R; Parrish, D D; Stohl, A; Trainer, M; Nédélec, P; Thouret, V; Cammas, J P; Oltmans, S J; Johnson, B J; Tarasick, D; Leblanc, T; McDermid, I S; Jaffe, D; Gao, R; Stith, J; Ryerson, T; Aikin, K; Campos, T; Weinheimer, A; Avery, M A

    2010-01-21

    In the lowermost layer of the atmosphere-the troposphere-ozone is an important source of the hydroxyl radical, an oxidant that breaks down most pollutants and some greenhouse gases. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are toxic, however, and have a detrimental effect on human health and ecosystem productivity. Moreover, tropospheric ozone itself acts as an effective greenhouse gas. Much of the present tropospheric ozone burden is a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors resulting in widespread increases in ozone concentrations since the late 1800s. At present, east Asia has the fastest-growing ozone precursor emissions. Much of the springtime east Asian pollution is exported eastwards towards western North America. Despite evidence that the exported Asian pollution produces ozone, no previous study has found a significant increase in free tropospheric ozone concentrations above the western USA since measurements began in the late 1970s. Here we compile springtime ozone measurements from many different platforms across western North America. We show a strong increase in springtime ozone mixing ratios during 1995-2008 and we have some additional evidence that a similar rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio has occurred since 1984. We find that the rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio is greatest when measurements are more heavily influenced by direct transport from Asia. Our result agrees with previous modelling studies, which indicate that global ozone concentrations should be increasing during the early part of the twenty-first century as a result of increasing precursor emissions, especially at northern mid-latitudes, with western North America being particularly sensitive to rising Asian emissions. We suggest that the observed increase in springtime background ozone mixing ratio may hinder the USA's compliance with its ozone air quality standard.

  16. Use of satellite data to study tropospheric ozone in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack; Minnis, Patrick; Reichle, Henry G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Three independent examples are discussed which suggest that photochemical ozone production in the troposphere can be observed in the tropics from an analysis of total ozone data. The first finding shows that the seasonal cycle of total columnar ozone is dominated by the seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone, even though tropospheric ozone accounts for only 5-15 percent of the total ozone. Second, a case study is presented which shows that enhanced total ozone observed over the Amazon Basin can be associated with the presence of biomass burning. In situ measurements have confirmed that biomass burning does result in the production of photochemically generated ozone, analogous to the formation of 'smog' near industrialized areas. Third, an analysis of the distribution of carbon monoxide obtained from a Space Shuttle platform is strongly correlated with the concurrent distribution of total ozone between 5 deg S and 10 deg N. Because all of the sources of carbon monoxide are located in the troposphere, this finding likewise suggests that the gradients of total ozone at low latitudes must also reflect processes occurring in the troposphere.

  17. Cloud Slicing: A New Technique to Derive Upper Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for measuring upper tropospheric ozone. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wave number 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and around 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower troposphere around the month of March which is not observed in the upper troposphere. The eastern Pacific indicates weak seasonal variability of

  18. Evaluation of lightning-induced tropospheric ozone enhancements observed by ozone lidar and simulated by WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Newchurch, M. J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold

    2015-08-01

    High spatial- and temporal-resolution ozone lidar profiles, in conjunction with ozonesonde and satellite observations, are well suited to characterize short-term ozone variations due to different physical and chemical processes, such as the impact of lightning-generated NOx (LNOx) on tropospheric ozone. This work presents the hourly variation of tropospheric-ozone profiles measured by an ozone lidar at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, on July 14, 18, and 27, 2011. These ozone lidar data are compared with two WRF/Chem simulations, one with lightning NO (LNO) emissions and the other without. On July 14, 2011, the ozone lidar observed an ozone laminar structure with elevated ozone concentrations of 65∼80 ppbv below 2 km, low ozone (50∼65) ppbv between 2 and 5 km, and high ozone up to 165 ppbv between 5 and 12 km AGL. WRF/Chem simulations, in conjunction with backward trajectory analysis, suggest that lightning events occurring within upwind regions resulted in an ozone enhancement of 28 ppbv at 7.5 km AGL over Huntsville. On July 27, LNO emissions were transported to Huntsville from upwind and account for 75% of NOx and an 8.3 ppbv of ozone enhancement at ∼10 km; the model overestimates ozone between 2.5 and 5 km AGL.

  19. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval from OMI data by means of neural networks: a validation exercise with ozone soundings over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Noia, Antonio; Sellitto, Pasquale; Del Frate, Fabio; Cervino, Marco; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    The retrieval of the tropospheric ozone column from satellite data is very important for the characterization of tropospheric chemical and physical properties. However, the task of retrieving tropospheric ozone from space has to face with one fundamental difficulty: the contribution of the tropospheric ozone to the measured radiances is overwhelmed by a much stronger stratospheric signal, which has to be reliably filtered. The Tor Vergata University Earth Observation Laboratory has recently addressed this issue by developing a neural network (NN) algorithm for tropospheric ozone retrieval from NASA-Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. The performances of this algorithm were proven comparable to those of more consolidated algorithms, such as Tropospheric Ozone Residual and Optimal Estimation. In this article, the results of a validation of this algorithm with measurements performed at six European ozonesonde sites are shown and critically discussed. The results indicate that systematic errors, related to the tropopause pressure, are present in the current version of the algorithm, and that including the tropopause pressure in the NN input vector can compensate for these errors, enhancing the retrieval accuracy significantly.

  20. Investigations of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Derived From MLS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Daily high-resolution maps of stratospheric ozone have been constructed using observations by MLS combined with trajectory information. These fields are used to determine the extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) of ozone for the year 2005 using two diagnostic methods. The resulting two annual estimates compare well with past model- and observational-based estimates. Initial analyses of the seasonal characteristics indicate that significant STE of ozone in the polar regions occurs only during spring and early summer. We also examine evidence that the Antarctic ozone hole is responsible for a rapid decrease in the rate of ozone STE during the SH spring. Subtracting the high-resolution stratospheric ozone fiom OMI total column measurements creates a high-resolution tropospheric ozone residual (HTOR) product. The HTOR fields are compared to the spatial distribution of the ozone STE. We show that the mean tropospheric ozone maxima tend to occur near locations of significant ozone STE. This suggests that STE may be responsible for a significant fraction of many mean tropospheric ozone anomalies.

  1. Spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in the Mount Rainier region of the Cascade Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brace, S.; Peterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Few data exist on tropospheric ozone concentrations in rural and wildland areas of western Washington, U.S.A. We measured tropospheric ozone in Mount Rainier National Park and the Puget Sound region of Washington using electronic analyzers and passive samplers during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Electronic analyzers recorded hourly ozone concentrations from five locations between Seattle and Mount Rainier. Ozone concentrations generally increased with distance from Seattle, with maximum hourly concentrations recorded at Enumclaw (319 m elevation, 50 km SE of Seattle). Paradise (1650 m elevation, 100 km SE of Seattle) had the highest monthly mean concentration of all sites measured with analyzers. Diurnal patterns on high-ozone days indicate that concentrations at Paradise remain near 60 ppbv throughout the day, whereas ozone concentrations closer to Seattle had higher peaks during the afternoon but dropped to near zero at night. Passive ozone samplers were used to measure weekly average ozone exposures in four river drainages within Mount Rainier National Park, across an elevation gradient (420 a??2100 m). In most drainages, ozone levels increased with elevation, with highest average weekly ozone exposure (47 ppbv) recorded at 2100 m. Ozone concentrations are significantly higher in the western portion of the park, indicating that ozone exposure varies considerably over short distances. These data provide a reference point for air quality in western Washington and indicate that intensive sampling is necessary to quantify spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in mountainous regions.

  2. Tropospheric Ozone from Assimilation of Aura Data using Different Definitions of the Tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Wargan, K.; Chang, L.-P.; Hayashi, H.; Pawson, S.; Pawson, Steven; Livesey, N.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone data from Aura OMI and MLS instruments were assimilated into the general circulation model (GCM) constrained by assimilated meteorological fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard. Properties of tropospheric ozone and their sensitivity to the definition of the tropopause are investigated. Three definitions of the tropopause are considered: (1) dynamical (using potential vorticity and potential temperature), (2) using temperature lapse rate, and (3) using a fixed ozone value. Comparisons of the tropospheric ozone columns using these tropopause definitions will be presented and evaluated against coincident profiles from ozone sondes. Assimilated ozone profiles are used to identify possible tropopause folding events, which are important for stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Each profile is searched for multiple levels at which ozone attains the value typical of the troposphere-stratosphere transition in order to identify possible tropopause folds. Constrained by the dynamics from a global model and by assimilation of Aura ozone data every 3-hours, this data set provides an opportunity to study ozone evolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere with high temporal resolution.

  3. Understanding the Laminar Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone from Ground-Based, Airborne, Spaceborne, and Modeling Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Mike; Johnson, Matthew S.; Huang, Guanyu; Kuang, Shi; Wang, Lihua; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Laminar ozone structure is a ubiquitous feature of tropospheric-ozone distributions resulting from dynamic and chemical atmospheric processes. Understanding the characteristics of these ozone laminae and the mechanisms responsible for producing them is important to outline the transport pathways of trace gases and to quantify the impact of different sources on tropospheric background ozone. In this study, we present a new method to detect ozone laminae to understand their climatological characteristics of occurrence frequency in terms of thickness and altitude. We employ both ground-based and airborne ozone lidar measurements and other synergistic observations and modeling to investigate the sources and mechanisms such as biomass burning transport, stratospheric intrusion, lightning-generated NOx, and nocturnal low-level jets that are responsible for depleted or enhanced tropospheric ozone layers. Spaceborne (e.g., OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument), TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution)) measurements of these laminae will observe greater horizontal extent and lower vertical resolution than balloon-borne or lidar measurements will quantify. Using integrated ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations in a modeling framework affords insight into how to gain knowledge of both the vertical and horizontal evolution of these ubiquitous ozone laminae.

  4. Long-term tropical tropospheric ozone column retrievals using the Convective Clouds Differential (CCD) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Ebojie, Felix; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Ozone influences most of the chemical reactions in the troposphere.Its tropospheric abundance can be retrieved using space-borne observations of vertically integrated ozone and cloud heights. The Convective Clouds Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al., 1998 and Valks et al., 2014) takes advantage of the frequent occurrence of convective clouds in the western Pacific region by subtracting above-cloud ozone of this region from clear-sky ozone elsewhere to derive global monthly mean tropospheric amount. An important assumption is that the above-cloud ozone in the western Pacific simulates the stratospheric ozone and that the stratospheric ozone field is invariant with longitude; which is approximately true in the tropics. A CCD algorithm has been developed and is applied to optical remote sensing observations from three satellite instruments, so that a unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical (20∘S, 20∘N) tropospheric vertically integrated ozone (1995-2012) is created. The validation of the CCD results with tropospheric ozone data from ozonesondes (Tompson et al., 2003) and Limb-Nadir matching observations (Ebojie et al. 2014) will be presented.

  5. Effects of 1997-1998 El Niño on tropospheric ozone and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Min, W.; Read, W. G.

    This paper analyzes the impact of the 1997-1998 El Niño on tropospheric column ozone and tropospheric water vapor derived respectively from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Earth Probe and the Microwave Limb Scanning instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The 1997-1998 El Niño, characterized by an anomalous increase in sea-surface temperature (SST) across the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean, is one of the strongest El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of the century, comparable in magnitude to the 1982-1983 episode. The major impact of the SST change has been the shift in the convection pattern from the western to the eastern Pacific affecting the response of rain-producing cumulonimbus. As a result, there has been a significant increase in rainfall over the eastern Pacific and a decrease over the western Pacific and Indonesia. The dryness in the Indonesian region has contributed to large-scale burning by uncontrolled wildfires in the tropical rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Our study shows that tropospheric column ozone decreased by 4-8 Dobson units (DU) in the eastern Pacific and increased by about 10-20 DU in the western Pacific largely as a result of the eastward shift of the tropical convective activity as inferred from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. The effect of this shift is also evident in the upper tropospheric water vapor mixing ratio which varies inversely as ozone (O3). These conclusions are qualitatively consistent with the changes in atmospheric circulation derived from zonal and vertical wind data obtained from the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation analyses. The changes in tropospheric column O3 during the course of the 1997-1998 El Niño appear to be caused by a combination of large-scale circulation processes associated with the shift in the tropical convection pattern and surface/boundary layer processes associated

  6. UV Lidar Receiver Analysis for Tropospheric Sensing of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of a ground based Ultra-Violet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV-DIAL) receiver system was performed under realistic daytime conditions to understand how range and lidar performance can be improved for a given UV pulse laser energy. Calculations were also performed for an aerosol channel transmitting at 3 W. The lidar receiver simulation studies were optimized for the purpose of tropospheric ozone measurements. The transmitted lidar UV measurements were from 285 to 295 nm and the aerosol channel was 527-nm. The calculations are based on atmospheric transmission given by the HITRAN database and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological data. The aerosol attenuation is estimated using both the BACKSCAT 4.0 code as well as data collected during the CALIPSO mission. The lidar performance is estimated for both diffuseirradiance free cases corresponding to nighttime operation as well as the daytime diffuse scattered radiation component based on previously reported experimental data. This analysis presets calculations of the UV-DIAL receiver ozone and aerosol measurement range as a function of sky irradiance, filter bandwidth and laser transmitted UV and 527-nm energy

  7. Role of Climate Change in Predictions of Future Tropospheric Ozone and Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.; Chen, W.; Seinfeld, J.

    2006-12-01

    A unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model II is applied to simulate equilibrium climate change driven by changes in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and/or aerosols over 2000-2100 to examine the effects of climate change on global distributions of tropospheric ozone and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sea salt, and mineral dust aerosols. We consider only direct radiative effect of aerosols on future climate in this study. Since aerosol levels will both affect and be affected by future climate, we identify the role of aerosol-driven climate in predicting future air pollutants by performing a number of sensitivity studies. The year 2100 GHG concentrations as well as the anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors and aerosols/aerosol precursors are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2. Although greenhouse gases are the most important drivers of global climate change, aerosols are very influential on regional climate through absorption and scattering of solar radiation. As aerosol concentrations increase over 2000-2100, aerosol-induced cooling at the surface, increase in atmospheric stability, and reduction in precipitation are predicted to increase surface-layer concentrations of pollutants over populated areas; Aerosol-induced climate change is therefore predicted to have a positive feedback to tropospheric aerosol concentrations. We also compare the effect of GHG-driven climate on atmospheric composition with that of aerosol-driven climate. Results suggest that it is important to account for climate responses to aerosol forcing in predicting future ozone and aerosols.

  8. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q.

    2011-08-01

    Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4) models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global and annual mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001-2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres, while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The global and annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001-2050, with maximum enhancement in the winter Arctic.

  9. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Aura OMI and MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J.R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean! Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the northern hemisphere in the latitude range 70degN-80degN in February-April and in the southern hemisphere around 40degS-50degS during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the northern hemisphere lie over North America and eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the southern hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  10. Upper Tropospheric Ozone Between Latitudes 60S and 60N Derived from Nimbus 7 TOMS/THIR Cloud Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the spatial distributions and seasonal cycles in upper tropospheric ozone (pressure range 200-500 hPa) from low to high latitudes (60S to 60N) derived from the satellite retrieval method called "Cloud Slicing." Cloud Slicing is a unique technique for determining ozone profile information in the troposphere by combining co-located measurements of cloud-top, pressure and above-cloud column ozone. For upper tropospheric ozone, co-located measurements of Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) above-cloud column ozone, and Nimbus 7 Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure during 1979-1984 were incorporated. In the tropics, upper tropospheric ozone shows year-round enhancement in the Atlantic region and evidence of a possible semiannual variability. Upper tropospheric ozone outside the tropics shows greatest abundance in winter and spring seasons in both hemispheres with largest seasonal and largest amounts in the NH. These characteristics are similar to lower stratospheric ozone. Comparisons of upper tropospheric column ozone with both stratospheric ozone and a proxy of lower stratospheric air mass (i.e., tropopause pressure) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suggest that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) may be a significant source for the seasonal variability of upper tropospheric ozone almost everywhere between 60S and 60N except in low latitudes around 10S to 25N where other sources (e.g., tropospheric transport, biomass burning, aerosol effects, lightning, etc.) may have a greater role.

  11. Tropospheric ozone (TOR) trend over three major inland Indian cities: Delhi, Hyderabad and Bangalore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Bortoli, D.

    2010-10-01

    An analysis of tropospheric column ozone using the NASA Langley TOR data during 1979-2005 has been done to investigate the trend over major Indian cities Delhi, Hyderabad and Bangalore. India was under social democratic-based policies before 1990s. Economic Liberalization began in nineties which lead to a significant growth in industrial, energy and transport sectors in major cities. Our analysis shows that there is a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone values after 1990. A comparison of TOR climatology before and after 1990 over these cities shows evidence of increase in the tropospheric ozone after 1990. Trend obtained from the model shows significant change during monsoon over Delhi and during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon over Hyderabad and Bangalore. The present analysis using TOR technique demonstrates the TOR potential to detect changes in tropospheric ozone over large cities which are impacted by large anthropogenic pollution.

  12. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  13. DIAL Measurements of Free-Tropospheric Ozone Profiles in Huntsville, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, developed jointly by NASA and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH), measures free-tropospheric ozone profiles between 4-10 km. Located at 192 meters altitude in the Regional Atmospheric Profiling Laboratory for Discovery (RAPCD) on the UAH campus in Huntsville, AL, USA, this tropospheric ozone lidar operates under both daytime and nighttime conditions. Frequent coincident ozonesonde flights and theoretical calculations provide evidence to indicate the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 8% at 4km to 40%-60% at 10 kin with 750-m vertical resolution and 30-minute integration. With anticipated improvements to allow retrievals at both higher and lower altitudes, this ozone lidar, along with co-located aerosol and Doppler Wind Lidars, will provide a unique 18 dataset for investigations of PBL and free-tropospheric chemical and dynamic processes.

  14. Climate Response to the Increase in Tropospheric Ozone since Preindustrial Times: A Comparison between Ozone and Equivalent CO2 Forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickley L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Field, B. D.; Rind, D.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of the climate response to anthropogenic changes in tropospheric ozone. Using a general circulation model, we have carried out a pair of equilibrium climate simulations with realistic present-day and preindustrial ozone distributions. We find that the instantaneous radiative forcing of 0.49 W m(sup -2) due to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times results in an increase in global mean surface temperature of 0.28 C. The increase is nearly 0.4 C in the Northern Hemisphere and about 0.2 C in the Southern Hemisphere. The largest increases (greater than 0.8 C) are downwind of Europe and Asia and over the North American interior in summer. In the lower stratosphere, global mean temperatures decrease by about 0.2 C due to the diminished upward flux of radiation at 9.6 micrometers. The largest stratospheric cooling, up to 1.0 C, occurs over high northern latitudes in winter, with possibly important implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. To identify the characteristics of climate forcing unique to tropospheric ozone, we have conducted two additional climate equilibrium simulations: one in which preindustrial tropospheric ozone concentrations were increased everywhere by 18 ppb, producing the same global radiative forcing as present-day ozone but without the heterogeneity; and one in which CO2 was decreased by 25 ppm relative to present day, with ozone at present-day values, to again produce the same global radiative forcing but with the spectral signature of CO2 rather than ozone. In the first simulation (uniform increase of ozone), the global mean surface temperature increases by 0.25 C, with an interhemispheric difference of only 0.03 C, as compared with nearly 0.2 C for the heterogeneous ozone increase. In the second simulation (equivalent CO2), the global mean surface temperature increases by 0.36 C, 30% higher than the increase from tropospheric ozone. The stronger surface warming from CO2 is

  15. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe Toms: Validation, ENSO Signals and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS/TOMS (1996-1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to Atlantic sounding stations, notably Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil, and Brazzaville, Congo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived from the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites.

  16. Ozone Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the difference between good (stratospheric) and bad (tropospheric) ozone, how bad ozone affects our air quality, health, and environment, and what EPA is doing about it through regulations and standards.

  17. Global Distribution and Trends of Tropospheric Ozone: An Observation-Based Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, O. R.; Parrish, D. D.; Ziemke, J.; Cupeiro, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Gilge, S.; Horowitz, L.; Jensen, N. R.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schwab, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Thompson, A. M.; Thouret, V.; Wang, Y.; Zbinden, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone plays a major role in Earth's atmospheric chemistry processes and also acts as an air pollutant and greenhouse gas. Due to its short lifetime, and dependence on sunlight and precursor emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources, tropospheric ozone's abundance is highly variable in space and time on seasonal, interannual and decadal time-scales. Recent, and sometimes rapid, changes in observed ozone mixing ratios and ozone precursor emissions inspired us to produce this up-to-date overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. Much of the text is a synthesis of in situ and remotely sensed ozone observations reported in the peer-reviewed literature, but we also include some new and extended analyses using well-known and referenced datasets to draw connections between ozone trends and distributions in different regions of the world. In addition, we provide a brief evaluation of the accuracy of rural or remote surface ozone trends calculated by three state-of-the-science chemistry-climate models, the tools used by scientists to fill the gaps in our knowledge of global tropospheric ozone distribution and trends.

  18. Tropospheric ozone change from 1980 to 2010 dominated by equatorward redistribution of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Cooper, Owen R.; Gaudel, Audrey; Thompson, Anne M.; Nédélec, Philippe; Ogino, Shin-Ya; West, J. Jason

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is an important air pollutant at the surface, and the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Since 1980, anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors--methane, non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides (NOx)--have shifted from developed to developing regions. Emissions have thereby been redistributed equatorwards, where they are expected to have a stronger effect on the tropospheric ozone burden due to greater convection, reaction rates and NOx sensitivity. Here we use a global chemical transport model to simulate changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations from 1980 to 2010, and to separate the influences of changes in the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic emissions of short-lived pollutants, the magnitude of these emissions, and the global atmospheric methane concentration. We estimate that the increase in ozone burden due to the spatial distribution change slightly exceeds the combined influences of the increased emission magnitude and global methane. Emission increases in Southeast, East and South Asia may be most important for the ozone change, supported by an analysis of statistically significant increases in observed ozone above these regions. The spatial distribution of emissions dominates global tropospheric ozone, suggesting that the future ozone burden will be determined mainly by emissions from low latitudes.

  19. Aura Tropospheric Ozone Columns Derived Using the TOR Approach and Mapping Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H.; Jing, P.

    2005-12-01

    A 2 predictor (PV and geopotential height) interpolation/mapping technique has been applied to Aura MLS measurements combined with GEOS-4 meteorological fields to produce stratospheric ozone columns between the 300K isentropic surface and up to the 800K surface. Subtraction of these columns from OMI total ozone column measurements under clear sky conditions results in tropospheric ozone columns derived by the Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) technique. The precisions and accuracies of the resulting TORs at mid-latitudes are assessed by comparisons against tropospheric ozonesonde and TORs derived from SAGE measurements. It is found that the inclusion of total ozone column as a third predictor in the interpolation increases the precision of the derived TORs. The use of trajectory mapping is also in the process of being evaluated.

  20. "Cloud Slicing": A New Technique to Derive Upper Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, Jerald; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new technique called "cloud slicing" is introduced in this study to determine tropospheric ozone profile information. This method is unique because all previous methods incorporating satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study, tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. Our investigation examines several case studies and illustrates the robust nature of this new technique for future satellite missions.

  1. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Neu, Jessica L.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Edwards, David P.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, Helen M.; Worden, John R.

    2016-08-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (< 5 ppb) low bias relative to TES for the free troposphere. The TES-IASI differences are not dependent on season or any other factor and hence the measurements from the two instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US), and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  2. Modeling and Observations of the Response of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone to ENSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Ziemke, J. R.; Waugh, D. W.; Lang, C.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical variability on interannual time scales. ENSO appears to extend its influence into the chemical composition of the tropical troposphere, Recent results have revealed an ENSO induced wave-1 anomaly in observed tropical tropospheric column ozone, This results in a dipole over the western and eastern tropical Pacific, whereby differencing the two regions produces an ozone anomaly with an extremely high correlation to the Nino 3.4 Index. We have successfully reproduced this result using the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) general circulation model coupled to a comprehensive stratospheric and tropospheric chemical mechanism forced with observed sea surface temperatures over the past 25 years, An examination of the modeled ozone field reveals the vertical contributions of tropospheric ozone to the column over the western and eastern Pacific region, We will show targeted comparisons with SHADOZ ozonesondes over these regions to provide insight into the vertical structure. Also, comparisons with NASA's Aura satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) instruments and other appropriate data sets will be shown. In addition, the water vapor response to ENSO will be compared to help illuminate its role relative to dynamics in impacting ozone concentrations. These results indicate that the tropospheric ozone response to ENSO is potentially a very useful chemistry-climate diagnostic and should be considered in future modeling assessments.

  3. The Response of Tropospheric Ozone to ENSO in Observations and a Chemistry-Climate Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Ziemke, J. R.; Waugh, D. W.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Nielsen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical variability on interannual time scales. ENSO appears to extend its influence into the chemical composition of the tropical troposphere. Recent results have revealed an ENSO induced wave-l anomaly in observed tropical tropospheric column ozone. This results in a dipole over the western and eastern tropical Pacific, whereby differencing the two regions produces an ozone anomaly with an extremely high correlation to the Nino 3.4 Index. We have successfully reproduced this result using the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) general circulation model coupled to a comprehensive stratospheric and tropospheric chemical mechanism forced with observed sea surface temperatures over the past 25 years. An examination of the modeled ozone field reveals the vertical contributions of tropospheric ozone to the column over the western and eastern Pacific region. We will show targeted comparisons with observations from NASA's Aura satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) to provide insight into the vertical structure of ozone changes. The tropospheric ozone response to ENSO could be a useful chemistry-climate model evaluation tool and should be considered in future modeling assessments.

  4. Sources of Ozone in the Free Troposphere in Houston During DISCOVER-AQ 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsakis, A.; Lefer, B. L.; Morris, G. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Martins, D. K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Orville, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    In September of 2013, NASA's DISCOVER-AQ (DAQ) air quality campaign took place in Houston, Texas. During the DAQ campaign, 58 ozonesondes were launched from the University of Houston-Main Campus and Smith Point, Texas combined. These launches were coordinated with the nine P-3B aircraft spirals and 4 TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite overpasses. The combination of data sources provides useful insight into the composition and potential origins of free tropospheric ozone. Surface ozone production was not active during the 2013 DAQ Texas campaign with the Houston region only recording two eight-hour average ozone exceedance days during the campaign. The potential sources of free tropospheric ozone during DAQ include stratosphere-troposphere exchange, long-range transport of biomass burning, and lightning. High-resolution potential vorticity data from the NASA Goddard Trajectory Model is used to identify stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The HYSPLIT trajectory model is used to trace air parcels from areas of biomass burning. Lightning data provided by the Lightning Mapping Array will help determine ozone production from lightning. Through the use of these tools, this study will examine the origins of free tropospheric ozone over the Houston area during this campaign.

  5. Analysis of 1970-1995 Trends in Tropospheric Ozone at Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Andrew C.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    I ] The causes of trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes from 1970 to 1995 are investigated with the GEOS-CHEM model, a global three-dimensional model of the troposphere driven by assimilated meteorological observations from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). This model is used to investigate the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone with respect to (1) changes in the anthropogenic emission of nitrogen oxides and nonmethane hydrocarbons, (2) increases in methane concentrations, (3) variations in the stratospheric source of ozone, (4) changes in solar radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion, and ( 5 ) increases in tropospheric temperatures. Model results indicate that local increases in NO, emissions have caused most of the increases seen in lower tropospheric ozone over Europe and Japan. Increases in methane are responsible for roughly one fifth of the anthropogenically induced increase in tropospheric ozone at northern midlatitudes. However, changes in ozone precursors do not adequately explain either the spatial differences in observed ozone trends across midlatitudes or the observed decreases in ozone over Canada throughout the troposphere. We argue that ozone depletion in the lowermost stratosphere is likely to have reduced the stratospheric source by as much as 30% from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. Model simulations that account for such a reduction along with reported changes in anthropogenic emissions show steep declines of ozone in the upper troposphere and variable increases in the lower troposphere that are more consistent with observations. Differential temperature trends in summer between North America and Europe may account for at least some of the remaining spatial variation in tropospheric ozone trends. Increases in ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion do not appear to significantly reduce tropospheric ozone, except at midlatitudes in the Southern Hemisphere following the

  6. Tropospheric ozone and its regional transport over Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzotungicimpaye, Claude-Michel; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Steyn, Douw G.

    2014-04-01

    As part of efforts to understand the sources of air pollution in Cape Town, this study investigates the local variation of tropospheric ozone (O3) and identifies possible advection paths of O3 pollution from a remote source to Cape Town. Measurements of O3 and wind from three sites in the Cape Town area were analyzed to study the local variations of O3. At each site, the diurnal variation of O3 is found to be mainly driven by photochemical production while the seasonal variation of O3 is mostly driven by wind conditions. The highest concentration of O3 is observed at the remote site (Cape Point) while lowest O3 concentration is observed at the sub-urban site (Goodwood), where there are chemical sinks of O3 such as NOx. Atmospheric pollution over southern Africa was simulated to study the regional transport of O3. The simulations show that extreme O3 levels in Cape Town can be caused by air pollution transported from the industrial Highveld of South Africa, in the lower troposphere. Such extreme O3 pollution events over Cape Town are simulated to occur in January (14%), March (44%), April (28%) and September (14%). Lagrangian trajectories suggest four paths by which air parcels can be transported from the industrial Highveld to Cape Town: a north-easterly path which is the most frequent route, a tropical deviation route, a deviation along the south coastline and an oceanic deviation path which is the less frequent route. The major advection paths associated with poor air quality in Cape Town are the north-easterly route and the path along the south coastline of the country. Hence the study suggests that emissions in the industrial Highveld may contribute to O3 concentration in the Cape Town area.

  7. Budget of tropospheric ozone during TOPSE from two chemical transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, L. K.; Hess, P.; Klonecki, A.; Tie, X.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Kinnison, D.; Brasseur, G.; Atlas, E.; Browell, E.; Cantrell, C.; Eisele, F.; Mauldin, R. L.; Merrill, J.; Ridley, B.; Shetter, R.

    2003-04-01

    The tropospheric ozone budget during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) campaign has been studied using two chemical transport models (CTMs): HANK and the Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2). The two models have similar chemical schemes but use different meteorological fields, with HANK using MM5 (Pennsylvania State University, National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Modeling System) and MOZART-2 driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) fields. Both models simulate ozone in good agreement with the observations but underestimate NOx. The models indicate that in the troposphere, averaged over the northern middle and high latitudes, chemical production of ozone drives the increase of ozone seen in the spring. Both ozone gross chemical production and loss increase greatly over the spring months. The in situ production is much larger than the net stratospheric input, and the deposition and horizontal fluxes are relatively small in comparison to chemical destruction. The net production depends sensitively on the concentrations of H2O, HO2 and NO, which differ slightly in the two models. Both models underestimate the chemical production calculated in a steady state model using TOPSE measurements, but the chemical loss rates agree well. Measures of the stratospheric influence on tropospheric ozone in relation to in situ ozone production are discussed. Two different estimates of the stratospheric fraction of O3 in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere indicate it decreases from 30-50% in February to 15-30% in June. A sensitivity study of the effect of a perturbation in the vertical flux on tropospheric ozone indicates the contribution from the stratosphere is approximately 15%.

  8. Geospatial Interpolation and Mapping of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution Using Geostatistics

    PubMed Central

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Ahmad, Hafiz A.; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Young, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution is a major problem worldwide, including in the United States of America (USA), particularly during the summer months. Ozone oxidative capacity and its impact on human health have attracted the attention of the scientific community. In the USA, sparse spatial observations for O3 may not provide a reliable source of data over a geo-environmental region. Geostatistical Analyst in ArcGIS has the capability to interpolate values in unmonitored geo-spaces of interest. In this study of eastern Texas O3 pollution, hourly episodes for spring and summer 2012 were selectively identified. To visualize the O3 distribution, geostatistical techniques were employed in ArcMap. Using ordinary Kriging, geostatistical layers of O3 for all the studied hours were predicted and mapped at a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. A decent level of prediction accuracy was achieved and was confirmed from cross-validation results. The mean prediction error was close to 0, the root mean-standardized-prediction error was close to 1, and the root mean square and average standard errors were small. O3 pollution map data can be further used in analysis and modeling studies. Kriging results and O3 decadal trends indicate that the populace in Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, Beaumont-Port Arthur, San Antonio, and Longview are repeatedly exposed to high levels of O3-related pollution, and are prone to the corresponding respiratory and cardiovascular health effects. Optimization of the monitoring network proves to be an added advantage for the accurate prediction of exposure levels. PMID:24434594

  9. Geospatial interpolation and mapping of tropospheric ozone pollution using geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R; Tchounwou, Paul B; Ahmad, Hafiz A; Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Young, John H

    2014-01-10

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution is a major problem worldwide, including in the United States of America (USA), particularly during the summer months. Ozone oxidative capacity and its impact on human health have attracted the attention of the scientific community. In the USA, sparse spatial observations for O3 may not provide a reliable source of data over a geo-environmental region. Geostatistical Analyst in ArcGIS has the capability to interpolate values in unmonitored geo-spaces of interest. In this study of eastern Texas O3 pollution, hourly episodes for spring and summer 2012 were selectively identified. To visualize the O3 distribution, geostatistical techniques were employed in ArcMap. Using ordinary Kriging, geostatistical layers of O3 for all the studied hours were predicted and mapped at a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. A decent level of prediction accuracy was achieved and was confirmed from cross-validation results. The mean prediction error was close to 0, the root mean-standardized-prediction error was close to 1, and the root mean square and average standard errors were small. O3 pollution map data can be further used in analysis and modeling studies. Kriging results and O3 decadal trends indicate that the populace in Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, Beaumont-Port Arthur, San Antonio, and Longview are repeatedly exposed to high levels of O3-related pollution, and are prone to the corresponding respiratory and cardiovascular health effects. Optimization of the monitoring network proves to be an added advantage for the accurate prediction of exposure levels.

  10. Development of a Portable, Ground-Based Ozone Lidar Instrument for Tropospheric Ozone Research and Educational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Thomas; Zenker, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a portable, eye-safe, ground-based ozone lidar instrument specialized for ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements in the troposphere. This prototype instrument is intended to operate at remote field sites and to serve as the basic unit for monitoring projects requiring multi-instrument networks, such as that discussed in the science plan for the Global Tropospheric Ozone Project (GTOP). This instrument will be based at HU for student training in lidar technology as well as atmospheric ozone data analysis and interpretation. It will be also available for off-site measurement campaigns and will serve as a test bed for further instrument development. Later development beyond this grant to extend the scientific usefulness of the instrument may include incorporation of an aerosol channel and upgrading the laser to make stratospheric ozone measurements. Undergraduate and graduate students have been and will be active participants in this research effort.

  11. A Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP) based on TES ozone and GOES water vapor: derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felker, S. R.; Moody, J. L.; Wimmers, A. J.; Osterman, G.; Bowman, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Aura satellite, retrieves a vertical profile of tropospheric ozone. However, polar-orbiting instruments like TES provide limited nadir-view coverage. This work illustrates the value of these observations when taken in context with information about synoptic-scale weather patterns. The goal of this study is to create map-view products of upper troposphere (UT) ozone through the integration of TES ozone measurements with two synoptic dynamical tracers of stratospheric influence: specific humidity derived from the GOES Imager, and potential vorticity from an operational forecast model. As a mixing zone between tropospheric and stratospheric reservoirs, the upper troposphere (UT) exhibits a complex chemical makeup. Determination of ozone mixing ratios in this layer is especially difficult without direct in-situ measurement. However, it is well understood that UT ozone is correlated with dynamical tracers like low specific humidity and high potential vorticity. Blending the advantages of two remotely sensed quantities (GOES water vapor and TES ozone) is at the core of the Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP). Our approach results in the temporal and spatial coverage of a geostationary platform, a major improvement over individual polar overpasses, while retaining TES's ability to characterize UT ozone. Results suggest that over 70% of TES-observed UT ozone variability can be explained by correlation with the two dynamical tracers. MUTOP reproduces TES retrievals across the GOES-West domain with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 19.2 ppbv. There are several advantages to this multi-sensor derived product approach: (1) it is calculated from 2 operational fields (GOES specific humidity and GFS PV), so the layer-average ozone can be created and used in near real-time; (2) the product provides the spatial resolution and coverage of a geostationary platform as it depicts

  12. A Comparison of Different Methods in the Estimations of Source-Receptor Relationships for Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Ohara, T.; Sudo, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant chemically created in the atmosphere from its precursors (NOx, CO, and VOCs) which are emitted from anthropogenic activities like industrial activities, electrical power generation and road transportation and has detrimental impacts on human health, agricultural crops, and ecosystems. The growing anthropogenic activities around the world have been raising problems that the long-range (intercontinental scale) transported O3 affect the air quality in far remote regions from its source region. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively estimate the proportion of O3 over a receptor region that is attributable to a source region, the so-called source-receptor (S-R) relationship for tropospheric O3. The S-R relationship for tropospheric O3 has been widely investigated in recent years mainly by using chemical transport models. Although those efforts have greatly progressed the understanding of the S-R relationship for tropospheric O3, there still exist uncertainties in the estimation of it. The difference of the methodology to estimate the S-R relationship is one of the main causes of the uncertainties. Here, we compare the S-R relationships for tropospheric O3 estimated by two different methods: tracer tagging method (TTM) and emission sensitivity method (ESM). We use the same chemical transport model (CHASER), emission data, and settings for source and receptor regions for both methods. The difference in the contribution of a source region estimated by both methods becomes largest in that source region, for instance, the contribution of China estimated by two methods differs largest in China itself. The contribution estimated by TTM is generally larger than that by ESM in that source region. However, this relationship is reversed outside that source region. These differences between TTM and ESM tend to increase in summer.

  13. Influence of Convection on Ozone Production in the Free Troposphere During GABRIEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Rudolf, M.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-12-01

    Convective transport of ozone precursors from the boundary layer to the free troposphere can influence the photochemistry and lead to an increase in ozone production in the upper troposphere. Analysis of a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005 is presented. On the last part of measurement flight #8 on October 12 the inflow and the outflow region of a nearly completely developed cumulonimbus cloud have been characterized. There is a clear indication of convective transport in the dataset of that flight. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude in the assumed outflow region with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, HOx, acetone, acetonitrile, isoprene, methanol and different VOCs. O3 and NO are also elevated in that layer. That is contrary to the expectations of convective transport from the boundary layer and lower troposphere to the upper troposphere, where we would expect low ozone and NO compared to the background air. The high mixing ratio of ozone has dynamical reasons with upward transport of ozone rich air from layers above the boundary layer and is further enhanced by photochemical production of ozone in a high NO environment. The increased NO is most likely due to lightning activity in the observed area. NO reacts with peroxy radicals to NO2, which can then lead to ozone production in further reactions. The contribution of photochemical ozone production to the elevated mixing ratio is investigated with photostationary state model calculations.

  14. Observations of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles Using Simultaneously Measured UV and IR Radiances from OMI and TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Worden, J.; Kulawik, S.; Bowman, K. W.; Sander, S. P.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone is a radiativelly and chemically important trace gas in the atmosphere. Accurate monitoring of ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission, an Earth Science Decadal Survey mission that has been recommended for launch in the 2013-2016 time frame by National Research Council, will measure tropospheric ozone and its precursors relating to air quality over the Americas. To improve current capability of tropospheric ozone sounding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, GEO-CAPE mission calls for an instrument(s) that is sensitive over multiple spectral regions. Prior to the launch of GEO-CAPE satellite, using simultaneous measurements of multiple sensors of an ongoing satellite mission provide an alternative way to improve tropospheric ozone sounding and help in the evaluations of suitable spectral regions for the GEO-CAPE mission. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are both on the Earth Observing System Aura satellite in orbit. They are providing ozone concentration profiles measurements respectively. OMI is a nadir-viewing pushbroom ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) imaging spectrograph that measures backscattered radiances covering the 270-500 nm wavelength range. TES is a Fourier transform spectrometer that measures the thermal infrared (TIR) light radiances emitted by Earth's surface and by gases and particles in spectral range 650 - 3050 cm-1. We present an approach to combine simultaneously measured OMI UV and TES TIR radiances to improve the tropospheric ozone sounding. The results from combination of these measurements are presented and discussed. The improvements on tropospheric ozone profiles from the UV+TIR joint retrievals, as compared with either spectral region alone, are charterized using the ozonesonde measurements.

  15. Origins of Tropospheric Ozone Interannual Variation (IAV) over Reunion: A Model Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark A.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Posny, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    Observations from long-term ozonesonde measurements show robust variations and trends in the evolution of ozone in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion Island (21.1 degrees South Latitude, 55.5 degrees East Longitude) in June-August. Here we examine possible causes of the observed ozone variation at Reunion Island using hindcast simulations by the stratosphere-troposphere Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model for 1992-2014, driven by assimilated Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields. Reunion Island is at the edge of the subtropical jet, a region of strong stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. Our analysis implies that the large interannual variation (IAV) of upper tropospheric ozone over Reunion is driven by the large IAV of the stratospheric influence. The IAV of the large-scale, quasi-horizontal wind patterns also contributes to the IAV of ozone in the upper troposphere. Comparison to a simulation with constant emissions indicates that increasing emissions do not lead to the maximum trend in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion during austral winter implied by the sonde data. The effects of increasing emission over southern Africa are limited tothe lower troposphere near the surface in August-September.

  16. Origins of tropospheric ozone interannual variation over Réunion: A model investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark A.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Posny, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Observations from long-term ozonesonde measurements show robust variations and trends in the evolution of ozone in the middle and upper troposphere over Réunion Island (21.1°S, 55.5°E) in June-August. Here we examine possible causes of the observed ozone variation at Réunion Island using hindcast simulations by the stratosphere-troposphere Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model for 1992-2014, driven by assimilated Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications meteorological fields. Réunion Island is at the edge of the subtropical jet, a region of strong stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. Our analysis implies that the large interannual variation (IAV) of upper tropospheric ozone over Réunion is driven by the large IAV of the stratospheric influence. The IAV of the large-scale, quasi-horizontal wind patterns also contributes to the IAV of ozone in the upper troposphere. Comparison to a simulation with constant emissions indicates that increasing emissions do not lead to the maximum trend in the middle and upper troposphere over Réunion during austral winter implied by the sonde data. The effects of increasing emission over southern Africa are limited to the lower troposphere near the surface in August-September.

  17. A multi-sensor upper tropospheric ozone product (MUTOP) based on TES Ozone and GOES water vapor: derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felker, S. R.; Moody, J. L.; Wimmers, A. J.; Osterman, G.; Bowman, K.

    2011-07-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Aura satellite, retrieves a vertical profile of tropospheric ozone. However, polar-orbiting instruments like TES provide limited nadir-view coverage. This work illustrates the value of these observations when taken in context with geostationary imagery describing synoptic-scale weather patterns. The goal of this study is to create map-view products of upper troposphere (UT) ozone through the integration of TES ozone measurements with two synoptic dynamic tracers of stratospheric influence: specific humidity derived from the GOES Imager water vapor absorption channel, and potential vorticity (PV) from an operational forecast model. As a mixing zone between tropospheric and stratospheric reservoirs, the upper troposphere (UT) exhibits a complex chemical makeup. Determination of ozone mixing ratios in this layer is especially difficult without direct in situ measurement. However, it is well understood that UT ozone is correlated with dynamical tracers like low specific humidity and high potential vorticity. Blending the advantages of two remotely sensed quantities (GOES water vapor and TES ozone) is at the core of the Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP). Our results suggest that 72 % of TES-observed UT ozone variability can be explained by its correlation with dry air and high PV. MUTOP reproduces TES retrievals across the GOES-West domain with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 18 ppbv (part per billion by volume). There are several advantages to this multi-sensor derived product approach: (1) it is calculated from two operational fields (GOES specific humidity and GFS PV), so maps of layer-average ozone can be created and used in near real-time; (2) the product provides the spatial resolution and coverage of a geostationary image as it depicts the variable distribution of ozone in the UT; and (3) the 6 h temporal resolution of the derived product imagery allows

  18. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the

  19. Inter-Annual and Decadal Changes in Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jr. R.; Chandra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone data beginning October 2004 from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the Cloud slicing technique in effort to develop long data records of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and studying their long-term changes. Using this technique, we have produced a 32-year (1979-2010) long record of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from the combined Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Toms) and OMI. The analyses of these time series suggest that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is the dominant source of inter-annual changes of 30-40 Dobson Units (DU). Tropospheric ozone also indicates a QBO signal in the peak to peak changes varying from 2 to 7 DU. Decadal changes in global stratospheric ozone indicate a turnaround in ozone loss around mid 1990's with most of these changes occurring in the Northern Hemisphere from the subtropics to high latitudes. The trend results are generally consistent with the prediction of chemistry climate models which include the reduction of ozone destroying substances beginning in the late 1980's mandated by the Montreal Protocol.

  20. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A.; Witte, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) column depth are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August-November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  1. Influence of isentropic transport on seasonal ozone variations in the lower stratosphere and subtropical upper troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jing, P.; Cunnold, D. M.; Yang, E.-S.; Wang, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    The isentropic cross-tropopause ozone transport has been estimated in both hemispheres in 1999 based on the potential vorticity mapping of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 ozone measurements and contour advection calculations using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global and Modeling Assimilation Office analysis. The estimated net isentropic stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux is approx.118 +/- 61 x 10(exp9)kg/yr globally within the layer between 330 and 370 K in 1999; 60% of it is found in the Northern Hemisphere, and 40% is found in the Southern Hemisphere. The monthly average ozone fluxes are strongest in summer and weakest in winter in both hemispheres. The seasonal variations of ozone in the lower stratosphere (LS) and upper troposphere (UT) have been analyzed using ozonesonde observations from ozonesonde stations in the extratropics and subtropics, respectively. It is shown that observed ozone levels increase in the UT over subtropical ozonesonde stations and decrease in the LS over extratropical stations in late spring/early summer and that the ozone increases in the summertime subtropical UT are unlikely to be explained by photochemical ozone production and diabatic transport alone. We conclude that isentropic transport is a significant contributor to ozone levels in the subtropical upper troposphere, especially in summer.

  2. TOMS Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Data Sets at the University of Maryland Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochhar, A. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Witte, J. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since 1997, shortly after the launch of the Earth-Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument, we have been processing data in near-real time to post maps of tropical tropospheric ozone at a website: metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Daily, 3-day and 9-day averages of tropical tropospheric ozone column depth (TTO) are viewable from 10N to 10S. Data can be downloaded (running 9-day means) from 20N-30S. Pollution events are trackable along with dynamically-induced variations in tropospheric ozone column. TOMS smoke aerosol (toms.gsfc.nasa.gov) can be used to interpret biomass burning ozone, as for example, during the extreme ozone and smoke pollution period during the ENSO-related fires of August November 1997. During that time plumes of ozone and smoke were frequently decoupled and ozone from Indonesian fires and from Africa merged in one large feature by late October 1997. In addition to the Earth-Probe TOMS record, data as half-month averages and as daily 9-day means from the Nimbus 7 TOMS instrument are at the metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo website. A guide to the website and examples of ozone time-series and maps will be shown.

  3. Determining relationships and mechanisms between tropospheric ozone column concentrations and tropical biomass burning in Thailand and its surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonkaew, Thiranan; Macatangay, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to determine the variability and trends of tropical biomass burning, tropospheric ozone levels from 2005-2012 in Thailand and the ozone transport from the surrounding regions. Intense biomass burning and tropospheric ozone in this area have a seasonal variability with the maximum generally occurring during the dry season. The northern part of Thailand was observed to have high tropospheric ozone during the dry peak season in April. Forward trajectory analysis determined that ozone sources due to biomass burning in the northern and western surrounding regions (Myanmar, Laos and India) enhance the tropospheric ozone column in northern Thailand. Seasonal variations were also seen for the middle and northeastern regions of Thailand. During August, most biomass burning occurs in Indonesia and Malaysia. However, forward trajectory analysis showed that the effect in the tropospheric ozone column level in the southern part of Thailand is minimal from these regions. Eight-year trends of tropospheric ozone column were also calculated for the different regions of Thailand. However, statistical analysis showed that these trends were not significant. The interannual variability of the tropospheric ozone column concentrations due to El Niño Southern Oscillation were also investigated. It was observed that the best correlation of the tropospheric ozone column with the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) occured when ONI was advanced 3 months for the north, northeast and south regions of Thailand and 4 months for the middle region of Thailand.

  4. Tropospheric ozone trends at Mauna Loa Observatory tied to decadal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meiyun; Horowitz, Larry W.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Fan, Songmiao

    2014-02-01

    A potent greenhouse gas and biological irritant, tropospheric ozone is also the primary source of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals, which remove numerous hazardous trace gases from the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone levels have increased in spring at remote sites in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere over the past few decades; this increase has been attributed to a growth in Asian precursor emissions. In contrast, 40 years of continuous measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii reveal little change in tropospheric ozone levels during spring (March-April), but a rise in autumn (September-October). Here we examine the contribution of decadal shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns to decadal variability in tropospheric ozone levels at Mauna Loa using a suite of chemistry-climate model simulations. We show that the flow of ozone-rich air from Eurasia towards Hawaii during spring weakened in the 2000s as a result of La-Niña-like decadal cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. During autumn, in contrast, the flow of ozone-rich air from Eurasia to Hawaii strengthened in the mid-1990s onwards, coincident with the positive phase of the Pacific-North American pattern. We suggest that these shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns can reconcile observed trends in tropospheric ozone levels at Mauna Loa and the northern mid-latitudes in recent decades. We conclude that decadal variability in atmospheric circulation patterns needs to be considered when attributing observed changes in tropospheric ozone levels to human-induced trends in precursor emissions.

  5. Sensitivity of midnineteenth century tropospheric ozone to atmospheric chemistry-vegetation interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollaway, M. J.; Arnold, S. R.; Collins, W. J.; Folberth, G.; Rap, A.

    2017-02-01

    We use an Earth System model (HadGEM2-ES) to investigate the sensitivity of midnineteenth century tropospheric ozone to vegetation distribution and atmospheric chemistry-vegetation interaction processes. We conduct model experiments to isolate the response of midnineteenth century tropospheric ozone to vegetation cover changes between the 1860s and present day and to CO2-induced changes in isoprene emissions and dry deposition over the same period. Changes in vegetation distribution and CO2 suppression of isoprene emissions between midnineteenth century and present day lead to decreases in global isoprene emissions of 19% and 21%, respectively. This results in increases in surface ozone over the continents of up to 2 ppbv and of 2-6 ppbv in the tropical upper troposphere. The effects of CO2 increases on suppression of isoprene emissions and suppression of dry deposition to vegetation are small compared with the effects of vegetation cover change. Accounting for present-day climate in addition to present-day vegetation cover and atmospheric CO2 concentrations leads to increases in surface ozone concentrations of up to 5 ppbv over the entire northern hemisphere (NH) and of up to 8 ppbv in the NH free troposphere, compared with a midnineteenth century control simulation. Ozone changes are dominated by the following: (1) the role of isoprene as an ozone sink in the low NOx midnineteenth century atmosphere and (2) the redistribution of NOx to remote regions and the free troposphere via PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate) formed from isoprene oxidation. We estimate a tropospheric ozone radiative forcing of 0.264 W m-2 and a sensitivity in ozone radiative forcing to midnineteenth century to present-day vegetation cover change of -0.012 W m-2.

  6. Monitoring the distribution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan by using OMI/MLS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noreen, Asma; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Zeb, Naila

    2016-07-01

    Pakistan is a semi-arid, agricultural country located in Indian Sub-continent, Asia. Due to exponential population growth, poor control and regulatory measures and practices in industries, it is facing a major problem of air pollution. The concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols are showing an increasing trend in general. One of these greenhouse gases is tropospheric ozone, one of the criteria pollutant, which has a radiative forcing (RF) of about 0.4 ± 0.2 Wm-2, contributing about 14% of the present total RF. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan during 2004 to 2014 was studied by using combined OMI/MLS product, which was derived by tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method. Results showed an overall increase of 3.2 ± 2.2 DU in tropospheric ozone concentration over Pakistan since October 2004. The mean spatial distribution showed high concentrations of ozone in the Punjab and southern Sindh where there is high population densities along with rapid urbanization and enhanced anthropogenic activities. The seasonal variations were observed in the provinces of the country and TO3 VCDs were found to be high during summer while minimum during winter. The statistical analysis by using seasonal Mann Kendal test also showed strong positive trends over the four provinces as well as in major cities of Pakistan. These variations were driven by various factors such as seasonality in UV-B fluxes, seasonality in ozone precursor gases such as NOx and VOCs and agricultural fire activities in Pakistan. A strong correlation of 97% was found between fire events and tropospheric ozone concentration over the country. The results also depicted the influence of UV-B radiations on the tropospheric ozone concentration over different regions of Pakistan especially in Baluchistan and Sindh provinces.

  7. Elevated Tropospheric Ozone Over the South Tropical Atlantic in January-February 1999: An Ozone Paradox Due to Interhemispheric Transport, Lightning, or Stratospheric Exchange?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Hudson, Robert D.; Luke, Winston T.; Johnson, James E.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On this first North American to southern African oceanographic cruise with ozonesonde launches (January and February 1999 on board the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H Brown between Norfolk, VA, and Cape Town, South Africa) we found: (1) high ozone, CO, and aerosols off northern equatorial Africa from biomass burning, but even higher ozone concentrations off southern Africa which was not burning - an "ozone paradox"; (2) TOMS satellite evidence that south Atlantic elevated ozone in January-February 1999 was a regional feature similar in extent to the well-known September-October ozone maximum. Several mechanisms are considered to explain the "ozone paradox." Convection transporting air from the lower troposphere rich in ozone and/or ozone precursors to the upper troposphere through the ITCZ (intertropical Convergence Zone) may lead to cross-hemisphere transport of pollution. This is supported by trajectory linkage of lower-tropospheric ozone maxima with smoke seen by the TOMS satellite. Lightning-generated NO (nitric oxide) leading to ozone peaks of > 100 ppbv observed at 7-10 km altitude is another explanation. The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Lightning Imaging Sounder shows many lightning flashes over southern Africa, which trajectories link to the high-ozone layers south of the ITCZ. The highest ozone peaks in the middle troposphere correspond to very low water vapor, which may point to photochemical destruction of ozone or subsidence from the upper troposphere which had interacted with stratospheric ozone.

  8. Stratospheric impact on tropospheric ozone variability and trends: 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. G.; Zbinden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of stratospheric ozone on the interannual variability and trends in tropospheric ozone is evaluated between 30 and 90° N from 1990-2009 using ozone measurements and a global chemical transport model, the Community Atmospheric Model with chemistry (CAM-chem). Long-term measurements from ozonesondes, at 150 and 500 hPa, and the Measurements of OZone and water vapour by in-service Airbus aircraft programme (MOZAIC), at 500 hPa, are analyzed over Japan, Canada, the Eastern US and Northern and Central Europe. The measurements generally emphasize northern latitudes, although the simulation suggests that measurements over the Canadian, Northern and Central European regions are representative of the large-scale interannual ozone variability from 30 to 90° N at 500 hPa. CAM-chem is run with input meteorology from the National Center for Environmental Prediction; a tagging methodology is used to identify the stratospheric contribution to tropospheric ozone concentrations. A variant of the synthetic ozone tracer (synoz) is used to represent stratospheric ozone. Both the model and measurements indicate that on large spatial scales stratospheric interannual ozone variability drives significant tropospheric variability at 500 hPa and the surface. In particular, the simulation and the measurements suggest large stratospheric influence at the surface sites of Mace Head (Ireland) and Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) as well as many 500 hPa measurement locations. Both the measurements and simulation suggest the stratosphere has contributed to tropospheric ozone trends. In many locations between 30-90° N 500 hPa ozone significantly increased from 1990-2000, but has leveled off since (from 2000-2009). The simulated global ozone budget suggests global stratosphere-troposphere exchange increased in 1998-1999 in association with a global ozone anomaly. Discrepancies between the simulated and measured ozone budget include a large underestimation of measured ozone variability

  9. Ozone tendencies in the free troposphere: A comparison of net ozone production for background conditions and convectively processed air in the tropics and extratropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.

    2009-04-01

    Ozone is an important oxidant and a greenhouse gas. While the highest mixing ratios are found in the stratosphere, significant changes of ozone at tropopause levels can have significant climate effects. Furthermore ozone is the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical OH, thus strongly affecting the oxidation power of the atmosphere. Convective transport of ozone and its precursors between low altitudes near the surface and the middle and upper troposphere influences ozone in the tropopause region. Data from the airborne measurement campaigns, GABRIEL 2005 (Suriname, South America) and HOOVER 2006 and 2007 (Europe) are presented. We investigate the ozone budget in the free troposphere in cases of deep convection and in background conditions. Steady state model calculations, based on in-situ measurements of O3, NO, OH, HO2 and actinic radiation are used to calculate the net O3 tendency for background and convectively processed air. In the extratropics the net ozone production rate (OPR) in convective outflow amounts to 1.85 ppbv/h (Range: 0.26 to 8.21 ppbv/h, depending on the mixing ratio of NO and HO2), while the background atmosphere shows no clear tendency. In the tropics an OPR of 0.23 ppbv/h (0.01 to 1.13 ppbv/h) in the outflow and 0.08 ppbv/h (-0.01 to 0.47 ppbv/h) for the background atmosphere was calculated. Convective outflow in both regimes is able to produce ozone in high amounts. For background conditions no clear tendency for the extratropics compared to the tropics is found.

  10. Observation of ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere over East Asia from a space-borne ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, S.; Liu, X.; Ono, A.; Yang, K.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report observations from space using ultraviolet (UV) radiance for significant enhancement of ozone in the lower troposphere over central and eastern China (CEC). The recent retrieval products of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite revealed the spatial and temporal variation of ozone distributions in multiple layers in the troposphere. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with airborne measurements by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The correlation between OMI and MOZAIC ozone in the lower troposphere was reasonable, which assured the reliability of OMI ozone retrievals in the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions. The ozone enhancement was clearly observed over CEC, with Shandong Province as its center, and was most notable in June in any given year. Similar seasonal variations were observed throughout the 9-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. A considerable part of this ozone enhancement could be attributed to the emissions of ozone precursors from industrial activities and automobiles, and possibly from open crop residue burning (OCRB) after the winter wheat harvest. The ozone distribution presented in this study is also consistent with some model studies. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution is first shown from OMI retrieval in this study, and the results will be useful in clarifying any unknown factors that influence ozone distribution by comparison with model simulations.

  11. Radiative forcing perturbation due to observed increases in tropospheric ozone at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Wei-Chyung; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Zhuang, Yi-Cheng

    1994-01-01

    The effect on surface temperature due to changes in atmospheric O3 depends highly on the latitude where the change occurs. Previous sensitivity calculations indicate that ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are more effective in causing surface temperature change (Wang et al., 1980). Long term ground-based observations show that tropospheric ozone, especially at the tropopause region, has been increasing at middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NATO, 1988; Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, 1992). These increases will enhance the greenhouse effect and increase the radiative forcing to the troposphere-surface system, which is opposite to the negative radiative forcing calculated from the observed stratospheric ozone depletion recently reported in WMO (1992). We used more than two thousands regularly measured ozonesondes providing reliable vertical O3 distribution at Hohenpeissenberg (47N; 11E) for the 1967-1990 to study the instantaneous solar and longwave radiative forcing the two decades 1971-1990 and compare the forcing with those caused by increasing CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs. Calculations are also made to compare the O3 radiative forcing between stratospheric depletion and tropospheric increase. Results indicate that the O3 changes will induce a positive radiative forcing dominated by tropospheric O3 increase and the magnitude of the forcing is comparable to that due to CO2 increases during the two decades. The significant implications of the tropospheric O3 increase to the global climate are discussed.

  12. Trends of rural tropospheric ozone at the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, S; Rodríguez, A; Souto, J A; Casares, J J; Bermúdez, J L; Soto, B

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80's-90's, until the application of NO(x) reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  13. Trends of Rural Tropospheric Ozone at the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Souto, J. A.; Casares, J. J.; Bermúdez, J. L.; Soto, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80's–90's, until the application of NOx reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions. PMID:22649298

  14. Bimodal distribution of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical western Pacific revealed by airborne observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L. L.; Honomichl, S. B.; Randel, W. J.; Apel, E. C.; Atlas, E. L.; Beaton, S. P.; Bresch, J. F.; Hornbrook, R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Salawitch, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    A recent airborne field campaign over the remote western Pacific obtained the first intensive in situ ozone sampling over the warm pool region from oceanic surface to 15 km altitude (near 360 K potential temperature level). The new data set quantifies ozone in the tropical tropopause layer under significant influence of convective outflow. The analysis further reveals a bimodal distribution of free tropospheric ozone mixing ratio. A primary mode, narrowly distributed around 20 ppbv, dominates the troposphere from the surface to 15 km. A secondary mode, broadly distributed with a 60 ppbv modal value, is prominent between 3 and 8 km (320 K to 340 K potential temperature levels). The latter mode occurs as persistent layers of ozone-rich drier air and is characterized by relative humidity under 45%. Possible controlling mechanisms are discussed. These findings provide new insight into the physical interpretation of the "S"-shaped mean ozone profiles in the tropics.

  15. In-situ measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone over Hyderabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Sinha, P. R.

    The Study of the ozone concentration and its variability is one of the key indexes for environmental and ecological degradation While the stratospheric ozone absorbs the harmful ultraviolet radiation between 280-320 nm band, the tropospheric ozone is formed in the elevated layers up to 10km above ground level through the photochemical decomposition of the precursor gases like NOx, VOCs and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) released from the earth surface. Ozone studies are also vital for the understanding of solar terrestrial coupling as well as the ozone chemistry on a given site and its surroundings. Continuous measurements of vertical profile of ozone and various meteorological parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction) over one year period were made over Hyderabad using high altitude plastic balloons, in order to investigate i. variations of ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere, ii. stratospheric warming iii. coupling between upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. Ozonesonde (Electro Chemical Cell) coupled with GPS RS80-15N radiosonde was used for the measurement of Ozone and meteorological parameters.

  16. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes): A Project Overview and New Insights on Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz, for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement is achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone; 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  17. Tropospheric ozone effects on chemical composition and decomposition rate of Quercus ilex L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Fagnano, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2011-02-01

    We determined the effects of tropospheric ozone on the chemical composition of Quercus ilex L. leaves and their decomposition, with a view to assessing the influence of ozone on nutrient cycling and the sustainability of Mediterranean holm oak forests. Forming one of the most widespread thermophilous vegetation communities in the area, Q. ilex is a dominant and widespread evergreen oak in the Mediterranean, where concentrations of tropospheric ozone are particularly high. The dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, lignin and cellulose concentrations were monitored for six months during the decomposition of leaves from plants subjected to controlled ozone exposure in open-top chambers. Ozone-exposed leaves, compared to unexposed leaves, showed no significant differences in C, N, lignin and cellulose concentrations prior to the incubation in mesocosms. However, during decomposition, leaves from plants exposed to ozone lost C significantly more slowly and showed a higher C/N ratio than unexposed leaves. Ozone exposure significantly slowed down the decomposition rate, indicating a negative effect of tropospheric ozone on nutrient cycling, which may reduce long-term sustainability of the holm oak forest.

  18. Tropospheric ozone in the Nisqually River Drainage, Mount Rainier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, Darci

    1999-01-01

    We quantified the summertime distribution of tropospheric ozone in the topographically complex Nisqually River drainage of Mount Rainier National Park from 1994 to 1997. Passive ozone samplers were used along an elevational transect to measure weekly average ozone concentrations ranging from 570 m to 2040 m elevation. Weekly average ozone concentrations were positively correlated with elevation, with the highest concentrations consistently measured at the highest sampling site (Panorama Point). Weekly average ozone concentrations at Mount Rainier National Park are considerably higher than those in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area to the west. The anthropogenic contribution to ozone within the Nisqually drainage was evaluated by comparing measurements at this location with measurements from a 'reference' site in the western Olympic Mountains. The comparison suggests there is a significant anthropogenic source of ozone reaching the Cascade Range via atmospheric transport from urban areas to the west. In addition. temporal (week to week) variation in ozone distribution is synchronous within the Nisqually drainage, which indicates that subregional patterns are detectable with weekly averages. The Nisqually drainage is likely the 'hot spot' for air pollution in Mount Rainier National Park. By using passive ozone samplers in this drainage in conjunction with a limited number of continuous analyzers, the park will have a robust monitoring approach for measuring tropospheric ozone over time and protecting vegetative and human health.

  19. The Impact of Emissions on Tropospheric Ozone over the Indian Subcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L. M.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Brewer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Asia is a region of intense solar radiation, high water vapour abundance, and consequent high photochemical activity. The anthropogenic emissions from this region continue to grow. The abundance of tropospheric ozone-a product of this photochemical activity, an important climate gas, and an air pollutant-is examined using GEOS-Chem, a global three-dimensional chemical transport model (www.geos-chem.org). We have examined ozone abundances in the boundary layer, and mid and upper troposphere over the Indian subcontinent, a region with rapid growth in industrial, urbanization, transportation and agricultural activities. The work focuses on the export and import of tropospheric ozone and its precursors, out of and into the Indian subcontinent. The model simulations are compared against a comprehensive data set on ozone from soundings, MOZAIC aircraft data, and surface observations. Detailed modeling studies that enable an understanding of the impact of emission (particularly NOx) on tropospheric ozone are evaluated for the period of 15 years (2000-2014), when emissions were increasing rapidly. Modeling runs were conducted with emissions removed, emissions included, and emissions scaled by certain factors to study the sensitivity of ozone abundances to emissions from various regions of interest.

  20. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: New Insights from Remote Sensing, Sondes and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    1999-01-01

    This talk will summarize our recent research in tropical tropospheric ozone studies in the field and from space. New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument will be highlighted (Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999). These are suitable for studying processes like ozone pollution resulting from biomass fires, seasonal and interannual variations and trends. Archived maps of tropospheric ozone over the tropics, from the Nimbus 7 observing period (1979-1992) are available in digital form at our website: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Real-time processing of TOMS data has produced images of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) since early 1997, using Earth-Probe TOMS; these maps are also available on the homepage. The need for validation data for TTO maps has led to establishment of the NASA/NOAA-sponsored SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network, from which a 2-year record of high-quality ozonesonde data can be obtained: (http://hyperion.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/Shadoz/shadoz-hmpg2.htrnl). Examples will be shown, along with ozonesondes from the January-February 1999 Aerosols-99 cruise of the R/V Ronald H Brown from Virginia to Cape Town, South Africa.

  1. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  2. Summertime tropospheric ozone enhancement associated with a cold front passage due to stratosphere-to-troposphere transport and biomass burning: Simultaneous ground-based lidar and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Wang, Lihua; Burris, John; Pierce, Robert B.; Eloranta, Edwin W.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Graus, Martin; Gouw, Joost; Warneke, Carsten; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Holloway, John S.; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Huang, Guanyu; Liu, Xiong; Feng, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and biomass burning (BB) are two important natural sources for tropospheric ozone that can result in elevated ozone and air-quality episode events. High-resolution observations of multiple related species are critical for complex ozone source attribution. In this article, we present an analysis of coinciding ground-based and airborne observations, including ozone lidar, ozonesonde, high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), and multiple airborne in situ measurements, made on 28 and 29 June 2013 during the Southeast Nexus field campaign. The ozone lidar and HSRL reveal detailed ozone and aerosol structures as well as the temporal evolution associated with a cold front passage. The observations also captured two enhanced (+30 ppbv) ozone layers in the free troposphere (FT), which were determined from this study to be caused by a mixture of BB and stratospheric sources. The mechanism for this STT is tropopause folding associated with a cutoff upper level low-pressure system according to the analysis of its potential vorticity structure. The depth of the tropopause fold appears to be shallow for this case compared to events observed in other seasons; however, the impact on lower tropospheric ozone was clearly observed. This event suggests that strong STT may occur in the southeast United States during the summer and can potentially impact lower troposphere during these times. Statistical analysis of the airborne observations of trace gases suggests a coincident influence of BB transport in the FT impacting the vertical structure of ozone during this case study.

  3. First look at the NOAA Aircraft-based Tropospheric Ozone Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, M.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; McClure-Begley, A.; Lin, M.; Tarasick, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network's aircraft program has operated since the 1990s as part of the NOAA Global Monitoring Division network to capture spatial and temporal variability in greenhouse tracers (i.e. CO2, CO, N2O, methane, SF6, halo- and hydro-carbons). Since 2005 the suite of airborne measurements also includes ozone, humidity and temperature profiling through the troposphere (up to 8 km). Light commercial aircraft are equipped with modified 2B Technology ozone monitors (Model 205DB), incorporate temperature and humidity probes, and include global positioning system instrumentation. The dataset was analyzed for tropospheric ozone variability at five continental US stations. As site locations within the Tropospheric Aircraft Ozone Measurement Program have flights only once (four times at one site) a month and begun a decade ago, this raises the question of whether this sampling frequency allows the derivation of an accurate vertical climatology of ozone values. We interpret the representativeness of the vertical and seasonal ozone distribution from aircraft measurements using multi-decadal hindcast simulations conducted with the GFDL AM3 chemistry-climate model. When available, climatology derived from co-located ozone-sonde data will be used for comparisons. The results of the comparisons are analyzed to establish altitude ranges in the troposphere where the aircraft climatology would be deemed to be the most representative. Aircraft-based climatologies are tested from two approaches: comparing the aircraft-based climatology to the daily sampled model and to the subset of model data with matching aircraft dates. Whenever the model and aircraft climatologies show significant seasonal differences, further information is gathered from a seasonal Gaussian distribution plot. We will report on the minimum frequency in flights that can provide adequate climatological representation of seasonal and vertical variability in tropospheric ozone.

  4. The impact of lightning on tropospheric ozone chemistry using a new global lightning parametrisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, D. L.; Doherty, R. M.; Wild, O.; Abraham, N. L.

    2016-06-01

    A lightning parametrisation based on upward cloud ice flux is implemented in a chemistry-climate model (CCM) for the first time. The UK Chemistry and Aerosols model is used to study the impact of these lightning nitric oxide (NO) emissions on ozone. Comparisons are then made between the new ice flux parametrisation and the commonly used, cloud-top height parametrisation. The ice flux approach improves the simulation of lightning and the temporal correlations with ozone sonde measurements in the middle and upper troposphere. Peak values of ozone in these regions are attributed to high lightning NO emissions. The ice flux approach reduces the overestimation of tropical lightning apparent in this CCM when using the cloud-top approach. This results in less NO emission in the tropical upper troposphere and more in the extratropics when using the ice flux scheme. In the tropical upper troposphere the reduction in ozone concentration is around 5-10 %. Surprisingly, there is only a small reduction in tropospheric ozone burden when using the ice flux approach. The greatest absolute change in ozone burden is found in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that much of the ozone produced in the upper troposphere is transported to higher altitudes. Major differences in the frequency distribution of flash rates for the two approaches are found. The cloud-top height scheme has lower maximum flash rates and more mid-range flash rates than the ice flux scheme. The initial Ox (odd oxygen species) production associated with the frequency distribution of continental lightning is analysed to show that higher flash rates are less efficient at producing Ox; low flash rates initially produce around 10 times more Ox per flash than high-end flash rates. We find that the newly implemented lightning scheme performs favourably compared to the cloud-top scheme with respect to simulation of lightning and tropospheric ozone. This alternative lightning scheme shows spatial and temporal differences in

  5. Investigation of the Short-Time Variability of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randriambelo, Tantely; Baray, Jean-Luc; Baldy, Serge; Thompson, Anne M.; Oltmans, Samuel; Keckhut, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, a ground based tropospheric ozone lidar has been running at Reunion Island and has been involved with a daily measurement campaign that was performed in the latter part of the biomass burning season, during November-December 1999. The averaged ozone profile obtained during November-December 1 999 agrees well with averaged ozone profile obtained from ozonesondes launch at Reunion during November-December (1992- 2001). Comparing weekly sonde launches (part of the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes: SHADOZ program) with the daily ground-based lidar observations shows that some striking features of the day to day variability profiles are not observed in the sonde measurements. Ozone profiles respond to the nature of disturbances which vary from the one day to the next. The vertical ozone distribution at Reunion is examined as a function of prevailing atmospheric circulation. Backtrajectories show that most of the enhanced ozone crossed over biomass burning and convectively active regions in Madagascar and the southern African continent. The analyses of the meteorological data show that ozone stratification profiles are in agreement with the movement of the synoptical situations in November-December 1999. Three different sequences of transport are explained using wind fields. The first sequence from 23 to 25 November is characterized by Northerly transport, the second sequence from 26 to 30 November, the air masses are influenced by meridional transport. The third sequence from 2 to 6 December is characterized by westerly transport associated with the subtropical jet stream. The large standard deviations of lidar profiles in the middle and upper troposphere are in agreement with the upper wind variabilities which evidence passing ridge and trough disturbances. During the transition period between the dry season and the wet season, multiple ozone sources including stratosphere-troposphere exchanges, convection and biomass burning contribute to

  6. Distribution of tropospheric ozone in the tropics from satellite and ozonesonde measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Fakhruzzaman, K.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements from two independent satellite data sets have been used to derive the climatology of the integrated amount of ozone in the troposphere. These data have led to the finding that large amounts of ozone pollution are generated by anthropogenic activity originating from both the industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere and from the southern tropical regions of Africa. To verify the existence of this ozone anomaly over this region of the world, an ozonesonde capability has been established at Ascension Island, located downwind of the primary source region of this ozone pollution, which likely results from the photochemical oxidation of emissions emanating from the widespread burning of savanna. These first ozonesonde profiles suggest that much of the ozone generated over Africa during the 'burning season' (primarily July-October) reaches Ascension Island. These high levels of ozone in the lower troposphere become much lower by December. Elevated ozone concentrations in the middle troposphere are once again evident in February, which may be the result of biomass burning emissions being transported from western and northern Africa.

  7. Results obtained with the Tropospheric Ozone DIAL System Using a YAG Laser and Raman Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    This poster will detail the findings of the ground based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system built and operated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Beltsville, MD 38.99° N, 76.84° W) in 2012. Current atmospheric satellites cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, NASA has funded the ground based Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNET) which currently consists of five stations across the US. The Goddard instrument is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, and has initially transmitted two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm, and the DIAL technique exploits this difference between the two returned signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman Cells, filled with high pressure Hydrogen and Deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering within the focus shifts the pump wavelength, and the first Stokes shift in each cell produces the required wavelengths. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the vertical number density can then be derived. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make long term ozone profile measurements in the Washington, DC - Baltimore area.

  8. Distribution of stratospheric column ozone (SCO) determined from satellite observations: Validation of solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) measurements in support of the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Amy E.; Fishman, Jack; Wang, Pi-Huan; Creilson, John K.

    2005-10-01

    The global (50°N-50°S) distribution of stratospheric column ozone (SCO) is derived using solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) profiles and compared with SCO amounts derived from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and ground-based measurements. An evaluation of archived SBUV (version 6) ozone profiles with ozonesonde profiles shows that the low resolution of the SBUV instrument in the troposphere and lower stratosphere leads to a low bias in the SBUV profile in the troposphere and a high bias in the lower stratosphere in regions where anthropogenic tropospheric ozone production influences the climatology. An empirical correction applied to the SBUV profile prior to separating the stratosphere from the troposphere reduces the bias in the lower stratosphere and results in a SCO distribution in good agreement with SCO derived from SAGE ozone profiles. Because the empirical correction is most pronounced at northern middle latitudes, we compare these resultant SCO values with those measured at two northern middle latitude sites (Wallops Island and Hohenpeissenberg) using concurrent measurements from Dobson spectrophotometers and ozonesondes. Our analysis shows that the empirically corrected SCO at these sites captures the seasonal cycle of SCO as well as the seasonal cycle derived from SAGE stratospheric ozone profiles. These results have important implications for the derivation of tropospheric ozone from SBUV ozone profiles in conjunction with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone measurements using the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) methodology.

  9. Photochemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in urban and remote environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel Craig

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects human health, reduces crop yields, and contributes to climate forcing. To limit these effects, the processes controlling O3 abundance as well as that of its precursor molecules must be fully characterized. Here, I examine three facets of O 3 production, both in heavily polluted and remote environments. First, using in situ observations from the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore/Washington region, I evaluate the emissions of the O 3 precursors CO and NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). I find that CO/NOx emissions ratios derived from observations are 21% higher than those predicted by the NEI. Comparisons to output from the CMAQ model suggest that CO in the NEI is accurate within 15 +/- 11%, while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70%, likely due to errors in mobile sources. These results imply that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx controls than current models suggest. I then investigate the source of high O3 and low H2O structures in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). A combination of in situ observations, satellite data, and models show that the high O3 results from photochemical production in biomass burning plumes from fires in tropical Southeast Asia and Central Africa; the low relative humidity results from large-scale descent in the tropics. Because these structures have frequently been attributed to mid-latitude pollution, biomass burning in the tropics likely contributes more to the radiative forcing of climate than previously believed. Finally, I evaluate the processes controlling formaldehyde (HCHO) in the TWP. Convective transport of near surface HCHO leads to a 33% increase in upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios; convection also likely increases upper tropospheric CH 3OOH to ~230 pptv, enough to maintain background HCHO at ~75 pptv. The long-range transport of polluted air, with NO four times the convectively controlled background

  10. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  11. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Volker, W.; Kirchhoff, J. H.; Posny, Franaoise; Gert, J.; Coetzee, R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a three year, ten site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, are at an archive: http://code9l6. gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO (El Nino / Southern Oscillation), seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  12. Insights Into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From The 1998-2000 Shadoz (southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Posny, F.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, B.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Ob- servations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous tem- perature profiles to 7 hPa and relative humidity to 200 hPa, are at an archive: . Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) col- umn ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak be- tween August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the wan- ing 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  13. The derivation of tropospheric column ozone using the TOR approach and mapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing

    2007-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone columns (TCOs) derived from differences between the Dutch-Finnish Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements of the total atmospheric ozone column and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of stratospheric ozone columns are discussed. Because the measurements by these two instruments are not spatially coincident, interpolation techniques, with emphasis on mapping the stratospheric columns in space and time using the relationships between lower stratospheric ozone and potential vorticity (PV) and geopotential heights (Z), are evaluated at mid-latitudes. It is shown that this PV mapping procedure produces somewhat better agreement in comparisons with ozonesonde measurements, particularly in winter, than does simple linear interpolation of the MLS stratospheric columns or the use of typical coincidence criteria at mid-latitudes. The OMI/MLS derived tropospheric columns are calculated to be 4 Dobson units (DU) smaller than the sonde measured columns at mid-latitudes. This mean difference is consistent with the MLS (version 1.5) stratospheric ozone columns being high relative to Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) columns by 3 DU. Standard deviations between the derived tropospheric columns and those measured by ozonesondes are 9 DU (30%) annually but they are just 6 DU (15%) in summer. Uncertainties in the interpolated MLS stratospheric columns are likely to be the primary cause of these standard deviations. An important advantage of the PV mapping approach is that it works well when MLS data are missing (e.g., when an orbit of measurements is missing). In the comparisons against ozonesonde measurements, it provides up to twice as many comparisons compared to the other techniques. The OMI/MLS derived tropospheric ozone columns have been compared with corresponding columns based on the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) measurements, and Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) simulations. The variability of

  14. The Ozone Budget in the Upper Troposphere from Global Modeling Initiative (GMI)Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere are influenced by in-situ production, long-range tropospheric transport, and influx of stratospheric ozone, as well as by photochemical removal. Since ozone is an important greenhouse gas in this region, it is particularly important to understand how it will respond to changes in anthropogenic emissions and changes in stratospheric ozone fluxes.. This response will be determined by the relative balance of the different production, loss and transport processes. Ozone concentrations calculated by models will differ depending on the adopted meteorological fields, their chemical scheme, anthropogenic emissions, and treatment of the stratospheric influx. We performed simulations using the chemical-transport model from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) with meteorological fields from (It)h e NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), (2) the atmospheric GCM from NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office(GMAO), and (3) assimilated winds from GMAO . These simulations adopt the same chemical mechanism and emissions, and adopt the Synthetic Ozone (SYNOZ) approach for treating the influx of stratospheric ozone -. In addition, we also performed simulations for a coupled troposphere-stratosphere model with a subset of the same winds. Simulations were done for both 4degx5deg and 2degx2.5deg resolution. Model results are being tested through comparison with a suite of atmospheric observations. In this presentation, we diagnose the ozone budget in the upper troposphere utilizing the suite of GMI simulations, to address the sensitivity of this budget to: a) the different meteorological fields used; b) the adoption of the SYNOZ boundary condition versus inclusion of a full stratosphere; c) model horizontal resolution. Model results are compared to observations to determine biases in particular simulations; by examining these comparisons in conjunction with the derived budgets, we may pinpoint

  15. Causes of interannual variability over the southern hemispheric tropospheric ozone maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Olsen, Mark A.; Wargan, Krzysztof; Ziemke, Jerald R.

    2017-03-01

    We examine the relative contribution of processes controlling the interannual variability (IAV) of tropospheric ozone over four sub-regions of the southern hemispheric tropospheric ozone maximum (SHTOM) over a 20-year period. Our study is based on hindcast simulations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling Initiative chemistry transport model (NASA GMI-CTM) of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, driven by assimilated Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields. Our analysis shows that over SHTOM region, the IAV of the stratospheric contribution is the most important factor driving the IAV of upper tropospheric ozone (270 hPa), where ozone has a strong radiative effect. Over the South Atlantic region, the contribution from surface emissions to the IAV of ozone exceeds that from stratospheric input at and below 430 hPa. Over the South Indian Ocean, the IAV of stratospheric ozone makes the largest contribution to the IAV of ozone with little or no influence from surface emissions at 270 and 430 hPa in austral winter. Over the tropical South Atlantic region, the contribution from IAV of stratospheric input dominates in austral winter at 270 hPa and drops to less than half but is still significant at 430 hPa. Emission contributions are not significant at these two levels. The IAV of lightning over this region also contributes to the IAV of ozone in September and December. Over the tropical southeastern Pacific, the contribution of the IAV of stratospheric input is significant at 270 and 430 hPa in austral winter, and emissions have little influence.

  16. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Kimball, Bruce A; Ort, Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O₃]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O₃] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O₃] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 °C.

  17. Free tropospheric ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Dickerson, Russell R.; Simpson, Joanne

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that rapid vertical transport of air from urban plumes through deep convective clouds can cause substantial enhancement of the rate of O3 production in the free troposphere. Simulation of convective redistribution and subsequent photochemistry of an urban plume from Oklahoma City during the 1985 PRESTORM campaign shows enhancement of O3 production in the free tropospheric cloud outflow layer by a factor of almost 4. In contrast, simulation of convective transport of an urban plume from Manaus, Brazil, into a prestine free troposphere during GTE/ABLE 2B (1987), followed by a photochemical simulation, showed enhancement of O3 production by a factor of 35. The reasons for the different enhancements are (1) intensity of cloud vertical motion; (2) initial boundary layer O3 precursor concentrations; and (3) initial amount of background free tropospheric NO(x). Convective transport of ozone precursors to the middle and upper troposphere allows the resulting O3 to spread over large geographic regions, rather than being confined to the lower troposphere where loss processes are much more rapid. Conversely, as air with lower NO descends and replaces more polluted air, there is greater O3 production efficiency per molecule of NO in the boundary layer following convective transport. As a result, over 30 percent more ozone could be produced in the entire tropospheric column in the first 24 hours following convective transport of urban plumes.

  18. The role of isoprene oxidation in the tropospheric ozone budget in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Levine, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive chemical mechanism for the oxidation of isoprene (a hydrocarbon, C5H8 emitted primarily by vegetation) by OH and O3 in the troposphere was developed and incorporated into a one-dimensional steady-state photochemical model of the troposphere. Flux boundary conditions for NOx (NO + NO2), HNO3, O3, and CO were used to investigate the changes produced in the tropospheric concentrations and integrated column of ozone from including isoprene chemistry in the model. Two calculations were performed at 15 deg N latitude for annual conditions using identical flux boundary conditions for NOx, HNO3, O3, and CO; in one calculation, the chemistry describing isoprene oxidation was included while in the other it was not. Both sets of calculations included reactions describing the chemistry of anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons. The calculations showed decreases in concentrations of ozone throughout the troposphere when isoprene chemistry was included. Concentrations of NOx and HNO3 increased in the lower troposphere and decreased in the upper troposphere while concentrations of CO and PAN increased throughout the troposphere when isoprene chemistry was included. Implications of this study to the budgets of these species in the tropics is discussed.

  19. Lidar-derived Correlations Between Lower-tropospheric Column and Surface Ozone: Implications for Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Langford, A. O.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Kirgis, G.; Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, A.; Banta, R. M.; Weickmann, A. M.; Sandberg, S.; Olson, E.

    2015-12-01

    One of the data products that will be provided by the TEMPO satellite mission is 0-2 km ozone column concentration. To make inferences about surface air quality from this data product, the relationship between lower-tropospheric column and surface ozone concentrations and their diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations have to be well understood. To characterize these relationships, we have used ozone profile observations obtained with NOAA's truck-based, scanning TOPAZ ozone lidar from several recent field campaigns including Discover-AQ Houston and Colorado, the Uintah Basin Wintertime Ozone Study (UBWOS), and the Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS). The TOPAZ lidar is ideally suited for this kind of study because it provides ozone profiles from about 15 m above ground level (AGL) up to 3 km AGL at high spatial and temporal resolution. We have used the lidar observations closest to the ground as a proxy for surface ozone and compared them to the 0-2 km AGL average column ozone concentrations measured with the lidar. Results from the Discover-AQ Colorado campaign show that in the afternoon, when the boundary layer (BL) was deep and well mixed, ozone column and surface concentrations agreed quite well. However, during the morning hours, ozone column concentrations were significantly higher than those at the surface, because ozone was depleted in a shallow surface layer due to titration and deposition, whereas ozone levels in the residual layer aloft remained moderately high. The analysis of column and surface ozone correlations using ozone lidar observations from the Discover-AQ Houston, UBWOS and LVOS campaigns is currently underway. The results from these studies will provide additional insights into the relationship between column and surface ozone, in particular their variation as a function of measurement location and season, and their dependence on BL processes such as mixed layer height evolution, land-sea breeze circulation, and terrain-induced flows.

  20. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Megretskaia, Inna A.; Chatfield, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of <30 DU uniformly distributed south of 35 S during all seasons, and relatively high tropospheric column ozone of >33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  1. Insights into Tropospheric Ozone from the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Kucsera, T. L.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Tarasick, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profile data from soundings integrate models, aircraft and other ground-based measurements for better interpretation of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. A well-designed network of ozonesonde stations, with consistent sampling, can answer questions not possible with short campaigns or current satellite technology. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) project, for example, has led to these findings about tropical ozone: definition of the zonal tropospheric wave-one pattern in equatorial ozone, characterization of the "Atlantic ozone paradox" and establishment of a link between tropical Atlantic and Indian Ocean pollution. Building on the SHADOZ concept, a short-term ozone network was formed in July-August 2004 to coordinate ozonesonde launches during the ICARTT/INTEX/NEAQS (International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation)/Intercontinental Transport Experiment/New England Air Quality Study. In IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study), more than 250 soundings, with daily frequency at half the sites, were launched from eleven North American stations and an oceanographic ship in the Gulf of Maine. Although the goal was to examine pollution influences under stable high-pressure systems and transport associated with "warm conveyor belt" flows, the INTEX study region was dominated by a series of weak frontal system that mixed aged pollution with stratospheric ozone in the middle troposphere. Deconvoluting ozone sources provides new insights into ozone in the transition between mid-latitude and polar air.

  2. Reactive Nitrogen, Ozone and Ozone Production in the Arctic Troposphere and the Impact of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Q.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Apel, E.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; daSilva, A.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Huey, L. C.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olson, J. R.; Pawson, S.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) mission together with the GEOS-5 CO simulation to examine O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region and their source attribution. Using a number of marker tracers and their probability density distributions, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contribution to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has mean O3 of approximately 60 ppbv and NOx of approximately 25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreases from approximately 145 ppbv in spring to approximately 100 ppbv in summer. These observed CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in the past two decades in processes that could have changed the Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses with mean O3 concentration of 140-160 ppbv are the most important direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin is the only notable driver of net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (approximately 800 pptv in spring and approximately 1100 pptv in summer) levels. The ARCTAS measurements present observational evidence suggesting significant conversion of nitrogen from HNO3 to NOx and then to PAN (a net formation of approximately 120 pptv PAN) in summer when air of stratospheric origin is mixed with tropospheric background during stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric O3 and NOy input are essential in accurately simulating O3

  3. The stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone and aerosols over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, H. W.; Park, J. K.; Moon, Y. S.

    Vertical profiles of ozone, partial pressure, and meteorological parameter are obtained from ozonesondes and rawinsondes launched at Pohang (36.03°N, 129.40°E) in Korea. Stratosphere-troposphere exchanges (STE) of ozone and aerosols associated with the upper trough/surface high pressure system have been analyzed by TOMS data, and reanalyzed data of NCEP/NCAR and meteorological mesoscale model such as potential temperature, geopotential height, potential vorticity, and ageostrophic and vertical wind velocity. The secondary ozone peak in the upper troposphere over Pohang corresponded to the central axis of the jet stream near the tropopause, and then an enhancement of ozone in the upper troposphere was observed when the jet stream with a cut-off low was located over Korea. The maximum flux of ozone by STE over Korea occurs in wintertime and springtime. It was estimated that the downward fluxes observed in winter and spring for the period of 5 yr (1995-1998) at Pohang were the source of -7.72×10 7 ozone molecules/cm 2 s between 100 and 300 hPa, and 5.72×10 7 ozone molecules/cm 2 s between 300 and 500 hPa. The annual average flux during the period also was presented as a decrease of 3×10 7 ozone molecules/cm 2 s between 100 and 500 hPa. It indicates that ozone flux is decreasing in the lower stratosphere and increasing in the troposphere. The gradients of potential temperature and isentropic potential vorticity near the upper troposphere in east Asia sloped steeply like the frontal zone between the polar and the subtropical jet core. Therefore, it was regarded that ozone and aerosols of the upper level over east Asia penetrated into the lower level or the ground over Korea because of the downstream due to tropopause folding near the jet streams and the sinking of surface high pressure. In particular, yellow-sand occurring in springtime in east Asia was determined by the distribution of weather systems associated with STE. The results of observation and modeling

  4. Impacts of Boreal wildfire emissions on Arctic tropospheric ozone: a multi-model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Steve; Emmons, Louisa; Monks, Sarah; Law, Kathy; Tilmes, Simone; Turquety, Solene; Thomas, Jennie; Bouarar, Idir; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Flemming, Johannes; Huijnen, Vincent; Mao, Jingqiu; Duncan, Bryan; Steenrod, Steve; Strode, Sarah; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2013-04-01

    Observations suggest that the Arctic has warmed rapidly in the past few decades compared with observed global-mean temperature increases. Model calculations suggest that changes in short-lived pollutants such as ozone and aerosol may have contributed significantly to this warming. Arctic tropospheric budgets of short-lived pollutants are impacted by long-range transport of gases and aerosols from Europe, Asia and N. America, but also by Boreal wildfires in summer. Our understanding of how Boreal fires impact Arctic budgets of climate-relevant atmospheric constituents is limited, and is reliant on sparse observations and models of tropospheric chemistry. In particular, the role of Boreal fires in the Arctic tropospheric ozone budget is poorly constrained, and has been the subject of some controversy, with different studies suggesting both minor and major roles for fires as a source of Arctic ozone. A better understanding of Boreal fire influence on Arctic ozone and aerosol is essential for improving the reliability of our projections of future Arctic and Northern Hemisphere climate change, especially in light of proposed climate-fire feedbacks which may enhance the intensity and extent of high latitude wildfire under a warming climate. Here we use results from the POLARCAT Model Intercomparison Project (POLMIP) and observations collected in the Arctic troposphere as part of International Polar Year in 2008, to evaluate simulated Arctic tropospheric ozone and how it is influenced by Boreal fire emissions in a series of state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemical transport models. By following large plumes exported from Siberian and North American Boreal fire regions in both the models and observations, we show that different models produce a wide range of influence on Arctic tropospheric ozone from fires, despite using identical emissions and having broadly consistent transport patterns. We demonstrate that the different models display highly varied NOy partitioning

  5. Ozone Enhancement in the Lower Troposphere over Central and Eastern China as Observed from the space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ono, A.; Kayaba, S.; Kajino, M.; Deushi, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Yamaji, K.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The recent roducts of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) retrieved by Liu et al. (2010) revealed spatial and temporal variations in ozone distributions in multiple tropospheric layers. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with the airborne measurements conducted by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The reliability of the OMI ozone retrievals was verified at the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions (Hayashida et al. 2015). Ozone enhancement was clearly observed over Central and Eastern China (CEC), with Shandong Province as its center and most notably in June in any given year. The seasonality of the ozone enhancement was similar throughout the nine-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. As introduced by Hayashida et al. (2015), we have defined ΔO3 as the difference between the retrieved ozone and a priori value. To identify the area of significant ozone enhancement in further detail, the areas whose ΔO3 show similar seasonal variation were grouped into a cluster using the statistical tool R. As a result, the area covering the provinces of Shandong, Hebei, and Shanxi presents a clear seasonal variation, with the maximum in June. The time series of ΔO3 at around 115-125°E along 36°N indicate clear seasonal variation with significant enhancement in June or July every year. At the western locations (<110°E), there is only a slight ozone enhancement in summer. In the east of the CEC, the amplitude of ozone enhancement in summer diminishes toward the east, as observed at 130°E, suggesting an outflow of ozone plumes from China. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution maps retrieved using OMI products are generally consistent with the results from the model simulations by MRI-CCM2 of the Meteorological Research Institute Japan as far as emissions due to industrial activities and automobile exhaust are concerned, although there are still a few differences in the ozone mixing

  6. Tropospheric ozone variability over Singapore from August 1996 to December 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, S.; Tsuruta, H.; Maeda, T.; Kawashima, S.; Sudo, S.; Hayashi, M.

    Vertical ozone profiles over Singapore (lat 1°20'N, long 103°53'E) have been monitored by ozonesondes twice a month since August 1996. We report the vertical ozone profiles over Singapore from August 1996 to the end of 1999. During this time, large ozone enhancements occurred during three periods: March-June 1997, September-November 1997, and February-May 1998. These ozone enhancements were larger over Singapore than over Malaysia. Backward trajectory analyses revealed that the enhancements during September-November 1997, and February-May 1998 were associated with biomass burning in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. Outside the three periods, ozone concentrations over Singapore differed from those over Malaysia by not more than 2.5% at altitudes of between 2.6 and 7.6 km and by not more than 12% at altitudes of between 1 and 13.5 km. The minimum ozone concentrations in the middle and the upper troposphere were about 20 ppbv and were observed when the wind was easterly from the Pacific Ocean. Ozone concentrations at the bottom of the troposphere were near zero when the wind was southerly to westerly (from the larger, more urbanized and industrialized part of Singapore and the Strait of Malacca), implying that ozone-destroying reactions were occurring with high concentrations of urban pollutants. We conclude that the ozone enhancements observed in the free troposphere resulted from the effects of extensive biomass burning combined with the modified circulation (suppressed convection of maritime air masses) that occurs during El Niño events.

  7. Recent Biomass Burning in the Tropics and Related Changes in Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke; Chandra, J. R. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Torres, O.; Damon, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone. In the tropics, biomass burning produces ozone enhancements over broad regions of Indonesia, Africa, and South America including Brazil. Fires are intentionally set in these regions during the dry season each year to clear cropland and to clear land for human/industrial expansion. In Indonesia enhanced burning occurs during dry El Nino conditions such as in 1997 and 2006. These burning activities cause enhancement in atmospheric particulates and trace gases which are harmful to human health. Measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) from October 2004-November 2008 are used to evaluate the effects of biomass burning on tropical tropospheric ozone. These measurements show sizeable decreases approx.15-20% in ozone in Brazil during 2008 compared to 2007 which we attribute to the reduction in biomass burning. Three broad biomass burning regions in the tropics (South America including Brazil, western Africa, and Indonesia) were analyzed in the context of OMI/MLS measurements and the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The results indicate that the impact of biomass burning on ozone is significant within and near the burning regions with increases of approx.10-25% in tropospheric column ozone relative to average background concentrations. The model suggests that about half of the increases in ozone from these burning events come from altitudes below 3 km. Globally the model indicates increases of approx.4-5% in ozone, approx.7-9% in NO, (NO+NO2), and approx.30-40% in CO.

  8. The Governing Processes and Timescales of Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport and its Contribution to Ozone in the Arctic Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Q.; Douglass, A. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Stolarski, R. S.; Witte, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    We used the seasonality of a combination of atmospheric trace gases and idealized tracers to examine stratosphere-to-troposphere transport and its influence on tropospheric composition in the Arctic. Maximum stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of CFCs and O3 occurs in April as driven by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) occurs predominantly between 40 deg N to 80 deg N with stratospheric influx in the mid-latitudes (30-70 deg N) accounting for 67.81 percent of the air of stratospheric origin in the Northern Hemisphere extratropical troposphere. Transport from the lower stratosphere to the lower troposphere (LT) takes three months on average, one month to cross the tropopause, the second month to travel from the upper troposphere (UT) to the middle troposphere (MT), and the third month to reach the LT. During downward transport, the seasonality of a trace gas can be greatly impacted by wet removal and chemistry. A comparison of idealized tracers with varying lifetimes suggests that when initialized with the same concentrations and seasonal cycles at the tropopause, trace gases that have shorter lifetimes display lower concentrations, smaller amplitudes, and earlier seasonal maxima during transport to the LT. STE contributes to O3 in the Arctic troposphere directly from the transport of O3 and indirectly from the transport of NOy . Direct transport of O3 from the stratosphere accounts for 78 percent of O3 in the Arctic UT with maximum contributions occurring from March to May. The stratospheric contribution decreases significantly in the MT/LT (20.25 percent of total O3) and shows a very weak March.April maximum. Our NOx budget analysis in the Arctic UT shows that during spring and summer, the stratospheric injection of NO y-rich air increases NOx concentrations above the 20 pptv threshold level, thereby shifting the Arctic UT from a regime of net photochemical ozone loss to one of net production with rates as high as +16 ppbv/month.

  9. Depletion of tropospheric ozone associated with mineral dust outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Soler, Ruben; Nicolás, J F; Caballero, S; Yubero, E; Crespo, J

    2016-10-01

    From May to September 2012, ozone reductions associated with 15 Saharan dust outbreaks which occurred between May to September 2012 have been evaluated. The campaign was performed at a mountain station located near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The study has two main goals: firstly, to analyze the decreasing gradient of ozone concentration during the course of the Saharan episodes. These gradients vary from 0.2 to 0.6 ppb h(-1) with an average value of 0.39 ppb h(-1). The negative correlation between ozone and coarse particles occurs almost simultaneously. Moreover, although the concentration of coarse particles remained high throughout the episode, the time series shows the saturation of the ozone loss. The highest ozone depletion has been obtained during the last hours of the day, from 18:00 to 23:00 UTC. Outbreaks registered during this campaign have been more intense in this time slot. The second objective is to establish from which coarse particle concentration a significant ozone depletion can be observed and to quantify this reduction. In this regard, it has been confirmed that when the hourly particle concentration recorded during the Saharan dust outbreaks is above the hourly particle median values (N > N-median), the ozone concentration reduction obtained is statistically significant. An average ozone reduction of 5.5 % during Saharan events has been recorded. In certain cases, this percentage can reach values of higher than 15 %.

  10. Urban ecosystem services: tree diversity and stability of tropospheric ozone removal.

    PubMed

    Manes, Fausto; Incerti, Guido; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Vitale, Marcello; Ricotta, Carlo; Costanza, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Urban forests provide important ecosystem services, such as urban air quality improvement by removing pollutants. While robust evidence exists that plant physiology, abundance, and distribution within cities are basic parameters affecting the magnitude and efficiency of air pollution removal, little is known about effects of plant diversity on the stability of this ecosystem service. Here, by means of a spatial analysis integrating system dynamic modeling and geostatistics, we assessed the effects of tree diversity on the removal of tropospheric ozone (O3) in Rome, Italy, in two years (2003 and 2004) that were very different for climatic conditions and ozone levels. Different tree functional groups showed complementary uptake patterns, related to tree physiology and phenology, maintaining a stable community function across different climatic conditions. Our results, although depending on the city-specific conditions of the studied area, suggest a higher function stability at increasing diversity levels in urban ecosystems. In Rome, such ecosystem services, based on published unitary costs of externalities and of mortality associated with O3, can be prudently valued to roughly US$2 and $3 million/year, respectively.

  11. Recent Northern Hemisphere tropical expansion primarily driven by black carbon and tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert J; Sherwood, Steven C; Norris, Joel R; Zender, Charles S

    2012-05-16

    Observational analyses have shown the width of the tropical belt increasing in recent decades as the world has warmed. This expansion is important because it is associated with shifts in large-scale atmospheric circulation and major climate zones. Although recent studies have attributed tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere to ozone depletion, the drivers of Northern Hemisphere expansion are not well known and the expansion has not so far been reproduced by climate models. Here we use a climate model with detailed aerosol physics to show that increases in heterogeneous warming agents--including black carbon aerosols and tropospheric ozone--are noticeably better than greenhouse gases at driving expansion, and can account for the observed summertime maximum in tropical expansion. Mechanistically, atmospheric heating from black carbon and tropospheric ozone has occurred at the mid-latitudes, generating a poleward shift of the tropospheric jet, thereby relocating the main division between tropical and temperate air masses. Although we still underestimate tropical expansion, the true aerosol forcing is poorly known and could also be underestimated. Thus, although the insensitivity of models needs further investigation, black carbon and tropospheric ozone, both of which are strongly influenced by human activities, are the most likely causes of observed Northern Hemisphere tropical expansion.

  12. Tropical upper tropospheric ozone enhancements due to potential vorticity intrusions over Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.; Gadhavi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Influence of potential vorticity (PV) intrusions at 13.5°N over and near Indian sector (50°E-90°E) on tropical upper tropospheric ozone mixing ratio (OMR) variations is demonstrated based on two case studies. Increase of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) reanalysis (ERA)-interim OMR in the upper troposphere (200-500 hPa) is observed during the intrusion events consistently in both cases. The OMR also shows similar tongue like structure as PV and it even follows the spatial shift of the PV tongue. In addition, the enhancements in the upper tropospheric OMR during the intrusion events are confirmed using microwave limb sounder (MLS) ozone data at 216 hPa. It is suggested that the existence of strong downdrafts, associated with the ageostrophic circulation due to jet stream, which is inferred from longitude-height cross-section of ERA-interim vertical velocity could bring the ozone further down, though high PV tongue remains only at higher level (above 400 hPa). The importance of these results lies in demonstrating the role of PV intrusion events on the enhancement of tropical upper tropospheric ozone over Indian sector, where the impact of the PV intrusions is not well understood when compared to that over Pacific and Atlantic sectors.

  13. A sensitivity simulation of tropospheric ozone changes due to the 1997 Indonesian fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauglustaine, D. A.; Brasseur, G. P.; Levine, J. S.

    A global chemical transport model, called MOZART, is used to investigate the photochemical impact of the 1997 Indonesian fires on tropospheric ozone and its precursors in the tropics. Due to the high release of carbon monoxide by peat fires, CO increases by up to 1000 ppbv in the free troposphere over Indonesia. As a consequence of increased photochemical production, ozone is significantly perturbed over source regions (Sumatra and Kalimantan). The tropospheric O3 column increases by 20-25 DU and the ozone mixing ratio reaches 50 ppbv in the mid-troposphere in November. South of the source region, low ozone mixing ratios of 20-25 ppbv are calculated in the boundary layer due to marine air influence and reduced photochemical activity in presence of biomass burning aerosols. The particular transport regime prevailing during the 1997 El Niño event is not considered in our calculations. This limitation precludes any definitive conclusion regarding the relative role played by photochemistry and transport processes on the distribution of species during the 1997 fires.

  14. Final Report, "Laboratory Studies of the Role of Sea Salt Bromine in Determining Tropospheric Ozone"

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Finlayson-Pitts

    2005-06-20

    This document is a final report for the project DE-FG03-98ER62578, "Laboratory Studies of the Role of Sea Salt Bromine in Determining Tropospheric Ozone". It includes a technical summary, collaborations, educational contributions and the peer-reviewed scientific publications that have resulted from this research.

  15. Evaluation of Near-Tropopause Ozone Distributions in the Global Modeling Initiative Combined Stratosphere/Troposphere Model with Ozonesonde Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Olsen, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Global Modeling Initiative has developed a combined stratosphere/troposphere chemistry and transport model which fully represents the processes governing atmospheric composition near the tropopause. We evaluate model ozone distributions near the tropopause, using two high vertical resolution monthly mean ozone profile climatologies constructed with ozonesonde data, one by averaging on pressure levels and the other relative to the thermal tropopause. Model ozone is high biased at the SH tropical and NH midlatitude tropopause by approx. 45% in a 4 deg. latitude x 5 deg. longitude model simulation. Increasing the resolution to 2 deg. x 2.5 deg. increases the NH tropopause high bias to approx. 60%, but decreases the tropical tropopause bias to approx. 30%, an effect of a better-resolved residual circulation. The tropopause ozone biases appear not to be due to an overly vigorous residual circulation or excessive stratosphere/troposphere exchange, but are more likely due to insufficient vertical resolution or excessive vertical diffusion near the tropopause. In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, model/measurement intercomparisons are strongly affected by the averaging technique. NH and tropical mean model lower stratospheric biases are less than 20%. In the upper troposphere, the 2 deg. x 2.5 deg. simulation exhibits mean high biases of approx. 20% and approx. 35% during April in the tropics and NH midlatitudes, respectively, compared to the pressure averaged climatology. However, relative-to-tropopause averaging produces upper troposphere high biases of approx. 30% and 70% in the tropics and NH midlatitudes. This is because relative-to-tropopause averaging better preserves large cross-tropopause O3 gradients, which are seen in the daily sonde data, but not in daily model profiles. The relative annual cycle of ozone near the tropopause is reproduced very well in the model Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. In the tropics, the model amplitude of the

  16. The atmospheric photooxidation cycle and the influence of troposphere pollution on ozone - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demerjian, K. L.

    The state of knowledge on the nature and occurrence of ozone in the clean and polluted troposphere is surveyed in the light of the present understanding of the atmospheric photochemical oxidation cycle. A review is also given of the knowledge of the chemical state of the clean, unpolluted troposphere; this provides the basis for assessing the nature and magnitude of effects that human activities have on atmospheric processes. Since it is not considered possible to address the chemistry of ozone without considering the chemistry of oxides of nitrogen and carbon (owing to the interactive nature of their chemical processes) the chemistry of these compounds is discussed. It is shown how the photochemistry of the unpolluted troposphere develops around a chain reaction sequence involving NO, CH4, CO, and O3.

  17. The effect of clouds on photolysis rates and ozone formation in the unpolluted troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The photochemistry of the lower atmosphere is sensitive to short- and long-term meteorological effects; accurate modeling therefore requires photolysis rates for trace gases which reflect this variability. As an example, the influence of clouds on the production of tropospheric ozone has been investigated, using a modification of Luther's two-stream radiation scheme to calculate cloud-perturbed photolysis rates in a one-dimensional photochemical transport model. In the unpolluted troposphere, where stratospheric inputs of odd nitrogen appear to represent the photochemical source of O3, strong cloud reflectance increases the concentration of NO in the upper troposphere, leading to greatly enhanced rates of ozone formation. Although the rate of these processes is too slow to verify by observation, the calculation is useful in distinguishing some features of the chemistry of regions of differing mean cloudiness.

  18. Elevated middle and upper troposphere ozone observed downstream of Atlantic tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Robjhon, Miliaritiana L.; Reyes, Ashford; Valentine, Adriel; Neves, Luis

    2015-10-01

    During the peak period of hurricane activity in the summer of 2010, vertical profiles of ozone using ozonesondes were taken downstream of tropical cyclones in the Western and Eastern Atlantic Ocean basin at Barbados and Cape Verde. Measurements are taken for tropical cyclones Danielle, Earl, Fiona, Gaston, Julia and Igor. The measurements show an increase in ozone mixing ratios with air originating from the tropical cyclones at 5-10 km altitude. We suggest that observed lightning activity associated tropical cyclones and the subsequent production of NOX followed by upper level outflow and subsidence ahead of the tropical cyclones and aged continental outflow from West Africa thunderstorms produced observed increases in ozone mixing ratios. Hurricane Danielle showed the largest changes in ozone mixing ratio with values increasing from 25 ppb to 70 ppb between 22 and 25 August in the middle troposphere, near 450 hPa; warming and drying in the middle and lower troposphere. Measurements of ozone mixing ratios in Cape Verde show higher ozone mixing ratios prior to the passage of tropical storm Julia but low ozone mixing ratios and high relative humidity up to 300 hPa when the storm was in close proximity. This is due most likely the vertically transported from the marine boundary layer.

  19. North American Tropospheric Ozone Sources During Summer 2008 ARCTAS/ARC-IONS Derived from Laminar Identification with Tracers and Fire Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Luzik, A. M.; Gallager, S. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fromm, M.; Forbes, G.; Witte, J. C.; Soja, A.

    2009-05-01

    The ARC-IONS (ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study;, coordinated ozonesonde network, following the model of IONS-04 and IONS-06 [Thompson et al., 2007; 2008], operated over 17 Canadian and US sites in 2008, with daily launches (1-20 April; 26 June-12 July) during A-Train satellite overpasses, ~1300 local. The summer phase of ARC-IONS supported ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere with Aircraft and Satellites); sampling of ozone, CO and other tracers from ground bases and aircraft operating from Yellowknife (NT) and Cold Lake (AB) in Canada. The laminar identification (LID; Thompson et al., 2008; Yorks et al., 2009) method is applied to ozone and P-T-U profiles to determine ozone sources in the free troposphere. In addition to stratospheric ozone and a mixture of regional pollution-convection-lightning, about half of free tropospheric ozone is made up of recently advected ozone and background, aged ozone. Ensembles of back- trajectories are combined with LID results and satellite maps to extract fire contributions to column ozone over each ARC-IONS site. In addition, each sonde budget is disaggregated with respect to regional fire sources, eg California, western Canada, eastern US. An upper limit of 25% pyrogenic ozone, on average, is obtained from trajectory-fire coincidences over central and western Canada, with the "cleanest" site at Whitehorse (YK) and the most fire-perturbed at Kelowna (BC) and Stonyplain (Edmonton). The fire fraction declines when likely altitude of fire impacts is considered. Western North American sounding sites in 2008 were heavily affected by US west coast and Siberian fires. Eastern Canadian and southern US fires were important sources of ozone over Goose Bay, Egbert and maritime Canada.

  20. A modeling study of effective radiative forcing and climate response due to tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhili; Zhao, Shuyun; Fu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    This study simulates the effective radiative forcing (ERF) of tropospheric ozone from 1850 to 2013 and its effects on global climate using an aerosol-climate coupled model, BCC AGCM2.0.1 CUACE/Aero, in combination with OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) satellite ozone data. According to the OMI observations, the global annual mean tropospheric column ozone (TCO) was 33.9 DU in 2013, and the largest TCO was distributed in the belts between 30°N and 45°N and at approximately 30°S; the annual mean TCO was higher in the Northern Hemisphere than that in the Southern Hemisphere; and in boreal summer and autumn, the global mean TCO was higher than in winter and spring. The simulated ERF due to the change in tropospheric ozone concentration from 1850 to 2013 was 0.46 W m-2, thereby causing an increase in the global annual mean surface temperature by 0.36°C, and precipitation by 0.02 mm d-1 (the increase of surface temperature had a significance level above 95%). The surface temperature was increased more obviously over the high latitudes in both hemispheres, with the maximum exceeding 1.4°C in Siberia. There were opposite changes in precipitation near the equator, with an increase of 0.5 mm d-1 near the Hawaiian Islands and a decrease of about -0.6 mm d-1 near the middle of the Indian Ocean.

  1. Tropospheric Ozone Climatology over Irene, South Africa, From 1990-1994 and 1998-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diab, R. D.; Thompson, A. M.; Marl, K.; Ramsay, L.; Coetzee, G. J. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes ozone profiles from sonde data during the period of NASA s TRACE-A and the more recent SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) period. The data were taken by the South African Weather Service at the Irene (25 deg.54 min S; 28 deg. 13 min. E) station near Pretoria, South Africa, an area that is a unique mixture of local industry, heavy biofuels use and importation of biomass burning ozone from neighboring countries to the north. The main findings are: (1) With its geographical position at the edge of the subtropical transition zone, mid- latitude dynamical influences are evident at Irene, predominantly in winter when upper tropospheric ozone is enhanced as a result of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. (2) There has been an increase in the near-surface ozone amount between the early 1990s and a decade later, presumably due to an influx of rural population toward the Johannesburg-Pretoria area, as well as with industrial growth and development. (3) Most significant for developing approaches for satellite ozone profile climatologies, cluster analysis has enabled the delineation of a background and "most polluted" profile. Enhancements of at least 30% occur throughout the troposphere in spring and in certain layers increases of 100 % are observed.

  2. Intercomparison among tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Urita, N.; Ohta, E.; Hayashida, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid economical growth and industrial development in East Asian regions are causing serious air pollution. The influence of such air pollution is not limited to a local scale but reaches an intercontinental or hemispheric scale. Satellite-borne observations can monitor the behaviors of air pollutants in a global scale for long periods with a single instrument. In particular, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere have a crucial role in air pollution, and many studies have tried to derive those species. Recently, instrumentations and retrieval techniques have made a lot of progress in measurements of tropospheric constituents. However, tropospheric observations from space need careful validation because of difficulties in detecting signals from the lower atmosphere through the middle atmosphere. In the present study, we intercompare the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements. For the validation of tropospheric ozone, we utilize ozonesonde data provided by WOUDC, and three satellite-borne data (Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR), Cloud Slicing, and GOME) are intercompared. For nitrogen dioxide, we compare GOME observations with ground-based air monitoring measurements in Japan which are operationally conducted by the Ministry of the Environment Japan. This study demonstrates the validity and potential of those satellite datasets to apply for quantitative analysis of dispersion of air pollutants and their chemical lifetime. Acknowledgments. TOR data is provided by J. Fishman via http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html. The ground observation data of nitrogen dioxide over Japan is provided by National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) under the collaboration study with NIES and Nara Women's University.

  3. Chemistry-Transport Modeling of the Satellite Observed Distribution of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wouter; Krol, Maarten; Dentener, Frank; Thompson, Anne M.; Leloeveld, Jos; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have compared the 14-year record of satellite derived tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOC) from the NIMBUS-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) to TTOC calculated by a chemistry-transport model (CTM). An objective measure of error, based on the zonal distribution of TTOC in the tropics, is applied to perform this comparison systematically. In addition, the sensitivity of the model to several key processes in the tropics is quantified to select directions for future improvements. The comparisons indicate a widespread, systematic (20%) discrepancy over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, which maximizes during austral Spring. Although independent evidence from ozonesondes shows that some of the disagreement is due to satellite over-estimate of TTOC, the Atlantic mismatch is largely due to a misrepresentation of seasonally recurring processes in the model. Only minor differences between the model and observations over the Pacific occur, mostly due to interannual variability not captured by the model. Although chemical processes determine the TTOC extent, dynamical processes dominate the TTOC distribution, as the use of actual meteorology pertaining to the year of observations always leads to a better agreement with TTOC observations than using a random year or a climatology. The modeled TTOC is remarkably insensitive to many model parameters due to efficient feedbacks in the ozone budget. Nevertheless, the simulations would profit from an improved biomass burning calendar, as well as from an increase in NOX abundances in free tropospheric biomass burning plumes. The model showed the largest response to lightning NOX emissions, but systematic improvements could not be found. The use of multi-year satellite derived tropospheric data to systematically test and improve a CTM is a promising new addition to existing methods of model validation, and is a first step to integrating tropospheric satellite observations into global ozone modeling studies. Conversely

  4. First Results from TROLIX 1991: an Intercomparison of Tropospheric Ozone Lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apituley, A.; Boesenberg, J.; Ancellet, G.; Edner, H.; Galle, B.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Voncossart, G.; Fiedler, J.; Dejonge, C. N.; Mellquist, J.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the European environmental research programme EUROTRAC, lidar systems for routine measurements of vertical ozone profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere are currently under development. Several of these systems are now operational and an intercomparison experiment was undertaken in the period from June 10 to June 28, 1991 in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. The main scientific objectives defined for the campaign are: (1) compare the lidar measurements to in situ measurements of the ozone concentration; (2) determine how many and which wavelengths are needed for a sufficiently accurate ozone retrieval in the lower troposphere under realistic conditions; (3) assess the accuracy that can be achieved under realistic conditions; and (4) compare the performance of the participating systems.

  5. Raman shifting of KrF laser radiation for tropospheric ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Ismail, Syed

    1991-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurement of tropospheric ozone requires use of high average power UV lasers operating at two appropriate DIAL wavelengths. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that a KrF excimer laser can be used to generate several wavelengths with good energy conversion efficiencies by stimulated Raman shifting using hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2). Computer simulations for an airborne lidar have shown that these laser emissions can be used for the less than 5 percent random error, high resolution measuremment of ozone across the troposphere using the DIAL technique. In the region of strong ozone absorption, laser wavelengths of 277.0 and 291.7 nm were generated using H2 and D2, respectively. In addition, a laser wavelength at 302.0 nm was generated using two cells in series, with the first containing D2 and the second containing H2. The energy conversion efficiency for each wavelength was between 14 and 27 percent.

  6. Boreal fire influence on Arctic tropospheric ozone, ecosystems and climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S.; Monks, S. A.; Emmons, L. K.; Sitch, S.; Rap, A.; Law, K.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature observations show that the Arctic has warmed rapidly in the past few decades compared to the northern hemisphere as a whole. Model calculations suggest that changes in short-lived pollutants such as ozone and aerosol may have contributed significantly to this warming. Arctic tropospheric budgets of short-lived pollutants are impacted by both local anthropogenic emissions and by long-range transport of gases and aerosols from Europe, Asia and N. America, but also by local Boreal wildfires in summer. Our understanding of how fires impact Arctic budgets of climate-relevant atmospheric constituents is limited, and is reliant on sparse observations and models of tropospheric chemistry. A better understanding of Boreal fire influence on Arctic ozone is essential for improving the reliability of our projections of future Arctic and Northern Hemisphere climate change, especially in light of proposed climate-fire feedbacks which may enhance the intensity and extent of high latitude wildfire under a warming climate. Using the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and a scheme for tagging and tracking NOx emitted by high latitude wildfires and its resultant tropospheric ozone production, we investigate the impacts of fire-sourced ozone on summertime high latitude radiative forcing and on ecosystems. The large fraction of NOy present as PAN in the Arctic suggests there may be a strong sensitivity of NOy and ozone enhancement to the efficiency of vertical transport from source regions, which determines the stability of PAN as air is advected poleward. We use these simulations and aircraft observations to characterise the vertical distributions of sensitivities of Arctic NOy and ozone to remote anthropogenic and local widlfire sources, and use an offline radiative transfer model to quantify impacts on local ozone radiative forcing. We compare these vertical sensitivities with those of a primary-emitted CO-like source tracer, to investigate the role of PAN

  7. Development of a Portable, Ground-based Ozone Lidar Instrument for Tropospheric Ozone Research and Educational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Thomas; Zemker, Thomas; Fishman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a portable, eye-safe, ground-based ozone lidar instrument specialized for ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements in the troposphere. This research project directly supports the goal of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to understand the distribution and budget of tropospheric ozone (objective 1.5 of the Earth Science Strategic Enterprise Plan, 1998-2002). It can participate in ground validation experiments for TES, a tropospheric ozone satellite mission due to be launched in 2002. It can also be utilized for correlative ground measurements in future GTE (Global Tropospheric Experiment) and space-based ozone lidar missions, such as ORACLE. Multiple ground-based ozone lidar systems would improve the data obtained through current ozone-sonde networks. This prototype instrument could to serve as the basic unit for these and other future monitoring projects requiring multi-instrument networks, such as that proposed for the Global Tropospheric Ozone Project (GTOP). GTOP is currently being formulated by a scientific panel of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project to meet its goal to better understand the processes that control the global distribution of tropospheric ozone. In order for the lidar to be widely deployed in networks, it must be fairly easy to use and maintain as well as being cost-competitive with a ground station launching ozonesondes several times a day. A second 2-year grant to continue this effort with students participating in ground tests and system improvements has been awarded by the Office of Equal Employment Opportunities (OEOP). This project also supports existing NASA lidar missions through its development of advanced, compact lidar technology. Innovations in both transmitters and receivers have been made in this project. Finally, this system could be modified in the future to probe more deeply into the stratosphere. This could be accomplished by increasing the

  8. Observation of ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere over East Asia from a space-borne ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, S.; Liu, X.; Ono, A.; Yang, K.; Chance, K.

    2015-01-01

    We report observations from space using ultraviolet (UV) radiance for significant enhancement of ozone in the lower troposphere over Central and Eastern China (CEC). The recent retrieval products of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Aura satellite revealed the spatial and temporal variation of ozone distributions in multiple layers in the troposphere. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with airborne measurements by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The correlation between OMI and MOZAIC ozone in the lower troposphere was reasonable, which assured the reliability of OMI ozone retrievals in the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions. The ozone enhancement was clearly observed over CEC, with Shandong Province as its center, and most notable in June in any given year. Similar seasonal variations were observed throughout the nine-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. The ozone enhancement in June was associated with the enhancement of carbon monoxide (CO) and hotspots, which is consistent with previous studies of in-situ measurements such those made by the MTX2006 campaign. A considerable part of this ozone enhancement could be attributed to the emissions of ozone precursors from open crop residue burning (OCRB) after the winter wheat harvest, in addition to emissions from industrial activities and automobiles. The ozone distribution presented in this study is also consistent with some model studies that apply emissions from OCRB. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution is first shown from OMI retrieval in this study, and the results will be useful in clarifying any unknown factors that influence ozone distribution by comparison with model simulations.

  9. The role of vegetation for tropospheric ozone balance: possible changes under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Pullinen, Iida; Andres, Stefanie; Carriero, Giulia; Fares, Silvano; Hacker, Lina; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kleist, Einhard; Paoletti, Elena; Wahner, Andreas; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a phytotoxic trace gas in the troposphere where it is photochemically produced from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The dominant sink of O3 in the air over areas with dense plant cover is dry deposition on plant surfaces. However, plants can also contribute to photochemical O3 formation because they emit biogenic VOCs (BVOCs). In this study, the role of vegetation for tropospheric ozone balance was investigated by considering the following processes: O3 depletion by dry deposition on plant surfaces, O3 depletion by gas phase reactions with plant emitted BVOCs, and photochemical O3 production from these BVOCs. Furthermore, drought and heat stress were applied to the plants, and the stress-induced changes of plant performance and the subsequent changes regarding the tropospheric ozone balance were investigated. Dry deposition of O3 in unstressed plants was dominated by O3 uptake through the plants stomata with negligible losses on cuticle and stem. For strong BVOC emitters, O3 destruction by gas phase reactions with BVOCs was significant at low NOx conditions. Switching from low NOx to high NOx conditions led to O3 production. A ratio of O3 formation rates over BVOC loss rates was measured for α-pinene as single BVOC and for BVOC mixtures emitted from real plants. For O3 formation under BVOC limited conditions, this ratio was in the range of 2-3 ppb/ppb. The ratio of O3 uptake/BVOC emission reflects the capability of a plant as a potential source of O3, while NOx concentrations and the BVOC/NOx ratio determine whether the emitted BVOCs act as an additional sink or a source of O3. O3 uptake rates and BVOC emission rates are affected by environmental variables such as temperature, light intensity and stresses to plants. The impacts of these variables on the two processes are different and thus the capability of a plant to be a source of O3 is also affected. As future climate change will bring more and intense heat waves and

  10. Global Radiative Forcing of Coupled Tropospheric Ozone and Aerosols in a Unified General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.; Adams, Peter J.; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2008-01-01

    Global simulations of sea salt and mineral dust aerosols are integrated into a previously developed unified general circulation model (GCM), the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM II', that simulates coupled tropospheric ozone-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, primary organic carbon, and secondary organic carbon aerosols. The fully coupled gas-aerosol unified GCM allows one to evaluate the extent to which global burdens, radiative forcing, and eventually climate feedbacks of ozone and aerosols are influenced by gas-aerosol chemical interactions. Estimated present-day global burdens of sea salt and mineral dust are 6.93 and 18.1 Tg with lifetimes of 0.4 and 3.9 days, respectively. The GCM is applied to estimate current top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative forcing by tropospheric ozone and all natural and anthropogenic aerosol components. The global annual mean value of the radiative forcing by tropospheric ozone is estimated to be +0.53 W m(sup -2) at TOA and +0.07 W m(sup -2) at the Earth's surface. Global, annual average TOA and surface radiative forcing by all aerosols are estimated as -0.72 and -4.04 W m(sup -2), respectively. While the predicted highest aerosol cooling and heating at TOA are -10 and +12 W m(sup -2) respectively, surface forcing can reach values as high as -30 W m(sup -2), mainly caused by the absorption by black carbon, mineral dust, and OC. We also estimate the effects of chemistry-aerosol coupling on forcing estimates based on currently available understanding of heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Through altering the burdens of sulfate, nitrate, and ozone, heterogeneous reactions are predicted to change the global mean TOA forcing of aerosols by 17% and influence global mean TOA forcing of tropospheric ozone by 15%.

  11. Improvement of GOME-2 Tropospheric Ozone Profile Retrievals from Joint UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to UV measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA EVI TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance and the requirement of accurate radiometric calibration across different spectral channels. We present GOME-2 retrievals from joint UV/visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible based on ASTER and other surface reflectance spectra and MODIS BRDF climatology into the ozone profile algorithm using two approaches: fitting several EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) and scaling reflectance spectra. We also perform empirical radiometric calibration of the GOME-2 data based on radiative transfer simulations. We evaluate the retrieval improvement of joint UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval. These results clearly show the potential of using the visible to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval.

  12. A global simulation of tropospheric ozone and related tracers: Description and evaluation of MOZART, version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Larry W.; Walters, Stacy; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Rasch, Philip J.; Granier, Claire; Tie, Xuexi; Lamarque, Jean-FrançOis; Schultz, Martin G.; Tyndall, Geoffrey S.; Orlando, John J.; Brasseur, Guy P.

    2003-12-01

    We have developed a global three-dimensional chemical transport model called Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART), version 2. This model, which will be made available to the community, is built on the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) and can easily be driven with various meteorological inputs and model resolutions. In this work, we describe the standard configuration of the model, in which the model is driven by meteorological inputs every 3 hours from the middle atmosphere version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (MACCM3) and uses a 20-min time step and a horizontal resolution of 2.8° latitude × 2.8° longitude with 34 vertical levels extending up to approximately 40 km. The model includes a detailed chemistry scheme for tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbon chemistry, with 63 chemical species. Tracer advection is performed using a flux-form semi-Lagrangian scheme with a pressure fixer. Subgrid-scale convective and boundary layer parameterizations are included in the model. Surface emissions include sources from fossil fuel combustion, biofuel and biomass burning, biogenic and soil emissions, and oceanic emissions. Parameterizations of dry and wet deposition are included. Stratospheric concentrations of several long-lived species (including ozone) are constrained by relaxation toward climatological values. The distribution of tropospheric ozone is well simulated in the model, including seasonality and horizontal and vertical gradients. However, the model tends to overestimate ozone near the tropopause at high northern latitudes. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitric acid (HNO3) agree well with observed values, but peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) is overestimated by the model in the upper troposphere at several locations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is simulated well at most locations, but the seasonal cycle is underestimated at some sites in the

  13. Global Assimilation of EOS-Aura Data as a Means of Mapping Ozone Distribution in the Lower Stratosphere and Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargan, Krzysztof; Olsen, M.; Douglass, A.; Witte, J.; Strahan, S.; Livesey, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ozone in the lower stratosphere and the troposphere plays an important role in forcing the climate. However, the global ozone distribution in this region is not well known because of the sparse distribution of in-situ data and the poor sensitivity of satellite based observations to the lowermost of the atmosphere. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments on EOS-Aura provide information on the total ozone column and the stratospheric ozone profile. This data has been assimilated into NASA s Global Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system (DAS). We will discuss the results of assimilating three years of OMI and MLS data into GEOS-5. This data was assimilated alongside meteorological observations from both conventional sources and satellite instruments. Previous studies have shown that combining observations from these instruments through the Trajectory Tropospheric Ozone Residual methodology (TTOR) or using data assimilation can yield useful, yet low biased, estimates of the tropospheric ozone budget. We show that the assimilated ozone fields in this updated version of GEOS-5 exhibit an excellent agreement with ozone sonde and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) data in the lower stratosphere in terms of spatial and temporal variability as well as integrated ozone abundances. Good representation of small-scale vertical features follows from combining the MLS data with the assimilated meteorological fields. We then demonstrate how this information can be used to calculate the Stratosphere - Troposphere Exchange of ozone and its contribution to the tropospheric ozone column in GEOS-5. Evaluations of tropospheric ozone distributions from the assimilation will be made by comparisons with sonde and other in-situ observations.

  14. Role of Climate Change in Global Predictions of Future Tropospheric Ozone and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Hong; Chen, Wei-Ting; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-01-01

    A unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model II is applied to simulate an equilibrium CO2-forced climate in the year 2100 to examine the effects of climate change on global distributions of tropospheric ozone and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sea salt, and mineral dust aerosols. The year 2100 CO2 concentration as well as the anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors and aerosols/aerosol precursors are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2. Year 2100 global O3 and aerosol burdens predicted with changes in both climate and emissions are generally 5-20% lower than those simulated with changes in emissions alone; as exceptions, the nitrate burden is 38% lower, and the secondary organic aerosol burden is 17% higher. Although the CO2-driven climate change alone is predicted to reduce the global O3 concentrations over or near populated and biomass burning areas because of slower transport, enhanced biogenic hydrocarbon emissions, decomposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate at higher temperatures, and the increase of O3 production by increased water vapor at high NOx levels. The warmer climate influences aerosol burdens by increasing aerosol wet deposition, altering climate-sensitive emissions, and shifting aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium. Climate change affects the estimates of the year 2100 direct radiative forcing as a result of the climate-induced changes in burdens and different climatological conditions; with full gas-aerosol coupling and accounting for ozone and direct radiative forcings by the O2, sulfate, nitrate, black carbon, and organic carbon are predicted to be +0.93, -0.72, -1.0, +1.26, and -0.56 W m(exp -2), respectively, using present-day climate and year 2100 emissions, while they are predicted to be +0.76, -0.72, 0.74, +0.97, and -0.58 W m(exp -2

  15. Tropospheric ozone changes, radiative forcing and attribution to emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. S.; Young, P. J.; Naik, V.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Skeie, R. B.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Myhre, G.; Berntsen, T. K.; Folberth, G. A.; Rumbold, S. T.; Collins, W. J.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Doherty, R. M.; Zeng, G.; van Noije, T. P. C.; Strunk, A.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Plummer, D. A.; Strode, S. A.; Horowitz, L.; Lee, Y. H.; Szopa, S.; Sudo, K.; Nagashima, T.; Josse, B.; Cionni, I.; Righi, M.; Eyring, V.; Conley, A.; Bowman, K. W.; Wild, O.; Archibald, A.

    2013-03-01

    Ozone (O3) from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs). All models applied a common set of anthropogenic emissions, which are better constrained for the present-day than the past. Future anthropogenic emissions follow the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, which define a relatively narrow range of possible air pollution emissions. We calculate a value for the pre-industrial (1750) to present-day (2010) tropospheric ozone RF of 410 mW m-2. The model range of pre-industrial to present-day changes in O3 produces a spread (±1 standard deviation) in RFs of ±17%. Three different radiation schemes were used - we find differences in RFs between schemes (for the same ozone fields) of ±10%. Applying two different tropopause definitions gives differences in RFs of ±3%. Given additional (unquantified) uncertainties associated with emissions, climate-chemistry interactions and land-use change, we estimate an overall uncertainty of ±30% for the tropospheric ozone RF. Experiments carried out by a subset of six models attribute tropospheric ozone RF to increased emissions of methane (44±12%), nitrogen oxides (31 ± 9%), carbon monoxide (15 ± 3%) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (9 ± 2%); earlier studies attributed more of the tropospheric ozone RF to methane and less to nitrogen oxides. Normalising RFs to changes in tropospheric column ozone, we find a global mean normalised RF of 42 mW m-2 DU-1, a value similar to previous work. Using normalised RFs and future tropospheric column ozone projections we calculate future tropospheric ozone RFs (mW m-2; relative to 1750) for the four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) of 350, 420, 370 and 460 (in 2030), and 200, 300, 280 and 600 (in 2100). Models show some coherent responses of ozone to climate change: decreases in the

  16. Tropospheric Ozone Changes, Radiative Forcing and Attribution to Emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Young, P.J.; Naik, V.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Skeie, R. B.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Myhre, G.; Berntsen, T. K.; Folberth, G. A.; Rumbold, S. T.; Collins, W. J.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Doherty, R. M.; Zeng, G.; vanNoije, T. P. C.; Strunk, A.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Plummer, D. A.; Strode, S. A.; Horowitz, L.; Lee, Y. H.; Szopa, S.; Sudo, K.; Nagashima, T.; Josse, B.; Cionni, I.; Righi, M.; Eyring, V.; Conley, A.; Bowman, K. W.; Wild, O.; Archibald, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs). All models applied a common set of anthropogenic emissions, which are better constrained for the present-day than the past. Future anthropogenic emissions follow the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, which define a relatively narrow range of possible air pollution emissions. We calculate a value for the pre-industrial (1750) to present-day (2010) tropospheric ozone RF of 410 mW m-2. The model range of pre-industrial to present-day changes in O3 produces a spread (+/-1 standard deviation) in RFs of +/-17%. Three different radiation schemes were used - we find differences in RFs between schemes (for the same ozone fields) of +/-10 percent. Applying two different tropopause definitions gives differences in RFs of +/-3 percent. Given additional (unquantified) uncertainties associated with emissions, climate-chemistry interactions and land-use change, we estimate an overall uncertainty of +/-30 percent for the tropospheric ozone RF. Experiments carried out by a subset of six models attribute tropospheric ozone RF to increased emissions of methane (44+/-12 percent), nitrogen oxides (31 +/- 9 percent), carbon monoxide (15 +/- 3 percent) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (9 +/- 2 percent); earlier studies attributed more of the tropospheric ozone RF to methane and less to nitrogen oxides. Normalising RFs to changes in tropospheric column ozone, we find a global mean normalised RF of 42 mW m(-2) DU(-1), a value similar to previous work. Using normalised RFs and future tropospheric column ozone projections we calculate future tropospheric ozone RFs (mW m(-2); relative to 1750) for the four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) of 350, 420, 370 and 460 (in 2030), and 200, 300, 280 and 600 (in 2100). Models show some

  17. Ozone: Does It Affect Me?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karla G.

    This curriculum unit on the ozone is intended for high school students and contains sections on environmental science and chemistry. It has been structured according to a learning cycle model and contains numerous activities, some of which are in a cooperative learning format. Skills emphasized include laboratory procedures, experimental design,…

  18. Evaluation of Global Model Simulation of Tropospheric Ozone from ECHAM6-HAMMOZ1 with Surface Measurements over the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaffashzadeh, Najmeh; Schultz, Martin G.; Lyapina, Olga; Schröder, Sabine; Stadtler, Scarlet

    2016-04-01

    Current chemistry transport models are generally successful in describing the principle features of the present-day global tropospheric ozone (O3) distribution, but they exhibit large differences of ozone concentrations over the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean region can be perturbed by long-range pollution import from Northern Europe, North Africa and Asia, in addition to local emissions, which may all contribute to ozone concentrations in this area. Identifying the main drivers for Mediterranean ozone concentrations and understanding the reasons for the inter-model differences remain scientific challenges. To investigate the geographical distribution of tropospheric ozone over the Mediterranean, we analyze hourly surface ozone measurements from more than 1000 stations in the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) database and compare these to hourly model outputs from the global chemistry climate model ECHAM6-HAMMOZ1 for the year 2012. The daily maximum 8-hour running mean value of ozone mixing ratios is calculated for both model and observation and compared. The preliminary results show that the model captures many features of the ozone and its precursor concentrations in many regions of Europe throughout the year. However, it substantially underestimates ozone in the Po Valley region in summer and overestimates ozone over much of the Mediterranean region during spring. The reasons for this behavior will be investigated through detailed sensitivity studies with respect to VOC emissions, anthropogenic emissions, ozone deposition, specific chemical reactions, and long range-import of ozone and precursors.

  19. Tropospheric Ozone during the TRACE-P Mission: Comparison between TOMS Satellite Retrievals and Aircraft Lidar Data, March 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolov, A. D.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Browell, E. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Witte, J. C.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ('TDOT' = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone. It is not geographically restricted, using meteorological regimes as the basis for classifying TOMS radiances and for selecting appropriate comparison data. TDOT is useful where tropospheric ozone displays high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. Some of these episodes were observed downwind of Asian biomass burning during the TRACE-P (Transport and Atmospheric Chemical Evolution-Pacific) field experiment in March 2001. This paper features comparisons among TDOT tropospheric ozone column depth, integrated uv-DIAL measurements made from NASA's DC-8, and ozonesonde data.

  20. Tropospheric ozone during the TRACE-P mission: Comparison between TOMS satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data, March 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, A.; Thompson, A. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Browell, E. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Witte, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed two new tropospheric ozone retrievals from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument that are of sufficient resolution to follow pollution episodes. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v.7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMS-direct method ("TDOT" = TOMS Direct Ozone in the Troposphere) represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances directly to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone. It is not geographically restricted and it is useful where tropospheric ozone displays high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution. Some of these episodes were observed downwind of Asian biomass burning during the TRACE-P (Transport and Atmospheric Chemical Evolution-Pacific) field experiment in March 2001. This paper features comparisons among TDOT tropospheric ozone column depth, uv-DIAL measurements made from NASA's DC-8, and ozonesondes.

  1. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  2. Pic 2005, a field campaign to investigate low-tropospheric ozone variability in the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, F.; Ravetta, F.; Delbarre, H.; Tsamalis, C.; Chevalier-Rosso, A.; Leroy, C.; Augustin, P.; Delmas, R.; Ancellet, G.; Athier, G.; Bouchou, P.; Campistron, B.; Cousin, J.-M.; Fourmentin, M.; Meyerfeld, Y.

    2011-08-01

    The Pic 2005 field campaign took place from 13 June to 7 July 2005 close to the high-altitude permanent atmospheric observatory Pic-du-Midi (PDM), situated at 2875 m asl in the French Pyrenees. The experimental set-up combined in situ ground-based observations at PDM with ozone lidar measurements at two lower sites in close vicinity (600 m asl/28 km away, and 2380 m asl/500 m away). Such an experimental configuration is appropriate to address the question of the vertical layering of the chemical atmosphere in a mountain area and above the plain nearby, and how this influences measurements conducted on a mountain summit under the influence of horizontal transport at regional scale, and vertical transport at local scale. Forecast tools made it possible to plan and carry out 6 one-day Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs), mostly in anticyclonic conditions favoring local thermally induced circulations, with and without local pollution in the lower troposphere. It was thus possible to document i) ozone diurnal variations at PDM; ii) correlation between ozone measurements at PDM and their counterparts at the same altitude in the free troposphere; iii) ozone variability in the vicinity of PDM. The field campaign provided direct experimental evidence that at daytime in the encountered conditions (mostly anticyclonic), PDM failed in a large extent to be representative of the troposphere above the surrounding flat areas at similar altitude. First, ozone daily averages at PDM were found lower than their free-tropospheric counterpart. Thermally induced circulations and convection pumping clean air from the rural boundary layer can account qualitatively for ozone depletion observed at PDM during daytime. However the surface measurements do not support the hypothesis of direct lifting of near-surface air masses up to PDM. Thus, mixing with free-tropospheric air, photochemistry and surface deposition in the valleys appear to be needed ingredients to account quantitatively for the

  3. Role of deep convective in modulating tropospheric column ozone over Northern region of India: Case study of 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Santosh; Ghude, Sachin; Beig, G.

    2012-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine some of the probable causes for the unusually low tropospheric column ozone observed over the Eastern India during the exceptional drought event in July 2002. The analysis presented here aimed to characterize the possible link of the convective transport and tropospheric ozone distribution over the highly polluted northern plain of India. We examined horizontal wind and omega (vertical velocity) anomalies over the Indian region to understand the large scale dynamical processes prevailed during July 2002. It was found that, instead of normal large scale ascent over the Indian region, the air was descending in the middle and lower troposphere over vast part of India. This configuration was apparently responsible for less convective upwelling of precursors and likely caused less photochemical ozone formation in the free troposphere over the Eastern Indian during July 2002. The deep convection during Indian summer monsoon may thus have a significant role in regulating the chemical cycles associated with the change in tropospheric ozone over the Indian region. This study has shown that anomalous low TOR values in July 2002 over the eastern Indian region can be linked to the reduced transport of the precursors in the free troposphere than in normal years. To examine this effect the study of climatology of ozone over the period 2000-2009 has been done using vertical profiles data from ozonosonde dataset over three stations in India. Keyword: Tropospheric ozone - Convection - South Asia - Pollution

  4. Impact of Surface Emissions to the Zonal Variability of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone and Carbon Monoxide for November 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Jones, D.; Logan, J.; Worden, H.; Boersma, F.; Chang, R.; Kulawik, S.; Osterman, G.; Worden, J.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and dynamical processes governing the zonal variability of tropical tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide are investigated for November 2004 using satellite observations, in-situ measurements, and chemical transport models in conjunction with inverse-estimated surface emissions. Vertical ozone profile estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and ozone sonde measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network show the so called zonal 'wave-one' pattern, which is characterized by peak ozone concentrations (70-80 ppb) centered over the Atlantic, as well as elevated concentrations of ozone over Indonesia and Australia (60-70 ppb) in the lower troposphere. Observational evidence from TES CO vertical profiles and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 columns point to regional surface emissions as an important contributor to the elevated ozone over Indonesia. This contribution is investigated with the GEOS-Chem chemistry and transport model using surface emission estimates derived from an optimal inverse model, which was constrained by TES and Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) CO profiles (Jones et al., 2007). These a posteriori estimates, which were over a factor of 2 greater than climatological emissions, reduced differences between GEOS-Chem and TES ozone observations by 30-40% and led to changes in GEOS-Chem upper tropospheric ozone of up to 40% over Indonesia. The remaining residual differences can be explained in part by upper tropospheric ozone produced from lightning NOx in the South Atlantic. Furthermore, model simulations from GEOS-Chem indicate that ozone over Indonesian/Australian is more sensitive to changes in surface emissions of NOx than ozone over the tropical Atlantic.

  5. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Barret, B.; Massart, S.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Piacentini, A.; El Amraoui, L.; Pannekoucke, O.; Cariolle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and temporally resolved fields of free-troposphere ozone are of major importance to quantify the intercontinental transport of pollution and the ozone radiative forcing. We consider a global chemical transport model (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle, MOCAGE) in combination with a linear ozone chemistry scheme to examine the impact of assimilating observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The assimilation of the two instruments is performed by means of a variational algorithm (4D-VAR) and allows to constrain stratospheric and tropospheric ozone simultaneously. The analysis is first computed for the months of August and November 2008 and validated against ozonesonde measurements to verify the presence of observations and model biases. Furthermore, a longer analysis of 6 months (July-December 2008) showed that the combined assimilation of MLS and IASI is able to globally reduce the uncertainty (root mean square error, RMSE) of the modeled ozone columns from 30 to 15% in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, 70-225 hPa). The assimilation of IASI tropospheric ozone observations (1000-225 hPa columns, TOC - tropospheric O3 column) decreases the RMSE of the model from 40 to 20% in the tropics (30° S-30° N), whereas it is not effective at higher latitudes. Results are confirmed by a comparison with additional ozone data sets like the Measurements of OZone and wAter vapour by aIrbus in-service airCraft (MOZAIC) data, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total ozone columns and several high-altitude surface measurements. Finally, the analysis is found to be insensitive to the assimilation parameters. We conclude that the combination of a simplified ozone chemistry scheme with frequent satellite observations is a valuable tool for the long-term analysis of stratospheric and free-tropospheric ozone.

  6. Analysis of the effectiveness of the NEC Directive on the tropospheric ozone levels in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, N.; Fontes, T.; Silva, M. P.; Manso, M. C.; Carvalho, A. C.

    2015-04-01

    The National Emission Ceilings Directive 2001/81/CE (NEC Directive) was adopted in the European Community in 2001 and went through a revision process in 2005. One of its main objectives is to improve the protection of the environment and human health against the risks of adverse effects from ground-level ozone, moving towards the long-term objective of not exceeding critical levels proved to effectively protect the populations and ecosystems. Considering such objectives, national emission ceilings were established imposing the years 2010 and 2020 as benchmarks. Ten years later, what was the effectiveness of this Directive concerning the control of tropospheric ozone levels in Portugal? In order to answer the previous question, annual ozone precursors' emissions (NOx, NMVOC) and annual atmospheric concentrations (NOx and O3) were analyzed between 1990 and 2011. The background concentrations were assessed in each environment type of air quality station (urban, suburban and rural) through their annual mean ozone concentration and the hourly information threshold exceedances (episodic peak levels). To evaluate the statistical differences in the inter-annual episodic peak levels, a Peak Ozone Index (POIx) was defined and calculated. The results show that, despite the achievement on the emissions NEC Directive goals, associated to the reduction of ozone precursors' emissions, and the decrease of ozone episodic peak levels, the mean tropospheric ozone concentrations significantly increased between 2003 and 2007 (p < 0.05) although the number of exceedances to the information threshold (180 μg m-3) has decreased. During the period of 1990-2000, before the implementation of the NEC Directive, the mean ozone values were 25% lower in rural stations, 26% in urban stations and 12% in suburban stations, demonstrating that the NEC policy based on NOx and NMVOCs emissions reduction does not lead to an effective overall reduction of ozone concentrations considering the reduction

  7. Signature of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from space: A case study for Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, C.; Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over mainland Greece, by using observations carried out by satellite-borne instrumentation and Multi Sensor Reanalysis. The results obtained show that the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) dispersed farther away than the tropospheric NO2 column (TNO), due to the longer TOR's lifetime in respect to that of TNO. This results in the influence of the air quality of the nearby southern islands from the air pollution of the greater Athens basin. Furthermore, the TOR and TNO columns over Athens, for the period October 2004 to December 2011 were found to be negatively correlated with a correlation coefficient -0.85, in contrast to recent findings which suggested strong positive correlation. Interestingly, this strong negative correlation into a slight positive correlation when the TNO concentration becomes higher than around 4 × 1015 molec cm-2, thus being best fitted by a quadratic relationship. In addition, the temporal evolution of TOR during 1979-1993 showed a decline of 0.2% per decade and just after 1993 it seems to obey a positive trend of 0.1% per decade, thus recovering during the period 1993-2011 almost 63% of the lost TOR amounts through the years 1979-1993. Finally, the association between TOR, the total ozone column (TOZ), the tropopause height and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is presented by analysing observations during 1979-2011. An unexpected positive correlation between OLR and TOR was found, which may probably be attributed to the fact that enhanced abundance in tropospheric water vapor reduces the summertime TOR maximum by destructing ozone in the lower and middle troposphere through uptake mechanisms, thus emitting higher amounts of longwave radiation upwards.

  8. Modeling the observed tropospheric BrO background: Importance of multiphase chemistry and implications for ozone, OH, and mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Horowitz, H. M.; Hu, L.; Sherwen, T.; Evans, M. J.; Liang, Q.; Suleiman, R. M.; Oram, D. E.; Le Breton, M.; Percival, C. J.; Wang, S.; Dix, B.; Volkamer, R.

    2016-10-01

    Aircraft and satellite observations indicate the presence of ppt (ppt ≡ pmol/mol) levels of BrO in the free troposphere with important implications for the tropospheric budgets of ozone, OH, and mercury. We can reproduce these observations with the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model by including a broader consideration of multiphase halogen (Br-Cl) chemistry than has been done in the past. Important reactions for regenerating BrO from its nonradical reservoirs include HOBr + Br-/Cl- in both aerosols and clouds, and oxidation of Br- by ClNO3 and ozone. Most tropospheric BrO in the model is in the free troposphere, consistent with observations and originates mainly from the photolysis and oxidation of ocean-emitted CHBr3. Stratospheric input is also important in the upper troposphere. Including production of gas phase inorganic bromine from debromination of acidified sea salt aerosol increases free tropospheric Bry by about 30%. We find HOBr to be the dominant gas-phase reservoir of inorganic bromine. Halogen (Br-Cl) radical chemistry as implemented here in GEOS-Chem drives 14% and 11% decreases in the global burdens of tropospheric ozone and OH, respectively, a 16% increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an atmospheric lifetime of 6 months for elemental mercury. The dominant mechanism for the Br-Cl driven tropospheric ozone decrease is oxidation of NOx by formation and hydrolysis of BrNO3 and ClNO3.

  9. Photochemical production of ozone in the upper troposphere in association with cumulus convection over Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, K.; Kawakami, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Nishi, N.; Koike, M.; Blake, D. R.; Machida, T.; Sano, T.; Hu, W.; Ko, M.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase A (BIBLE-A) aircraft observation campaign was conducted from 24 September to 10 October 1998, during a La Niña period. During this campaign, distributions of ozone and its precursors (NO, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs)) were observed over the tropical Pacific Ocean, Indonesia, and northern Australia. Mixing ratios of ozone and its precursors were very low at altitudes between 0 and 13.5 km over the tropical Pacific Ocean. The mixing ratios of ozone precursors above 8 km over Indonesia were often significantly higher than those over the tropical Pacific Ocean, even though the prevailing easterlies carried the air from the tropical Pacific Ocean to over Indonesia within several days. For example, median NO and CO mixing ratios in the upper troposphere were 12 parts per trillion (pptv) and 72 parts per billion (ppbv) over the tropical Pacific Ocean and were 83 pptv and 85 ppbv over western Indonesia, respectively. Meteorological analyses and high ethene (C2H4) mixing ratios indicate that the increase of the ozone precursors was caused by active convection over Indonesia through upward transport of polluted air, mixing, and lightning all within the few days prior to observation. Sources of ozone precursors are discussed by comparing correlations of some NMHCs and CH3Cl concentrations with CO between the lower and upper troposphere. Biomass burning in Indonesia was nearly inactive during BIBLE-A and was not a dominant source of the ozone precursors, but urban pollution and lightning contributed importantly to their increases. The increase in ozone precursors raised net ozone production rates over western Indonesia in the upper troposphere, as shown by a photochemical model calculation. However, the ozone mixing ratio (~20 ppbv) did not increase significantly over Indonesia because photochemical production of ozone did not have sufficient time since the augmentation of ozone precursors. Backward trajectories

  10. Photochemical production of ozone in the upper troposphere in association with cumulus convection over Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, K.; Kawakami, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Nishi, N.; Koike, M.; Blake, D. R.; Machida, T.; Sano, T.; Hu, W.; Ko, M.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase A (BIBLE-A) aircraft observation campaign was conducted from 24 September to 10 October 1998, during a La Niña period. During this campaign, distributions of ozone and its precursors (NO, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs)) were observed over the tropical Pacific Ocean, Indonesia, and northern Australia. Mixing ratios of ozone and its precursors were very low at altitudes between 0 and 13.5 km over the tropical Pacific Ocean. The mixing ratios of ozone precursors above 8 km over Indonesia were often significantly higher than those over the tropical Pacific Ocean, even though the prevailing easterlies carried the air from the tropical Pacific Ocean to over Indonesia within several days. For example, median NO and CO mixing ratios in the upper troposphere were 12 parts per trillion (pptv) and 72 parts per billion (ppbv) over the tropical Pacific Ocean and were 83 pptv and 85 ppbv over western Indonesia, respectively. Meteorological analyses and high ethene (C2H4) mixing ratios indicate that the increase of the ozone precursors was caused by active convection over Indonesia through upward transport of polluted air, mixing, and lightning all within the few days prior to observation. Sources of ozone precursors are discussed by comparing correlations of some NMHCs and CH3Cl concentrations with CO between the lower and upper troposphere. Biomass burning in Indonesia was nearly inactive during BIBLE-A and was not a dominant source of the ozone precursors, but urban pollution and lightning contributed importantly to their increases. The increase in ozone precursors raised net ozone production rates over western Indonesia in the upper troposphere, as shown by a photochemical model calculation. However, the ozone mixing ratio (˜20 ppbv) did not increase significantly over Indonesia because photochemical production of ozone did not have sufficient time since the augmentation of ozone precursors. Backward trajectories

  11. Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; Chen, Jinxuan; Hu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the tropospheric ozone (O3), but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models (CTMs) and chemistry-climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions (100-500 km, typically 200 km). These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive) tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use the recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the regional and global tropospheric O3 in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5° long. × 2° lat.) and its three nested models (at 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat.) covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Specifically, the nested models take lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from the global model, better capture small-scale processes and feed back to modify the global model simulation within the nested domains, with a subsequent effect on their LBCs. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled system better simulates the tropospheric O3 both within and outside the nested domains, as found by evaluation against a suite of ground (1420 sites from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (GMD), the Chemical Coordination Centre of European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (AQS)), aircraft (the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In- Service Aircraft (MOZAIC)) and satellite measurements (two Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products). The two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean surface O3 with the ground measurements

  12. Tropospheric ozone measurements at the equatorial region (1980-1988)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    1994-01-01

    Results from surface ozone measurements at Penang (5.5 deg N, 100 deg E) over 1980-88 period are presented. The study indicates the ozone concentrations undergoing significant diurnal and seasonal variations. The peak concentration are observed at around mid-day (up to 35 nb) but the O3 concentration generally drops to zero level in the early evening and remains unchanged until mid-morning. Monthly-averaged daily 1-h average concentrations are generally small (4-13 nb) and decrease continually from the early part of the year to the end. Frequently, varying local weather conditions seem to influence the O3 concentrations.

  13. Enhanced ozone loss by active inorganic bromine chemistry in the tropical troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, Michael; Bannan, Thomas J.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Khan, M. Anwar; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James; Lidster, Richard; Andrews, Stephen; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Schmidt, Johan; Jacob, Daniel; Harris, Neil R. P.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Gallagher, Martin; Bacak, Asan; Leather, Kimberley E.; Percival, Carl J.

    2017-04-01

    Bromine chemistry, particularly in the tropics, has been suggested to play an important role in tropospheric ozone loss although a lack of measurements of active bromine species impedes a quantitative understanding of its impacts. Recent modelling and measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO) by Wang et al. (2015) have shown current models under predict BrO concentrations over the Pacific Ocean and allude to a missing source of BrO. Here, we present the first simultaneous aircraft measurements of atmospheric bromine monoxide, BrO (a radical that along with atomic Br catalytically destroys ozone) and the inorganic Br precursor compounds HOBr, BrCl and Br2 over the Western Pacific Ocean from 0.5 to 7 km. The presence of 0.17-1.64 pptv BrO and 3.6-8 pptv total inorganic Br from these four species throughout the troposphere causes 10-20% of total ozone loss, and confirms the importance of bromine chemistry in the tropical troposphere; contributing to a 6 ppb decrease in ozone levels due to halogen chemistry. Observations are compared with a global chemical transport model and find that the observed high levels of BrO, BrCl and HOBr can be reconciled by active multiphase oxidation of halide (Br- and Cl-) by HOBr and ozone in cloud droplets and aerosols. Measurements indicate that 99% of the instantaneous free Br in the troposphere up to 8 km originates from inorganic halogen photolysis rather than from photolysis of organobromine species.

  14. Stratospheric/tropospheric exchange affecting the northern wetlands regions of Canada during summer 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmeier, A. Scott; Shipham, Mark C.; Browell, Edward V.; Grant, William B.; Klassa, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B was conducted over the northern wetlands region of Canada during July and August 1990. Several stratospheric/tropospheric exchange events were noted by zenith-looking airborne lidar and in situ measurements of ozone and other trace gas species. Isentropic trajectories and potential vorticity analyses are utilized to determine the frequency of stratospheric inputs which would have affected the tropospheric column over the Moosonee and Schefferville regions and to describe the favored pathways of transport of stratospheric air arriving at these locations. At the 310 K potential temperature level (middle troposphere), trajectories having 'aged stratospheric' values of potential vorticity at some point in their 5-day history arrived at Moosonee or Schefferville roughly 40% of the time during the ABLE 3B study period, most often via large-scale subsidence enroute from 'stratospheric input regions' over the Arctic Ocean or northern and central Canada. At 325 K (upper troposphere), 'fresh' stratospheric input was evident on about 80% of the trajectories, most often associated with jet streaks within the polar and Arctic jet streams. A case study is presented which illustrates both of these general stratospheric input processes.

  15. Tropospheric ozone at tropical and middle latitudes derived from TOMS/MLS residual: Comparison with a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Martin, R. V.

    2003-05-01

    The tropospheric ozone residual method is used to derive zonal maps of tropospheric column ozone using concurrent measurements of total column ozone from Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and stratospheric column ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Our study shows that the zonal variability in TOMS total column ozone at tropical and subtropical latitudes is mostly of tropospheric origin. The seasonal and zonal variability in tropospheric column ozone (TCO), derived from the TOMS/MLS residual, is consistent with that derived from the convective cloud differential method and ozonesonde measurements in regions where these data overlap. A comparison of TCO derived from the TOMS/MLS residual and a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) for 1996-1997 shows good agreement in the tropics south of the equator. Both the model and observations show similar zonal and seasonal characteristics including an enhancement of TCO in the Indonesian region associated with the 1997 El Niño. Both show the decline of the wave-1 pattern from the tropics to the extratropics as lightning activity and the Walker circulation decline. Both show enhanced ozone in the downwelling branches of the Hadley Circulation near ±30o. Model and observational differences increase with latitude during winter and spring.

  16. Tropospheric Vertical Distribution of Tropical Atlantic Ozone Observed by TES during the Northern African Biomass Burning Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jourdain, L.; Worden, H. M.; Worden, J. R.; Bowman, K.; Li, Q.; Eldering, A.; Kulawik, S. S.; Osterman, G.; Boersma, K. F.; Fisher, B.; Rinsland, C. P.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present vertical distributions of ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during January 2005. Between 10N and 20S, TES ozone retrievals have Degrees of Freedom for signal (DOF) around 0.7 - 0.8 each for tropospheric altitudes above and below 500 hPa. As a result, TES is able to capture for the first time from space a distribution characterized by two maxima: one in the lower troposphere north of the ITCZ and one in the middle and upper troposphere south of the ITCZ. We focus our analysis on the north tropical Atlantic Ocean, where most of previous satellite observations showed discrepancies with in-situ ozone observations and models. Trajectory analyses and a sensitivity study using the GEOS-Chem model confirm the influence of northern Africa biomass burning on the elevated ozone mixing ratios observed by TES over this region.

  17. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  18. The reservoir of ozone in the boundary layer of the eastern United States and its potential impact on the global tropospheric ozone budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, F. M.; Fishman, J.; Browell, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of available ozone data in the eastern two-thirds of the United States indicates that a substantial reservoir of ozone is present in the summertime. Five-year mean concentrations range from 40 to 65 ppbv. The reservoir covered an area of several million square kilometers and extends vertically from the surface to 1 to 2 km. The vertical distribution of ozone in the reservoir during midday supports a transport of additional ozone from the boundary layer to the free troposphere. Data are presented demonstrating the potential effect of transport by convective clouds and by the sea breeze circulation - mechanisms by which ozone may be transported out of the boundary layer into the free troposphere. The potential impact of this reservoir on the tropospheric ozone budget is discussed. It is shown that if less than half of the ozone mass in this reservoir is transported to the free troposphere, then the amount of ozone transported out of the boundary layer approximates the amount of ozone transported downward during a tropopause fold event.

  19. Establishing the common patterns of future tropospheric ozone under diverse climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan J.; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Baro, Rocio; Montávez, Juan P.

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of climate change on air quality may affect long-term air quality planning. However, the policies aimed at improving air quality in the EU directives have not accounted for the variations in the climate. Climate change alone influences future air quality through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. As such, the aim of this work is to check whether the projected changes in gas-phase air pollution over Europe depends on the scenario driving the regional simulation. For this purpose, two full-transient regional climate change-air quality projections for the first half of the XXI century (1991-2050) have been carried out with MM5+CHIMERE system, including A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Experiments span the periods 1971-2000, as a reference, and 2071-2100, as future enhanced greenhouse gas and aerosol scenarios (SRES A2 and B2). The atmospheric simulations have a horizontal resolution of 25 km and 23 vertical layers up to 100 mb, and were driven by ECHO-G global climate model outputs. The analysis focuses on the connection between meteorological and air quality variables. Our simulations suggest that the modes of variability for tropospheric ozone and their main precursors hardly change under different SRES scenarios. The effect of changing scenarios has to be sought in the intensity of the changing signal, rather than in the spatial structure of the variation patterns, since the correlation between the spatial patterns of variability in A2 and B2 simulation is r > 0.75 for all gas-phase pollutants included in this study. In both cases, full-transient simulations indicate an enhanced enhanced chemical activity under future scenarios. The causes for tropospheric ozone variations have to be sought in a multiplicity of climate factors, such as increased temperature, different distribution of precipitation patterns across Europe, increased photolysis of primary and secondary pollutants due to lower cloudiness, etc

  20. Environmental auditing: An approach for characterizing tropospheric ozone risk to forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, W.E.; Weber, J.E.; Tingey, D.; Herstrom, A.; Lee, E.H.; Laurence, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The risk tropospheric ozone poses to forests in the United States dependents on the variation in ozone exposure across the forests and the various environmental and climate factors predominant in the region. All these factors have a spatial nature; an approach to characterization of ozone risk is presented that places ozone exposure-response functions for species as seedlings and model-simulated tree and stand responses in a spatial context using a geographical information systems (GIS). The GIS is used to aggregate factors considered important in a risk characterization: (1) estimated ozone exposures over forested regions, (2) measures of ozone effects on species` and stand growth, and (3) spatially distributed environmental, genetic, and exposure influences on species` response to ozone. The GIS-based risk characterization provides an estimation the extent and magnitude of the potential ozone impact on forests. A preliminary risk characterization demonstrating this considered only the eastern United States and only the limited empirical data quantifying the effect of ozone exposures on forest tree species as seedlings. The area-weighted response of the annual seedling biomass loss formed the basis for a sensitivity ranking: sensitive-aspen and black cherry (14%-33% biomass loss over 50% of their distribution); moderately sensitive-tulip popular, loblolly pine, eastern white pine, and sugar maple (5%-13% biomass loss); insensitive-Virginia pine and red maple (0%-1% loss). Future GIS-based risk characterizations will include process-based model simulations of the three- to 5-year growth response of individual species as large trees. The interactive nature of GIS provides a tool to explore consequences of the range of climate conditions across a species` distribution, forest management practices, changing ozone precursors, regulatory control strategies, and other factors influencing the spatial distribution of ozone over time. 43 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Impact of road traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone in Europe for present day and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Mariano; Kerkweg, Astrid; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Road traffic is an important anthropogenic source of NOx, CO and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) which act as precursors for the formation of tropospheric ozone. The formation of ozone is highly non-linear. This means that the contribution of the road traffic sector cannot directly be derived from the amount of emitted species, because they are also determined by local emissions of other anthropogenic and natural sources. In addition, long range transport of precursors and ozone can play an important role in determining the local ozone budget. For a complete assessment of the impact of road traffic emissions it is therefore important to resolve both, local emissions and long range transport. This can be achieved by the use of the newly developed MECO(n) model system, which on-line couples the global chemistry-climate-model EMAC with the regional chemistry-climate-model COSMO-CLM/MESSy. Both models use the same chemical speciation. This allows a highly consistent model chain from the global to the local scale. To quantify the contribution of the road traffic emissions to tropospheric ozone we use an accounting system of the relevant reaction pathways of the different species from different sources (called tagging method). This tagging scheme is implemented consistently on all scales, allowing a direct comparison of the contributions. With this model configuration we investigate the impact of road traffic emissions to the tropospheric ozone budget in Europe. For the year 2008 we compare different emission scenarios and investigate the influence of both model and emission resolution. In addition, results of a mitigation scenario for the year 2030 are presented. They indicate that the contribution of the road traffic sector can be reduced by local reductions of emissions during summer. During winter the importance of long range transport increases. This can lead to increased contributions of the road traffic sector (e.g. by increased emissions in the US) even if local

  2. Large-scale circulation patterns associated with high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fakhruzzaman, K. M.; Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Kendall, J. D.; Justice, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    Several years of satellite observations indicate the presence of enhanced amounts of tropospheric ozone over the tropical South Atlantic during the austral springs. Wide-spread biomass burning is prevalent over Africa and South America during the same time of the year. Another recent satellite technique has identified the locations of fires over the continents. In this study, we present an analysis of the prevailing meteorological conditions when the highest amounts of tropospheric ozone are present.

  3. Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. S.; Dentener, F. J.; Schultz, M. G.; Ellingsen, K.; van Noije, T. P. C.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bell, N.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W. J.; Derwent, R. G.; Doherty, R. M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H. J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Krol, M. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lawrence, M. G.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Sanderson, M. G.; Savage, N. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.

    2006-04-01

    Global tropospheric ozone distributions, budgets, and radiative forcings from an ensemble of 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models have been intercompared and synthesized as part of a wider study into both the air quality and climate roles of ozone. Results from three 2030 emissions scenarios, broadly representing "optimistic," "likely," and "pessimistic" options, are compared to a base year 2000 simulation. This base case realistically represents the current global distribution of tropospheric ozone. A further set of simulations considers the influence of climate change over the same time period by forcing the central emissions scenario with a surface warming of around 0.7K. The use of a large multimodel ensemble allows us to identify key areas of uncertainty and improves the robustness of the results. Ensemble mean changes in tropospheric ozone burden between 2000 and 2030 for the 3 scenarios range from a 5% decrease, through a 6% increase, to a 15% increase. The intermodel uncertainty (±1 standard deviation) associated with these values is about ±25%. Model outliers have no significant influence on the ensemble mean results. Combining ozone and methane changes, the three scenarios produce radiative forcings of -50, 180, and 300 mW m-2, compared to a CO2 forcing over the same time period of 800-1100 mW m-2. These values indicate the importance of air pollution emissions in short- to medium-term climate forcing and the potential for stringent/lax control measures to improve/worsen future climate forcing. The model sensitivity of ozone to imposed climate change varies between models but modulates zonal mean mixing ratios by ±5 ppbv via a variety of feedback mechanisms, in particular those involving water vapor and stratosphere-troposphere exchange. This level of climate change also reduces the methane lifetime by around 4%. The ensemble mean year 2000 tropospheric ozone budget indicates chemical production, chemical destruction, dry deposition and

  4. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  5. Three-dimensional investigation of ozone pollution in the lower troposphere using an unmanned aerial vehicle platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Chang; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Si-Jia; Li, Bai; Li, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Potential utilities of instrumented lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to quickly characterize tropospheric ozone pollution and meteorological factors including air temperature and relative humidity at three-dimensional scales are highlighted in this study. Both vertical and horizontal variations of ozone within the 1000 m lower troposphere at a local area of 4 × 4 km(2) are investigated during summer and autumn times. Results from field measurements show that the UAV platform has a sufficient reliability and precision in capturing spatiotemporal variations of ozone and meteorological factors. The results also reveal that ozone vertical variation is mainly linked to the vertical distribution patterns of air temperature and the horizontal transport of air masses from other regions. In addition, significant horizontal variations of ozone are also observed at different levels. Without major exhaust sources, ozone horizontal variation has a strong correlation with the vertical convection intensity of air masses within the lower troposphere. Higher air temperatures are usually related to lower ozone horizontal variations at the localized area, whereas underlying surface diversity has a week influence. Three-dimensional ozone maps are obtained using an interpolation method based on UAV collected samples, which are capable of clearly demonstrating the diurnal evolution processes of ozone within the 1000 m lower troposphere.

  6. Tropical tropospheric column ozone from GOME-I, SCIAMACHY and GOME-II using the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Weber, Mark; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Burrows, P. John

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone column can be retrieved with the Convective Clouds Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al., 1998) using total ozone column and cloud retrievals. The CCD technique uses the clear-sky and above-cloud ozone column measurements to derive a monthly mean tropospheric column amount by the subtraction of the above cloud column from the total column. An important assumption here is that stratospheric ozone is nearly invariant with longitude, which is only approximately true in the tropical region. A CCD algorithm has been developed and is applied to GOME-I, SCIAMACHY and GOME-II measurements so that a unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (20oN - 20oS) can be created starting in 1995. First results of the CCD application that includes validation with SHADOZ ozonesonde data will be presented.

  7. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Subhourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephania

    2011-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar system, developed jointly by The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min 17 temporal integration.

  8. Quantifying Stratospheric Ozone in the Upper Troposphere Using in situ Measurements of HCl

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, C S; Bergmann, D J; Marcy, T P; Fahey, D W; Gao, R S; Popp, P J; Richard, E C; Thompson, T L; Rosenlof, K H; Ray, E A; Salawitch, R J; Ridley, B A; . Weinheimer, A J; Loewenstein, M; Weinstock, E M; Mahoney, M J

    2004-03-08

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) technique has been developed for precise in situ measurements of hydrochloric acid (HCl) from a high-altitude aircraft. In measurements at subtropical latitudes, minimum HCl values found in the upper troposphere (UT) are often near or below the 0.005-ppbv detection limit of the measurements, indicating that background HCl values are much lower than a global mean estimate. However, significant abundances of HCl were observed in many UT air parcels as a result of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport events. A method for diagnosing the amount of stratospheric ozone in these UT parcels was developed using the compact linear correlation of HCl with ozone found throughout the lower stratosphere (LS). Expanded use of this method will lead to improved quantification of cross-tropopause transport events and validation of global chemical transport models.

  9. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Sub-Hourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system, developed jointly by the University of Alabama at Huntsville and NASA, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min temporal integration

  10. Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl.

    PubMed

    Marcy, T P; Fahey, D W; Gao, R S; Popp, P J; Richard, E C; Thompson, T L; Rosenlof, K H; Ray, E A; Salawitch, R J; Atherton, C S; Bergmann, D J; Ridley, B A; Weinheimer, A J; Loewenstein, M; Weinstock, E M; Mahoney, M J

    2004-04-09

    We have developed a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique for precise in situ measurements of hydrochloric acid (HCl) from a high-altitude aircraft. In measurements at subtropical latitudes, minimum HCl values found in the upper troposphere (UT) were often near or below the detection limit of the measurements (0.005 parts per billion by volume), indicating that background HCl values are much lower than a global mean estimate. However, significant abundances of HCl were observed in many UT air parcels, as a result of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport events. We developed a method for diagnosing the amount of stratospheric ozone in these UT parcels using the compact linear correlation of HCl with ozone found throughout the lower stratosphere (LS). Expanded use of this method will lead to improved quantification of cross-tropopause transport events and validation of global chemical transport models.

  11. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum

  12. Western Pacific Tropospheric Ozone and Potential Vorticity: Implications for Asian Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Newell, Reginald E.; Davis, Douglas D.; Liu, Shaw C.

    1997-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (03) cross sections measured with lidar from a DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific correspond closely with potential vorticity (PV). Both are transported from the middle latitude stratosphere, although this is not the only source of 03, and both have sinks in the tropical boundary layer. 03 and PV are good indicators of photochemical and transport process interactions. In summer, some Asian pollution, raised by convection to the upper troposphere, passes southward into the tropics and to the Southern Hemisphere. In winter, subsidence keeps the pollution at low altitudes where it moves over the ocean towards the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with photochemical destruction and secondary pollutant generation occurring en route. Convection raises this modified air to the upper troposphere, where some re may enter the stratosphere. Thus winter Asian pollution may at have a smaller direct influence on the global atmosphere than it would if injected at other longitudes and seasons.

  13. Impacts of biogenic emissions of VOC and NOx on tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin'geng; Han, Zhiwei; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Renjian

    2008-05-20

    This study is intended to understand and quantify the impacts of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) on the formation of tropospheric ozone during summertime in eastern China. The model system consists of the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) and a tropospheric chemical and transport model (TCTM) with the updated carbon-bond chemical reaction mechanism (CBM-IV). The spatial resolution of the system domain is 30 km x 30 km. The impacts of biogenic emissions are investigated by performing simulations (36 h) with and without biogenic emissions, while anthropogenic emissions are constant. The results indicate that biogenic emissions have remarkable impacts on surface ozone in eastern China. In big cities and their surrounding areas, surface ozone formation tends to be VOC-limited. The increase in ozone concentration by biogenic VOC is generally 5 ppbv or less, but could be more than 10 ppbv or even 30 ppbv in some local places. The impacts of biogenic NO(x) are different or even contrary in different regions, depending on the relative availability of NO(x) and VOC. The surface ozone concentrations reduced or increased by the biogenic NO(x) could be as much as 10 ppbv or 20 ppbv, respectively. The impacts of biogenic emissions on ozone aloft are generally restricted to the boundary layer and generally more obvious during the daytime than during the nighttime. This study is useful for understanding the role of biogenic emissions and for planning strategies for surface ozone abatement in eastern China. Due to limitations of the emission inventories used and the highly non-linear nature of zone formation, however, some uncertainties remain in the results.

  14. Dial Measurements of Free-Tropospheric Ozone Profiles in Huntsville, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system has been developed jointly by NASA and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH). Two separated Nd:YAG pumped dye laser systems produce the laser pulses with wavelengths of 285 and 291 nm at 20 Hz frequency. The receiver is a Newtonian telescope with a 40 cm primary and a two-channel aft optics unit. The detection system currently uses photon counting to facilitate operations at the maximum achievable altitude. This lidar measures free-tropospheric ozone profiles between 4-10 km at Regional Atmospheric Profiling Laboratory for Discovery (RAPCD) in UAH campus (ASL 206 m) under both daytime and nighttime conditions. Frequent coincident ozonesonde flights and theoretical calculations provide evidence to indicate the retrieval accuracy ranges from approx.5% at 4 km to approx.60% at 10 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 30-minute integration. Three Hamamatsu 7400 PMTs and analog detection technique will be added on the current system to extend the measurement to approx.100 m above ground to monitor the PBL and lower tropospheric ozone variations.

  15. Foliar phenolics in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) as a potential indicator of tropospheric ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Sager, E P S; Hutchinson, T C; Croley, T R

    2005-06-01

    Tropospheric O3 has been implicated in the declining health of forest ecosystems in Europe and North America and has been shown to have negative consequences on human health. We have measured tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower canopy through the use of passive monitors located in five woodlots along a 150 km urban-rural transect, originating in the large urban complex of Toronto, Canada. We also sampled foliage from 10 mature sugar maple trees in each woodlot and measured the concentration of a number of phenolic compounds and macronutrients. O3 concentrations were highest in the two rural woodlots, located approximately 150 km downwind of Toronto, when compared to the woodlots found within the Greater Toronto Area. Foliar concentrations of three flavonoids, avicularin, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, were significantly greater and nitrogen concentrations significantly lower at these same rural woodlots, suggesting some physiological disruption is occurring in those sites where exposure to tropospheric O3 is greater. We suggest that foliar phenolics of sugar maple may be a biochemical indicator of tropospheric ozone exposure.

  16. Tropospheric Ozone Near-Nadir-Viewing IR Spectral Sensitivity and Ozone Measurements from NAST-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared ozone spectra from near nadir observations have provided atmospheric ozone information from the sensor to the Earth's surface. Simulations of the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) from the NASA ER-2 aircraft (approximately 20 km altitude) with a spectral resolution of 0.25/cm were used for sensitivity analysis. The spectral sensitivity of ozone retrievals to uncertainties in atmospheric temperature and water vapor is assessed in order to understand the relationship between the IR emissions and the atmospheric state. In addition, ozone spectral radiance sensitivity to its ozone layer densities and radiance weighting functions reveals the limit of the ozone profile retrieval accuracy from NAST-I measurements. Statistical retrievals of ozone with temperature and moisture retrievals from NAST-I spectra have been investigated and the preliminary results from NAST-I field campaigns are presented.

  17. Sources of Tropospheric Ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An Analysis of Ozonesonde Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chan, Lo Yin; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Harris, Joyce M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2002-01-01

    The sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong and Japanese ozonesonde observations with a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) driven by assimilated meteorological observations. Particular focus is placed on the extensive observations available from Hong Kong in 1996. In the middle-upper troposphere (MT- UT), maximum Asian pollution influence along the Pacific Rim occurs in summer, reflecting rapid convective transport of surface pollution. In the lower troposphere (LT) the season of maximum Asian pollution influence shifts to summer at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability observed over Hong Kong in winter reflects frequent tropical intrusions alternating with stratospheric intrusions. Asian biomass burning makes a major contribution to ozone at less than 32 deg.N in spring. Maximum European pollution influence (less than 5 ppbv) occurs in spring in the LT. North American pollution influence exceeds European influence in the UT-MT, reflecting the uplift from convection and the warm conveyor belts over the eastern seaboard of North America. African outflow makes a major contribution to ozone in the low-latitude MT-UT over the Pacific Rim during November- April. Lightning influence over the Pacific Rim is minimum in summer due to westward UT transport at low latitudes associated with the Tibetan anticyclone. The Asian outflow flux of ozone to the Pacific is maximum in spring and fall and includes a major contribution from Asian anthropogenic sources year-round.

  18. Development of the Double Etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Determining Total and Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, William

    1999-01-01

    Measuring and understanding the distribution of ozone through the lower levels of Earth's atmosphere are high priorities in global change and climate research. Of particular interest now is the global distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Global coverage of the stratospheric ozone is feasible only via remote sensing instruments on a space-based platform. And though extensive monitoring tropospheric ozone is possible using instruments flown aboard conventional aircraft, a space-based system would be significantly less costly and provide information over a much broader area and produce more uniform coverage. Here we describe the prototype of an instrument being developed to monitor, from an orbiting spacecraft, the ozone found in Earth's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Our new spectrometer is an infrared Fabry-Perot interferometer which uses two synchrounously tuned etalons: a high resolution narrow band device and a lower resolution broader band filtering etalon. The prototype is a scanning device making use of nearly collimated input radiation and a single element detector. As presently configured, it is capable of providing a resolution better than 0.07/cm with a spectral band width approximately 5/cm wide and centered at 1054.7/cm. For the future space-based emission device a modification of the the prototype was to be made to employ innovative circle-to-line detector optics, those developed or in development at UM/SPRL, and a focal plane array detector. These enhancements would enable a simultaneous recording of the entire spectral range of interest, but with simple detection electronics and a significant gain in signal-to-noise over that of the scanning version.

  19. Observation of summertime enhanced ozone over the middle troposphere in the vicinity of the Middle East by spaceborne TES instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane; Jones, Dylan; Worden, John; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jayanta

    We used a global chemical transport model, namely GEOS-Chem, to interpret recent observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) onboard of on the NASA EOS Aura satellite. TES observations reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere ( 500-400 hPa, 5-7 km) over a large area of the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Central Asia in summer 2005 and 2006. This enhancement has some similarities to and differences from the "Middle East ozone maximum" that was previously suggested in a model study, revealing complexity of the feature. We found, based on the TES data, that although there is general enhancement of ozone at 400-500 hPa over the Middle East and surrounding areas, no one single maximum is centralized in the Middle East as described in the previous modelling work. Instead, localized maxima are seen within the ozone-enhanced area. The location and intensity of these maxima vary from year to year. We found that the region of elevated ozone is closely associated with the location of the subtropical westerly jet and anticyclones over North Africa and the Persian Gulf. The ozone distribution in the region is greatly influenced by the seasonal evolution of these systems. We examined the influence of photochemical production and transport on the ozone budget in the region. A tagged ozone simulation was conducted to track ozone in the region from its origins in Asia, Africa, North America, and European. The outcome shows that long-range transport and in situ chemical production both contribute to the formation of the ozone enhancement. Our results suggests that accurately simulating the magnitude and spatial distribution of the ozone enhancement requires properly reproducing ozone production rate in the upper troposphere and the atmospheric response to Asian monsoon heating that is reflected in the strengths of the anticyclones over North Africa and the Persian Gulf.

  20. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  1. A New NASA Data Product: Tropospheric and Stratospheric Column Ozone in the Tropics Derived from TOMS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Tropospheric column ozone (TCO) and stratospheric column ozone (SCO) gridded data in the tropics for 1979-present are now available from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center via either direct ftp, world-NN,ide-NN,eb, or electronic mail. This note provides a brief overview of the method used to derive the data set including validation and adjustments.

  2. Effects of variation in cloudiness and stratospheric aerosol scattering upon tropospheric UV flux, photolysis rates, and the ozone urban plume.

    PubMed

    Matloff, G L

    1981-11-15

    Using a radiative transfer model, the sensitivity of tropospheric UV flux and photolysis rates for NO(2) and HNO(2) to variations in cloudiness and stratospheric aerosol scattering are evaluated. A lumped parameter ozone plume model combining photochemistry and diffusion is then utilized to investigate variations in downwind ozone concentrations caused by variations in cloudiness.

  3. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Komala, Ninong; Maata, Matakite; bt Mohammad, Maznorizan; Nguyo, J.; Mutai, C.; Ogino, S-Y; Da Silva, F. Raimundo; Paes Leme, N. M.; Posny, Francoise; Scheele, Rinus; Selkirk, Henry B.; Shiotani, Masato; Stubi, Rene; Levrat, Gilbert; Calpini, Bertrand; Thouret, Valerie; Tsuruta, Haruo; Canossa, Jessica Valverde; Voemel, Holger; Yonemura, S.; Andres Diaz, Jorge; Tan Thanh, Nguyen T.; Thuy Ha, Hoang T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  4. Elevated Ozone in the Troposphere over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Tie, Xuexi

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric column ozone (TCO) is derived from differential measurements of total column ozone from Nimus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS, and stratospheric column ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite. It is shown that TCO during summer months over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at northern mid-latitudes is about the same (50-60 Dobson Units) as over the continents of North America, Europe and Asia, where surface emissions of nitrogen oxides from industrial sources, biomass and biofuel burning and biogenic emissions are significantly larger. This nearly uniform zonal variation in TCO is modulated by surface topography of the Rocky and Himalayan mountains and Tibetan Plateau where TCO is reduced by 20-30 Dobson Units. The zonal characteristics of TCO derived from satellite measurements are well simulated by a global chemical transport model called MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2). The model results are analyzed to delineate the relative importance of various processes contributing to observed zonal characteristics of TCO, and they are shown that the surface emission of NOx contributes about 50% of the TCO at northern mid-latitudes, especially over the continents of North America, Europe and Asia. The result of TCO derived from TOMS and the analysis from MOZART-2 indicate that TCO is a very useful tool to study tropospheric O3 pollution resulting from surface emissions of pollutants.

  5. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  6. Application of an Empirical Correction to Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) Ozone Profiles in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: A Validation Study in Support of the Development of Daily Global Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balok, A. E.; Fishman, J.

    2001-05-01

    A comparison of solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone profiles with ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere reveal the SBUV algorithm accurately captures the amount of integrated column ozone from 1013 hPa to 63 hPa but incorrectly distributes the amount of ozone in the lowest three layers (1013 hPa - 253 hPa, 253 hPa - 126 hPa, and 126 hPa - 63 hPa). A new global empirical correction technique using a 3-dimensional tropospheric ozone climatology derived from ozonesonde, aircraft, and surface observations is described to redistribute the ozone in the lowest three SBUV layers. The resultant derived stratospheric ozone column can then be used with concurrent total column ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) to derive nearly global (50* N - 50* S) daily tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) maps. The empirically corrected SBUV Layers 1, 2, and 3 are then compared with coincident ozonesonde profiles from Hohenpeissenberg and Natal and show a considerable improvement in the bias between the SBUV Layers and ozonesonde measurements. Additional comparisons of empirically corrected SBUV Layers 1, 2, and 3 with profiles from 6 ozonesonde stations show the bias is reduced on average by 48% 34% and 41%for Layers 1, 2, and 3 respectively.

  7. Improved GOMOS/Envisat ozone retrievals in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofieva, Viktoria F.; Ialongo, Iolanda; Hakkarainen, Janne; Kyrölä, Erkki; Tamminen, Johanna; Laine, Marko; Hubert, Daan; Hauchecorne, Alain; Dalaudier, Francis; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Fussen, Didier; Blanot, Laurent; Barrot, Gilbert; Dehn, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) on board Envisat has performed about 440 000 nighttime occultations during 2002-2012. Self-calibrating measurement principle, good vertical resolution, excellent pointing accuracy, and the wide vertical range from the troposphere up to the lower thermosphere make GOMOS profiles interesting for different analyses. The GOMOS ozone data are of high quality in the stratosphere and the mesosphere, but the current operational retrieval algorithm (IPF v6) is not optimized for retrievals in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS). In particular, validation of GOMOS profiles against ozonesonde data has revealed a substantial positive bias (up to 100 %) in the UTLS region. The retrievals in the UTLS are challenging because of low signal-to-noise ratio and the presence of clouds. In this work, we discuss the reasons for the systematic uncertainties in the UTLS with the IPF v6 algorithm or its modifications based on simultaneous retrievals of several constituents using the full visible wavelength range. The main reason is high sensitivity of the UTLS retrieval algorithms to an assumed aerosol extinction model. We have developed a new ozone profile inversion algorithm for GOMOS data (ALGOM2s version 1.0), which is optimized in the UTLS and uses IPF v6 advantages in the middle atmosphere. The ozone retrievals in the whole altitude range from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere are performed in two steps, as in the operational algorithm: spectral inversion followed by the vertical inversion. The spectral inversion is enhanced by using a DOAS-type method at visible wavelengths for the UTLS region. This method uses minimal assumptions about the atmospheric profiles. The vertical inversion is performed as in IPF v6 with the Tikhonov-type regularization according to the target resolution. The validation of new retrieved ozone profiles with ozonesondes shows a dramatic reduction of GOMOS ozone biases in the UTLS

  8. Evaluation of ultraviolet radiation, ozone and aerosol interactions in the troposphere using automatic differentiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, G.R.; Potra, F.

    1998-10-06

    A major goal of this research was to quantify the interactions between UVR, ozone and aerosols. One method of quantification was to calculate sensitivity coefficients. A novel aspect of this work was the use of Automatic Differentiation software to calculate the sensitivities. The authors demonstrated the use of ADIFOR for the first time in a dimensional framework. Automatic Differentiation was used to calculate such quantities as: sensitivities of UV-B fluxes to changes in ozone and aerosols in the stratosphere and the troposphere; changes in ozone production/destruction rates to changes in UV-B flux; aerosol properties including loading, scattering properties (including relative humidity effects), and composition (mineral dust, soot, and sulfate aerosol, etc.). The combined radiation/chemistry model offers an important test of the utility of Automatic Differentiation as a tool in atmospheric modeling.

  9. Long-term observed ozone trends in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius

    1994-01-01

    The vertical distributions of ozone trends in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere were derived from ozonesonde observations taken over an average period of approximately 20 years. The results for the annual trends show a consistent pattern of increased ozone of approximately 1 percent/yr to 2 percent/yr up to approximately 300 mb and decreased ozone of approximately -0.6 percent/yr from approximately 100 to 50 mb. Statistically significant positive trends found in midtroposphere (approximately 500 mb) at a set of representative stations in the Northern Hemisphere have little apparent seasonal variation. Negative trends are generally strongest at 50-70 mb with a tendency to be larger during spring. A highly significant negative trend of approximately -5 percent/yr is found near 100 mb over Syowa (69 deg S) during spring.

  10. Tropospheric Total Ozone in the Region of the Equatorial south Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Northam, E. Thomas; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; daSilva, Francisco Raimundo

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the SHADOZ effort it is possible to examine Tropospheric Total Ozone TTO, over Ascension Island (8S,14W) and compare results with similar ozone soundings for the period July 1990 through October 1992. Because of the nearly 20-year long cooperation between NASA and INPE it is possible to also compare the Ascension Island results with the long-term ozone data set available from Natal, Brazil (6S,35W). The Natal site meets requirements of the SHADOZ program. The tropopause is determined objectively using the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria and the radiosonde's temperature and altitude parameters. Once tropopause heights are determined TTO can be calculated. Time-series profiles illustrate changes in TTO over the period of record.

  11. Global 3-D Modeling Studies Of Tropospheric Ozone And Related Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2003-01-01

    Our research was targeted at three issues: (1) the factors controlling ozone in the tropical troposphere, (2) the Asian outflow of ozone and its precursors, and (3) the causes of decadal trends observed in ozone and CO. We have also used support from this ACMAP grant to (1) work with Kelly Chance on the retrieval and interpretation of HCHO and NO2 observations from GOME, and (2) develop GEOS-CHEM into a versatile model supporting the work of a large number of users including outside Harvard. ACMAP has provided the core support for GEOS-CHEM development. Applications of the GEOS-CHEM model with primary support from ACMAP are discussed below. A list of publications resulting from this grant is given at the end of the report.

  12. [A new retrieval method for ozone concentration at the troposphere based on differential absorption lidar].

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang-Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Lu, Yi-Huai; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Dong, Yun-Sheng; Zhao, Xue-Song

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols interfere with differential absorption lidar ozone concentration measurement and can introduce significant errors. A new retrieval method was introduced, and ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient were gained simultaneously based on the retrieval method. The variables were analyzed by experiment including aerosol lidar ratio, aerosol wavelength exponent, and aerosol-molecular ratio at the reference point. The results show that these parameters introduce error less than 8% below 1 km. The measurement error derives chiefly from signal noise and the parameters introduce error less than 3% above 1 km. Finally the vertical profile of tropospheric ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient were derived by using this algorithm. The retrieval results of the algorithm and traditional dual-wavelength difference algorithm are compared and analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm is feasible, and the algorithm can reduce differential absorption lidar measurement error introduced by aerosol.

  13. Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Worden, John R.; Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Henze, Daven K.

    2016-05-01

    Significant progress has been made in identifying the influence of different processes and emissions on the summertime enhancements of free tropospheric ozone (O3) at northern midlatitude regions. However, the exact contribution of regional emissions, chemical and transport processes to these summertime enhancements is still not well quantified. Here we focus on quantifying the influence of regional emissions on the summertime O3 enhancements over the Middle East, using updated reactive nitrogen (NOx) emissions. We then use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with these updated NOx emissions to show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on middle free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime middle free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions, with approximately equivalent contributions from Asian anthropogenic activities and lightning. In the Middle Eastern lower free troposphere, lightning NOx from Europe and North America and anthropogenic NOx from Middle Eastern local emissions are the primary sources of O3. This work highlights the critical role of lightning NOx on northern midlatitude free tropospheric O3 and the important effect of the Asian summer monsoon on the export of Asian pollutants.

  14. Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day or night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, M H; Langford, A O

    1997-04-20

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aeronomy Laboratory's rapid tunable daylight differential absorption lidar system for monitoring ozone throughout the free troposphere is described. The system components are optimized to provide continuously and rapidly profiles of ozone, day or night, with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an absolute accuracy of +/-10% to the tropopause under clear sky conditions. Routine observations of ozone with frequent error assessments are made by scanning wavelengths between 286 and 292 nm.

  15. Laboratory investigations of the response of Brewer-Mast ozonesondes to tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasick, David W.; Davies, Jonathan; Anlauf, Kurt; Watt, Maurice; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Claude, Hans J.

    2002-08-01

    The Brewer-Mast ozonesonde was used at Canadian stations from 1966 until 1980, when the Canadian network switched to the electrochemical concentration cell sonde. While the sondes appear to agree relatively well in the stratosphere, there is an evident discrepancy of 10-20% in tropospheric measurements [e.g., Tarasick et al., 1995, Figure 4]. Comparison of Brewer-Mast sondes with a calibrated ozone source yields some interesting insight into this discrepancy. Sonde response is strongly dependent on the preflight preparation procedures employed. Although sondes prepared via procedures introduced in the 1980s [Claude et al., 1987] perform quite well, when prepared according to the procedures used in Canada in the 1970s, Brewer-Mast sondes indicate 10-30% lower ozone than the calibrator. The following points are noted in particular: (1) a new Brewer-Mast sonde shows a large (~15%) increase in sensitivity between successive experiments; (2) especially at low (<100 ppb) O3 levels, the response even of previously flown sondes increases slowly with time; and (3) sondes show an additional slow increase of response with time that is apparently caused by ozone reactions with the phosphate buffer. The overall response curve indicated by 1, 2, and 3 implies that after correction to the observed total ozone, the earlier part of a flight would yield values that are too low, while the latter part would be too high. By applying a varying ozone input, simulating the typical variation in absolute ozone concentration experienced by a sonde in flight, we show that this can explain both the average correction factor (1.255) for the Canadian Brewer-Mast record and the 10-20% discrepancy in tropospheric measurements.

  16. Tropospheric Ozone Source Attribution in Southern California during Summer 2014 Based on Lidar Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granados Munoz, Maria Jose; Johnson, Matthew S.; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, significant efforts have been made to increase tropospheric ozone long-term monitoring. A large number of ground-based, airborne and space-borne instruments are currently providing valuable data to contribute to better understand tropospheric ozone budget and variability. Nonetheless, most of these instruments provide in-situ surface and column-integrated data, whereas vertically resolved measurements are still scarce. Besides ozonesondes and aircraft, lidar measurements have proven to be valuable tropospheric ozone profilers. Using the measurements from the tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California, and the GEOS-Chem and GEOS-5 model outputs, the impact of the North American monsoon on tropospheric ozone during summer 2014 is investigated. The influence of the Monsoon lightning-induced NOx will be evaluated against other sources (e.g. local anthropogenic emissions and the stratosphere) using also complementary data such as backward-trajectories analysis, coincident water vapor lidar measurements, and surface ozone in-situ measurements.

  17. Changes in air quality and tropospheric composition due to depletion of stratospheric ozone and interactions with climate.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Wilson, S R; Solomon, K R; Shao, M; Madronich, S

    2011-02-01

    Air pollution will be directly influenced by future changes in emissions of pollutants, climate, and stratospheric ozone, and will have significant consequences for human health and the environment. UV radiation is one of the controlling factors for the formation of photochemical smog, which includes tropospheric ozone (O(3)) and aerosols; it also initiates the production of hydroxyl radicals (˙OH), which control the amount of many climate- and ozone-relevant gases (e.g., methane and HCFCs) in the atmosphere. Numerical models predict that future changes in UV radiation and climate will modify the trends and geographic distribution of ˙OH, thus affecting the formation of photochemical smog in many urban and regional areas. Concentrations of ˙OH are predicted to decrease globally by an average of 20% by 2100, with local concentrations varying by as much as a factor of two above and below current values. However, significant differences between modelled and measured values in a limited number of case studies show that chemistry of hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere is not fully understood. Photochemically produced tropospheric ozone is projected to increase. If emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuels, burning of biomass, and agricultural activities continue to increase, concentrations of tropospheric O(3) will tend to increase over the next 20-40 years in certain regions of low and middle latitudes because of interactions of emissions, chemical processes, and climate change. Climate-driven increases in temperature and humidity will also increase production of tropospheric O(3) in polluted regions, but reduce it in more pristine regions. Higher temperatures tend to increase emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from some soils and release of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation, leading to greater background concentrations of ozone in the troposphere. The net effects of future changes in UV radiation

  18. Overview of Global/Regional Models Used to Evaluate Tropospheric Ozone in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important greenhouse gas, toxic pollutant, and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. Tropospheric O3 which resides in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of days, however, O3 in the free troposphere and stratosphere has a lifetime on the order of weeks or months. Modeling O3 mixing ratios at and above the surface is difficult due to the multiple formation/destruction processes and transport pathways that cause large spatio-temporal variability in O3 mixing ratios. This talk will summarize in detail the global/regional models that are commonly used to simulate/predict O3 mixing ratios in the United States. The major models which will be focused on are the: 1) Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), 2) Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), 3) Goddard Earth Observing System with Chemistry (GEOS-Chem), 4) Real Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), 5) Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART), and 7) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM3 model. I will discuss the major modeling components which impact O3 mixing ratio calculations in each model and the similarities/differences between these models. This presentation is vital to the 2nd Annual Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) Conference as it will provide an overview of tools, which can be used in conjunction with TOLNet data, to evaluate the complex chemistry and transport pathways controlling tropospheric O3 mixing ratios.

  19. Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-01-05

    Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

  20. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone to the chemistry of sea salt aerosol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson-Pitts, B.J.

    1998-06-08

    Both the chemistry and radiation balance of the troposphere are largely determined by ozone. Not only does ozone react directly with unsaturated organics, but it also photolyzes at wavelengths below 320 nm to form electronically excited O({sup 1}D) atoms; these react, m in part, with water to generate hydroxyl radicals (OH), the {open_quotes}universal atmospheric oxidant{close_quotes} believed to drive the chemistry of both remote and polluted atmospheres. Since ozone is a greenhouse gas and absorbs m in the 300 nm region, it also impacts tropospheric radiation both m in the infrared and the UV. As a result, understanding the factors controlling tropospheric ozone levels is critical to our understanding of a variety of issues in global chemistry and climate change.

  1. Shipboard and Satellite Views of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Atlantic in January-February 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Hudson, Robert D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Luke, Winston T.; Johnson, James E.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

    1999-01-01

    During the Aerosols99 trans-Atlantic cruise from Norfolk, VA, to Cape Town, South Africa, daily ozonesondes were launched from the NOAA R/V Ronald H Brown between 17 January and 6 February l999. A composite of tropospheric ozone profiles along the latitudinal transect shows 4 zones, which are interpreted using correlative shipboard ozone, CO, water vapor, and overhead aerosol optical thickness measurements. Elevated ozone associated with biomass burning north of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) is prominent at 3-5 km from 10-0N, but even higher ozone (100 ppbv, 7-10 km) occurred south of the ITCZ, where it was not burning. Column-integrated tropospheric ozone was 44 Dobson Units (DU) in one sounding, 10 DU lower than the maximum in a January-February 1993 Atlantic cruise with ozonesondes [Weller et al., 1996]. TOMS tropospheric ozone shows elevated ozone extending throughout the tropical Atlantic in January 1999. Several explanations are considered. Back trajectories, satellite aerosol observations and shipboard tracers suggest a combination of convection and interhemispheric transport of ozone and/or ozone precursors, probably amplified by a lightning NO source over Africa.

  2. Mechanisms for the Intraseasonal Variability of Tropospheric Ozone over the Indian Ocean during the Winter Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, R. b.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesize daily sonde (vertical) information and daily satellite (horizontal) information to provide an empirical description of ozone origins over the northern Indian Ocean during the INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment) field campaign (February-March 1999). This area is shown to be a significant portion of the "high-ozone tropics". East-west O3 features and their flow are identified, and ozone origins are compared to other tropical regions, using water vapor as a second tracer. In the study period, multiple processes contribute to O3 column enhancements, their importance varying strongly by latitude: (1) Low-altitude O3 pollution over the northern Indian Ocean mainly originates from the Indian subcontinent and is traceable to high emission areas. Convective activity south of Sri Lanka helps direct ozone outflow from the northern Indian subcontinent. (2) Middle tropospheric O3 maxima over the northern Indian Ocean originate from various sources, often transitioning within a few hours. Convective venting of Asian pollutants can add 20-30 ppbv to the middle troposphere at 5degN-10degN, alternating with stratospheric influence. (3) A number of cases suggest that strong mixing-in of stratospheric air along the subtropical jet raised tropospheric O3 in early March by approx.40-50 ppbv, especially poleward of approx. 10degN. (4) Influences of lightning and large-scale biomass burning were not strong during this period, in contrast to the situation in Africa and the South Atlantic or locally in Southeast Asia. This work illustrates successes and limitations in approaches to synthesizing disparate information on trace-gas distributions taken from satellite retrieval products and ozonesondes.

  3. Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fate of ozone in marine environments has been receiving increased attention due to the tightening of ambient air quality standards. The role of deposition and halogen chemistry is examined through incorporation of an enhanced ozone deposition algorithm and inclusion of halogen ch...

  4. 2003 megafires in Australia: impact on tropospheric ozone and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerova, G.; Jones, N.

    2009-01-01

    2003 was a record year for wildfires worldwide. Severe forest fires killed four people, displaced 20 500 others and burnt 260 000 ha in South-East Australia in January 2003. The uncontrolled fires ignited in early January 2003 as a result of a prolonged El Niño drought in South-East Australia. Severe weather conditions resulted in a fast spread of the fires and poor air quality in a region where 70% of the population of Australia lives. We use state-of-art global chemistry and transport model GEOS-Chem in conjunction with ground- and space-based observations to study the ozone (O3) and aerosol enhancement due to fires. Firstly, the monthly mean surface O3 and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in January 2003 are compared to January 2004 and, secondly, from sensitivity model simulations, four episodes are isolated and an attempt is made to quantify the contribution of the fires to air quality in south and South-East Australia. In January 2003 the observed monthly mean afternoon surface O3 in Victoria (VIC) and South Australia (SA) reached 27.5 ppb, which is 6.5 ppb (i.e. 30%) higher than in 2004. The simulated O3 is 29.5 ppb, which is 10 ppb higher than in 2004. While the model tends to overestimate the observed peak O3, it exhibits very good skill in reproducing the O3 temporal variability in January 2003 with a correlation of 0.83. In VIC, the air quality 4-h ozone (O3) standard exceedences are reported on 17, 24 and 25 January. On 12, 17, 24-25 and 29 January 2003, the observed O3 peaks above 40 ppb and the simulated fire contribution is higher than 10 ppb. During these 4 episodes, the range of observed O3 enhancement due to fires is 20-35 ppb, which is a factor of 3 to 5 higher than the monthly mean. The simulated fire O3 enhancement is in the range 15-50 ppb with a factor of 1.5 to 5 higher than the monthly mean. During two episodes, a well-formed surface wind channel stretches across the Tasman Sea facilitating the long range transport to New Zealand contributing

  5. Multiannual tropical tropospheric ozone columns and the case of the 2015 el Niño event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric ozone is well known for protecting the surface from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation whereas ozone in the troposphere plays a more complex role. In the lower troposphere ozone can be extremely harmful for human health as it can oxidize biological tissues and causes respiratory problems. Several studies have shown that the tropospheric ozone burden (300±30Tg (IPCC, 2007)) increases by 1-7% per decade in the tropics (Beig and Singh, 2007; Cooper et al., 2014) which makes the need to monitor it on a global scale crucial. Remote sensing from satellites has been proven to be very useful in providing consistent information of tropospheric ozone concentrations over large areas. Tropical tropospheric ozone columns can be retrieved with the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al. 1998) using retrieved total ozone columns and cloud parameters from space-borne observations. We have developed a CCD-IUP algorithm which was applied to GOME/ ERS-2 (1995-2003), SCIAMACHY/ Envisat (2002-2012), and GOME-2/ MetOpA (2007-2012) weighting function DOAS (Coldewey-Egbers et al., 2005, Weber et al., 2005) total ozone data. A unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical tropospheric ozone columns (20°S - 20°N) was created starting in 1996. This dataset has been extensively validated by comparisons with SHADOZ (Thompson et al., 2003) ozonesonde data and limb-nadir Matching (Ebojie et al. 2014) tropospheric ozone data. The comparison shows good agreement with respect to range, inter-annual variation, and variance. Biases where found to be within 5DU and the RMS errors less than 10 DU. This 17-years dataset has been harmonized into one consistent time series, taking into account the three instruments' difference in ground pixel size. The harmonised dataset is used to determine tropical tropospheric ozone trends and climatological values. The 2015 el Niño event has been characterised as one of the top three strongest el Niños since 1950. El Ni

  6. Long-term tropospheric ozone and halogens measurements in the Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hay, T. D.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Parrondo Sempere, M. C.; Gil, M.; Agama Reyes, M. V.; Paredes Mora, J. F.

    2012-04-01

    The low ozone conditions of the equatorial and tropical Pacific troposphere have being identified in a number of field studies, including the PEM-WEST experiments (1) and the SHADOZ program (2). However, high frequency long-term surface ozone measurements in this region have not been reported to date. The standard mechanism for ozone loss including O(1D) photolytical production and loss by H2O reaction, together with deposition, seems to be unable to explain satisfactorily the extremely low ozone levels (< 5 ppbv) observed in the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). In order to shed light on the ozone loss mechanisms operating in the remote equatorial MBL and their potential influence on higher atmospheric layers, time-resolved observations of surface ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), halogen compounds, global radiation and meteorological variables, together with radiosonde and ozonesonde launchings, were made in the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) as part of the Climate and HAlogen Reactivity tropicaL EXperiment (CHARLEX). This on going field campaign, running from September 2010 to the present, is the first long-term ground-based study of atmospheric trace gases in the Eastern Pacific region, aiming at understanding the impact of natural oceanic emissions of halogenated substances on ozone and particle formation. Field measurements are underpinned with a characterisation of the origin and trajectories of air masses arriving at the site using the HYSPLIT dispersion model (3), and ocean colour satellite imagery from MODIS-A (4). The surface ozone measurements during CHARLEX show a clear seasonal dependence on sea surface temperature and water vapour. However, other factors are also at play, e.g. the origin of the air masses. NOx show higher concentrations for a few weeks during the warm season when air masses originate in the northern hemisphere, forcing a photolitical ozone daily profile, while during September-October some extent of photolytic destruction potentially driven by

  7. Monitoring Tropospheric Ozone Enhancement in the Front Range Using the Gsfc Tropoz DIAL during Discover - AQ 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Hoff, R. M.; Twigg, L.; Sumnicht, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone profiles have been retrieved from the new ground based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) in Fort Collins, CO from 200 m to 16 km AGL. These measurements were taken as part of NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July/August 2014. Measurements were made during simultaneous aircraft spirals over the lidar site as well as collocated ozonesonde launches. Ozone enhancement from local sources typically occurred in the mid-afternoon convection period, especially when there was light winds and low cloud cover. Interesting ozone profiles and time series data will be shown. Current atmospheric satellite instruments cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) has been developed, which currently consists of five stations across the US. Three of these lidars, including the GSFC TROPOZ DIAL, recorded measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The GSFC TROPOZ DIAL is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, which currently detects two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm. The DIAL technique exploits this difference between the returned backscatter signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman cells, filled with high pressure hydrogen and deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) within the focus generates a significant fraction of the pump energy at the first Stokes shift. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the range resolved number density can be derived.

  8. New Perspectives from Satellite and Profile Observations on Tropospheric Ozone over Africa and the Adjacent Oceans: An Indian-Atlantic Ocean Link to tbe "Ozone Paradox"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Diab, Roseanne D.; Thouret, Valerie; Sauvage, Bastien; Chatfield, B.; Guan, Hong

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, tropospheric ozone observations of Africa and its adjacent ocenas have been greatly enhanced by high resolution (spatial and temporal) satellite measurements and profile data from aircraft (MOZAIC) and balloon-borne (SHADOZ) soundings. These views have demonstrated for the first time the complexity of chemical-dynamical interactions over the African continent and the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The tropical Atlantic "ozone paradax" refers to the observation that during the season of maximum biomass burning in west Africa north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the highest tropospheric ozone total column occurs south of the ITCZ over the tropical Atlantic. The longitudinal view of tropospheric ozone in the southern tropics from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) soundings shown the persistence of a "zonal-wave one" pattern that reinforces the "ozone paradox". These ozone features interact with dynamics over southern and northern Africa where anthropogenic sources include the industrial regions of the South African Highveld and Mideastern-Mediterranean influences, respectively. Our newest studies with satellites and soundings show that up to half the ozone pollution over the Atlantic in the January-March "paradox" period may originate from south Asian pollution. Individual patches of pollurion over the Indian Ocean are transported upward by convective mixing and are enriched by pyrogenic, biogenic sources and lightning as they cross Africa and descend over the Atlantic. In summary, local sources, intercontinental import and export and unique regional transport patterns put Africa at a crossroads of troposheric ozone influences.

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Over a Tropical Atlantic Station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Becker, C. R.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 years of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N,55 deg W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the northern hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is part of the Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozone Sounding program (SHADOZ). Due to its position close to the equator, the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over Paramaribo twice per year, which results in a semi-annual seasonality of many parameters including relative humidity and ozone. The dataset from Paramaribo is used to: (1) evaluate ozone variability relative to precipitation, atmospheric circulation patterns and biomass burning; (2) contrast ozone at the NH equatorial Atlantic with that at nearby southern hemisphere (SH) stations Natal (6 deg S,35 deg W) and Ascension (8 deg S,14 deg W); (3) compare the seasonality of tropospheric ozone with a satellite-derived ozone product: Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Columns from the Modified Residual method (MR-TTOC). We find that Paramaribo is a distinctly Atlantic station. Despite its position north of the equator, it resembles nearby SH stations during most of the year. Transport patterns in the lower and middle troposphere during February and March differ from SH stations, which leads to a seasonality of ozone with two maxima. MR-TTOC over Paramaribo does not match the observed seasonality of ozone due to the use of a SH ozone sonde climatology in the MR method. The Paramaribo ozone record is used to suggest an improvement for northern hemisphere MR-TTOC retrievals. We conclude that station Paramaribo shows unique features in the region, and clearly adds new information to the existing SHADOZ record.

  10. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, E.; Barret, B.; Massart, S.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Piacentini, A.; El Amraoui, L.; Pannekoucke, O.; Cariolle, D.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate and temporally resolved fields of free-troposphere ozone are of major importance to quantify the intercontinental transport of pollution and the ozone radiative forcing. In this study we examine the impact of assimilating ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) in a global chemical transport model (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle, MOCAGE). The assimilation of the two instruments is performed by means of a variational algorithm (4-D-VAR) and allows to constrain stratospheric and tropospheric ozone simultaneously. The analysis is first computed for the months of August and November 2008 and validated against ozone-sondes measurements to verify the presence of observations and model biases. It is found that the IASI Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC, 1000-225 hPa) should be bias-corrected prior to assimilation and MLS lowermost level (215 hPa) excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, a longer analysis of 6 months (July-August 2008) showed that the combined assimilation of MLS and IASI is able to globally reduce the uncertainty (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE) of the modeled ozone columns from 30% to 15% in the Upper-Troposphere/Lower-Stratosphere (UTLS, 70-225 hPa) and from 25% to 20% in the free troposphere. The positive effect of assimilating IASI tropospheric observations is very significant at low latitudes (30° S-30° N), whereas it is not demonstrated at higher latitudes. Results are confirmed by a comparison with additional ozone datasets like the Measurements of OZone and wAter vapour by aIrbus in-service airCraft (MOZAIC) data, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) total ozone columns and several high-altitude surface measurements. Finally, the analysis is found to be little sensitive to the assimilation parameters and the model chemical scheme, due to the high frequency of satellite observations compared to the average life-time of free-troposphere

  11. Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S R; Solomon, K R; Tang, X

    2007-03-01

    It is well-understood that reductions in air quality play a significant role in both environmental and human health. Interactions between ozone depletion and global climate change will significantly alter atmospheric chemistry which, in turn, will cause changes in concentrations of natural and human-made gases and aerosols. Models predict that tropospheric ozone near the surface will increase globally by up to 10 to 30 ppbv (33 to 100% increase) during the period 2000 to 2100. With the increase in the amount of the stratospheric ozone, increased transport from the stratosphere to the troposphere will result in different responses in polluted and unpolluted areas. In contrast, global changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) are not predicted to be large, except where influenced by the presence of oxidizable organic matter, such as from large-scale forest fires. Recent measurements in a relatively clean location over 5 years showed that OH concentrations can be predicted by the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation. If this relationship is confirmed by further observations, this approach could be used to simplify assessments of air quality. Analysis of surface-level ozone observations in Antarctica suggests that there has been a significant change in the chemistry of the boundary layer of the atmosphere in this region as a result of stratospheric ozone depletion. The oxidation potential of the Antarctic boundary layer is estimated to be greater now than before the development of the ozone hole. Recent modeling studies have suggested that iodine and iodine-containing substances from natural sources, such as the ocean, may increase stratospheric ozone depletion significantly in polar regions during spring. Given the uncertainty of the fate of iodine in the stratosphere, the results may also be relevant for stratospheric ozone depletion and measurements of the influence of these substances on ozone depletion should be considered in the future. In agreement with

  12. Tropospheric ozone in the western Pacific Rim: Analysis of satellite and surface-based observations along with comprehensive 3-D model simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Sun-Woo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone production and transport in mid-latitude eastern Asia is studied. Data analysis of surface-based ozone measurements in Japan and satellite-based tropospheric column measurements of the entire western Pacific Rim are combined with results from three-dimensional model simulations to investigate the diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of ozone in this region. Surface ozone measurements from Japan show distinct seasonal variation with a spring peak and summer minimum. Satellite studies of the entire tropospheric column of ozone show high concentrations in both the spring and summer seasons. Finally, preliminary model simulation studies show good agreement with observed values.

  13. Development of a Climate Record of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Column Ozone from Satellite Remote Sensing: Evidence of an Early Recovery of Global Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, Sushil

    2012-01-01

    Ozone data beginning October 2004 from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the Cloud Slicing technique in effort to develop long data records of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and for studying their long-term changes. Using this technique, we have produced a 32-yr (1979-2010) long record of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone from the combined Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and OMI. Analyses of these time series suggest that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is the dominant source of inter-annual variability of stratospheric ozone and is clearest in the Southern Hemisphere during the Aura time record with related inter-annual changes of 30- 40 Dobson Units. Tropospheric ozone for the long record also indicates a QBO signal in the tropics with peak-to-peak changes varying from 2 to 7 DU. The most important result from our study is that global stratospheric ozone indicates signature of a recovery occurring with ozone abundance now approaching the levels of year 1980 and earlier. The negative trends in stratospheric ozone in both hemispheres during the first 15 yr of the record are now positive over the last 15 yr and with nearly equal magnitudes. This turnaround in stratospheric ozone loss is occurring about 20 yr earlier than predicted by many chemistry climate models. This suggests that the Montreal Protocol which was first signed in 1987 as an international agreement to reduce ozone destroying substances is working well and perhaps better than anticipated.

  14. Variability in tropical tropospheric ozone: the climate-dynamical connection observed in SHADOZ ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Chatfield, R.; Oltmans, S.; Schmidlin, F.

    2003-04-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 1600 soundings are archived at the SHADOZ website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Re,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. The most striking feature of tropospheric ozone at each SHADOZ station is considerable week-to-week variability [Thompson et al., 2002]. This is a consequence of varying influences: large scale dynamics, vertical mixing and redistribution through convection, advection of pollution with ozone precursors supplied by lightning, biomass burning and biogenic sources. The ozone mixing ratio distributions at various pressure levels are presented. We find that statistics are frequently not Gaussian, suggesting that monthly or seasonal averages are inadequate for satellite climatologies and evaluations of models. Periodicities of the variability correspond to well-known tropical climate signals: migration of the ITCZ, El-Nino, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Madden-Julian Oscillation, an annual cycle.

  15. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  16. The Role of Lightning in Controlling Interannual Variability of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone and OH and its Implications for Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Hudman, Rynda C.; Koshak, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) produced by lightning make a major contribution to the production of the dominant tropospheric oxidants (OH and ozone). These oxidants control the lifetime of many trace gases including long-lived greenhouse gases, and control the source-receptor relationship of inter-hemispheric pollutant transport. Lightning is affected by meteorological variability, and therefore represents a potentially important tropospheric chemistry-climate feedback. Understanding how interannual variability (IAV) in lightning affects IAV in ozone and OH in the recent past is important if we are to predict how oxidant levels may change in a future warmer climate. However, lightning parameterizations for chemical transport models (CTMs) show low skill in reproducing even climatological distributions of flash rates from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite instruments. We present an optimized regional scaling algorithm for CTMs that enables sufficient sampling of spatiotemporally sparse satellite lightning data from LIS to constrain the spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability of tropical lightning. We construct a monthly time series of lightning flash rates for 1998-2010 and 35degS-35degN, and find a correlation of IAV in total tropical lightning with El Nino. We use the IAV-constraint to drive a 9-year hindcast (1998-2006) of the GEOS-Chem 3D chemical transport model, and find the increased IAV in LNO(x) drives increased IAV in ozone and OH, improving the model fs ability to simulate both. Although lightning contributes more than any other emission source to IAV in ozone, we find ozone more sensitive to meteorology, particularly convective transport. However, we find IAV in OH to be highly sensitive to lightning NO(x), and the constraint improves the ability of the model to capture the temporal behavior of OH anomalies inferred from observations of methyl chloroform and other gases. The sensitivity of

  17. Western US Tropospheric Ozone: An Assessment of Vertical and Seasonal Variations over California and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E.; Iraci, Laura T.; Johnson, Matthew; Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Pierce, Bradley R.; Cullis, Patrick; Gore, Warren J. Y.; Ives, Michael; Johnson, Bryan; LeBlanc, Thierry; Sterling, Chance W.; Tanaka, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    In the rural western US free-tropospheric O3 has risen in recent years as a result of rising Asian emissions, deep stratospheric intrusions and more frequent wildfires. This increasing O3 trend combined with the high surface elevation of much of the western US, which aids mixing between boundary layer and free-troposphere, pose challenges in attaining the more stringent O3 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) at many western US rural surface sites. As such, the ability to identify various sources and transport mechanisms that contribute towards surface O3 is increasingly important. This paper analyzes vertical profiles of O3 from the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over California and Nevada, ozonesondes from Trinidad Head, CA and tropospheric ozone profiles from the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, CA. Surface O3 from the US EPA Clean air Status and Trends Network (CASNET) are used to discuss surface trends. GEOS-Chem determines the trends in regional O3 and assess the contributions of various sources on surface O3. And Realtime Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is used to forecast and interpret free-tropospheric observations. Specifically we will address the following questions: What are the effects of the lowered NAAQS? Do we observe elevated O3 during 2012 at surface sites reported in previous studies? And if so, what are the causes? How variable is free-tropospheric O3 over California and Nevada? How frequently do we observe high O3 lamina in the free troposphere and what are the surface impacts?

  18. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  19. Combined assimilation of IASI and MLS observations to constrain tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in a global chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Emanuele; Barret, Brice; Massart, Sebastien; Piacentini, Andrea; Pannekoucke, Olivier; Cariolle, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Ozone acts as the main shield against UV radiation in the stratosphere, it contributes to the greenhouse effect in the troposphere and it is a major pollutant in the planetary boundary layer. In the last decades models and satellite observations reached a mature level, providing estimates of ozone with an accuracy of few percents in the stratosphere. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone still represents a challenge, because its signal is less detectable by space-borne sensors, its modelling depends on the knowledge of gaseous emissions at the surface, and stratosphere/troposphere exchanges might rapidly increase its abundance by several times. Moreover there is generally lack of in-situ observations of tropospheric ozone in many regions of the world. For these reasons the assimilation of satellite data into chemical transport models represents a promising technique to overcome limitations of both satellites and models. The objective of this study is to assess the value of vertically resolved observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain both the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profile in a global model. While ozone total columns and stratospheric profiles from UV and microwave sensors are nowadays routinely assimilated in operational models, still few studies have explored the assimilation of ozone products from IR sensors such as IASI, which provide better sensitivity in the troposphere. We assimilate both MLS ozone profiles and IASI tropospheric (1000-225 hPa) ozone columns in the Météo France chemical transport model MOCAGE for 2008. The model predicts ozone concentrations on a 2x2 degree global grid and for 60 vertical levels, ranging from the surface up to 0.1 hPa. The assimilation is based on a 4D-VAR algorithm, employs a linear chemistry scheme and accounts for the satellite vertical sensitivity via the averaging kernels. The assimilation of the two products is first tested

  20. Development and field deployment of an instrument to measure ozone production rates in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklaveniti, S.; Locoge, N.; Dusanter, S.; Leonardis, T.; Lew, M.; Bottorff, B.; Sigler, P. S. R.; Stevens, P. S.; Wood, E. C. D.; Kundu, S.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone is a greenhouse gas and a primary constituent of urban smog, irritating the respiratory system and damaging the vegetation. The current understanding of ozone chemistry in the troposphere indicates that net ozone production P(O3) occurs when peroxy radicals (HO2+RO2) react with NO producing NO2, whose photolysis leads to O3 formation. P(O3) values can be calculated from peroxy radical concentrations, either from ambient measurements or box model outputs. These two estimation methods often disagree for NOx mixing ratios higher than a few ppb, questioning our ability to measure peroxy radicals under high NOx conditions or indicating that there are still unknowns in our understanding of the radical and ozone production chemistry. Direct measurements of ozone production rates will help to address this issue and improve air quality regulations. We will present the development of an instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPR). The OPR instrument consists of three parts: (i) two quartz flow tubes sampling ambient air ("Ambient" and "Reference" flow tube), (ii) an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit, and (iii) a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) monitor to measure NO2. The air in the Ambient flow tube undergoes the same photochemistry as in ambient air, while the Reference flow tube is covered by a UV filter limiting the formation of ozone. Exiting the flow tubes, ozone is converted into NO2 and the sum O3+NO2 (Ox) is measured by the CAPS monitor. The difference in Ox between the two flow tubes divided by the residence time yields the Ox production rate, P(Ox). P(O3) is assumed to be equal to P(Ox) when NO2 is efficiently photolyzed during daytime. We will present preliminary results from the Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison (IRRONIC) campaign in Bloomington, Indiana, during July 2015, where ozone production rates were measured by introducing various amounts of NO inside the flow tubes to investigate the ozone

  1. Drivers of the tropospheric ozone budget throughout the 21st century under the medium-high climate scenario RCP 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revell, L. E.; Tummon, F.; Stenke, A.; Sukhodolov, T.; Coulon, A.; Rozanov, E.; Garny, H.; Grewe, V.; Peter, T.

    2015-05-01

    Because tropospheric ozone is both a greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Here, we present model simulations performed with the chemistry-climate model SOCOL, in which spatially disaggregated chemistry and transport tracers have been implemented in order to better understand the distribution and projected changes in tropospheric ozone. We examine the influences of ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), climate change (including methane effects) and stratospheric ozone recovery on the tropospheric ozone budget, in a simulation following the climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 6.0 (a medium-high, and reasonably realistic climate scenario). Changes in ozone precursor emissions have the largest effect, leading to a global-mean increase in tropospheric ozone which maximizes in the early 21st century at 23% compared to 1960. The increase is most pronounced at northern midlatitudes, due to regional emission patterns: between 1990 and 2060, northern midlatitude tropospheric ozone remains at constantly large abundances: 31% larger than in 1960. Over this 70-year period, attempts to reduce emissions in Europe and North America do not have an effect on zonally averaged northern midlatitude ozone because of increasing emissions from Asia, together with the long lifetime of ozone in the troposphere. A simulation with fixed anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions of NOx, CO and non-methane VOCs at 1960 conditions shows a 6% increase in global-mean tropospheric ozone by the end of the 21st century, with an 11 % increase at northern midlatitudes. This increase maximizes in the 2080s and is mostly caused by methane, which maximizes in the 2080s following RCP 6.0, and plays an important role in controlling ozone directly, and indirectly through its

  2. Drivers of the tropospheric ozone budget throughout the 21st century under the medium-high climate scenario RCP 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revell, L. E.; Tummon, F.; Stenke, A.; Sukhodolov, T.; Coulon, A.; Rozanov, E.; Garny, H.; Grewe, V.; Peter, T.

    2015-01-01

    Because tropospheric ozone is both a~greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Here, we present model simulations performed with the chemistry-climate model SOCOL, in which spatially disaggregated chemistry and transport tracers have been implemented in order to better understand the distribution and projected changes in tropospheric ozone. We examine the influences of ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), climate change and stratospheric ozone recovery on the tropospheric ozone budget, in a~simulation following the climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 6.0. Changes in ozone precursor emissions have the largest effect, leading to a global-mean increase in tropospheric ozone which maximises in the early 21st century at 23%. The increase is most pronounced at northern midlatitudes, due to regional emission patterns: between 1990 and 2060, northern midlatitude tropospheric ozone remains at constantly large abundances: 31% larger than in 1960. Over this 70 year period, attempts to reduce emissions in Europe and North America do not have an effect on zonally-averaged northern midlatitude ozone because of increasing emissions from Asia, together with the longevity of ozone in the troposphere. A~simulation with fixed anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions of NOx, CO and non-methane VOCs at 1960 conditions shows a 6 % increase in global-mean tropospheric ozone, and an 11% increase at northern midlatitudes. This increase maximises in the 2080s, and is mostly caused by methane, which maximises in the 2080s following RCP 6.0, and plays an important role in controlling ozone directly, and indirectly through its influence on other VOCs and CO. Enhanced flux of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere as well as climate change-induced enhancements in

  3. Ozone and upper troposphere/lower stratosphere variability and change at southern midlatitudes 1980-2000: Decadal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canziani, P. O.; Malanca, F. E.; Agosta, E. A.

    2008-10-01

    Total ozone relationships with selected upper troposphere/lower stratosphere variables (400- and 70-hPa temperatures, tropopause height and temperature, 70-hPa geopotential height, and 340-K potential vorticity), as well as between the variables, are analyzed on decadal scales over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes for the period 1980-2000. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer version 8 total ozone and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast ERA-40 data products for June and October (early winter and spring) are used. Multiple spatial correlation techniques and shared variance estimates are applied to infer relationships between mean fields as well as among decadal difference fields. Wave activity Z and local Eliassen-Palm fluxes were calculated to further analyze the dynamics of the samples and their variability. The statistical studies show that observed total ozone latitudinal and longitudinal decadal variations can be driven by upper tropospheric and stratospheric variability, depending on latitude and season. The sampled regions, divided into subtropical and subpolar, yield differentiated relationships. October ozone decadal variations during the 1980s, particularly at higher latitudes, are attributed primarily to chemical ozone depletion, while there appear to be links between tropospheric decadal change and some of the stratospheric variables and tropopause behavior. In the 1990s, tropospheric contributions decrease, and stratospheric quasi stationary wave 1 plays a major role. In June, tropospheric change/variability appears to be more important than stratospheric driving, which nevertheless also contributes to change. Ozone change in the 1990s responded more to stratospheric dynamic change at higher latitudes, but despite reduced contributions, the troposphere remains a driver of variation at the lower latitudes of the sample.

  4. Satellite derrived long term variation of total and tropospheric ozone column over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishanth, T.; Kumar, Satheesh Mk

    The distribution and variability of atmospheric ozone are important as they influence global and regional climate system in a serious manner. About 90 percent of total ozone in the atmosphere is found in the stratosphere and is a strong absorber of UV solar radiation. Various human activities have decreased the amount of ozone in the stratosphere, as was first pointed out in the early 1970s. Both ground based and space based measurements point out that total ozone column (TOC) is decreasing in the subtropical latitudes. Variability of TOC over the globe has been examined in several studies using ground based and satellite-borne instrumentation and the results are quite promising. In this manuscript, we made an attempt to study the variability of TOC using satellite platforms such as Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, and Earth Probe with the TOMS during 1979-2011 over the Indian continent. Statistical analysis is used to examine the trend in the total column ozone concentration for three decades (1979 to 2011). A declining trend of TOC has been observed all over the observational site. Further, the rate of decline of TOC is found to be higher in recent years over the North Eastern and Northern parts of India, compared with other parts of India. In addition to these an increasing trend of TOC has been observed due to latitudinal variation from south to North India. This study further reveals the influence of industrialization on total ozone column over hotspot locations during the years 2005-2010. In addition to these, variability of tropospheric ozone concentrations has been carried out using satellite data over all the locations

  5. Simulation of tropical tropospheric ozone variation from 1982 to 2010: The meteorological impact of two types of ENSO event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Fei, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Kang, Hanqing; Wang, Dongdong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of two types of ENSO events on tropical ozone (O3) variations from 1982 to 2010, and the mechanisms underlying these effects, were analyzed using observations and model simulations. Tropospheric column O3 anomalies (TCOA) during canonical El Niño were different from El Niño Modoki. Absolute TCOA values are larger during canonical El Niño than during El Niño Modoki in most regions. La Niña events were not separated into the different types because of their similarity in terms of sea surface temperature patterns. TCOA in La Niña showed a reversed dipole from canonical El Niño. During canonical El Niño, anomalous downward motion together with suppressed convection weakened O3 outflow from the troposphere, causing an increase in tropospheric O3 over western Pacific. Over central and eastern Pacific, decreased O3 concentrations resulted primarily from a change in net chemical production of O3. The change in net O3 chemical production relates to increased levels of HOx under wetter condition. During El Niño Modoki, transport and chemical fluxes were similar but weaker than during canonical El Niño. During La Niña, O3 anomalies and transport fluxes were the opposite of those during the El Niño Modoki. Stratospheric O3 played a key role in the development of O3 anomaly above 250 hPa during ENSO events, contributing >30% to the O3 anomalies. The change in free tropospheric O3 affected the O3 anomaly from 850 hPa to 200 hPa (60% of O3 anomaly). The contribution of O3 from planetary boundary layer was concentrated at the surface, with a contribution of <15%.

  6. Autonomous Ozone and Aerosol LIDAR Profiling of the Troposphere: A Synergistic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    LIDAR technology is an excellent tool to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. This provides the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements, airborne measurements and model/satellite verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed several autonomous aerosol LIDAR systems for deployment across several regions of Canada. The current system builds on the successes of these autonomous LIDARS but using a synergistic approach by combining tropospheric ozone DIAL (Differential Absorption LIDAR) technology with simultaneous 3+2+1 aerosol LIDAR measurements. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. A few case studies are shown emphasizing the synergistic approach of coupling ozone and aerosol profiles to better understand air quality impacts on local and regional scales.

  7. Application of natural radionuclides for determination of tropospheric ozone and aerosol transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.; Orlandini, K. A.

    2000-12-06

    Natural radionuclides have been proposed for use in assessing the transport of ozone and aerosols in the troposphere. For example, {sup 7}Be is known to be produced in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by interactions with cosmogenic particles. Beryllium-7 has a 53.28-day half-life and is a gamma emitter that attaches itself to fine particles in the atmosphere once it is formed. Indeed, in tropospheric aerosol samples TBe is typically found in association with aerosol particles that are 0.3 {micro}m in diameter. Some investigators have asserted that ozone from aloft can be transported into rural and urban regions during stratospheric/tropospheric folding events, leading to increased background levels of ozone. During the Texas 2000 Air Quality study, aerosol samples with a 2.5-{micro}m cutoff were collected during 12-hour cycles (day/night) for a 30-day period at the Deer Park, Texas, field site in August-September 2000. To monitor {sup 7}Be levels, high-volume samples were collected on glass fiber filters on Julian dates 225-259. Sample collection was at a field site near a city park, away from any nearby traffic. This site is under routine operation by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Instruments operated at this same site during the study period included an ozone monitor (Dasibi), a nitrogen oxides instrument (API), a CO instrument (API), a nephelometer, a UV-B meter (Richardson-Berger), and a multifilter rotating shadow band radiometer (MFRSR, Yankee Environmental Systems). In addition, we made modified fast-response NO{sub 2} and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements by using a fast gas chromatography with luminol detection, to be described at this meeting (3). The results for {sup 7}Be (mBq m{sup {minus}3})are compared in Figure 1 with the maximum and average ozone values (ppb) observed at the site to identify potential correlations. In Figure 2, all of the {sup 7}Be data are plotted against the maximum and average ozone

  8. Vertical transport of ozone and CO during super cyclones in the Bay of Bengal as detected by Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fadnavis, S; Beig, G; Buchunde, P; Ghude, Sachin D; Krishnamurti, T N

    2011-02-01

    Vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone retrieved from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer have been analyzed during two super cyclone systems Mala and Sidr. Super cyclones Mala and Sidr traversed the Bay of Bengal (BOB) region on April 24-29, 2006 and November 12-16, 2007 respectively. The CO and ozone plume is observed as a strong enhancement of these pollutants in the upper troposphere over the BOB, indicating deep convective transport. Longitude-height cross-section of these pollutants shows vertical transport to the upper troposphere. CO mixing ratio ~90 ppb is observed near the 146-mb level during the cyclone Mala and near 316 mb during the cyclone Sidr. Ozone mixing ratio ~60-100 ppb is observed near the 316-mb level during both the cyclones. Analysis of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis vertical winds (omega) confirms vertical transport in the BOB.

  9. Impact of Halogen Species in the Troposphere on the Ozone concentration on the Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraut, I.; Vogel, H.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Vogel, B.

    2012-04-01

    In order to quantify the interaction of halogen species with ozone a chemical mechanism was developed. This halogen mechanism handles the most important reactions dealing with halogen species in the gas phase. It is classified into three levels of complexity. The first one includes the basic reaction pathways of reactive halogen species including two catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The second one adds reaction paths concerning halogen species with nitrogen oxides. The last one adds the hydrolysis of halogen nitrates. This most complete mechanism was linked to the gas phase mechanism RADMKA, which already describes the ozone chemistry in the troposphere but so far did not consider halogen species. Box model runs were used to explore the sensitivity of the ozone concentration to the individual mechanisms and to quantify this impact. A difference of about 5 % in the ozone concentration due to the halogen reactions was found, the hydrolysis reactions contribute the biggest part to this difference. The halogen mechanism was also included to the model system COSMO-ART (Vogel et al., 2009). The operational weather forecast model of the Deutscher Wetterdienst was extended to treat the chemistry and physics of gases and aerosols. Parameterisations to describe directly emitted components like soot, mineral dust, sea salt and biological material are also included. A spatial and temporal constant source of molecular iodine (I2) was added along the coastlines of Europe. This iodine emission from macroalgal species was taken from the results of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (RHaMBLe), measured in September 2006 in the coastal regions around Roscoff, France (Leigh et al., 2010). Differences in the ozone concentration occur not only in coastal regions but also over the open sea and over land due to transport processes. Results of sensitivity studies with respect to the emissions and the heterogeneous reactions will be presented.

  10. Global 3-d modeling of atmospheric ozone in the free troposphere and the stratosphere with emphasis on midlatitude regions. Final report, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Brasseur, G.; Erickson, D.; Tie, X.; Walter, S.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this research is to use global chemical-transport models to study the chemical and dynamical processes that affect midlatitude stratospheric ozone and to quantify the budget of tropospheric ozone. Four models will be improved and used: (1) a new version of the two-dimensional chemical-radiative-dynamical model with microphysical process of sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), and heterogeneous conversions on the surfaces of sulfate aerosols and PSCs; (2) the stratospheric version of three-dimensional off-line chemical-transport model (STARS) with a relatively high horizontal resolution (2.8 degree in latitudes) with a microphysical formation of PSCs; (3) the tropospheric version of three-dimensional off-line chemical-transport model (MOZART) with details in the surface emissions and hydrocarbon reactions to estimate the tropospheric ozone budget and perturbations; (4) the intermediate model of the global and annual evolution of species (IMAGES) with a detailed chemical reactions but relatively lower resolutions. Model results will be compared with available data.

  11. Tentative critical levels of tropospheric ozone for agricultural crops in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Ground level ozone concentrations have increased year by year in Japan. High ozone concentrations have been known to affect growth and yield of agricultural crops. In the US and Europe, much effort has been directed to establish regulatory policies such as secondary air quality standard and critical levels to protect vegetation against ozone. On the contrary, in Japan, there is a few data of agricultural crops sensitivity to ozone. Furthermore, there is no information about the ozone risk of agricultural crop loss by based on ozone index (e.g. AOT40, SUM06, W126)-crop response relationship, yet. The objects of our research are: (1) to screen sensitivity of ozone on 10 crops cultivated in urban area in Japan. (2) to establish critical levels of ozone for protecting agricultural crops based on ozone index-crop response relationship. The 10 Japanese agricultural crops such as Japanese rice, Hanegi (Welsh onion), Shungiku (Crown daisy), Saradana (Lettus), Hatsukadaikon (Radish), Kokabu (Small Turnip), Santosai (Chinese cabbage), Tasai (Spinach mustard), Komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach) and Chingensai (Bok Choy), were fumigated to three levels of ozone (clean air (< 5 ppbv), ambient level of ozone, 1.5 times ambient ozone) in open-top chambers during 30 to 120 days. Those experiments were repeated five times during two growing season. Throughout the experimental period, the growth or yield were measured, and the relationship between growth (or yield) and ozone index was examined. As a result, the influences of ozone on growth or yield were different among 10 crops. Relatively good correlations of coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions to growth or yield were obtained with “8h means” and “AOT40” rather than “SUM00”, “SUM06” and “W126”. Critical level for 10 crops in terms of an AOT40 were 1.1 to 2.1 ppm h per month. The ozone sensitive crop in our study was sound to be 1.0 ppm h per month in AOT40.

  12. Role of the boundary layer in the occurrence and termination of the tropospheric ozone depletion events in polar spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Le; Platt, Ulrich; Gutheil, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the polar spring are frequently observed in a stable boundary layer condition, and the end of the events occurs when there is a breakup of the boundary layer. In order to improve the understanding of the role of the boundary layer in the ozone depletion event, a one-dimensional model is developed, focusing on the occurrence and the termination period of the ozone depletion episode. A module accounting for the vertical air transport is added to a previous box model, and a first-order parameterization is used for the estimation of the vertical distribution of the turbulent diffusivity. Simulations are performed for different strengths of temperature inversion as well as for different wind speeds. The simulation results suggest that the reactive bromine species released from the underlying surface into the lowest part of the troposphere initially stay in the boundary layer, leading to an increase of the bromine concentration. This bromine accumulation causes the ozone destruction below the top of the boundary layer. After the ozone is totally depleted, if the temperature inversion intensity decreases or the wind speed increases, the severe ozone depletion event tends to transit into a partial ozone depletion event or it recovers to the normal ozone background level of 30-40 ppb. This recovery process takes about 2 h. Due to the presence of high-level HBr left from the initial occurrence of ODEs, the complete removal of ozone in the boundary layer is achieved a few days after the first termination of ODE. The time required for the recurrence of the ozone depletion in a 1000 m boundary layer is approximately 5 days, while the initial occurrence of the complete ozone consumption takes 15 days. The present model is suitable to clarify the reason for both the start and the termination of the severe ozone depletion as well as the partial ozone depletion in the observations.

  13. Influence of future climate and cropland expansion on isoprene emissions and tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, O. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Beerling, D.; Hewitt, C. N.; Lathiere, J.; Pike, R. C.; Telford, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the 21st century, changes in CO2 levels, climate and land use are expected to alter the global distribution of vegetation, leading to changes in trace gas emissions from plants, including, importantly, the emissions of isoprene. This, combined with changes in anthropogenic emissions, has the potential to impact tropospheric ozone levels, which above a certain level are harmful to animals and vegetation. In this study we use a biogenic emissions model following the empirical parameterisation of the MEGAN model, with vegetation distributions calculated by the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM) to calculate potential future (2095) changes in isoprene emissions caused by changes in climate, land use, and the inhibition of isoprene emissions by CO2. From the present day (2000) value of 467 Tg C yr-1, we find that the combined impact of these factors causes a net decrease in isoprene emissions of 259Tg C yr-1 (55%) with individual contributions of +78 Tg C yr-1 (climate change), -190 Tg C yr-1 (land use) and -147 Tg C yr-1 (CO2 inhibition). Using these isoprene emissions and changes in anthropogenic emissions, a series of integrations is conducted with the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with the aim of examining changes in ozone over the 21st century. Globally all combined future changes cause a decrease in the tropospheric ozone burden of 27 Tg (7%) from 379 Tg in the present day. At the surface, decreases in ozone of 6-10 ppb are calculated over the oceans and developed northern hemispheric regions due to reduced NOx transport by PAN and reductions in NOx emissions in these areas respectively. Increases of 4-6 ppb are calculated in the continental Tropics due to cropland expansion in these regions, increased CO2 inhibition of isoprene emissions, and higher temperatures due to climate change. These effects outweigh the decreases in tropical ozone caused by increased tropical isoprene emissions with climate change. Our land use change scenario

  14. A New Method of Deriving Time-Averaged Tropospheric Column Ozone over the Tropics Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Radiances: Intercomparison and Analysis Using TRACE A Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. H.; Hudson, R. D.; Thompson, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    Error analysis of archived total 03 from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) (version 6) presented. Daily total 03 maps for the tropics, from the period October 6-21, 1992, are derived from TOMS radiances following correction for these errors. These daily maps, averaged together, show a wavelike feature, which is observed in all latitude bands, underlying sharp peaks which occur at different longitudes depending on the latitude. The wave pattern is used to derive both time-averaged stratospheric and tropospheric 03 fields. The nature of the wave pattern (stratospheric or tropospheric) cannot be determined with certainty due to missing data (no Pacific sondes, no lower stratospheric Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) ozone for 18 months after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and significant uncertainties in the corroborative satellite record in the lower stratosphere (solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV), microwave limb sounder (MLS)). However, the time- averaged tropospheric ozone field, based on the assumption that the wave feature is stratospheric, agrees within 10% with ultraviolet differential absorption laser Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic) (TRACE A) 03 measurements from the DC-8 and with ozonesonde measurements over Brazzaville, Congo, Ascension Island, and Natal, Brazil, for the period October 6-21, 1992. The derived background (nonpolluted) Indian Ocean tropospheric ozone amount, 26 Dobson units (DU), agrees with the cleanest African ozonesonde profiles for September-October 1992. The assumption of a totally tropospheric wave (flat stratosphere) gives 38 DU above the western Indian Ocean and 15-40% disagreements with the sondes. Tropospheric column 03 is high from South America to Africa, owing to interaction of dynamics with biomass burning emissions. Comparison with fire distributions from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHHR) during October 1992 suggests that tropospheric 03 produced from biomass

  15. CMAQ predictions of tropospheric ozone in the U.S. southwest: influence of lateral boundary and synoptic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chune; Fernando, H J S; Hyde, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Phoenix, Arizona, has been an ozone nonattainment area for the past several years and it remains so. Mitigation strategies call for improved modeling methodologies as well as understanding of ozone formation and destruction mechanisms during seasons of high ozone events. To this end, the efficacy of lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) based on satellite measurements (adjusted-LBCs) was investigated, vis-à-vis the default-LBCs, for improving the predictions of Models-3/CMAQ photochemical air quality modeling system. The model evaluations were conducted using hourly ground-level ozone and NO(2) concentrations as well as tropospheric NO(2) columns and ozone concentrations in the middle to upper troposphere, with the 'design' periods being June and July of 2006. Both included high ozone episodes, but the June (pre-monsoon) period was characterized by local thermal circulation whereas the July (monsoon) period by synoptic influence. Overall, improved simulations were noted for adjusted-LBC runs for ozone concentrations both at the ground-level and in the middle to upper troposphere, based on EPA-recommended model performance metrics. The probability of detection (POD) of ozone exceedances (>75ppb, 8-h averages) for the entire domain increased from 20.8% for the default-LBC run to 33.7% for the adjusted-LBC run. A process analysis of modeling results revealed that ozone within PBL during bulk of the pre-monsoon season is contributed by local photochemistry and vertical advection, while the contributions of horizontal and vertical advections are comparable in the monsoon season. The process analysis with adjusted-LBC runs confirms the contributions of vertical advection to episodic high ozone days, and hence elucidates the importance of improving predictability of upper levels with improved LBCs.

  16. An Intercomparison of Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals Derived from Two Aura Instruments and Measurements in Western North America in 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, D. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Hui, W. C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Two recently developed methods for quantifying tropospheric ozone abundances based on Aura data, the Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) and an assimilation of Aura data into Goddard Earth Observing System Version 4 (ASM), are compared to ozone measurements from ozonesonde data collected in April-May 2006 during the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study 2006 (IONS-06) campaign. Both techniques use Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. Statistics on column ozone amounts for both products are presented. In general, the assimilation compares better to sonde integrated ozone to 200 hPa (28.6% difference for TTOR versus 2.7% difference for ASM), and both products are biased low. To better characterize the performance of ASM, ozone profiles based on the assimilation are compared to those from ozonesondes. We noted slight negative biases in the lower troposphere, and slight positive biases in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/ LS), where we observed the greatest variability. Case studies were used to further understand ASM performance. We examine one case from 17 April 2006 at Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan, where geopotential height gradients appear to be related to an underestimation in the ASM in the UT/LS region. A second case, from 21 April 2006 at Trinidad Head, California, is a situation where the overprediction of ozone in the UT/LS region does not appear to be due to current dynamic conditions but seems to be related to uncertainty in the flow pattern and large differences in MLS observations upstream.

  17. Ozonesonde Climatology and Satellite Product Evaluation: Tropospheric Ozone in the Mid-Atlantic from 2005-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normile, C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary satellite missions are proposed to remotely assess regional air quality over large swaths, although the precise capability of the current set of satellite instruments to accurately resolve urban scale pollution remains unverified. We use the Trajectory Enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual product derived from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument/Microwave Limb Sounder satellite data to examine the regional climatology of ozone pollution in the mid-Atlantic, focusing on the Washington, D.C. area and downwind Delmarva. We use the North American Regional Reanalysis to determine the synoptic scale flow patterns in the lower troposphere. In addition, a set of proxies (OMI NO2, surface ozone, cloud cover, and air mass classification) are employed to understand TTOR performance and interacting meteorological and chemical effects in the region. We find that the TTOR product accuracy varies substantially both temporally and spatially, improving during summer months (0.22% error in May compared to 11% error in October) for example, and over urban areas more than rural ones (12% error versus 16% error). TTOR product accuracy is influenced by air mass effects on advection and on planetary boundary layer ozone concentrations. Conditions conducive to ozone production yield a higher near-surface proportion of the tropospheric column as measured by Wallops Island ozonesondes. We identify synoptic-scale flow regimes that strengthen correlations between urban tropospheric ozone density and column density off the coast of the mid-Atlantic. These results indicate that remotely sensed measurements may indeed be able to discriminate urban influences on regional ozone and their effects in more remote areas and have implications for air quality assessment and model validation.

  18. Modelling the Impacts of Climate Change on Tropospheric Ozone over three Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Brandt, Jørgen; Christensen, Jesper H.; Gross, Allan; May, Wihelm; Hansen, Kaj M.; Skjøth, Carsten A.

    2010-05-01

    So far reduction of the anthropogenic emissions of chemical species to the atmosphere has been profoundly investigated. However, new research indicates that climate change on its own also has a significant impact on the future air pollution levels. Climate Change and its impact on air pollution levels are currently studied by a number of research groups using, global, hemispherical and regional modelling systems. In the Department of Atmospheric Environment, National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, in Denmark, we have developed a hemispherical model system which is based on the DEHM model (Christensen, 1997; Frohn et al., 2002a; Frohn et al., 2002b). In the DEHM modelling system an option for modelling the impacts of climate change has been included by using meteorological input from global climate models. Here we present results by using climate data that are provided by the ECHAM5/MPI-OM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (May, 2008; Roeckner et al., 2003). In the current experiment the anthropogenic emissions in the chemistry model DEHM are kept constant on a 2000 level to separate out the signal of climate change on air pollutants while the meteorological drivers simulated by the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model is based on the IPCC SRES A1B Scenario. To save computing time the experiment is carried out in time-slices representing four centuries (1890s, 1990s, 2090s and the 2190s). The results show that the dominating impacts from climate change on a large number of the chemical species are related to the predicted temperature increase. This temperature affects chemistry as well as emissions from nature. The largest changes in both meteorology and air quality is found to happen in the 21st century. However, significant changes are also found in some parameters including tropospheric ozone in the following century. In general the background ozone concentrations is predicted to decrease at surface level however in the densely

  19. Effect of sulfate aerosol on tropospheric NOx and ozone budgets: Model simulations and TOPSE evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Xuexi; Emmons, Louisa; Horowitz, Larry; Brasseur, Guy; Ridley, Brian; Atlas, Elliot; Stround, Craig; Hess, Peter; Klonecki, Andrzej; Madronich, Sasha; Talbot, Robert; Dibb, Jack

    2003-02-01

    The distributions of NOx and O3 are analyzed during TOPSE (Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox). In this study these data are compared with the calculations of a global chemical/transport model (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART)). Specifically, the effect that hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosols has on tropospheric NOx and O3 budgets is studied. The results show that without this heterogeneous reaction, the model significantly overestimates NOx concentrations at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in winter and spring in comparison to the observations during TOPSE; with this reaction, modeled NOx concentrations are close to the measured values. This comparison provides evidence that the hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosol plays an important role in controlling the tropospheric NOx and O3 budgets. The calculated reduction of NOx attributed to this reaction is 80 to 90% in winter at high latitudes over North America. Because of the reduction of NOx, O3 concentrations are also decreased. The maximum O3 reduction occurs in spring although the maximum NOx reduction occurs in winter when photochemical O3 production is relatively low. The uncertainties related to uptake coefficient and aerosol loading in the model is analyzed. The analysis indicates that the changes in NOx due to these uncertainties are much smaller than the impact of hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosol. The effect that hydrolysis of N2O5 on global NOx and O3 budgets are also assessed by the model. The results suggest that in the Northern Hemisphere, the average NOx budget decreases 50% due to this reaction in winter and 5% in summer. The average O3 budget is reduced by 8% in winter and 6% in summer. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the sulfate aerosol loading is significantly smaller than in the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, sulfate aerosol has little impact on NOx and O3 budgets of the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Reactions of important OVOCs with hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the tropospheric aqueous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Luisa; Weller, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Besides research on the microphysics of cloud droplets and similar aqueous systems in the troposphere, the chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic and biogenic sources cannot be neglected for the understanding of tropospheric processes such as the organic particle mass formation. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can exceed those of VOCs from anthropogenic sources by a factor of 10[1]. Oxidation products of BVOCs like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolate, glyoxylate and pyruvate, glycolaldehyde, and the unsaturated compounds methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone are known precursors for less volatile organic substances found in secondary organic aerosols[2,3]. Yet, the main decomposition of these substances is believed to occur via radical reactions. However, Tilgner and Herrmann[2] showed evidence that the turnovers by non-radical reactions with H2O2 or ozone and some non-oxidative organic accretion reactions may even exceed those from the most reactive species in the lower troposphere, the hydroxyl radical OH. This work investigated the reactivities of the atmospheric relevant oxidation products including pyruvic acid and glyoxylic acid towards O3 and H2O2 in the aqueous phase. Furthermore, pH effects were studied by measuring the kinetics of both the protonated and deprotonated forms. The measurements were performed using a UV/VIS-spectrometer (conventional and in addition a Stopped Flow technique) and capillary electrophoresis. In some cases the results indicate higher turnovers of H2O2 and ozone reactions compared to interactions with atmospheric radicals. The experimental data obtained will be presented and their implications for atmospheric multiphase chemistry are discussed. [1] Guenther et al., 1995, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 100(D5), 8873-8892. [2] Tilgner and Herrmann, 2010, Atmospheric Environment, 44, 5415-5422. [3] van Pinxteren et al., 2005, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 4305-4320.

  1. Role of carbonyls and aromatics in the formation of tropospheric ozone in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Débora Bonfim Neves; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Corrêa, Sergio Machado

    2016-05-01

    The ozone in Rio de Janeiro has been in violation of national air quality standards. Among all of the monitoring stations, the Bangu neighbourhood has the most violations of the national standard of 160 μg m(-3) for the years 2012 and 2013. This study evaluated the reactivity of the carbonyls and aromatics in the tropospheric ozone formation processes. The samples were collected between July and October of 2013. Carbonyls were sampled using SiO2 cartridges coated with C18 and impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and were analysed by HPLC. Activated carbon cartridges and GC/MS were used to measure the concentration of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. An air quality monitoring station provided the concentrations of the criteria pollutants and the meteorological parameters. Cluster analysis and a Pearson correlation matrix were used to determine the formation of groups and the correlation of the variables. The evaluation of the volatile organic compounds (VOC) reaction with OH radicals and the MIR scale was used to extrapolate the reactivity of VOCs to the ozone formation. The average concentrations obtained were 19.7 and 51.9 μg m(-3) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. The mean concentrations obtained for aromatics were 1.5, 6.7, 1.5, 2.6 and 1.6 μg m(-3) for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m+p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. The cluster analysis indicated the presence of three similar groups, with one formed by gaseous criteria pollutants, another formed by the meteorological parameters, ozone and fine particles, and the last group formed by the aromatics. For the two reactivity scales evaluated, acetaldehyde and toluene were the main ozone precursors.

  2. Tropospheric O3 over Indonesia during biomass burning events measured with GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and compared with backtrajectory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    During the dry season, biomass burning is an important source of ozone precursors for the tropical troposphere, and ozone formation can occur in biomass burning plumes originating in Indonesia and northern Australia. Satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring experiment) data are used to characterize the amount of tropospheric ozone production over this region during the El Niño event in September 1997 compared to a so called "normal" year 1998. Large scale biomass burning occurred over Kalimantan in 1997 caused by the absence of the northern monsoon rains, leading to significant increases in tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric ozone was determined from GOME data using the Tropospheric Excess Method (TEM). Backtrajectory calculations show that Indonesia is influenced every summer by the emissions of trace gases from biomass buring over northern Australia. But in 1997 over Indonesia an increasing of tropospheric ozone amounts can be observed caused by the fires over Indonesia itself as well as by northern Australia. The analysis of the measurements of BIBLE-A (Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment) and using ATSR (Along the Track Scanning Radiometer) data show differences in the view to the intensity of fire counts and therefore in the amount of the emission of precursors of tropospheric ozone comparing September 1997 to September 1998.

  3. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  4. Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) 2004: 2. Tropospheric ozone budgets and variability over northeastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Stone, Jesse B.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Miller, Sonya K.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Ross, Kelly L.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Merrill, John T.; Forbes, Gerry; Tarasick, David W.; Joseph, Everette; Schmidlin, F. J.; McMillan, W. Wallace; Warner, Juying; Hintsa, Eric J.; Johnson, James E.

    2007-06-01

    Daily ozone soundings taken from the R/V Ronald H. Brown from 7 July through 11 August 2004 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) are used to investigate the vertical structure of ozone over the Gulf of Maine and to characterize variability in sources of tropospheric ozone: stratosphere, regional convection and lightning, advection, and local boundary layer pollution. These soundings were part of a network of twelve IONS (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/intex/ions.html) stations that launched ozonesonde-radiosonde packages over the United States and maritime Canada during the INTEX/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT)/New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) project from 1 July to 15 August 2004. Four of the IONS stations were in mid-Atlantic and northeast United States; four were in southeastern Canada. Although the INTEX/ICARTT goal was to examine pollution influences under stable high-pressure systems, northeastern North America (NENA) during IONS was dominated by weak frontal systems that mixed aged pollution and stratospheric ozone with ozone from more recent pollution and lightning. These sources are quantified to give tropospheric ozone budgets for individual soundings that are consistent with tracers and meteorological analyses. On average, for NENA stations in July-August 2004, tropospheric ozone was composed of the following: 10-15% each local boundary layer and regional sources (the latter including that due to lightning-derived NO) and 20-25% stratospheric ozone, with the balance (˜50%) a mixture of recently advected ozone and aged air of indeterminate origin.

  5. Derivation of Tropospheric Column Ozone from the EPTOMS/GOES Co-Located Data Sets using the Cloud Slicing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, C.; Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    A recently developed technique called cloud slicing used for deriving upper tropospheric ozone from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument combined together with temperature-humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) is no longer applicable to the Earth Probe TOMS (EPTOMS) because EPTOMS does not have an instrument to measure cloud top temperatures. For continuing monitoring of tropospheric ozone between 200-500hPa and testing the feasibility of this technique across spacecrafts, EPTOMS data are co-located in time and space with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 infrared data for 2001 and early 2002, covering most of North and South America (45S-45N and 120W-30W). The maximum column amounts for the mid-latitudinal sites of the northern hemisphere are found in the March-May season. For the mid-latitudinal sites of the southern hemisphere, the highest column amounts are found in the September-November season, although overall seasonal variability is smaller than those of the northern hemisphere. The tropical sites show the weakest seasonal variability compared to higher latitudes. The derived results for selected sites are cross validated qualitatively with the seasonality of ozonesonde observations and the results from THIR analyses over the 1979-1984 time period due to the lack of available ozonesonde measurements to study sites for 2001. These comparisons show a reasonably good agreement among THIR, ozonesonde observations, and cloud slicing-derived column ozone. With very limited co-located EPTOMS/GOES data sets, the cloud slicing technique is still viable to derive the upper tropospheric column ozone. Two new variant approaches, High-Low (HL) cloud slicing and ozone profile derivation from cloud slicing are introduced to estimate column ozone amounts using the entire cloud information in the troposphere.

  6. A Research Study of Tropospheric Ozone and Meteorological Parameters to Introduce High School Students to Scientific Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Notario, Alberto; Aranda, Alfonso; Adame, Jose Antonio; Parra, Alfonso; Romero, Eugenio; Parra, Jesus; Munoz, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    An environmental research project was carried out by a consortium established among scientists and university lecturers in collaboration with two high schools. High school students participated in a long-term study of the local temporal profiles of tropospheric ozone and the relationship to pollution and meteorological parameters. Low-cost…

  7. Ozone and Water Vapor Distributions and Variability in the Vicinity of a Midlatitude Upper Tropospheric Front and Jet Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, M. A.; Barrick, J. D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Diskin, G.; Podolske, J.

    2002-05-01

    Measurements of in situ ozone, remote and in situ water vapor, and meteorological variables were performed from the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere and tropopause region over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (SGP CART) site in Lamont, Oklahoma. These DC-8 flights occurred in November and December of 2000 during an intensive operating period of the ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX). Although the main goal of this intensive period of the AFWEX experiment was to characterize the accuracy of several remote and in situ water vapor measurements, flight patterns predominantly located in the upper troposphere, near the tropopause, provided an opportunity to collect a rich data set for mapping ozone and water vapor distributions and variability near an active midlatitude wintertime jet. We present a detailed mapping and analysis of a pronounced upper tropospheric trough and windspeed maximum in the wintertime mid-latitude jet that occurred over Oklahoma on December 9 and 10 of 2000, using both Cartesian and jet-centered coordinates. Ozone and water vapor correlations and variability during the previous several days before this event are compared to measurements taken during the more dynamically active period. We also estimate the local, irreversible cross-tropopause ozone and water vapor fluxes from the DC-8 aircraft data, and we compare the observed upper tropospheric frontal structure with the classical model and theoretical predictions.

  8. Influence of isoprene chemical mechanism on modelled changes in tropospheric ozone due to climate and land use over the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, O. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Griffiths, P. T.; Jenkin, M. E.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Isoprene is a precursor to tropospheric ozone, a key pollutant and greenhouse gas. Anthropogenic activity over the coming century is likely to cause large changes in atmospheric CO2 levels, climate and land use, all of which will alter the global vegetation distribution leading to changes in isoprene emissions. Previous studies have used global chemistry-climate models to assess how possible changes in climate and land use could affect isoprene emissions and hence tropospheric ozone. The chemistry of isoprene oxidation, which can alter the concentration of ozone, is highly complex, therefore it must be parameterised in these models. In this work we compare the effect of four different reduced isoprene chemical mechanisms, all currently used in Earth-system models, on tropospheric ozone. Using a box model we compare ozone in these reduced schemes to that in a more explicit scheme (the MCM) over a range of NOx and isoprene emissions, through the use of O3 isopleths. We find that there is some variability, especially at high isoprene emissions, caused by differences in isoprene-derived NOx reservoir species. A global model is then used to examine how the different reduced schemes respond to potential future changes in climate, isoprene emissions, anthropogenic emissions and land use change. We find that, particularly in isoprene rich regions, the response of the schemes varies considerably. The wide ranging response is due to differences in the types of peroxy radicals produced by isoprene oxidation, and their relative rates of reaction towards NO, leading to ozone formation, or HO2, leading to termination. Also important is the yield of isoprene-nitrates and peroxyacyl nitrate precursors from isoprene oxidation. Those schemes that produce less of these NOx reservoir species, tend to produce more ozone locally and less away from the source region. Additionally, by combining the emissions and O3 data from all of the global model integrations, we are able to construct

  9. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiak, Klaudia; Zbierska, Janina; Budka, Anna; Kayzer, Dariusz

    2014-06-01

    Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40) were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  10. An estimate of the stratospheric contribution to springtime tropospheric ozone maxima using TOPSE measurements and beryllium-7 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dale J.; Dibb, Jack E.; Ridley, Brian; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Talbot, Robert W.

    2003-02-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone (O3) between 30°N and 70°N show springtime maxima at remote locations. The contribution of seasonal changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) to these maxima was investigated using measurements from the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox Experiment (TOPSE) campaign and the beryllium-7 (7Be) distribution from a calculation driven by fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). Comparison with TOPSE measurements revealed that upper tropospheric model-calculated 7Be mixing ratios were reasonable (a change from previous calculations) but that lower tropospheric mixing ratios were too low most likely due to an overestimation of scavenging. Temporal fluctuations were well captured although their amplitudes were often underestimated. Analysis of O3 measurements indicated that O3 mixing ratios increased by 5-10% month-1 for θ < 300 K (the underworld) and by 10-15% month-1 for θ > 300 K (the tropospheric middleworld). 7Be mixing ratios decreased with time for θ < 290 K and increased with time for θ > 300 K. Model-calculated middleworld increases of 7Be were a factor of 2 less than measured increases. 7Be with a stratospheric source (strat-7Be) increased by 4.6-8.8% month-1 along TOPSE flight paths within the tropospheric middleworld. Increases in strat-7Be were not seen along TOPSE flight paths in the underworld. Assuming changes in tropospheric O3 with a stratospheric source are the same as changes in strat-7Be and that 50% of O3 in the region of interest is produced in the stratosphere, changes in STE explain 20-60% of O3 increases in the tropospheric middleworld and less than 33% of O3 increases in the underworld.

  11. Trends of tropical tropospheric ozone from 20 years of European satellite measurements and perspectives for the Sentinel-5 Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heue, Klaus-Peter; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Delcloo, Andy; Lerot, Christophe; Loyola, Diego; Valks, Pieter; van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In preparation of the TROPOMI/S5P launch in early 2017, a tropospheric ozone retrieval based on the convective cloud differential method was developed. For intensive tests we applied the algorithm to the total ozone columns and cloud data of the satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B. Thereby a time series of 20 years (1995-2015) of tropospheric column ozone was generated. To have a consistent total ozone data set for all sensors, one common retrieval algorithm, namely GODFITv3, was applied and the L1 reflectances were also soft calibrated. The total ozone columns and the cloud data were input into the tropospheric ozone retrieval. However, the tropical tropospheric column ozone (TCO) for the individual instruments still showed small differences and, therefore, we harmonised the data set. For this purpose, a multilinear function was fitted to the averaged difference between SCIAMACHY's TCO and those from the other sensors. The original TCO was corrected by the fitted offset. GOME-2B data were corrected relative to the harmonised data from OMI and GOME-2A. The harmonisation leads to a better agreement between the different instruments. Also, a direct comparison of the TCO in the overlapping periods proves that GOME-2A agrees much better with SCIAMACHY after the harmonisation. The improvements for OMI were small. Based on the harmonised observations, we created a merged data product, containing the TCO from July 1995 to December 2015. A first application of this 20-year record is a trend analysis. The tropical trend is 0.7 ± 0.12 DU decade-1. Regionally the trends reach up to 1.8 DU decade-1 like on the African Atlantic coast, while over the western Pacific the tropospheric ozone declined over the last 20 years with up to 0.8 DU decade-1. The tropical tropospheric data record will be extended in the future with the TROPOMI/S5P data, where the TCO is part of the operational products.

  12. Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: Assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud differential techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.

    1998-09-01

    This study introduces two new approaches for determining tropospheric column ozone from satellite data. In the first method, stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) and microwave limb sounder (MLS) ozone measurements. Tropospheric column ozone is then obtained by subtracting these stratospheric amounts from the total column. Total column ozone in this study include retrievals from Nimbus 7 (November 1978 to May 1993) and Earth probe (July 1996 to present) total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS). Data from HALOE are used in this first method to extend the vertical span of MLS (highest pressure level 46 hPa) using simple regression. This assimilation enables high-resolution daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone which is not possible from solar occultation measurements alone, such as from HALOE or Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment (SAGE). We also examine another new and promising technique that yields tropospheric column ozone directly from TOMS high-density footprint measurements in regions of high convective clouds. We define this method as the convective cloud differential (CCD) technique. The CCD method is shown to provide long time series (essentially late 1978 to the present) of tropospheric ozone in regions dominated by persistent high tropopause-level clouds, such as the maritime tropical Pacific and within or near midlatitude continental landmasses. In this our first study of the CCD and MLS/HALOE methods we limit analyses to tropical latitudes. Separation of stratospheric from tropospheric column ozone in the eastern Pacific tropics for January 1979 to December 1997 shows that the dominant interannual variability of stratospheric ozone is the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), whereas for tropospheric ozone it is driven by El Niño events. For validation purposes, both the CCD and assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE results are compared with ozonesonde

  13. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone to the chemistry of sea salt aerosol. Final report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson-Pitts, B.J.

    1994-11-15

    Ozone plays a critical role in both the chemistry and radiation balance of the troposphere. Understanding the factors controlling tropospheric ozone levels is critical to our understanding of a variety of issues in global chemistry and climate change. Chlorine atoms have the potential to contribute significantly to the ozone balance in the free troposphere. They can react directly with ozone or alternately, with organics and may actually lead to the formation of ozone in the presence of sufficient NO. Reactions of alkali halides in sea salt particles are a potential source of atomic chlorine, hence reactions of these alkali halides, especially those producing precursors to atomic chlorine, are of great interest. Finally, the mechanisms, intermediates and products of the Cl-biogenic reactions are unknown; these could serve as unique markers of chlorine atom chemistry in the troposphere, and hence are important to define.

  14. On the Tropospheric Measurements of Ozone by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II, version 6.1) in the Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kar, J.; Trepte, C. R.; Thomason, L. W.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Tropospheric measurements of ozone from SAGE II (version 6.1) in the tropics have been analyzed using 12 years of data (1985-1990, 1994-1999). The seasonally averaged vertical profiles of the ozone mixing ratio in the upper troposphere have been presented for the first time from satellite measurements. These profiles show qualitative similarities with corresponding seasonal mean ozonesonde profiles at northern and southern tropical stations and are about 40-50% less than the sonde values. Despite this systematic offset, the measurements appear to be consistent with a zonal wave one pattern in the upper tropospheric column ozone and with the recently predicted summertime ozone enhancement over the Middle East. These results thus affirm the usefulness of the occultation method in studying tropospheric ozone.

  15. Stratospheric influence on the concentration and seasonal cycle of lower tropospheric ozone: Observation at Mount Hehuan, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Liang, Mao-Chang; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2014-03-01

    Continuous measurements of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), beryllium-7 (7Be), and lead-210 (210Pb) in aerosols along with relative humidity (RH) were carried out at the Mount Hehuan site (24.05°N, 121.10°E, 3380 m above sea level (asl)) from September 2011 to September 2012 in order to investigate the seasonality of stratospheric influence (SI) and its effect on surface ozone concentration in the subtropical free troposphere over central Taiwan. During the 13 month period, the measured O3 concentration fluctuated around a mean of 41 ppb and showed a broad springtime maximum and summertime minimum that can be attributed to regional circulation over subtropical Asia. Beryllium-7, CO, RH, and the normalized fraction of 7Be, f(7Be, 210Pb) were used to identify SI days based on several criteria. Of the total analyzed days, 14 SI days (approximately 4.6%) were found, indicating that SI phenomenon in the subtropical region is much less frequent than at northern midlatitudes. About two thirds of the SI days occurred in the winter, whereas none were found in the summer. The seasonality of SI occurrence could be related to the position of the subtropical jet stream. The proportion of surface O3 derived from the stratosphere was estimated to be only 1.3% on a yearly basis, increasing to ~3.2% in the winter and 27% during the SI days, demonstrating the importance of downward transport of stratospheric air in affecting the level of surface ozone.

  16. Variation of the NMVOC speciation in the solvent sector and the sensitivity of modelled tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schneidemesser, E.; Coates, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-06-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are detrimental to human health owing to the toxicity of many of the NMVOC species, as well as their role in the formation of secondary air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol. The speciation and amount of NMVOCs emitted into the troposphere are represented in emission inventories (EIs) for input to chemical transport models that predict air pollutant levels. Much of the information in EIs pertaining to speciation of NMVOCs is likely outdated, but before taking on the task of providing an up-to-date and highly speciated EI, a better understanding of the sensitivity of models to the change in NMVOC input would be highly beneficial. According to the EIs, the solvent sector is the most important sector for NMVOC emissions. Here, the sensitivity of modelled tropospheric O3 to NMVOC emission inventory speciation was investigated by comparing the maximum potential difference in O3 produced using a variety of reported solvent sector EI speciations in an idealized study using a box model. The sensitivity was tested using three chemical mechanisms that describe O3 production chemistry, typically employed for different types of modelling scales - point (MCM v3.2), regional (RADM2), and global (MOZART-4). In the box model simulations, a maximum difference of 15 ppbv (ca. 22% of the mean O3 mixing ratio of 69 ppbv) between the different EI speciations of the solvent sector was calculated. In comparison, for the same EI speciation, but comparing the three different mechanisms, a maximum difference of 6.7 ppbv was observed. Relationships were found between the relative contribution of NMVOC compound classes (alkanes and oxygenated species) in the speciations to the amount of Ox produced in the box model. These results indicate that modelled tropospheric O3 is sensitive to the speciation of NMVOCs as specified by emission inventories, suggesting that detailed updates to the EI speciation

  17. Pronounced Minima in Tropospheric Ozone and OH above the Tropical West Pacific and their Role for Stratospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, M.; Wohltmann, I.; Lehmann, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Wennberg, P. O.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Notholt, J.; Krüger, K.; Mohr, V.; Tegtmeier, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of organic species are emitted into the atmosphere mostly from biogenic processes. The rapid breakdown by reactions with OH radicals prevents most of them from reaching the stratosphere. Hence, the omnipresent layer of OH in the troposphere shields the stratosphere from these emissions and is particularly relevant for those species that do not photolyse efficiently. Reactions involving ozone are a strong source of OH in clean tropical air. Hence the OH concentration is closely coupled to ozone abundances. The Western Pacific warm pool is key for troposphere to stratosphere exchange. We report measurements of 14 ozonesondes launched during the Transbrom ship cruise through the center of the warm pool. During a 2500km portion of the ship track between 10S and 15N we found ozone concentrations below the detection limit of the sondes throughout the troposphere. We will discuss the uncertainties of ozonesonde measurements at very low ozone concentrations, the robustness of our observations and the upper limit of the ozone concentration that would be consistent with our raw data. Based on modelling and measurements of OH on the ER-2 during the STRAT campaign we suggest that there also is a pronounced minimum in the tropospheric column of OH over the tropical West Pacific. We show that this increases the lifetime of chemical species and has the potential to amplify the impact of surface emissions on the stratospheric composition. Specifically, we discuss the role of emissions of biogenic halogenated species from this geographic region for stratospheric ozone depletion. Also, we discuss the potential role of increasing anthropogenic emissions of SO2 in South East Asia or from minor volcanic eruptions for the stratospheric aerosol budget.

  18. Highlights from the 11-year record of tropospheric ozone from OMI/MLS and continuation of that long record using OMPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, Jerry; Kramarova, Natalya; Bhartia, Pawan; Degenstein, Doug; Deland, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Since October 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Aura satellite have provided over 11 years of continuous tropospheric ozone measurements. These OMI/MLS measurements have been used in many studies to evaluate dynamical and photochemical effects caused by ENSO, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescales, as well as long-term trends and the effects of deep convection on tropospheric ozone. Given that the OMI and MLS instruments have now extended well beyond their expected lifetimes, our goal is to continue their long record of tropospheric ozone using recent Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) measurements. The OMPS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership NPP satellite was launched on October 28, 2011 and is comprised of three instruments: the nadir mapper, the nadir profiler, and the limb profiler. Our study combines total column ozone from the OMPS nadir mapper with stratospheric column ozone from the OMPS limb profiler to measure tropospheric ozone residual. The time period for the OMPS measurements is March 2012 - present. For the OMPS limb profiler retrievals, the OMPS v2 algorithm from Goddard is tested against the SASKatchewan radiative TRANsfer (SASKTRAN) algorithm. The retrieved ozone profiles from each of these algorithms are evaluated with ozone profiles from both ozonesondes and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Effects on derived OMPS tropospheric ozone caused by the 2015-2016 El Nino event are highlighted. This recent El Nino produced anomalies in tropospheric ozone throughout the tropical Pacific involving increases of ~10 DU over Indonesia and decreases ~5-10 DU in the eastern Pacific. These changes in ozone due to El Nino were predominantly dynamically-induced, caused by the eastward shift in sea-surface temperature and convection from the western to the eastern Pacific.

  19. Highlights from the 11-Year Record of Tropospheric Ozone from OMI/MLS and Continuation of that Long Record Using OMPS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Degenstein, D. A.; Deland, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Since October 2004 the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard the Aura satellite have provided over 11 years of continuous tropospheric ozone measurements. These OMI/MLS measurements have been used in many studies to evaluate dynamical and photochemical effects caused by ENSO, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and shorter timescales, as well as long-term trends and the effects of deep convection on tropospheric ozone. Given that the OMI and MLS instruments have now extended well beyond their expected lifetimes, our goal is to continue their long record of tropospheric ozone using recent Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) measurements. The OMPS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership NPP satellite was launched on October 28, 2011 and is comprised of three instruments: the nadir mapper, the nadir profiler, and the limb profiler. Our study combines total column ozone from the OMPS nadir mapper with stratospheric column ozone from the OMPS limb profiler to measure tropospheric ozone residual. The time period for the OMPS measurements is March 2012 present. For the OMPS limb profiler retrievals, the OMPS v2 algorithm from Goddard is tested against the University of Saskatchewan (USask) Algorithm. The retrieved ozone profiles from each of these algorithms are evaluated with ozone profiles from both ozonesondes and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Effects on derived OMPS tropospheric ozone caused by the 2015-2016 El Nino event are highlighted. This recent El Nino produced anomalies in tropospheric ozone throughout the tropical Pacific involving increases of approximately 10 DU over Indonesia and decreases approximately 5-10 DU in the eastern Pacific. These changes in ozone due to El Nino were predominantly dynamically-induced, caused by the eastward shift in sea-surface temperature and convection from the western to the eastern Pacific.

  20. Tropospheric ozone pollution in India: effects on crop yield and product quality.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B

    2017-02-01

    Ozone (O3) in troposphere is the most critical secondary air pollutant, and being phytotoxic causes substantial losses to agricultural productivity. Its increasing concentration in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic plains is an issue of major concern as it is posing a threat to agriculture. In view of the issue of rising surface level of O3 in India, the aim of this compilation is to present the past and the prevailing concentrations of O3 and its important precursor (oxides of nitrogen) over the Indian region. The resulting magnitude of reductions in crop productivity as well as alteration in the quality of the product attributable to tropospheric O3 has also been taken up. Studies in relation to yield measurements have been conducted predominantly in open top chambers (OTCs) and also assessed by using antiozonant ethylene diurea (EDU). There is a substantial spatial difference in O3 distribution at different places displaying variable O3 concentrations due to seasonal and geographical variations. This review further recognizes the major information lacuna and also highlights future perspectives to get the grips with rising trend of ground level O3 pollution and also to formulate the policies to check the emissions of O3 precursors in India.

  1. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes}: What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years (1998-2000) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on an Trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  2. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes): What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years' (1998-2000) Data?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; RCunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  3. Altitude distribution of tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere during 1996, simulated with a chemistry-general circulation model at two different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentarchos, A. S.; Roelofs, G. J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2001-01-01

    The spatial/temporal variability of the vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) over a period of 1 year (1996) is studied with a coupled chemistry-general circulation model. The model is used at two different horizontal resolutions (T30: 3.75°×3.75° and T63: 1.875°×1.875°) and is nudged towards European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts analyses for 1996, using a four-dimensional assimilation technique (newtonian relaxation), to enable direct comparisons of observations and model results. Overall, the model reproduces satisfactorily the magnitude and seasonal variability of the vertical ozone distribution observed at six selected locations. Discrepancies occur, however, at remote locations in the subtropical Atlantic and tropical Pacific where ozone concentrations throughout the free troposphere are overestimated by the fourth version of the European Centre Hamburg Model (ECHAM4)-T30. A considerable improvement is evident at T63, which can be attributed, at least partially, to less efficient transport of ozone precursors from the polluted continents at higher resolution. In the upper troposphere/tropopause region, short-term ozone variations are better reproduced at higher resolution. The origin of tropospheric ozone is examined by decomposing its seasonal variation in the model into ozone from the stratosphere and ozone produced within the troposphere. Differences in the NH annual tropospheric ozone budget for 1996, between T30 and T63 mean amounts are relatively small. The tropospheric ozone budget is dominated by photochemical production and destruction (2716 and 2684 Tg, respectively), while the net ozone flux from the stratosphere is estimated to be 436 Tg, and dry deposition is estimated to be 487 Tg.

  4. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  5. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  6. Variability of tropospheric ozone concentrations: comparison of ground-level data with aircraft measurements during the "O 3 Reg" campaign (19-21 July 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pont, Véronique; Fontan, Jacques; Lopez, Alain

    The aim of the campaign presented here is to compare data networks' measurements of atmospheric pollutants (mainly tropospheric ozone) with airborne measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. It is designed to determine whether ozone fields are homogeneous on a regional scale and to show the modulation, on a local scale, of ozone concentrations due to local emissions of anthropogenic and industrial primary pollutants, and/or meteorological thermal processes such as sea/land breeze. The study bears on ozone concentration variability within an anticyclonic air mass on a scale of about 500 km. The contribution of large-scale phenomena in the formation of ozone episodes is shown. Daily maximum ozone values are relatively well representative of tropospheric ozone aircraft measurements. Zooming in on southeastern France establishes that in this area, ozone concentrations arise from multiscale phenomena.

  7. Observed seasonal cycles in tropospheric ozone at three marine boundary layer locations and their comparison with models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Observational data have been used to define the seasonal cycles in tropospheric ozone at the surface at three marine boundary layer (MBL) locations at Mace Head in Ireland, Trinidad Head in the USA and at Cape Grim in Tasmania. Least-squares fits of a sine function to the observed monthly mean ozone mixing ratios allowed ozone seasonal cycles to be defined quantitatively, as follows: y = Y0 + A1 sin(θ + φ1) + A2 sin(2θ + φ2), where Y0 is the annual average ozone mixing ratio over the entire set of observations or model results, A1 and A2 are amplitudes, φ1 and φ2 are phase angles and θ is a variable that spans one year's time period in radians. The seasonal cycles of fourteen tropospheric ozone models, together with our own STOCHEM-CRI model, at the three MBL stations were then analysed by fitting sine curves and defining the five parameters: Y0, A1, φ1, A2, φ2. Compared to the fundamental term: A1 sin(θ + φ1), all models more accurately reproduced the observed second harmonic terms: A2 sin(2θ + φ2). This accurate agreement both in amplitude and phase angle suggested that the term arose from a cyclic phenomenon that was well predicted by all models, namely, the photochemical destruction of ozone. Model treatments of the fundamental term were in many cases far removed from the observations and it was not clear why there was so much variability across the tropospheric ozone models.

  8. A new differential absorption lidar to measure sub-hourly fluctuation of tropospheric ozone profiles in the Baltimore-Washington DC region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.; Hoff, R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone profiles have been retrieved from the new ground based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) in Greenbelt, MD (38.99° N, 76.84° W, 57 m a.s.l.) from 400 m to 12 km a.g.l. Current atmospheric satellite instruments cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) has been developed, which currently consists of five stations across the US. The GSFC TROPOZ DIAL is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, which currently detects two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm. The DIAL technique exploits this difference between the returned backscatter signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman cells, filled with high pressure hydrogen and deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) within the focus generates a significant fraction of the pump energy at the first Stokes shift. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the range resolved number density can be derived. An interesting atmospheric case study involving the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange (STE) of ozone is shown to emphasize the regional importance of this instrument as well as assessing the validation and calibration of data. The retrieval yields an uncertainty of 16-19% from 0-1.5 km, 10-18% from 1.5-3 km, and 11-25% from 3 km to 12 km. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make routine tropospheric ozone profile measurements in the Baltimore-Washington DC area.

  9. A New Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Sub-Hourly Fluctuation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles in the Baltimore - Washington D.C. Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L. W.; Hoff, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone profiles have been retrieved from the new ground based National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center TROPospheric OZone DIfferential Absorption Lidar (GSFC TROPOZ DIAL) in Greenbelt, MD (38.99 N, 76.84 W, 57 meters ASL) from 400 m to 12 km AGL. Current atmospheric satellite instruments cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) has been developed, which currently consists of five stations across the US. The GSFC TROPOZ DIAL is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, which currently detects two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm. The DIAL technique exploits this difference between the returned backscatter signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman cells, filled with high pressure hydrogen and deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) within the focus generates a significant fraction of the pump energy at the first Stokes shift. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the range resolved number density can be derived. An interesting atmospheric case study involving the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange (STE) of ozone is shown to emphasize the regional importance of this instrument as well as assessing the validation and calibration of data. The retrieval yields an uncertainty of 16-19 percent from 0-1.5 km, 10-18 percent from 1.5-3 km, and 11-25 percent from 3 km to 12 km. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make routine tropospheric ozone profile measurements in the Baltimore

  10. Tropospheric ozone surface depletion (spring) and pollution (summer) in 2008 from the ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARC-IONS) soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Luzik, A. M.; Doughty, D. C.; Gallagher, S. D.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Witte, J. C.; Bryan, A. M.; Walker, T.; Osterman, G. B.; Worden, J.

    2008-12-01

    During NASA's ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere with Aircraft and Satellites; http://espo.nasa.gov/arctas) spring and summer 2008 campaigns, an ozonesonde network, ARC- IONS (ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study), launched ozonesonde-radiosonde packages each day (1-20 April, 26 June-12 July) during the A-Train satellite constellation overpass, ~1300 local. Seventeen ARC-IONS stations were located across the northern tier of North America, over both Alaska and Canada, with one site in Greenland and two in the western US; map at (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/arcions). In addition to satellite validation, the soundings provided a coherent, well-distributed set of ozone profiles for: (1) comparison with and interpretation of airborne measurements; (2) complementarity to ARCTAS and IPY (International Polar Year) ground bases at Greenland, Barrow, Eureka, Yellowknife; (3) model evaluation; (4) investigations of processes affecting day-to-day ozone variability. Two aspects of tropospheric ozone variability are described here. First, ozone depletion likely associated with rapid halogen reactions, is prominent in spring at Barrow (71N, 157W) and Resolute (75N, 95W). Second, during summer, relationships among long-range transport of Asian pollution (industrial and fires), California and Canadian fires and daily ozone budgets are established with trajectories, satellite smoke/fire data and laminar identification, the latter method developed in Thompson et al. (2007) and Yorks et al. (2008). Canadian maritime stations display eastern seaboard pollution and stratospheric influences as in IONS-04 (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study).

  11. Global tropospheric and total ozone monitoring with a Double-Etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Drayson, S. Roland; Hays, Paul B.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the global scale distribution of atmospheric ozone and its temporal variability can be achieved using a satellite-based nadir-viewing device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios. This would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface and interfering species. The Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. The periodic nature of the Fabry-Perot instrument function can be advantageous when observation of periodic spectra is desired. However, for most applications, additional optical elements are necessary to reduce the effect of unwanted passbands. This is frequently accomplished using additional Fabry-Perot etalons in a series configuration in conjunction with a bandpass filter. This paper discusses a Fabry-Perot interferometer conceptual instrument design to achieve tropospheric and total ozone monitoring capability from a satellite-based nadir-viewing geometry. The design involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). The impact of inter-etalon reflections has been reduced to acceptable levels by placement of a slightly attenuating medium in between the etalons. A passive device is selected for low power consumption, and continuous day/night coverage, independent of solar zenith angle, is enabled by observing within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band. The IR-FPI detection will be performed through implementation of the new Circle to Line Interferometer Optical (CLIO) system, developed by researchers at the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) of the University of Michigan, to accomplish focal plane

  12. Origin and Variability of Upper Tropospheric Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone at Northern Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grewe, V.; Brunner, D.; Dameris, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hein, R.; Shindell, D.; Staehelin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of NO(x) and ozone performed during the NOXAR project are compared with results from the coupled chemistry-climate models ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM and GISS-model. The measurements are based on flights between Europe and the East coast of America and between Europe and the Far East in the latitude range 40 deg N to 65 deg N. The comparison concentrates on tropopause altitudes and reveals strong longitudinal variations of seasonal mean NO,, of 200 pptv. Either model reproduced strong variations 3 km below but not at the tropopause, indicating a strong missing NO(x) or NO(y) sink over remote areas, e.g. NO(x) to HNO3 conversion by OH from additional OH sources or HNO3 wash-out. Vertical profiles show maximum NO(x) values 2-3 km below the tropopause with a strong seasonal cycle. ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM reproduces a maximum, although located at the tropopause with a less pronounced seasonal cycle, whereas the GISS model reproduces the seasonal cycle but not the profile's shape due to its coarser vertical resolution. A comparison of NO(x) frequency distributions reveals that both models are capable of reproducing the observed variability, except that ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM shows no very high NO(x) mixing ratios. Ozone mean values, vertical profiles and frequency distributions are much better reproduced in either model, indicating that the NO(x) frequency distribution, namely the most frequent NO(x) mixing ratio, is more important for the tropospheric photochemical ozone production than its mean value. Both models show that among all sources, NO(x) from lightning contributes most to the seasonal cycle of NO(x) at tropopause altitudes. The impact of lightning in the upper troposphere on NO(x) does not vary strongly with altitude, whereas the impact of surface emissions decreases with altitude. However, the models show significant differences in lightning induced NO(x) concentrations, especially in winter, which may be related to the different treatment of the lower

  13. Decadal Changes in Arctic Radiative Forcing from Aerosols and Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breider, T. J.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Croft, B.; Ridley, D. A.; Ge, C.; Yang, Q.; Bitz, C. M.; McConnell, J.; Sharma, S.; Skov, H.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Annual average Arctic sea ice coverage has declined by 3.6% per decade since the 1980s, but factors driving this trend are uncertain. Long-term surface observations and ice core records suggest recent, large declines in the Arctic atmospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, which may account in part for the warming trend. The decline in black carbon (BC) aerosol in the Arctic during the same period may partly offset the warming due to decreases in sulfate. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model together with a detailed inventory of historical anthropogenic trace gas and primary aerosol emissions to quantify changes in Arctic radiative forcing from tropospheric ozone and aerosol between 1980 and 2010. Previous studies have reported an increasing trend in observed ozone at 500 hPa over Canada, but our simulation shows no significant trend. Over Europe, good agreement is found with observed long-term trends in sulfate in surface air (observed = -0.14±0.02 μg m-3 yr-1, model = -0.13±0.01 μg m-3 yr-1), while the observed trend in sulfate in precipitation (-0.20±0.03 μg m-3 yr-1) is underestimated by 40%. At Alert, the timing of the observed decline in sulfate after 1991 is well captured in the simulation, but the observed trend between 1991 and 2001 (-36.3±4.1 ng m-3 yr-1) is underestimated by 26%. BC observations at remote Arctic surface stations are biased low throughout 1980-2010 by a factor of 2. At Greenland ice cores, observed 1980-2010 trends in sulfate deposition are underestimated by 35%. The smaller model bias in observed sulfate and BC deposition at ice cores in southern Greenland (5% and 65%) compared to northern Greenland (56% and 90%) indicates greater uncertainty in pollution emissions from Eurasian sources. We estimate a surface radiative forcing from atmospheric aerosols in the Arctic during 2008 of -0.51 W m-2. The forcing is largest in spring (-1.36 W m-2) and dominated by sulfate aerosol (87%). We will quantify the contributions to the

  14. Remote sensing evidence of decadal changes in major tropospheric ozone precursors over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Amir Hossein; Choi, Yunsoo; Jeon, Wonbae; Woo, Jung-Hun; Zhang, Qiang; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi

    2017-02-01

    Recent regulatory policies in East Asia reduce ozone precursors, but these changes are spatially and temporally nonuniform. This study investigates variations in the long-term trends of tropospheric NO2, HCHO, and HCHO/NO2 ratios to diagnose ozone sensitivity to changes in NOx and volatile organic compound using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Using an adaptive-degree polynomial filter, we identify extremums of time series of NO2 to determine when and how NO2 change. Due to the regulations in China, trends which were predominantly upward turned downward. The years undergoing these changes primarily happened in 2011 and 2012. OMI column densities, however, suggest that NOx sources in South Korea, the Pearl River Delta (PRD), Taiwan, and Japan have not consistently decreased. Specifically, as Chinese exports of NO2 started subsiding, increasing trends in NO2 columns over several Korean cities, including Seoul, become evident. To quantify the changes in NOx emissions from summertime 2010 to 2014, we conduct a 3D-Var inverse modeling using a regional model with MIX-Asia inventory and estimate NOx emissions (in 2010 and 2014) for the PRD (1.6 and 1.5 Gg/d), the Yangtze River Delta (3.9 and 3.0 Gg/d), north China (15.6 and 14.3 Gg/d), South Korea (1.6 and 1.5 Gg/d), and Japan (2.7 and 2.6 Gg/d). OMI HCHO shows upward trends in East Asia resulting from anthropogenic effects; however, the magnitudes are negative in the PRD, Japan, North Korea, and Taiwan. OMI HCHO/NO2 ratios reveal that while South Korea, Japan, and the south of China have undergone toward more NOx-sensitive regime, areas around the Bohai Sea have become more NOx saturated.

  15. Understanding patterns of variability in tropospheric ozone over Europe and eastern Asia in 2005-2009 using TES observations and the TM5 chemistry transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; van Geel, M. H. A.; Boersma, K. F.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric o