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Sample records for affect vegetative growth

  1. Field application of glyphosate induces molecular changes affecting vegetative growth processes in leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommended rates of glyphosate for non-cultivated areas destroy the aboveground shoots of the perennial plant leafy spurge. However, such applications cause little or no damage to underground adventitious buds (UABs), and thus the plant readily regenerates vegetatively. High concentrations of glyph...

  2. Infrared warming affects intrarow soil carbon dioxide efflux during early vegetative growth of spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming will likely affect carbon cycles in agricultural soils. Our objective was to deploy infrared (IR) warming to characterize the effect of global warming on soil temperature (Ts), volumetric soil-water content ('s), and intrarow soil CO2 efflux (Fs) of an open-field spring wheat (Triticu...

  3. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated.

  4. Factors affecting bone growth.

    PubMed

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

    2015-02-01

    Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk.

  5. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued. PMID:27185955

  6. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-05-31

    Urbanization, a dominant global demographic trend, leads to various changes in environments (e.g., atmospheric CO2 increase, urban heat island). Cities experience global change decades ahead of other systems so that they are natural laboratories for studying responses of other nonurban biological ecosystems to future global change. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth are not well understood. Here, we developed a general conceptual framework for quantifying the impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth and applied it in 32 Chinese cities. Results indicated that vegetation growth, as surrogated by satellite-observed vegetation index, decreased along urban intensity across all cities. At the same time, vegetation growth was enhanced at 85% of the places along the intensity gradient, and the relative enhancement increased with urban intensity. This growth enhancement offset about 40% of direct loss of vegetation productivity caused by replacing productive vegetated surfaces with nonproductive impervious surfaces. In light of current and previous field studies, we conclude that vegetation growth enhancement is prevalent in urban settings. Urban environments do provide ideal natural laboratories to observe biological responses to environmental changes that are difficult to mimic in manipulative experiments. However, one should be careful in extrapolating the finding to nonurban environments because urban vegetation is usually intensively managed, and attribution of the responses to diverse driving forces will be challenging but must be pursued.

  7. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  8. Estimating wheat growth with radar vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we computed the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) using observations made with a ground based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer system over an entire wheat growth period. The temporal variations of the backscattering coefficients for L-, C-, and X-band, RVI, vegetation water conte...

  9. Deciphering the Costs of Reproduction in Mango - Vegetative Growth Matters.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Mathilde; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Irregular fruit production across successive years is a major issue that limits the profitability of most temperate and tropical fruit crops. It is particularly affected by the reciprocal relationships between vegetative and reproductive growth. The concept of the costs of reproduction is defined in terms of losses in the potential future reproductive success caused by current investment in reproduction. This concept, developed in ecology and evolutionary biology, could provide a methodological framework to analyze irregular bearing in fruit crops, especially in relation to the spatial scale at which studies are done. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of reproduction during a growing cycle on reproduction during the following growing cycle and the indirect effects through vegetative growth between these two reproductive events, for four mango cultivars and during two growing cycles. Two spatial scales were considered: the growth unit (GU) and the scaffold branch. Costs of reproduction were detected between two successive reproductive events and between reproduction and vegetative growth. These costs were scale-dependent, generally detected at the GU scale and infrequently at the scaffold branch scale, suggesting partial branch autonomy with respect to processes underlying the effects of reproduction on vegetative growth. In contrast, the relationships between vegetative growth and reproduction were positive at the GU scale and at the scaffold branch scale in most cases, suggesting branch autonomy for the processes, mainly local, underlying flowering and fruiting. The negative effect of reproduction on vegetative growth prevailed over the positive effect of vegetative growth on the subsequent reproduction. The costs of reproduction were also cultivar-dependent. Those revealed at the GU scale were related to the bearing behavior of each cultivar. Our results put forward the crucial role of vegetative growth occurring between two

  10. Foliar application of glyphosate affects molecular mechanisms in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and alters their vegetative growth patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term control of leafy spurge with glyphosate requires multiple applications because the plant reproduces vegetatively from abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs). Determining the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling vegetative reproduction in leafy spurge following foliar glyphos...

  11. Can landscape memory affect vegetation recovery in drylands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baartman, Jantiene; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Temme, Arnaud; Rietkerk, Max

    2016-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems are water-limited and therefore vegetation typically forms banded or patchy patterns with high vegetation cover, interspersed with bare soil areas. In these systems, a runoff-runon system is often observed with bare areas acting as sources and vegetation patches acting as sinks of water, sediment and other transported substances. These fragile ecosystems are easily disturbed by overgrazing, removing above-ground vegetation. To avoid desertification, vegetation recovery after a disturbance is crucial. This poster discusses the potential of 'landscape memory' to affect the vegetation recovery potential. Landscape memory, originating in geomorphology, is the concept that a landscape is the result of its past history, which it 'remembers' through imprints left in the landscape. For example, a past heavy rainstorm may leave an erosion gully. These imprints affect the landscape's contemporary functioning, for example through faster removal of water from the landscape. In dryland ecosystems vegetation is known to affect the soil properties of the soil they grow in, e.g. increasing porosity, infiltration, organic matter content and soil structure. After a disturbance of the banded ecosystem, e.g. by overgrazing, this pattern of soil properties - favourable for regrowth, stays in the landscape. However, removal of the above-ground vegetation also leads to longer runoff pathways and increased rill and gully erosion, which may hamper vegetation regrowth. I hypothesize that vegetation recovery after a disturbance, depends on the balance between these two contrasting types of landscape memory (i.e. favourable soil properties and erosion rills/gullies).

  12. Wheat growth monitoring with radar vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave remote sensing can help in the monitoring of crop growth. Many experiments have been carried out to investigate the sensitivity of microwave sensors to crop growth parameters. These have clearly shown that canopy structure and water content can greatly affect the measurements. For agricult...

  13. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  14. Retrieval of wheat growth parameters with radar vegetation indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) has a low sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions and has the potential as a tool to monitor the vegetation growth. In this study, we expand on previous research by investigating the radar response over a wheat canopy. RVI was computed using observations m...

  15. Deciphering the Costs of Reproduction in Mango – Vegetative Growth Matters

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Mathilde; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Irregular fruit production across successive years is a major issue that limits the profitability of most temperate and tropical fruit crops. It is particularly affected by the reciprocal relationships between vegetative and reproductive growth. The concept of the costs of reproduction is defined in terms of losses in the potential future reproductive success caused by current investment in reproduction. This concept, developed in ecology and evolutionary biology, could provide a methodological framework to analyze irregular bearing in fruit crops, especially in relation to the spatial scale at which studies are done. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of reproduction during a growing cycle on reproduction during the following growing cycle and the indirect effects through vegetative growth between these two reproductive events, for four mango cultivars and during two growing cycles. Two spatial scales were considered: the growth unit (GU) and the scaffold branch. Costs of reproduction were detected between two successive reproductive events and between reproduction and vegetative growth. These costs were scale-dependent, generally detected at the GU scale and infrequently at the scaffold branch scale, suggesting partial branch autonomy with respect to processes underlying the effects of reproduction on vegetative growth. In contrast, the relationships between vegetative growth and reproduction were positive at the GU scale and at the scaffold branch scale in most cases, suggesting branch autonomy for the processes, mainly local, underlying flowering and fruiting. The negative effect of reproduction on vegetative growth prevailed over the positive effect of vegetative growth on the subsequent reproduction. The costs of reproduction were also cultivar-dependent. Those revealed at the GU scale were related to the bearing behavior of each cultivar. Our results put forward the crucial role of vegetative growth occurring between two

  16. Responses of vegetation growth to climate change in china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Zhou, T.

    2015-04-01

    Global warming-related climate changes have significantly impacted the growth of terrestrial vegetation. Quantifying the spatiotemporal characteristic of the vegetation's response to climate is crucial for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation. In this study, we employed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) that was calculated for various time scales (1 to 12 months) from monthly records of mean temperature and precipitation totals using 511 meteorological stations in China to study the response of vegetation types to droughts. We separated the NDVI into 12 time series (one per month) and also used the SPEI of 12 droughts time scales to make the correlation. The results showed that the differences exist in various vegetation types. For needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland, they responded to droughts at long time scales (9 to 12 months). For grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation, they responded to droughts at short time scales (1 to 5months). The positive correlations were mostly found in arid and sub-arid environments where soil water was a primary constraining factor for plant growth, and the negative correlations always existed in humid environments where temperature and radiation played significant roles in vegetation growth. Further spatial analysis indicated that the positive correlations were primarily found in northern China, especially in northwestern China, which is a region that always has water deficit, and the negative correlations were found in southern China, especially in southeastern China, that is a region has water surplus most of the year. The disclosed patterns of spatiotemporal responses to droughts are important for studying the impact of climate change to vegetation growth.

  17. Optimization of lamp spectrum for vegetable growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prikupets, L. B.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    An increase in the demand for and production of vegetables in the winter, mainly in northern and Siberian regions, inevitably leads to mass building of structures for growing plants under completely artificial conditions. An industrial lighting technology is required whose main parameters (spectrum, irradiance, photoperiod) should be assigned carefully and should uniquely determine, along with other important characteristics of the artificial climate, the productivity of the plant-production facility. The most widespread crops grown in our country under indoor conditions are cucumber and tomato plants, which account for more than 98% of the area in greenhouses. These plants are good prospects for growing completely under intense artificial lighting conditions (photocultures). Optimization of the main parameters of optical radiation when growing these plants is the most important task of achieving their profitable production. At present, considerable experience has been gained in studying the dependence of productivity of cucumber and tomato communities on irradiation conditions. Fundamental studies of the Agrophysical Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and other institutes create a good basis for a detailed study of the given problem. Commercial sources of radiation substantially differing in spectral characteristics in the region of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were used in the studies.

  18. Factors affecting vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Vinni M; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-03-01

    We have quantified vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1→3)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers' exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to β-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m(-3)) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers' exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop.

  19. Monitoring vegetation growth and morphodynamic effects after stream restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Ton; Keesstra, Saskia; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation processes are widely recognized as a key component on the ecological and morphological development of river channels. Moreover, plants reduce flow velocities and bed-shear stresses by increasing the local hydraulic roughness and thus increasing water levels. Therefore, monitoring the vegetation development is an important activity in river management not only for protecting ecological services, but also in flood risk reduction; especially in times of a changing climate. This paper presents the analysis the effects of riparian vegetation growth on the morphology of a lowland restored stream located in The Netherlands, the Lunterse beek. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was used to obtain aerial imagery at different time steps which was the basis for generating land cover maps with semi-automated image classification. In addition hydrological series and multi-temporal high-resolution bathymetric data allowed analysing river bed morphology and the relevance of seasonality. The UAV campaigns were found a crucial step to ease the vegetation mapping and monitoring. The morphological change observed in this stream, represented by the channel-width adjustment and the cross sectional evolution, is slowed down once vegetation is stablished on the stream. Results of this work show that the vegetation root system assert a strong control on soil stabilization, even during the winter season when the plants biomass is highly reduced. Seasonal variations in plant development appear important only during the first stages of establishment, when vegetation has a low density and, more importantly, a root system that is not fully developed yet.

  20. Monitoring the growth or decline of vegetation on mine dumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbertson, B. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following signficant results. It was established that particular mine dumps throughout the entire test area can be detected and identified. It was also established that patterns of vegetative growth on the mine dumps can be recognized from a simple visual analysis of photographic images. Because vegetation tends to occur in patches on many mine dumps, it is unsatisfactory to classify complete dumps into categories of percentage vegetative cover. A more desirable approach is to classify the patches of vegetation themselves. The coarse resolution of conventional densitometers restricts the accuracy of this procedure, and consequently a direct analysis of ERTS CCT's is preferred. A set of computer programs was written to perform the data reading and manipulating functions required for basic CCT analysis.

  1. Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in dry land and semi-arid regions and is a supplementary source of dietary protein for the resource-constrained farmers. The aim of this research was to evaluate growth parameters of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes at two locations in Eastern Kenya. The number o...

  2. Early onset of vegetation growth vs. rapid green-up: impacts on juvenile mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Pelletier, Fanie; Von Hardenberg, Achaz; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2007-02-01

    Seasonal patterns of climate and vegetation growth are expected to be altered by global warming. In alpine environments, the reproduction of birds and mammals is tightly linked to seasonality; therefore such alterations may have strong repercussions on recruitment. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a satellite-based measurement that correlates strongly with aboveground net primary productivity, to explore how annual variations in the timing of vegetation onset and in the rate of change in primary production during green-up affected juvenile growth and survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), and mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in four different populations in two continents. We indexed timing of onset of vegetation growth by the integrated NDVI (INDVI) in May. The rate of change in primary production during green-up (early May to early July) was estimated as (1) the maximal slope between any two successive bimonthly NDVI values during this period and (2) the slope in NDVI between early May and early July. The maximal slope in NDVI was negatively correlated with lamb growth and survival in both populations of bighorn sheep, growth of mountain goat kids, and survival of Alpine ibex kids, but not with survival of mountain goat kids. There was no effect of INDVI in May and of the slope in NDVI between early May and early July on juvenile growth and survival for any species. Although rapid changes in NDVI during the green-up period could translate into higher plant productivity, they may also lead to a shorter period of availability of high-quality forage over a large spatial scale, decreasing the opportunity for mountain ungulates to exploit high-quality forage. Our results suggest that attempts to forecast how warmer winters and springs will affect animal population dynamics and life histories in alpine environments should consider factors influencing the rate of changes in primary production during green

  3. Effects of industrial wastewater on growth and biomass production in commonly grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Uzma, Syeda; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Nabeela, Farhat; Muhammad, Uzair; Ali, Imran; Rehman, Zia Ur; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2016-06-01

    In developing countries like Pakistan, irrigation of crops with industrial and municipal wastewater is a common practice. However, the impact of wastewater irrigation on vegetables growth has rarely been studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of industrial wastewater on the germination and seedling growth of some commonly grown vegetables in Pakistan. Wastewater samples were collected from two different industries (marble industry and match alam factory) at Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE) in Peshawar, Pakistan, and their effect on different growth parameters of four vegetables including Hibiscus esculentus, Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus, and Cucumis melo was investigated. The obtained results revealed that wastewater from marble industry did not affect seed germination except a minor inhibition in H. esculentus. Effluents from match alam factory stimulated seed germination in C. melo and C. sativus but had no effect on seed germination in the other two vegetables. Wastewater increased root and shoot length in H. esculentus, L. sativa and C. melo, but decreased it in C. sativus. Similarly, differential effects of wastewater were observed on fresh and dry biomass of seedlings in all vegetables. It can be concluded that wastewater may have different effects on different crops, depending upon the nature of wastewater and sensitivity of a plant species to wastewater.

  4. IN11B-1621: Quantifying How Climate Affects Vegetation in the Amazon Rainforest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Kamalika; Kodali, Anuradha; Szubert, Marcin; Ganguly, Sangram; Bongard, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this

  5. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses.

  6. Recent Change of Vegetation Growth Trend in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Shushi; Chen, Anping; Xu, Liang; Cao, Chunxiang; Fang, Jingyun; Myneni, Ranga B.; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Tucker, COmpton J.; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    Using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, several previous studies have indicated that vegetation growth significantly increased in most areas of China during the period 1982-99. In this letter, we extended the study period to 2010. We found that at the national scale the growing season (April-October) NDVI significantly increased by 0.0007/yr from 1982 to 2010, but the increasing trend in NDVI over the last decade decreased in comparison to that of the 1982-99 period. The trends in NDVI show significant seasonal and spatial variances. The increasing trend in April and May (AM) NDVI (0.0013/yr is larger than those in June, July and August (JJA) (0.0003/yr) and September and October (SO) (0.0008/yr). This relatively small increasing trend of JJA NDVI during 1982-2010 compared with that during 1982-99 (0.0012/yr) (Piao et al 2003 J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 108 4401) implies a change in the JJA vegetation growth trend, which significantly turned from increasing (0.0039/yr) to slightly decreasing (0:0002/yr) in 1988. Regarding the spatial pattern of changes in NDVI, the growing season NDVI increased (over 0.0020/yr) from 1982 to 2010 in southern China, while its change was close to zero in northern China, as a result of a significant changing trend reversal that occurred in the 1990s and early 2000s. In northern China, the growing season NDVI significantly increased before the 1990s as a result of warming and enhanced precipitation, but decreased after the 1990s due to drought stress strengthened by warming and reduced precipitation. Our results also show that the responses of vegetation growth to climate change vary across different seasons and ecosystems.

  7. Growth and decline of vegetation on mine dumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbertson, B. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to determine the extent to which can be used to differentiate between mine dumps having varying degrees of vegetative cover. At this stage it is clear that the various mine dumps can be located and identified. Differences in vegetative cover can be seen and measured. Patterns of vegetative growth, some characteristic to particular dumps, can also be seen. It is therefore tentatively concluded that mine dumps can be differentiated with respect to their vegetative cover on the imagery received to date, and this is reported as a significant result. Subsequent imagery showing seasonal variations should facilitate this program. In addition to work on the mine dumps, a photogeological project has been initiated on geotectonics of South Africa. Studies of ERTS-1 images has indicated that major structures (faults, folds, and linear features) associated with the three geotectonic environments can be identified. In addition, major as well as relatively minor stratigraphic subdivisions can be recognized by their color tones. Results obtained warrant continuation of this study using color composite prints enlarged to a scale of 1:500,000.

  8. Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the sensitivity of bell pepper, eggplant, tomato, muskmelon, and watermelon to aminopyralid soil residues. Aminopyralid was applied at six rates ranging from 0.0014 kg ae ha 1 to 0.0448 kg ae ha 1, and vegetable crops were planted in the treated areas. ...

  9. Factors affecting radionuclide availability to vegetables grown at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    A field study was conducted in 1977 on /sup 238/ /sup 239/Pu and /sup 137/Cs availability to zucchini squash (Curcurbita melopepo, hybrid seneca) and green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Landreths stringless) grown under home-garden conditions in an area at Los Alamos National Laboratory used for treated radioactive liquid waste disposal. Radionuclide concentrations were measured as a function of tissue type, height above the soil, fertilization regime, and for the squash, food-cleansing procedures. Analysis of variance procedures was used to analyze the data. Ratios of the concentration of a radionuclide in oven-dried vegetation to dry soil ranged from 0.0004 to 0.116 for the Pu isotopes, and from 0.051 to 0.255 for /sup 137/Cs. Fertilization with cattle manure reduced the Pu concentration ratios by 30% and /sup 137/Cs by 50%. Vegetative parts sampled within 20 cm of the ground surface were contaminated about four times as much as those parts growing further from the ground surface. About 65% of the contamination was removed by washing, indicating the presence of surficial contamination. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to humans consuming vegetables from the garden plot would be less than 0.05 mrem and would be due almost entirely to /sup 137/Cs.

  10. Joint use of soil moisture and vegetation growth condition by remote sensing on the agricultural drought monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Yang, Siquan; Huang, He; He, Haixia; Li, Suju; Cui, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of important methods on the agricultural drought monitoring for its long-term and wide-area observations. The detection of soil moisture and vegetation growth condition are two widely used remote sensing methods on that. However, because of the time lag in the impact of water deficit on the crop growth, it is difficulty to indicate the severity of drought by once monitoring. It also cannot distinguish other negative impact on crop growth such as low temperature or solar radiation. In this paper, the joint use of soil moisture and vegetation growth condition detections was applied on the drought management during the summer of 2013 in Liaoning province, China, in which 84 counties were affected by agricultural drought. MODIS vegetation indices and land surface temperature (LST) were used to extract the drought index. Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), which only contain the change in vegetation index, and Vegetation Supply Water Index (VSWI), which combined the information of vegetation index and land surface temperature, were selected to compare the monitoring ability on drought during the drought period in Liaoning, China in 2014. It was found that VCI could be a good method on the loss assessment. VSWI has the information on the change in LST, which can indicate the spatial pattern of drought and can also be used as the early warning method in the study.

  11. Trend shifts in satellite-derived vegetation growth in Central Eurasia, 1982-2013.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Xin-Ping; Yang, Tai-Bao

    2017-02-01

    Central Eurasian vegetation is critical for the regional ecological security and the global carbon cycle. However, climatic impacts on vegetation growth in Central Eurasia are uncertain. The reason for this uncertainty lies in the fact that the response of vegetation to climate change showed nonlinearity, seasonality and differences among plant functional types. Based on remotely sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the years 1982-2013, in conjunction with the latest land cover type product, we analyzed how vegetation growth trend varied across different seasons and evaluated vegetation response to climate variables at regional, biome and pixel scales. We found a persistent increase in the growing season NDVI over Central Eurasia during 1982-1994, whereas this greening trend has stalled since the mid-1990s in response to increased water deficit. The stalled trend in the growing season NDVI was largely attributed by summer and autumn NDVI changes. Enhanced spring vegetation growth after 2002 was caused by rapid spring warming. The response of vegetation to climatic factors varied in different seasons. Precipitation was the main climate driver for the growing season and summer vegetation growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation during winter and spring controlled the spring vegetation growth. Autumn vegetation growth was mainly dependent on the vegetation growth in summer. We found diverse responses of different vegetation types to climate drivers in Central Eurasia. Forests were more responsive to temperature than to precipitation. Grassland and desert vegetation responded more strongly to precipitation than to temperature in summer but more strongly to temperature than to precipitation in spring. In addition, the growth of desert vegetation was more dependent on winter precipitation than that of grasslands. This study has important implications for improving the performance of terrestrial ecosystem models to predict future vegetation

  12. [Factors affecting the vegetation restoration after fires in cold temperate wetlands: A review].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Jun; Wang, Li-Zhong; Shu, Li-Fu; Chen, Peng-Yu; Chen, Li-guang

    2013-03-01

    Cold temperate wetland plays an important role in maintaining regional ecological balance. Fire is an important disturbance factor in wetland ecosystem. Severe burning can induce the marked degradation of the ecological functions of wetland ecosystem. The vegetation restoration, especially the early vegetation restoration, after fires, is the premise and basis for the recovery of the ecological functions of the ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the factors affecting the vegetation restoration after fires in wetlands. The vegetation restoration after fires in cold temperate wetlands was controlled by the fire intensity, fire size, vegetation types before fires, regeneration characteristics of plant species, and site conditions. It was considered that the long-term monitoring on the post-fire vegetation restoration in cold temperate wetland, the key factors affecting the vegetation restoration, the roles of frozen soil layer on the post-fire vegetation restoration, and the theories and technologies on the vegetation restoration would be the main research directions in the future.

  13. Effect of nitrogen gas packaging on the quality and microbial growth of fresh-cut vegetables under low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Itoh, Kazuhiko

    2002-02-01

    Nitrogen (N2) gas packaging for fresh-cut vegetables (lettuce and cabbage) has been examined as a means of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for extending the shelf life of cut vegetables. Gas composition in enclosed packages that contained cut vegetables and were filled with 100% N2 had an oxygen (O2) concentration of 1.2 to 5.0% and a carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of 0.5 to 3.5% after 5 days of storage. An atmosphere of low concentrations of O2 and high CO2 conditions occurred naturally in the package filled with N2 gas. Degradation of cut vegetables in terms of appearance was delayed by N2 gas packaging. Because of this effect, the appearance of fresh-cut vegetables packaged with N2 gas remained acceptable at temperatures below 5 degrees C after 5 days. Treatment with acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) contributed to the acceptability of the vegetables' appearance at 5 and 10 degrees C in the air-packaging system. N2 gas packaging did not significantly affect the growth of microbial populations (total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bacillus cereus, and psychrotrophic bacteria) in or on cut vegetables at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for 5 days. Microbial growth in or on the cut vegetables was inhibited at 1 degrees C for 5 days regardless of atmospheric conditions.

  14. Bacillus anthracis tagO Is Required for Vegetative Growth and Secondary Cell Wall Polysaccharide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lunderberg, J. Mark; Liszewski Zilla, Megan; Missiakas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus anthracis elaborates a linear secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that retains surface (S)-layer and associated proteins via their S-layer homology (SLH) domains. The SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→] and tethered via acid-labile phosphodiester bonds to peptidoglycan. Earlier work identified UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerases GneY (BAS5048) and GneZ (BAS5117), which act as catalysts of ManNAc synthesis, as well as a polysaccharide deacetylase (BAS5051), as factors contributing to SCWP synthesis. Here, we show that tagO (BAS5050), which encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:undecaprenyl-P N-acetylglucosaminyl 1-P transferase, the enzyme that initiates the synthesis of murein linkage units, is required for B. anthracis SCWP synthesis and S-layer assembly. Similar to gneY-gneZ mutants, B. anthracis strains lacking tagO cannot maintain cell shape or support vegetative growth. In contrast, mutations in BAS5051 do not affect B. anthracis cell shape, vegetative growth, SCWP synthesis, or S-layer assembly. These data suggest that TagO-mediated murein linkage unit assembly supports SCWP synthesis and attachment to the peptidoglycan via acid-labile phosphodiester bonds. Further, B. anthracis variants unable to synthesize SCWP trisaccharide repeats cannot sustain cell shape and vegetative growth. IMPORTANCE Bacillus anthracis elaborates an SCWP to support vegetative growth and envelope assembly. Here, we show that some, but not all, SCWP synthesis is dependent on tagO-derived murein linkage units and subsequent attachment of SCWP to peptidoglycan. The data implicate secondary polymer modifications of peptidoglycan and subcellular distributions as a key feature of the cell cycle in Gram-positive bacteria and establish foundations for work on the molecular functions of the SCWP and on inhibitors with antibiotic attributes. PMID:26324447

  15. Snow survey and vegetation growth in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analog processing of S190A and B color and infrared color transparencies showed that it is possible to evaluate the courses of the temporary snow line and the upper limit of vegetation growth over large areas. By transferring the results from S190A onto a topo-map 1:200,000, an accuracy of + or - 50 m could be achieved. With S190B transferred onto a map 1:100,000, an accuracy of + or - 20 m was reached. Digital processing of S192 multispectral data allowed a separation of snow and clouds by combining the information from channels 9, 15, and 18.

  16. Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyadi, S. N. A.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Misni, A.

    2014-02-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI.

  17. Edaphic limitations to growth and photosynthesis in Sierran and Great Basin vegetation.

    PubMed

    DeLucia, Evan H; Schlesinger, William H; Billings, W D

    1989-02-01

    Soils derived from hydrothermally altered andesite support unique communities of Sierran conifers (Pinus ponderosa Laws. and P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) amongst sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) vegetation in the western Great Basin. Plants grown in soil derived from hydrothermally altered bedrock had lower growth rates, total biomass, and net photosynthetic rates than plants grown in soil derived from unaltered andesite of the same formation. Total dry mass was 10 to 28% lower for conifers grown in altered soil whereas dry mass of Artemisia tridentata and Bromus tectorum L. was reduced by over 90%. Results from a nutrient amendment experiment indicated that low phosphorus was the dominant limitation in altered soil, and phosphorus-deficiency affected growth primarily by limiting leaf area development rather than direct inhibition of photosynthesis. The proportionately greater reduction of biomass for Artemisia and Bromus grown in altered soil supports our hypothesis that Great Basin vegetation is excluded from altered soil by intolerance to nutrient deficiency. The Sierran conifers growing on this rock type are therefore free of competition for water with Great Basin vegetation and are able to persist in an exceptionally dry climate.

  18. Throughfall Monitoring Of Old Growth, Second Growth, And Cleared Vegetation Plots On Prince of Wales Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussian, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    The density of forest canopy affects the amount of rain reaching the forest floor in forested environments of Southeast Alaska. Less throughfall occurs in the second growth sites than in the old growth site and greater throughfall occurs in the clear-cut sites. More specifically, preliminary data show that SG sites received between 38 and 87% of the OG throughfall and the clear-cut sites experienced between 145 and 248% of the OG throughfall. Precipitation gages were used to monitor throughfall in each of the forested vegetation sites on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, as an indicator of the amount of water reaching the forest floor in these different forest types. Data collected during 2004 and 2005 included 23 storms ranging from 0.2 to 10.6 inches of rain in the clear-cut forest. This monitoring is an effort to determine the affect, if any, that forest management could have on throughfall, and furthermore, lend information to forest management effects on the water balance within a watershed. Site selection focused on similarities in location, elevation, aspect, and accessibility while accounting for the three varying vegetation conditions. Data collected during 2004 and 2005 sampling seasons were in the same sampling plots, while data collected in 2006 is a duplicate set of sites. Twenty-three storms were used to determine the affect, if any, that forest management could have on throughfall, and furthermore, lend information to forest management effects on the water balance within a watershed. The second growth stand was harvested in 1979 and is currently in stem re-initiation phase with thick conifer regeneration. The clear-cut site was harvested in 1999 and contains conifer vegetation, blueberry, and salmonberry vegetation less than five feet in height. Storms were defined as events that were clearly delineated by lack of rainfall for a period of time, or similar antecedent conditions, and totaled at least .2 inches of rain at the CC site. Analysis of a storm

  19. Do multiple fires interact to affect vegetation structure in temperate eucalypt forests?

    PubMed

    Haslem, Angie; Leonard, Steve W J; Bruce, Matthew J; Christie, Fiona; Holland, Greg J; Kelly, Luke T; MacHunter, Josephine; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; York, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e.g., time-since-fire effects) is influenced by other fire regime attributes and (2) the severity of the most recent fire overrides the effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Empirical data on vegetation structure were collected from 540 sites distributed across central and eastern Victoria, Australia. Linear mixed models were used to examine these hypotheses and determine the relative influence of fire and environmental attributes on vegetation structure. Fire history measures, particularly time since fire, affected several vegetation attributes including ground and canopy strata; others such as low and sub-canopy vegetation were more strongly influenced by environmental characteristics like rainfall. There was little support for the hypothesis that post-fire succession is influenced by fire history attributes other than time since fire; only canopy regeneration was influenced by another variable (fire type, representing severity). Our capacity to detect an overriding effect of the severity of the most recent fire was limited by a consistently weak effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Overall, results suggest the primary way that fire affects vegetation structure in foothill forests is via attributes of the most recent fire, both its severity and time since its occurrence; other attributes of fire regimes (e.g., fire interval, frequency) have less influence. The strong effect of environmental drivers, such as rainfall and

  20. Behaviour of inter crop-growth stages scatterograms for NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) scatterograms between two crop growth stage for 1986-1987 rabi season over Ludhiana district witnessing 94.9% of sown area under wheat were studied. Dispersions of RVI were less than that of NDVI for all crop growth stages except the stages witnessing no significant change in greenness where the magnitudes of dispersion were similar for RVI as well as NDVI. Scatterograms between dates witnessing high vegetative growth had bowl shapes while vertical cut off was witnessed for moderate rate wider variability (larger standard deviation) vegetative growth. Decrease in vegetative growth as well as in standard deviation resulted in horizontal cut-off. Typical cut off was observed in RVI scatterograms (not observed in NDVI) between mid of Milking-Dough and mid of Maturity-Harvesting stage.

  1. NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices as agrometeorological growth parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with the utility of NOAA/AVHRR vegetation indices as agrometeorological growth parameters. The area chosen to the study was the Punjab and the Haryana states of India, both comprising districts primarily under wheat cultivation with 68-76% geographical area under agriculture and 89-96% agricultural area under wheat. Application of geometric correction to visible and near IR band images followed by computation of NDVI and RVI images yielded less error than the conventional method of correction to NDVI/RVI images. Images having far-side boundary pixel upto 38 degree scan angle did not cause significant error at district level statistics. RVI was more sensitive than NDVI from emergence to near jointing and maturity to senescence stages. Prior to jointing stage and after dough stage RVI can be transformed to NDVI, to enable its joint use with NDVI. The maximum and mean air temperatures based growing degree days (GDD) related well with the NDVI/RVI temporal profile over the entire crop growth cycle at 98-99% significance level. However, shapewise the maximum temperature based GDD was superior to mean temperature based GDD, whereas minimum temperature based GDD had statistically significant relationship only upto dough stage at 95% significance level. The integrated NDVI (INDVI) values computed for mid of late-tillering to jointing stage were significantly related to the yield (r-square = 0.867, at 99.34% significance level). When INDVI at this stage was coupled with that of mid of milking and dough - nearing maturity stages, the predictability of wheat yields increased (r-square = 0.891, at 99.32% significance level).

  2. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  3. Modeling of the Competitive Growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactococcus lactis in Vegetable Broth

    PubMed Central

    Breidt, Frederick; Fleming, Henry P.

    1998-01-01

    Current mathematical models used by food microbiologists do not address the issue of competitive growth in mixed cultures of bacteria. We developed a mathematical model which consists of a system of nonlinear differential equations describing the growth of competing bacterial cell cultures. In this model, bacterial cell growth is limited by the accumulation of protonated lactic acid and decreasing pH. In our experimental system, pure and mixed cultures of Lactococcus lactis and Listeria monocytogenes were grown in a vegetable broth medium. Predictions of the model indicate that pH is the primary factor that limits the growth of L. monocytogenes in competition with a strain of L. lactis which does not produce the bacteriocin nisin. The model also predicts the values of parameters that affect the growth and death of the competing populations. Further development of this model will incorporate the effects of additional inhibitors, such as bacteriocins, and may aid in the selection of lactic acid bacterium cultures for use in competitive inhibition of pathogens in minimally processed foods. PMID:9726854

  4. Management intensity and vegetation complexity affect web-building spiders and their prey.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Eva; Mader, Viktoria L; Wolters, Volkmar; Birkhofer, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural management and vegetation complexity affect arthropod diversity and may alter trophic interactions between predators and their prey. Web-building spiders are abundant generalist predators and important natural enemies of pests. We analyzed how management intensity (tillage, cutting of the vegetation, grazing by cattle, and synthetic and organic inputs) and vegetation complexity (plant species richness, vegetation height, coverage, and density) affect rarefied richness and composition of web-building spiders and their prey with respect to prey availability and aphid predation in 12 habitats, ranging from an uncut fallow to a conventionally managed maize field. Spiders and prey from webs were collected manually and the potential prey were quantified using sticky traps. The species richness of web-building spiders and the order richness of prey increased with plant diversity and vegetation coverage. Prey order richness was lower at tilled compared to no-till sites. Hemipterans (primarily aphids) were overrepresented, while dipterans, hymenopterans, and thysanopterans were underrepresented in webs compared to sticky traps. The per spider capture efficiency for aphids was higher at tilled than at no-till sites and decreased with vegetation complexity. After accounting for local densities, 1.8 times more aphids were captured at uncut compared to cut sites. Our results emphasize the functional role of web-building spiders in aphid predation, but suggest negative effects of cutting or harvesting. We conclude that reduced management intensity and increased vegetation complexity help to conserve local invertebrate diversity, and that web-building spiders at sites under low management intensity (e.g., semi-natural habitats) contribute to aphid suppression at the landscape scale.

  5. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth.

    PubMed

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z X; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-07-28

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system.

  6. Growth, photosynthesis, and resource investment for vegetative and reproductive modules of artemisia tridentata

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Black, R.A. )

    1993-07-01

    Growth of vegetative and reproductive structures in Artemisia tridentata is temporally separated during the growing season; vegetative growth occurs during spring and early summer when soil moisture is most abundant, while reproductive growth occurs during summer and fall when soil moisture may be limiting. Vegetative and reproductive structures may exhibit contrasting efficiencies of resource acquisition and investment resulting from temporal differences in resource availability. The effect of water stress on growth, photosynthesis, and resource investment for vegetative and reproductive modules of Artemisia tridentata was examined by applying supplemental water. No differences were observed in vegetative biomass in the two watering treatments. Growth of vegetative structures occurred in the spring when water was not limiting, and shrubs in both treatments exerted little stomatal control over water loss. Conversely, supplemental watering increased reproductive growth. Shrubs conserved water during summer by abscising leaves and lowering stomatal conductance potential and increases in evaporative demand. In florescences are capable of positive photosynthetic rates comparable to vegetative leaves. Water stress did not alter tissue construction costs or carbon and nitrogen contents for either vegetative or reproductive modules. Resource limitations were reflected in the efficiency of water use during tissue construction; floral leaves and floral heads of shrubs not receiving supplemental water were produced with higher water-use efficiency. Conservative use of water during production of vegetative modules would offer no advantage because neighboring species are also most active at this time. Reproductive growth in A. tridentata occurs during summer when neighboring species are largely dormant, and so efficient use of water may allow development of reproductive structures to continue throughout the summer even with limited supplies of water. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  8. Contrasting growth responses of dominant peatland plants to warming and vegetation composition.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tom N; Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Bardgett, Richard D

    2015-05-01

    There is growing recognition that changes in vegetation composition can strongly influence peatland carbon cycling, with potential feedbacks to future climate. Nevertheless, despite accelerated climate and vegetation change in this ecosystem, the growth responses of peatland plant species to combined warming and vegetation change are unknown. Here, we used a field warming and vegetation removal experiment to test the hypothesis that dominant species from the three plant functional types present (dwarf-shrubs: Calluna vulgaris; graminoids: Eriophorum vaginatum; bryophytes: Sphagnum capillifolium) contrast in their growth responses to warming and the presence or absence of other plant functional types. Warming was accomplished using open top chambers, which raised air temperature by approximately 0.35 °C, and we measured air and soil microclimate as potential mechanisms through which both experimental factors could influence growth. We found that only Calluna growth increased with experimental warming (by 20%), whereas the presence of dwarf-shrubs and bryophytes increased growth of Sphagnum (46%) and Eriophorum (20%), respectively. Sphagnum growth was also negatively related to soil temperature, which was lower when dwarf-shrubs were present. Dwarf-shrubs may therefore promote Sphagnum growth by cooling the peat surface. Conversely, the effect of bryophyte presence on Eriophorum growth was not related to any change in microclimate, suggesting other factors play a role. In conclusion, our findings reveal contrasting abiotic and biotic controls over dominant peatland plant growth, suggesting that community composition and carbon cycling could be modified by simultaneous climate and vegetation change.

  9. Microbiological community analysis of vermicompost tea and its influence on the growth of vegetables and cereals.

    PubMed

    Fritz, J I; Franke-Whittle, I H; Haindl, S; Insam, H; Braun, R

    2012-07-01

    Vermicompost, the digestion product of organic material by earthworms, has been widely reported to have a more positive effect on plant growth and plant health than conventional compost. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different vermicompost elutriates (aerated compost teas) on soils and plant growth. The teas were analyzed by chemical, microbiological, and molecular methods accompanied by plant growth tests at laboratory and field scale. The number of microorganisms in the teas increased during the extraction process and was affected by substrate addition. The vermicompost tea found to increase plant growth best under laboratory tests was applied to cereals (wheat and barley) and vegetables (Raphanus sativus, Rucola selvatica, and Pisum sativum) in a field study. The results revealed no effects of tea application on plant yield; however, sensoric tests indicated an improvement in crop quality. The soils from laboratory and field studies were investigated to detect possible microbial or chemical changes. The results indicated that minor changes to the soil microbial community occurred following tea application by foliar spray in both the laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments.

  10. Role of rice PPS in late vegetative and reproductive growth.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The rice peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) mutant shows a prolonged juvenile phase and early flowering. Although the early vegetative phase and flowering time of pps-1 have been closely examined, the phenotypes in the late vegetative and reproductive phases are not yet well understood. In the ninth leaf blade of pps-1, the relative length of the midrib was comparable to the sixth leaf blade of wild-type. Moreover, pps-1 had a small inflorescence meristem and small panicles. These phenotypes indicate that in pps-1 the juvenile phase coexists with the late vegetative phase, resulting in small panicles. Gibberellin is known to promote the juvenile-adult phase transition. d18-k is dwarf and has a prolonged juvenile phase. Double mutant (d18-k pps-1) showed the same phenotype as the pps-1, indicating that PPS is upstream of GA biosynthetic genes.

  11. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system. PMID:26170316

  12. Chemical agents and peptides affect hair growth.

    PubMed

    Uno, H; Kurata, S

    1993-07-01

    During the past decade we have examined both the therapeutic and the prophylactic effects of several agents on the macaque model of androgenetic alopecia. Minoxidil and diazoxide, potent hypotensive agents acting as peripheral vasodilators, are known to have a hypertrichotic side effect. Topical use of both agents induced significant hair regrowth in the bald scalps of macaques. The application of a steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (4MA) in non-bald preadolescent macaques has prevented baldness, whereas controls developed it during 2 years of treatment. The effects of hair growth were determined by 1) phototrichogram, 2) folliculogram (micro-morphometric analysis), and 3) the rate of DNA synthesis in the follicular cells. These effects were essentially a stimulation of the follicular cell proliferation, resulting in an enlargement of the anagen follicles from vellus to terminal type (therapy) or a maintenance of the prebald terminal follicles (prevention). A copper binding peptide (PC1031) had the effect of follicular enlargement on the back skin of fuzzy rats, covering the vellus follicles; the effect was similar to that of topical minoxidil. Analyzing the quantitative sequences of follicular size and cyclic phases, we speculate on the effect of agents on follicular growth. We also discuss the triggering mechanism of androgen in the follicular epithelial-mesenchymal (dermal papilla) interaction.

  13. The Hydrological Regimes Brought by the Three Gorges Project Affected Riparian Vegetation Distribution and Diversity in 2009 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Post-dam riparian vegetations affected by the new hydrological regimes in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were investigated in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The investigation in 2009 showed that about 231 vascular plant species belonging to 169 genera of 61 families were distributed in the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the (TGR). Three vegetation types, including Chuanjiang, Gorge, and other vegetation types, were classified efficiently via cluster analysis. Alpha diversity analysis indicated that species richness gradually decreased with decreasing elevation. Beta diversity analysis indicated that high environment heterogeneity was existed between the lower section and the other two sections, and environment homogeneity was also existed between middle section and upper section. Using the analysis of the field growth in the 2009 and 2010 field surveys as bases, we proposed a list of perennial herb species and woody species that may potentially occurred in the WLFZ of the TGR. In addition, we predicted plant community structural changes in the different altitude sections of WLFZ in the future.

  14. A model for seed dispersion and vegetation growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jaqueline Maria; Vieira Kritz, Maurício

    2016-08-01

    The study of processes associated with vegetation grow is very important to understand the dynamics of flooded ecosystems and their sustainable management. We present a cell-centered individual-based probabilistic model for the dynamics of tree-populations, that is further tailored towards the environmental conditions present in the Amazon floodplains.

  15. A structured model for vegetative growth and sporulation in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Starzak, M; Bajpai, R K

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the delta-endotoxin producing Bacillus thuringiensis. The structure of the model involves the processes taking place during vegetative growth, those leading to the initiation of sporulation under conditions of carbon and/or nitrogen limitation, and the sporulation events. The key features in the model are the pools of compounds, such as PRPP, IMP, ADP/ATP, GDP/GTP, pyrimidine nucleotides, NAD/NADH2, amino acids, nucleic acids, cell wall, and vegetative and sporulation proteins. These, along with sigma-factors that control the nature of RNA-polymerase during the different phases, effectively stimulate the vegetative growth and sporulation. The initiation of sporulation is controlled by the intracellular concentration of GTP. Results of simulation of vegetative growth, initiation of sporulation, spore protein formation, and production of delta-endotoxin under C- or N-limitation are presented.

  16. A structured model for vegetative growth and sporulation in Bacillus thuringiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Starzak, M.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1991-12-31

    A mathematical model has been developed for the 6-endotoxin producing Bacillus thuringiensis. The structure of the model involves the processes taking place during vegetative growth, those leading to the initiation of sporulation under conditions of carbon and/or nitrogen limitation, and the sporulation events. The key features in the model are the pools of compounds, such as PRPP, IMP, ADP/ATP, GDP/GTP, pyrimidine nucleotides, NAD/NADH{sub 2}, amino acids, nucleic acids, cell wall, and vegetative and sporulation proteins. These, along with a-factors that control the nature of RNA-polymerase during the different phases, effectively stimulate the vegetative growth and sporulation. The initiation of sporulation is controlled by the intracellular concentration of GTP. Results of simulation of vegetative growth, initiation of sporulation, spore protein formation, and production of {delta}-endotoxin under C- or N-limitation are presented.

  17. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  18. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:25251495

  19. Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  20. Modelling vegetation water-use and groundwater recharge as affected by climate variability in an arid-zone Acacia savanna woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Eamus, Derek; Cleverly, James; Boulain, Nicolas; Cook, Peter; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Lei; Yu, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    For efficient and sustainable utilisation of limited groundwater resources, improved understanding of how vegetation water-use responds to climate variation and the corresponding controls on recharge is essential. This study investigated these responses using a modelling approach. The biophysically based model WAVES was calibrated and validated with more than two years of field experimental data conducted in Mulga (Acacia aneura) in arid central Australia. The validated model was then applied to simulate vegetation growth (as changes in overstory and understory leaf area index; LAI), vegetation water-use and groundwater recharge using observed climate data for the period 1981-2012. Due to large inter-annual climatic variability, especially precipitation, simulated annual mean LAI ranged from 0.12 to 0.35 for the overstory and 0.07 to 0.21 for the understory. These variations in simulated LAI resulted in vegetation water-use varying greatly from year-to-year, from 64 to 601 mm pa. Simulated vegetation water-use also showed distinct seasonal patterns. Vegetation dynamics affected by climate variability exerted significant controls on simulated annual recharge, which was greatly reduced to 0-48 mm compared to that (58-672 mm) only affected by climate. Understanding how climate variability and land use/land cover change interactively impact on groundwater recharge significantly improves groundwater resources management in arid and semi-arid regions.

  1. Predicted changes in vegetation structure affect the susceptibility to invasion of bryophyte-dominated subarctic heath

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, R. Lutz; Pereira,, Eva; Milbau, Ann; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A meta-analysis of global change experiments in arctic tundra sites suggests that plant productivity and the cover of shrubs, grasses and dead plant material (i.e. litter) will increase and the cover of bryophytes will decrease in response to higher air temperatures. However, little is known about which effects these changes in vegetation structure will have on seedling recruitment of species and invasibility of arctic ecosystems. Methods A field experiment was done in a bryophyte-dominated, species-rich subarctic heath by manipulating the cover of bryophytes and litter in a factorial design. Three phases of seedling recruitment (seedling emergence, summer seedling survival, first-year recruitment) of the grass Anthoxanthum alpinum and the shrub Betula nana were analysed after they were sown into the experimental plots. Key Results Bryophyte and litter removal significantly increased seedling emergence of both species but the effects of manipulations of vegetation structure varied strongly for the later phases of recruitment. Summer survival and first-year recruitment were significantly higher in Anthoxanthum. Although bryophyte removal generally increased summer survival and recruitment, seedlings of Betula showed high mortality in early August on plots where bryophytes had been removed. Conclusions Large species-specific variation and significant effects of experimental manipulations on seedling recruitment suggest that changes in vegetation structure as a consequence of global warming will affect the abundance of grasses and shrubs, the species composition and the susceptibility to invasion of subarctic heath vegetation. PMID:21624960

  2. The long-term relationship between population growth and vegetation cover: an empirical analysis based on the panel data of 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhang, Chao

    2013-02-07

    It is generally believed that there is an inverse relationship between population growth and vegetation cover. However, reports about vegetation protection and reforestation around the World have been continuously increasing in recent decades, which seems to indicate that this relationship may not be true. In this paper, we have taken 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China as the study area to test the long-term relationship between population growth and vegetation cover, using an AVHRR NDVI data set and the panel cointegrated regression method. The results show that there is a long-term inverted N-shaped curve relationship between population growth and vegetation cover in the region where there are frequent human activities and the influence of climate change on vegetation cover changes is relatively small. The two turning points of the inverted N-shaped curve for the case of Guangdong Province correspond to 2,200 persons · km(-2) and 3,820 persons · km(-2), and they can provide a reference range for similar regions of the World. It also states that the population urbanization may have a negative impact on the vegetation cover at the early stage, but have a positive impact at the later stage. In addition, the Panel Error Correction Model (PECM) is used to investigate the causality direction between population growth and vegetation cover. The results show that not only will the consuming destruction effect and planting construction effect induced by the population growth have a great impact on vegetation cover changes, but vegetation cover changes in turn will also affect the population growth in the long term.

  3. The Long-Term Relationship between Population Growth and Vegetation Cover: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Panel Data of 21 Cities in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that there is an inverse relationship between population growth and vegetation cover. However, reports about vegetation protection and reforestation around the World have been continuously increasing in recent decades, which seems to indicate that this relationship may not be true. In this paper, we have taken 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China as the study area to test the long-term relationship between population growth and vegetation cover, using an AVHRR NDVI data set and the panel cointegrated regression method. The results show that there is a long-term inverted N-shaped curve relationship between population growth and vegetation cover in the region where there are frequent human activities and the influence of climate change on vegetation cover changes is relatively small. The two turning points of the inverted N-shaped curve for the case of Guangdong Province correspond to 2,200 persons·km−2 and 3,820 persons·km−2, and they can provide a reference range for similar regions of the World. It also states that the population urbanization may have a negative impact on the vegetation cover at the early stage, but have a positive impact at the later stage. In addition, the Panel Error Correction Model (PECM) is used to investigate the causality direction between population growth and vegetation cover. The results show that not only will the consuming destruction effect and planting construction effect induced by the population growth have a great impact on vegetation cover changes, but vegetation cover changes in turn will also affect the population growth in the long term. PMID:23435589

  4. Investigating chitin deacetylation and chitosan hydrolysis during vegetative growth in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Ivey A; Gurr, Sarah J

    2017-03-29

    Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4-linked glucosamine. Chitosan is known to have important functions in the cell walls of a number of fungal species, but its role during hyphal growth has not yet been investigated. In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae, and identified two chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth - CDA1 and CDA4. Deletion strains and fluorescent protein fusions demonstrated that CDA1 is necessary for chitin deacetylation in the septa and lateral cell walls of mature hyphae in colony interiors, whereas CDA4 deacetylates chitin in the hyphae at colony margins. However, although the ∆cda1 strain was more resistant to cell wall hydrolysis, growth and pathogenic development were otherwise unaffected in the deletion strains. The role of chitosan hydrolysis was also investigated. A single gene encoding a putative chitosanase (CSN) was discovered in M.oryzae and found to be expressed during vegetative growth. However, chitosan localization, vegetative growth and pathogenic development were unaffected in a CSN deletion strain, rendering the role of this enzyme unclear.

  5. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64.

  6. Multi-Frequency Investigation into Scattering from Vegetation over the Growth Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.; Kurum, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M. D.; Cosh, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, we aim to collect and use time-series multi-frequency microwave data over winter wheat during entire growth cycle to characterize vegetation dynamics and to quantify its effects on soil moisture retrievals. We plan to incorporate C-band radar and VHF receiver within the existing L-band radarradiometer system called ComRAD (SMAPs ground based simulator). With C-bands ability to sense vegetation details and VHFs root-zone soil moisture within ComRADs footprint, we will be able to test our discrete scatterer vegetation models and parameters at various surface conditions. The purpose of this study is to determine optical depth and effective scattering albedo of vegetation of a given type (i.e. winter wheat) at various stages of growth that are need to refine soil moisture retrieval algorithms being developed for the SMAP mission.

  7. Vegetation structure determination using LIDAR data and the forest growth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Brenova, M.; Cermak, J.; van Genderen, J.; Sivertun, Å.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main vegetation factors in the terrain, which are important for the analysis of forest structure. Such an analysis is important for forestry, rescue operations management during crises situations and disasters such as fires, storms, earthquakes and military analysis (transportation, cover, concealment, etc.). For the forest structure determination, both LIDAR and the forest growth prediction analysis were used. As main results, the vegetation height, tree spacing and stem diameters were determined

  8. Detection and attribution of vegetation growth change in China during the last thirty years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J.; Wang, X.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Peng, S.; Zeng, Z.; Piao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced terrestrial vegetation growth in China over the past three decades has been proved by satellite observations. During the same period, China has experienced dramatic land use and land cover changes. Those changes can not only strengthen the vegetation growth by afforestation and agricultural management, but also weaken it by urbanization and overgrazing. Compared to global climate changes, the effect of land use and land cover changes (LULCC) in China vegetation growth is still not clear. A further understanding of the mechanisms for this phenomenon is crucial for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. To investigate the variation of vegetation growth in Chinese provinces and evaluate its responses to external driving factors from 1982 to 2009, two mechanistic terrestrial carbon models (CLM and OCHIDEE) have been applied in this paper. The modeled Leaf Area Index (LAI) from the two models has been increasing, which is consistent to the satellite LAI. On that basis, a series of factorial simulations based on the two models were processed to separate independent contributions of external driving factors to LAI. Besides of climate changing and LULCC, other external driving factors were also considered such as CO2 and nitrogen deposition. The results indicate that the distribution of LAI trend is far from homogeneous at provincial scale and highest LAI trend happened in South China. The dominant influential factor varies in different provinces. Climate-only simulation may not explain the vegetation growth change well in all the provinces. CO2 and LULCC seem to play a more important role in South China which matches the region with sharp increase of LAI. This phenomenon shows that the anthropology-oriented impact cannot be ignored under the background of global climate change and it is vital for further exploration of the effect of human society to vegetation growth.

  9. Stochastic Modeling of Vegetation Growth, Mortality and Invasion in a Fluvial Floodplain in Interaction with Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Toshimori, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Ryo

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains and sand bars has become a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From both viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have tried to develop a stochastic model for predicting the dynamics of trees in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the model, the flood discharge is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The modeling for vegetation dynamics includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by flood impacts, and infant tree invasion. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after flood impacts since 2008 at a field site located between 23.2-24.0 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth locations in the Kako River floodplains, where the predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. In this presentation, the three effects in vegetation dynamics, i.e., the tree growth rate, mortality, and infant tree invasion, are refined for improving the model predictability. The growth rate curve proposed here is derived by introducing inhibition effect of larger trees into the conventional Richards growth curve. As for the mortality rate

  10. Carica papaya (Caricaceae): a case study into the effects of domestication on plant vegetative growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Marler, Thomas E

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have quantitatively evaluated the gender specific effects of cultivation on plant growth and reproduction. The availability of cultivated and wild populations of different genders of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) on Guam provided an opportunity to study these effects quantitatively. We compared the gender specific allometry of height vs. basal stem diameter (H vs. D), stem slenderness ratio (H/D), and the height at first flowering (H(fl)) of carpellate and staminate plants growing under natural conditions (N = 150 each) with those of carpellate and hermaphroditic plants (N = 250 each) from two cultivars (Sunrise and Tainung 2). These comparisons indicated that (1) wild carpellate and staminate plants are significantly taller than either gender of the two cultivars with equivalent D; (2) the scaling exponent governing the H vs. D relationship of both genders of wild plants is significantly higher than that of either cultivated gender; (3) cultivar type does not affect the H vs. D exponent, but gender expression does; (4) gender expression (but not cultivar-type) also affects H(fl) (cultivation substantially reduces carpellate plant H(fl)); and (5) the onset of sexual maturity is associated with a dramatic reversal in H/D ontogeny. Cultivation therefore has "condensed" patterns of vegetative growth in a gender specific manner, whereas gender expression alters both vegetative and reproductive growth significantly more so than does cultivar-type.

  11. Removal of the local geomagnetic field affects reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Wei, Shufeng; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yuxia; Chen, Chuanfang; Song, Tao

    2013-09-01

    The influence of the geomagnetic field-removed environment on Arabidopsis growth was investigated by cultivation of the plants in a near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field (45 µT) for the whole growth period under laboratory conditions. The biomass accumulation of plants in the near-null magnetic field was significantly suppressed at the time when plants were switching from vegetative growth to reproductive growth compared with that of plants grown in the local geomagnetic field, which was caused by a delay in the flowering of plants in the near-null magnetic field. At the early or later growth stage, no significant difference was shown in the biomass accumulation between the plants in the near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field. The average number of siliques and the production of seeds per plant in the near-null magnetic field was significantly lower by about 22% and 19%, respectively, than those of control plants. These resulted in a significant reduction of about 20% in the harvest index of plants in the near-null magnetic field compared with that of the controls. These results suggest that the removal of the local geomagnetic field negatively affects the reproductive growth of Arabidopsis, which thus affects the yield and harvest index.

  12. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  13. Initiation of conidiation in Erysiphe necator is regulated by prior vegetative growth, inoculum density and light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of asexual sporulation in powdery mildews is preceded by a period of superficial vegetative growth of mildew colonies. We found evidence of signaling in Erysiphe necator that was promulgated at the colony center as early as five days after inoculation and stimulated sporulation throughout...

  14. Effect of prior vegetative growth, inoculum density and light on conidiation in Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A driving force in epidemics of grape powdery mildew is the abundant production of conidia. Our objective was to better define the three factors involved in the qualitative change that occurs when a mildew colony switches from vegetative growth to sporulation –inoculum density, light, and a sporulat...

  15. Minesoil grading and ripping affect black walnut growth and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Josiah, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    In 1980 and 1981, the Botany Department of Southern Illinois University and Sahara Coal Company, Inc. of Harrisburg, Illinois established a series of experimental tree plantings, including black walnut, on a variety of minesoils to explore the effects of different intensities of grading on tree growth. Subsequent walnut stem and root growth were examined during 1985 on five different mine sites: unmined former agricultural land, graded minespoil, replaced (with pan scrapers) topsoil over graded spoil, ripped-graded spoil, and ungraded spoil. Soil bulk density, resistance to penetration, and spoil/soil fertility levels were also measured. The most vigorous trees were found on sites having the lowest soil bulk density and soil strength and lacking horizontal barriers to root growth - the ungraded and ripped sites. Topsoiled sites had the poorest growth and survival, and the greatest stem dieback of any site measured, probably attributable to the confinement of root growth to the upper 15 cm of friable soil above the severely compacted zone. The overall results indicate that most of the minesoil construction techniques examined in this study, which are representative of techniques commonly used in the midwestern US, cause severe minesoil compaction and do not create the proper soil conditions necessary for the survival and vigorous growth of black walnut. Ripping compacted spoil in this and other studies proved to be very effective in alleviating the negative impacts of minesoil compaction. When planning surface mine reclamation activities, ripping should be considered as a possible ameliorative technique when compaction of mined lands is unavoidable and trees are the desired vegetative cover. 4 figures.

  16. [Variations of ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of artificial sand-fixing Caragana intermedia plantations in desert steppe].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Xu, Kun; Zhu, Fan

    2012-11-01

    To study the variation characteristics of ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of Caragana intermedia plantations in desert steppe is of scientific significance in revealing the ecological effect of the plantations on the restoration of desertified grassland ecosystem. In this paper, an investigation was conducted on the ground vegetation and soil properties in 6-, 15-, 24-, and 36-yr artificial sand-fixing C. intermedia plantations in desert steppe of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the variation characteristics of the ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of the C. intermedia plantations analyzed. With the growth and development of the plantations, the shrub crown width, height, sprout number, and basal diameter all increased significantly, the contents of soil coarse sand and fine sand had significant decrease while those of very fine sand and clay silt were in adverse, the soil organic carbon, total N, and total P contents increased linearly, and the soil pH decreased significantly. During the growth process of the plantations, the species number and individual number of ground vegetation increased significantly, and the vegetation coverage and height presented the order of 24- > 15- > 6- > 36-yr plantation. The soil texture, bulk density, nutrient contents, and pH value were the main factors affecting the species and individual number as well as the coverage of ground vegetation in C. intermedia plantations. It was suggested that in desert steppe, the growth process of artificial sand-fixing C. intermedia plantation benefited the improvement of soil conditions and the recovery of ground vegetation, and promoted the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem in desert steppe.

  17. The growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defense responses of five vegetable crops to phenanthrene stress.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are global environmental problem. To better understand the growth and physiological responses to atmospheric PAHs, we investigated biomass, photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in pakchoi, cucumber, flowering chinese cabbage, tomato and lettuce under various levels of phenanthrene (PHE) stress. Foliar exposure to PHE for 14d resulted in a dose dependent decrease in growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll contents. With few exceptions, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, guaicol peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were upregulated following exposure to PHE. Dose dependent increase in malondialdehyde contents together with H(2)O(2) accumulation suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress following PHE exposure. However, to some extent, growth and antioxidant defense responses differ from species to species. Difference in defense capacity might result in different tolerance and phytotoxicity among the studied vegetables. Taken together, phytotoxicity of PHE to five vegetables could be sequenced in the following order: pakchoi>cucumber>lettuce>tomato>flowering chinese cabbage.

  18. Transition of vegetation states positively affects harvester ants in the Great Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Joseph D.; Pilliod, David; Arkle, Robert; Rachlow, Janet L.; Vierling, Kerri T.; Wiest, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystems such that new ecological states are reached, but less is known about how these transitions influence animal populations. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystems are experiencing state changes because of fire and invasion by exotic annual grasses. Our goal was to study the effects of these state changes on the Owyhee and western harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex salinusOlsen and P. occidentalis Cresson, respectively). We sampled 358 1-ha plots across the northern Great Basin, which captured unburned and burned conditions across 1 −≥31 years postfire. Our results indicated an immediate and consistent change in vegetation states from shrubland to grassland between 1 and 31 years postfire. Harvester ant occupancy was unrelated to time since fire, whereas we observed a positive effect of fire on nest density. Similarly, we discovered that fire and invasion by exotic annuals were weak predictors of harvester ant occupancy but strong predictors of nest density. Occupancy of harvester ants was more likely in areas with finer-textured soils, low precipitation, abundant native forbs, and low shrub cover. Nest density was higher in arid locations that recently burned and exhibited abundant exotic annual and perennial (exotic and native) grasses. Finally, we discovered that burned areas that received postfire restoration had minimal influence on harvester ant occupancy or nest density compared with burned and untreated areas. These results suggest that fire-induced state changes from native shrublands to grasslands dominated by non-native grasses have a positive effect on density of harvester ants (but not occupancy), and that postfire restoration does not appear to positively or negatively affect harvester ants. Although wildfire and invasion by exotic annual grasses may negatively affect other species, harvester ants may indeed be one of the few winners among a myriad of losers linked to vegetation state changes within

  19. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Marc C; Woods, H Arthur; Harrison, Jon F; Elser, James J

    2004-03-01

    Although phosphorus has long been considered an important factor in the growth of diverse biota such as bacteria, algae, and zooplankton, insect nutrition has classically focused on dietary protein and energy content. However, research in elemental stoichiometry has suggested that primary producer biomass has similar N:P ratios in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and phosphorus-rich herbivores in freshwater systems frequently face phosphorus-limited nutritional conditions. Therefore, herbivorous insects should also be prone to phosphorus limitation. We tested this prediction by rearing Manduca sexta larvae on artificial and natural (Datura wrightii leaves) diets containing varying levels of phosphorus (approximately 0.20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final instar molt. Caterpillars did not consistently exhibit compensatory feeding for phosphorus on either type of diet. The growth and body phosphorus responses were not explicable by changes in amounts of potassium or calcium, which co-varied with phosphorus in the diets. Concentrations of phosphorus in D. wrightii leaves collected in the field varied over a range in which leaf phosphorus is predicted to affect M. sexta's growth rates. These results suggest that natural variation in dietary phosphorus is likely to affect the growth rate and population dynamics of M. sexta, and perhaps larval insects more generally.

  20. Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R

    2002-04-01

    Outbreaks of human infections associated with consumption of raw fruits and vegetables have occurred with increased frequency during the past decade. Factors contributing to this increase may include changes in agronomic and processing practices, an increase in per capita consumption of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, increased international trade and distribution, and an increase in the number of immuno-compromised consumers. A general lack of efficacy of sanitizers in removing or killing pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables has been attributed, in part, to their inaccessibility to locations within structures and tissues that may harbor pathogens. Understanding the ecology of pathogens and naturally occurring microorganisms is essential before interventions for elimination or control of growth can be devised.

  1. Relationships between different burn, vegetation and soil ratios with Landsat spectral reflectance values in fire affected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krina, Anastasia; Koutsias, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of unburned vegetation within a fire affected area can be regarded as a proxy measure of fire severity that can be estimated by means of remote sensing techniques. Yet, in order to obtain sound results, it is essential to improve our current knowledge regarding the spectral discrimination of areas that have been completely burnt from adjacent areas within a fire perimeter that still have patches of vegetation, or unburned proportion of vegetation on them. The aim of our research is to reveal the role of the vegetation or the small vegetation gaps in spectral characteristics of pixels with mixed land cover synthesis (burned, vegetation and soil) to achieve a better assessment of fire mapping and the impact of fire in the burned area. Three land cover types were identified, namely vegetation, bare land and burned area by applying pixel based classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm in high-resolution aerial photographs (1m). Moreover, multispectral satellite Landsat data that were acquired close to capture date of the aerial photos and were converted to TOC reflectance from USGS, were used to measure the association between land cover portions and satellite-derived VIs and spectral signatures. A grid of 30x30m was created to extract the ratio of the land cover categories corresponding to each selected pixel of the satellite image LANDSAT TM. Samples of different land cover ratios and of different types of substrate (e.g. rocks, light- or dark-colored soil) were delineated and their reflectance values at each spectral channel were extracted and used to calculate statistics in order to characterize the spectral properties. Finally, various vegetation indices were computed to investigate the role of the proportion of land cover and substrate in the variation of VIs. The results of our study reveal the spectral characteristics of burnt area at the pixel level and suggest the efficiency of certain spectral channels for the estimation of the

  2. Spaceflight and age affect tibial epiphyseal growth plate histomorphometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, Pauline J.; Durnova, G.

    1992-01-01

    Growth plate histomorphometry of rats flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044, a 14-day spaceflight, was compared with that of control groups. In growth plates of flight animals, there was a significant increase in cell number per column and height of the proliferative zone and a reduction in height and cell number in the hypertrophy/calcification zone. No significant differences were found in matrix organization at the ultrastructural level of flight animals, indicating that although spacefligfht continues to affect bone growth of 15-wk-old rats, extracellular matrix is not altered in the same manner as seen previously in younger animals. All groups showed growth plate characteristics attributed to aging: lack of calcification zone, reduced hypertrophy zone, and unraveling of collagen fibrils. Tail-suspended controls did not differ from other controls in any of the parameters measured. The results suggest that growth plates of older rats are less responsive to unloading by spaceflight or suspension than those of younger rats and provide new evidence about the modifying effect of spaceflight on the growth plate.

  3. Seasonal divergence in the sensitivity of evapotranspiration to climate and vegetation growth in the Yellow River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Tingting; Wu, Xiuchen; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Fangzhong; Ma, Yujun; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Cicheng

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variations in terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) have crucial impacts on the seasonal trajectories of the regional water cycle, vegetation growth, and local climate feedback. However, the possibly divergent roles of climate and vegetation growth variations in controlling seasonal ET patterns remain poorly quantified. This study therefore quantifies the interannual sensitivity and attribution of ET to climate and vegetation growth variations in different seasons and different biomes in the YRB in China between 1982 and 2011, using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), FLUXNET-based upscaled ET, and concurrent climate data. The results reveal a clear seasonal divergence in the interannual sensitivity of ET to climate and vegetation growth variations in the YRB. Interannual precipitation and NDVI variations play a dominant role in controlling seasonal ET variations in the YRB, with temperature having a marginal effect. Interannual ET sensitivity to precipitation weakens with an increasing mean annual precipitation gradient in almost all seasons, especially in summer and autumn. More importantly, a seasonally varying role of vegetation growth in mediating seasonal ET was discovered, and a crucial role of late-growing-season vegetation growth in controlling the seasonal trajectory of regional ET was explicitly identified. These results suggest that ongoing intensive vegetation restoration has crucial impacts on seasonal water-cycle patterns and consequent terrestrial-atmospheric biogeochemical feedback in the YRB.

  4. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  5. Preliminary terrestrial based experiments on gravity-affected crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.

    1970-01-01

    Tin was melted in a heating assembly secured to the arm of a centrifuge. The furnace was allowed to pivot and reach its equilibrium angle of swing for the gravity force being experienced. The crucible was cooled during rotation to allow the growth of single crystals. The crystals were etched for the purpose of observing the growth striations. Slices were removed from some of the crystals to permit observation of the striations in the interior. Visual analyses were made with a scanning electron microscope. Preliminary conclusions relating the appearance of the striations to gravity forces and the affected growth mechanisms are presented. Further experiments that will verify these conclusions and determine other gravity effects are proposed.

  6. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    PubMed

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  7. Large herbivore grazing affects the vegetation structure and greenhouse gas balance in a high arctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Julie Maria; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Herbivory is an important part of most ecosystems and affects the ecosystems’ carbon balance both directly and indirectly. Little is known about herbivory and its impact on the carbon balance in high arctic mire ecosystems. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influences the vegetation density and composition and thereby also the carbon balance. In 2010, we established fenced exclosures in high arctic Greenland to prevent muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from grazing. During the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in these ungrazed blocks and compared them to blocks subjected to natural grazing. Additionally, we measured depth of the water table and active layer, soil temperature, and in 2011 and 2013 an inventory of the vegetation density and composition were made. In 2013 a significant decrease in total number of vascular plant (33-44%) and Eriophorum scheuchzeri (51-53%) tillers were found in ungrazed plots, the moss-layer and amount of litter had also increased substantially in these plots. This resulted in a significant decrease in net ecosystem uptake of CO2 (47%) and likewise a decrease in CH4 emission (44%) in ungrazed plots in 2013. While the future of the muskoxen in a changing arctic is unknown, this experiment points to a potentially large effect of large herbivores on the carbon balance in natural Arctic ecosystems. It thus sheds light on the importance of grazing mammals, and hence adds to our understanding of natural ecosystem greenhouse gas balance in the past and in the future.

  8. Super-optimal CO2 reduces seed yield but not vegetative growth in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotenhuis, T. P.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    Although terrestrial atmospheric CO2 levels will not reach 1000 micromoles mol-1 (0.1%) for decades, CO2 levels in growth chambers and greenhouses routinely exceed that concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems in space can exceed 10000 micromoles mol-1(1%). Numerous studies have examined CO2 effects up to 1000 micromoles mol-1, but biochemical measurements indicate that the beneficial effects of CO2 can continue beyond this concentration. We studied the effects of near-optimal (approximately 1200 micromoles mol-1) and super-optimal CO2 levels (2400 micromoles mol-1) on yield of two cultivars of hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 12 trials in growth chambers. Increasing CO2 from sub-optimal to near-optimal (350-1200 micromoles mol-1) increased vegetative growth by 25% and seed yield by 15% in both cultivars. Yield increases were primarily the result of an increased number of heads per square meter. Further elevation of CO2 to 2500 micromoles mol-1 reduced seed yield by 22% (P < 0.001) in cv. Veery-10 and by 15% (P < 0.001) in cv. USU-Apogee. Super-optimal CO2 did not decrease the number of heads per square meter, but reduced seeds per head by 10% and mass per seed by 11%. The toxic effect of CO2 was similar over a range of light levels from half to full sunlight. Subsequent trials revealed that super-optimal CO2 during the interval between 2 wk before and after anthesis mimicked the effect of constant super-optimal CO2. Furthermore, near-optimal CO2 during the same interval mimicked the effect of constant near-optimal CO2. Nutrient concentration of leaves and heads was not affected by CO2. These results suggest that super-optimal CO2 inhibits some process that occurs near the time of seed set resulting in decreased seed set, seed mass, and yield.

  9. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  10. Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

  11. Remnant trees affect species composition but not structure of tropical second-growth forest.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Manette E; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2-3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests ("control plots"). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields.

  12. Vegetative growth and cluster development in Shiraz grapevines subjected to partial root-zone cooling.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Clarke, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in root-zone temperature both vertically and horizontally may contribute to the uneven vegetative and reproductive growth often observed across vineyards. An experiment was designed to assess whether the warmed half of a grapevine root zone could compensate for the cooled half in terms of vegetative growth and reproductive development. We divided the root system of potted Shiraz grapevines bilaterally and applied either a cool or a warm treatment to each half from budburst to fruit set. Shoot growth and inflorescence development were monitored over the season. Simultaneous cooling and warming of parts of the root system decreased shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf expansion below that of plants with a fully warmed root zone, but not to the same extent as those with a fully cooled root zone. Inflorescence rachis length, flower number and berry number after fertilization were smaller only in those vines exposed to fully cooled root zones. After terminating the treatments, berry enlargement and the onset of veraison were slowed in those vines that had been exposed to complete or partial root-zone cooling. Grapevines exposed to partial root-zone cooling were thus delayed in vegetative and reproductive development, but the inhibition was greater in those plants whose entire root system had been cooled.

  13. Complex responses of spring vegetation growth to climate in a moisture-limited alpine meadow

    PubMed Central

    Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Gao, Qingzhu; Schwartz, Mark W.; Zhu, Wenquan; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Cao, Xujuan; Williamson, Matthew A.; Jiangcun, Wangzha; Guo, Hongbao; Lin, Erda

    2016-01-01

    Since 2000, the phenology has advanced in some years and at some locations on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, whereas it has been delayed in others. To understand the variations in spring vegetation growth in response to climate, we conducted both regional and experimental studies on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We used the normalized difference vegetation index to identify correlations between climate and phenological greening, and found that greening correlated negatively with winter-spring time precipitation, but not with temperature. We used open top chambers to induce warming in an alpine meadow ecosystem from 2012 to 2014. Our results showed that in the early growing season, plant growth (represented by the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, NEE) was lower in the warmed plots than in the control plots. Late-season plant growth increased with warming relative to that under control conditions. These data suggest that the response of plant growth to warming is complex and non-intuitive in this system. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that moisture limitation increases in early spring as temperature increases. The effects of moisture limitation on plant growth with increasing temperatures will have important ramifications for grazers in this system. PMID:26983697

  14. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development1

    PubMed Central

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. PMID:26232489

  15. Hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese as affected by the pasture vegetation type.

    PubMed

    Povolo, Milena; Pelizzola, Valeria; Lombardi, Giampiero; Tava, Aldo; Contarini, Giovanna

    2012-01-11

    The determination of the geographical origin of dairy products is an ongoing issue. In this paper the effects of botanical diversity of two pastures on the hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese fat were studied, over 2 years of experimentation. Two areas in the Italian southwestern Alpine region, dominated by Trifolium alpinum (T) and Festuca nigrescens (F) vegetation, respectively, were chosen, and milk obtained from cows grazing on these pastures was used to produce a semihard traditional cheese. Cheese samples showed a significantly different composition of most linear hydrocarbons, odd-chain (C15, C17, and C17:1) and unsaturated (trans-11,cis-15-C18:2, C18:3, C20:4n-6, C20:4n-3, and 20:5n-3) fatty acids, according to pasture type. The ratio between C(29) and C(27) linear hydrocarbons, unlike the absolute content of the single molecules, showed a good discriminating ability between the two pastures and was little affected by the natural variability due to the climatic and environmental factors.

  16. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  17. The soil carbon/nitrogen ratio and moisture affect microbial community structures in alkaline permafrost-affected soils with different vegetation types on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfang; Xu, Shijian; Li, Changming; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Huyuan; Yue, Guangyang; Ren, Zhengwei; Cheng, Guogdong

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibetan permafrost region, vegetation types and soil properties have been affected by permafrost degradation, but little is known about the corresponding patterns of their soil microbial communities. Thus, we analyzed the effects of vegetation types and their covariant soil properties on bacterial and fungal community structure and membership and bacterial community-level physiological patterns. Pyrosequencing and Biolog EcoPlates were used to analyze 19 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal vegetation types: swamp meadow (SM), meadow (M), steppe (S) and desert steppe (DS). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated bacterial communities and the main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. The ratios of Proteobacteria/Acidobacteria decreased in the order: SM>M>S>DS, whereas the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota ratios increased. The distributions of carbon and nitrogen cycling bacterial genera detected were related to soil properties. The bacterial communities in SM/M soils degraded amines/amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by S/DS communities. UniFrac analysis of bacterial communities detected differences among vegetation types. The fungal UniFrac community patterns of SM differed from the others. Redundancy analysis showed that the carbon/nitrogen ratio had the main effect on bacteria community structures and their diversity in alkaline soil, whereas soil moisture was mainly responsible for structuring fungal communities. Thus, microbial communities and their functioning are probably affected by soil environmental change in response to permafrost degradation.

  18. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    PubMed Central

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone. PMID:26066654

  19. Brief Report: Impaired Differentiation of Vegetative/Affective and Intentional Nonverbal Vocalizations in a Subject with Asperger Syndrome (AS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted…

  20. Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, N.T.

    1994-08-01

    Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil`s capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald.

  1. How managed care growth affects where physicians locate their practices.

    PubMed

    Polsky, D; Escarce, J J

    2000-11-01

    Managed care has had a profound effect on physician practice. It has altered patterns in the use of physician services, and consequently, the practice and employment options available to physicians. But managed care growth has not been uniform across the United States, and has spawned wide geographic disparities in earning opportunities for generalists and specialists. This Issue Brief summarizes new information on how managed care has affected physicians' labor market decisions and the impact of managed care on the number and distribution of physicians across the country.

  2. Abrupt or not abrupt - biodiversity affects climate-vegetation interaction at the end of the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Martin; Bathiany, Sebastian; Brovkin, Victor; Kleinen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Palaeo-climate and ecosystem data derived from the sediment record from Lake Yoa (Ounianga Kebir, North-East Tchad) have been interpreted as support for a weak interaction between climate and vegetation without abrupt changes in precipitation climate and vegetation coverage over the last 6000 years. However, interpretation of these data has neglected potential effects of plant diversity on the stability of the climate - vegetation system. Here, we use a conceptual model that represents plant diversity in terms of moisture requirement; some plant types are sensitive to changes in precipitation thereby leading to an unstable system with the possibility of abrupt changes, while other plant types are more resilient with gradual system changes. We demonstrate that plant diversity tends to attenuate the instability of the interaction between climate and sensitive plant types, while it reduces the stability of the interaction between climate and less sensitive plant types. Hence, despite large sensitivities of individual plant types to precipitation, a gradual decline in precipitation and mean vegetation cover can occur. The present study offers a new interpretation for reconstructed shifts in vegetation and climate in northern Africa at the end of the African Humid Period. It focusses on the ecosystems in semi-arid climate, but the principle that plant diversity can affect the stability of climate-vegetation interaction may generally apply.

  3. Scaling relationships for soil formation and edaphic controls on vegetation growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.

    2015-12-01

    Critical path analysis (CPA) is suited to calculating the hydraulic conductivity, K, of heterogeneous porous media by quantifying of paths of least resistance. Whenever CPA could be used to calculate K, advective transport scaling relationships from percolation theory should describe solute transport. Two solute transport relationships are applied to predict soil development and edaphic constraints on natural vegetation growth. These results use known exponents from percolation theory and known subsurface flow velocities. The typical flow velocity itself constrains optimal growth rates of cultivars. The percolation scaling relationship constraining vegetation growth is shown to be in accord with data over time scales from hours to 100,000 years, including over a dozen studies (and two models) of tree growth. The scaling function for soil development explains time scales for formation of soils from years to hundreds of millions of years. Data on soil development comes from 23 different studies. The key unification is the common origin of the time and space coordinates for all three relationships in the time of transport through a single pore of roughly micron size at a typical subsurface pore-scale flow velocity. The distinction in evolving time scales is primarily a result of the hierarchical nature of vascular plant root systems, which speed up nutrient access relative to physical transport rates in the soil. The results help explain reduction in forest productivity with age, diminishing soil production with time, and the temporal distinction between the relevance of chemical and biological processes in soils to the global carbon cycle.

  4. Effect of traditional leafy vegetables on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Muhammad Arshad; Baijnath, Himansu; Odhav, Bharti

    2014-12-01

    Traditional leafy vegetables, apart from being a staple in the diet of most of sub-Saharan Africa, are an essential part of traditional medicine and are used daily by traditional healers in the region to treat a wide variety of ailments. In this study, a batch culture technique was used to investigate whether 25 infusions from 22 traditional leafy vegetables stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium longum in pure culture. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the inulin content of the infusions. Sonchus oleraceus stimulated all four strains and Taraxacum officinale stimulated three strains. In total, 18 plants stimulated at least one of the four probiotic strains. The inulin content of the infusions varied between 2.5% and 3.6%, with Asparagus sprengeri containing the highest percentage. These results indicate that traditional leafy vegetables do stimulate the growth of the selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in pure culture and contain inulin. These infusions can now be tested for prebiotic potential using mixed culture systems or human hosts.

  5. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  6. Growth, nitrogen uptake and flow in maize plants affected by root growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liangzheng; Niu, Junfang; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of a reduced maize root-system size on root growth and nitrogen (N) uptake and flow within plants. Restriction of shoot-borne root growth caused a strong decrease in the absorption of root: shoot dry weight ratio and a reduction in shoot growth. On the other hand, compensatory growth and an increased N uptake rate in the remaining roots were observed. Despite the limited long-distance transport pathway in the mesocotyl with restriction of shoot-borne root growth, N cycling within these plants was higher than those in control plants, implying that xylem and phloem flow velocities via the mesocotyl were considerably higher than in plants with an intact root system. The removal of the seminal roots in addition to restricting shoot-borne root development did not affect whole plant growth and N uptake, except for the stronger compensatory growth of the primary roots. Our results suggest that an adequate N supply to maize plant is maintained by compensatory growth of the remaining roots, increased N uptake rate and flow velocities within the xylem and phloem via the mesocotyl, and reduction in the shoot growth rate.

  7. Interactions in the patterns of vegetative growth and reproduction in woody dioecious plants.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A J; Alliende, M C

    1984-01-01

    Interactions between vegetative growth and reproduction were evaluated in Peumus boldus, Lithraea caustica and Laretia acaulis, three woody dioecious species in central Chile. Phenological observations were made periodically on marked branches of male and female plants, and biomass allocation (dry weight) to vegetative and reproductive tissues was measured. The magnitude of flowering was evaluated in groups of plants in three successive seasons. The patterns of activities are species- and sex-dependent, and cycles of 2-4 years have been established. Branches that produce flowers either do not grow or grow less than branches without flowers, and males and females have differential resource allocation: male branches attain higher biomass values. Groups of plants show seasonal behavior that suggest synchrony in their reproductive activities.

  8. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the 'intersection effect'). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  9. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the ‘intersection effect’). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  10. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-19

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  11. Ectopic Expression of WRINKLED1 Affects Fatty Acid Homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon Vegetative Tissues1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Munz, Jacob; Cass, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kong, Que; Ma, Wei; Sedbrook, John; Benning, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a storage lipid used for food purposes and as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a transcription factor that governs fatty acid (FA) synthesis and, indirectly, TAG accumulation in oil-storing plant tissues, and its ectopic expression has led to TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of different dicotyledonous plants. The ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in the grass Brachypodium distachyon induced the transcription of predicted genes involved in glycolysis and FA biosynthesis, and TAG content was increased up to 32.5-fold in 8-week-old leaf blades. However, the ectopic expression of BdWRI1 also caused cell death in leaves, which has not been observed previously in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lipid analysis indicated that the free FA content was 2-fold elevated in BdWRI1-expressing leaf blades of B. distachyon. The transcription of predicted genes involved in β-oxidation was induced. In addition, linoleic FA treatment caused cell death in B. distachyon leaf blades, an effect that was reversed by the addition of the FA biosynthesis inhibitor cerulenin. Taken together, ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in B. distachyon enhances FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in leaves, as expected, but also leads to increased free FA content, which has cytotoxic effects leading to cell death. Thus, while WRI appears to ubiquitously affect FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in diverse plants, its ectopic expression can lead to undesired side effects depending on the context of the specific lipid metabolism of the respective plant species. PMID:26419778

  12. Ectopic Expression of WRINKLED1 Affects Fatty Acid Homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon Vegetative Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Munz, Jacob; Cass, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kong, Que; Ma, Wei; Sedbrook, John; Benning, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a storage lipid used for food purposes and as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a transcription factor that governs fatty acid (FA) synthesis and, indirectly, TAG accumulation in oil-storing plant tissues, and its ectopic expression has led to TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of different dicotyledonous plants. The ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in the grass Brachypodium distachyon induced the transcription of predicted genes involved in glycolysis and FA biosynthesis, and TAG content was increased up to 32.5-fold in 8-week-old leaf blades. However, the ectopic expression of BdWRI1 also caused cell death in leaves, which has not been observed previously in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lipid analysis indicated that the free FA content was 2-fold elevated in BdWRI1-expressing leaf blades of B. distachyon. The transcription of predicted genes involved in β-oxidation was induced. In addition, linoleic FA treatment caused cell death in B. distachyon leaf blades, an effect that was reversed by the addition of the FA biosynthesis inhibitor cerulenin. Taken together, ectopic expression of BdWRI1 in B. distachyon enhances FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in leaves, as expected, but also leads to increased free FA content, which has cytotoxic effects leading to cell death. Thus, while WRI appears to ubiquitously affect FA biosynthesis and TAG accumulation in diverse plants, its ectopic expression can lead to undesired side effects depending on the context of the specific lipid metabolism of the respective plant species.

  13. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April–May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  14. Internal efficiency of nutrient utilization: what is it and how to measure it during vegetative plant growth?

    PubMed

    Santa-María, Guillermo E; Moriconi, Jorge I; Oliferuk, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient use of the resources required by plants to sustain crop production is considered an important objective in agriculture. In this context, the idea of developing crops with an enhanced ability to utilize mineral nutrients already taken up by roots has been proposed. In recent years powerful tools that allow the association of phenotypic variation with high-resolution genetic maps of crop plants have also emerged. To take advantage of these tools, accurate methods are needed to estimate the internal efficiency of nutrient utilization (ENU) at the whole-plant level, which requires using suitable conceptual and experimental approaches. Here we highlight some inconsistencies in the definitions of ENU commonly used for ENU 'phenotyping' at the vegetative stage and suggest that it would be convenient to adopt a dynamic definition. The idea that ENU should provide information about the relationship between carbon and mineral nutrient economies mainly during the period under which growth is actually affected by low internal nutrient concentration is here advocated as a guide for the selection of adequate operational ENU formulae for the vegetative stage. The desirability of using experimental approaches that allow removal of the influence of nutrient acquisition efficiency on ENU estimations is highlighted. It is proposed that the use of simulation models could help refine the conclusions obtained through these experimental procedures. Some potential limitations in breeding for high ENU are also considered.

  15. Do plastic particles affect microalgal photosynthesis and growth?

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula; Leslie, Heather A; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vethaak, A Dick

    2016-01-01

    The unbridled increase in plastic pollution of the world's oceans raises concerns about potential effects these materials may have on microalgae, which are primary producers at the basis of the food chain and a major global source of oxygen. Our current understanding about the potential modes and mechanisms of toxic action that plastic particles exert on microalgae is extremely limited. How effects might vary with particle size and the physico-chemical properties of the specific plastic material in question are equally unelucidated, but may hold clues to how toxicity, if observed, is exerted. In this study we selected polystyrene particles, both negatively charged and uncharged, and three different sizes (0.05, 0.5 and 6μm) for testing the effects of size and material properties. Microalgae were exposed to different polystyrene particle sizes and surface charges for 72h. Effects on microalgal photosynthesis and growth were determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and flow cytometry, respectively. None of the treatments tested in these experiments had an effect on microalgal photosynthesis. Microalgal growth was negatively affected (up to 45%) by uncharged polystyrene particles, but only at high concentrations (250mg/L). Additionally, these adverse effects were demonstrated to increase with decreasing particle size.

  16. Overexpression of a glutamine synthetase gene affects growth and development in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Urriola, Jazmina; Rathore, Keerti S

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is a primary macronutrient in plants, and nitrogen fertilizers play a critical role in crop production and yield. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene on nitrogen metabolism, and plant growth and development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). GS catalyzes the ATP dependent reaction between ammonia and glutamate to produce glutamine. A 1,071 bp long coding sequence of a sorghum cytosolic GS gene (Gln1) under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubq) promoter was introduced into sorghum immature embryos by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Progeny of the transformants exhibited higher accumulation of the Gln1 transcripts and up to 2.2-fold higher GS activity compared to the non-transgenic controls. When grown under optimal nitrogen conditions, these Gln1 transgenic lines showed greater tillering and up to 2.1-fold increase in shoot vegetative biomass. Interestingly, even under greenhouse conditions, we observed a seasonal component to both these parameters and the grain yield. Our results, showing that the growth and development of sorghum Gln1 transformants are also affected by N availability and other environmental factors, suggest complexity of the relationship between GS activity and plant growth and development. A better understanding of other control points and the ability to manipulate these will be needed to utilize the transgenic technology to improve nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

  17. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  18. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  19. Growth promotion of vegetative gametophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by blue light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang; Dapeng, Li; Hanhua, Hu; Tianwei, Tan

    2005-10-01

    Through an acclimation period of 10 days, compared to white light, the maximal net photosynthetic rates were significantly higher for gametophytes of Undaria pinnatifida cultivated under blue light (400-500 nm), and were lower under red light (600-700 nm). Chlorophyll c and the carotenoid content of gametophytes were similar under blue light and red light but were much lower under white light. The growth rate of female gametophytes under blue light was higher than that under other lights, and the growth rate of male gametophytes showed little variation with respect to blue and white light. Male and female gametophytes were mixed together to form sporophytes under white, blue and red light. After approximately 5 days, 50% gametophytes became fertile under blue and white light, but remained vegetative under red light after 10 days.

  20. Applicability of VI in arid vegetation delineation using shadow-affected SPOT imagery.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, N K; Al-Wardy, M M; Al-Rawas, G A; Charabi, Y

    2015-07-01

    GDVI(3), GDVI(2), NDVI, MSAVI and SAVI were evaluated for their dynamic ranges, the class accuracy of the Vegetation Index (VI) classifications, the effects of shadow delineation on the other land use classes and their applicability in vegetation delineation in Al-Qara Mountains, Oman. Supervised classifications of a SPOT scene by Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm were employed. GDVI(3) showed the widest dynamic range in all land use types, while GDVI(2) also exhibited evidently wider dynamic ranges for arid to semi-arid Al-Qara than NDVI, MSAVI and SAVI. GDVI(3) reported the highest accuracies in delineating natural vegetation (dense - 74.80%, medium-dense- 43.19%), except for low-dense vegetation (40.51%). It also performs the best in delineating bare soil and dry grass with over 80% and 60% accuracies. The attenuated reflectance created by the shadows results in VI signals in the range of dry grass to bare soil, enabling us to neglect the shadow effect on natural vegetation delineation due to below 9.50% omissions from the shadows class. GDVI(3) also limits shadow delineation better than the other indices, which will enable us to analyze spectral information recovery by the VI with the help of ground truth information under the shadows. For applications such as land degradation assessments, GDVI(3) has better prospects over the other indices explored. Saturation at high-vigor vegetation is an issue in GDVI(3), GDVI(2) and NDVI. Our study also points to a dependency of a VI's capability to weaken shadows on the number of training data pixels to be utilized in a supervised classification.

  1. Effect of salt stress on morpho-physiology, vegetative growth and yield of rice.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Ali, E; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Selamat, Ahmed; Karim, S M Rezaul

    2014-03-01

    Selection of salt tolerant rice varieties has a huge impact on global food supply chain. Five Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, MR33, MR52, MR211, MR219 and MR232 were tested in pot experiment under different salinity levels for their response in term of vegetative growth, physiological activities, development of yield components and grain yield. Rice varieties, BRRI dhan29 and IR20 were used as a salt-sensitive control and Pokkali was used as a salt-tolerant control. Three different salinity levels viz. 4, 8, and 12 dS m(-1) were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications under glass house conditions. Two Malaysia varieties, MR211 and MR232 performed better in terms of vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area plant(-1), number of tillers plant(-1), dry matter accumulation plant(-1)), photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, yield components, grain yield and injury symptoms. While, MR33, MR52 and MR219 verities were able to withstand salinity stress over salt-sensitive control, BRRI dhan29 and IR20.

  2. [Vegetation above-ground biomass and its affecting factors in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-guo; Fan, Jun; Wang, Quan-jiu; Wang, Li

    2011-03-01

    Field investigations were conducted in Liudaogou small watershed in late September 2009 to study the differences of vegetation above-ground biomass, soil moisture content, and soil nutrient contents under different land use patterns, aimed to approach the vegetation above-ground biomass level and related affecting factors in typical small watershed in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau. The above-ground dry biomass of the main vegetations in Liudaogou was 177-2207 g x m(-2), and that in corn field, millet field, abandoned farmland, artificial grassland, natural grassland, and shrub land was 2097-2207, 518-775, 248-578, 280-545, 177-396, and 372-680 g x m(-2), respectively. The mean soil moisture content in 0-100 layer was the highest (14.2%) in farmlands and the lowest (10.9%) in shrub land. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content was the greatest (26. 7% ) in abandoned farmland, indicating the strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in this kind of farmland. The mean soil water storage was in the order of farmland > artificial grassland > natural grassland > shrub land. Soil dry layer was observed in alfalfa and caragana lands. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.639, P < 0.05) between above-ground dry biomass and 0-100 cm soil water storage, and also, a very significant positive correlation between above-ground fresh biomass and vegetation height. The above-ground biomass of the higher vegetations could potentially better control the wind and water erosion in the water/wind erosion crisscross region. Vegetation above-ground biomass was highly correlated with soil moisture and nutrient contents, but had no significant correlations with elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, and soil bulk density.

  3. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijen, M.

    2012-04-01

    • Background and Aims. The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R:P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. We aim to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilisation). • Methods. Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - we derive equations for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes which depend on only two parameters: the R:P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon into remobilisable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. • Key Results. Storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R:P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilisation before photosynthesis takes over. • Conclusions. We conclude that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints. • Reference. Van Oijen, M., Schapendonk, A. & Höglind, M

  4. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-09-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.

  5. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers

    PubMed Central

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees. PMID:26330162

  6. Environmental factors affecting efficacy of bifenthrin-treated vegetation for mosquito control.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pesticide-treated vegetation as a barrier for control of nuisance and disease-bearing mosquitoes has become an option for mosquito management for home owners, public health and mosquito control professionals. Potted wax myrtle and azalea plants were treated with bifenthrin (0.79% AI) at ...

  7. Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

  8. Evaluation of bulk density and vegetation as affected by military vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for greater understanding of the relationship of dust emission levels to disturbances of soil and vegetation indices that occur during military vehicle activities in Department of Defense training areas. A replicated field experiment was conducted in the fall of 2010 on two soils tha...

  9. Evaluation of bulk density and vegetation as affected by military vehicle traffic at Fort Riley, Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted using military vehicles to determine the influence of repeated traffic on soil compaction and vegetative losses. These data will eventually be incorporated into models such as the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS). A replicated field experiment was conducted in the fall o...

  10. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers.

    PubMed

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A; Girardin, Martin P; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-09-02

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.

  11. Shifts in vegetation affect organic carbon quality in a coastal marsh along the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. H.; Corbett, J. E.; Tfaily, M. M.; Martin, I.; Ho, L.; Sun, E.; Sevilla, L.; Vincent, S.; Newton, R.; Peteet, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand carbon storage in coastal salt marshes, samples were collected from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 ̊00' N, 73 ̊55'W) located within the Hudson River Estuary. Porewater from three different vegetation sites was analyzed to compare the quality of the dissolved organic carbon. Sites contained either native or invasive vegetation with variations in live plant root depth. Porewater was taken from 0-3m in 50cm intervals, and sites were dominated either by invasive Phragmites australis, native Eleocharis , or native mixed vegetation (Spartina patens, Scirpus, and Typha angustifolia). Sites dominated by invasive Phragmites australis were found to have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, lower cDOM absorption values, and more labile organic carbon compounds. The molecular composition of the DOC was determined with Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Labile DOC components were defined as proteins, carbohydrates, and amino sugars while recalcitrant DOC components were defined as lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignins, tannins, and condensed hydrocarbons. For the Phragmites, Eleocharis, and mixed vegetation sites, average DOC concentrations with depth were found to be 1.71 ± 1.06, 4.64 ± 1.73, and 4.62 ± 3.5 (mM), respectively and cDOM absorption values with depth were found to be 13.22 ± 4.81, 49.42 ± 10.8, and 35.74 ± 17.49 (m-1). Additionally, DOC concentrations increased with depth in the mixed vegetation and Eleocharis sites, but remained relatively constant in the Phragmites site. The percent of labile compounds in the surface samples were found to be 19.02, 14.64, and 14.07% for the Phragmites, Eleocharis, and mixed vegetation sites, respectively. These findings suggest that sites dominated by Phragmites may have more reactive DOC substrates than sites dominated by native vegetation. These results indicate that the carbon storage in marshes invaded by Phragmites would be expected to decrease over time.

  12. How do sink and source activities influence the reproduction and vegetative growth of spring ephemeral herbs under different light conditions?

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, Ninuola; Kudo, Gaku

    2014-07-01

    Spring ephemeral herbs inhabiting deciduous forests commonly complete reproduction and vegetative growth before canopy closure in early summer. Effects of shading by early canopy closure on reproductive output and vegetative growth, however, may vary depending on the seasonal allocation patterns of photosynthetic products between current reproduction and storage for future growth in each species. To clarify the effects of sink-source balance on seed production and bulb growth in a spring ephemeral herb, Gagea lutea, we performed a bract removal treatment (source reduction) and a floral-bud removal treatment (sink reduction) under canopy and open conditions. Leaf carbon fixations did not differ between the forest and open sites and among treatments. Bract carbon fixations were also similar between sites but tended to decrease when floral buds were removed. Seed production was higher under open condition but decreased by the bract-removal treatment under both light conditions. In contrast, bulb growth was independent of light conditions and the bract-removal treatment but increased greatly by the bud-removal treatment. Therefore, leaves and bracts acted as specialized source organs for vegetative and reproductive functions, respectively, but photosynthetic products by bracts were flexibly used for bulb growth when plants failed to set fruits. Extension of bright period was advantageous for seed production (i.e., source limited) but not for vegetative growth (i.e., sink limited) in this species.

  13. Inhibitory effects of nisin and potassium sorbate alone or in combination on vegetative cells growth and spore germination of Bacillus sporothermodurans in milk.

    PubMed

    Aouadhi, Chedia; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory activities of nisin or/and potassium sorbate on spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans LTIS27, which are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant, were investigated. First, the tested concentrations of nisin or potassium sorbate inhibited vegetative cell growth; with the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 × 10(3) IU/ml and 2% (w/v), respectively. Then, the behaviour of vegetative cells and spores in presence of sub-lethal concentrations of nisin (50 UI/ml) or/and potassium sorbate (0.2%), in milk at 37 °C for 5 days, were evaluated. In the absence of inhibitors, strain grew and sporulated at the end of the exponential phase. Nisin (50 UI/ml) was able to inhibit spore outgrowth but didn't affect their germination. It induced an immediate and transitory reduction (1.6log(10) after 1 h and 2.8log(10) after 6 h of incubation) of vegetative cell growth which reappeared between 10 h and 24 h. Potassium sorbate (0.2%) had a durable bacteriostatic effect (1.1log(10) after 6 h), on vegetative cells, followed by a slower regrowth. It was able to inhibit both germination and outgrowth of spores. Association of nisin and potassium sorbate, at sub-lethal concentrations, showed a synergistic effect and resulted in a total inhibition of cells growth after 5 days. The results illustrate the efficacy of nisin and potassium sorbate in combination, and the commercial potential of applying such treatment to decontaminate any product that has a problem with persistence of bacterial spores.

  14. Effects of river hydrology and fluvial processes on riparian vegetation establishment, growth, and survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafroth, P. B.; Merritt, D. M.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Stream hydrology, sediment, and geology interact to determine the spatial and temporal availability of river bottomland substrates on which plants establish and grow. Collectively, these surfaces comprise a mosaic of landscape patches with associated plant communities that fall along key gradients of physical disturbance and water availability. Aspects of flow such as magnitude, frequency, timing, and rate of change of floods and magnitude and duration of low flows, interact with sediment flux and plant traits to determine plant distribution and fitness in different parts of the bottomland. Flow and sediment dynamics can influence different aspects of the plant life cycle such as germination, establishment, growth, and survival. Feedbacks between plants and fluvial processes, such as increased surface roughness and associated reductions in flow velocity and potential for aggradation, can determine differential survival of plant species depending on their tolerance of high velocity flow and associated shear stress, dislodgement, or burial by sediment. We present an overview of some key relationships between flow, sediment, plant traits, and riparian vegetation responses, and provide specific examples from our research on rivers in the semi-arid western U.S., including unaltered systems, dam-altered systems, and in the context of development of environmental flows to restore native riparian vegetation communities. Further, we describe the riparian response guilds framework and demonstrate how it can facilitate both an understanding of vegetation response to changing flow, sediment, and disturbance regimes and the development of priorities for flow management. Through understanding how guilds of species respond to variations in flow and sediment regimes, we are be better able to anticipate and predict biotic change in response to human-caused and climate-driven flow alteration.

  15. Gibberellin Signaling Requires Chromatin Remodeler PICKLE to Promote Vegetative Growth and Phase Transitions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khoa Thi; Ogas, Joe; Choi, Giltsu

    2017-01-01

    PICKLE (PKL) is an ATP-dependent chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding domain (CHD3) chromatin remodeling enzyme in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previous studies showed that PKL promotes embryonic-to-vegetative transition by inhibiting expression of seed-specific genes during seed germination. The pkl mutants display a low penetrance of the “pickle root” phenotype, with a thick and green primary root that retains embryonic characteristics. The penetrance of this pickle root phenotype in pkl is dramatically increased in gibberellin (GA)-deficient conditions. At adult stages, the pkl mutants are semidwarfs with delayed flowering time, which resemble reduced GA-signaling mutants. These findings suggest that PKL may play a positive role in regulating GA signaling. A recent biochemical analysis further showed that PKL and GA signaling repressors DELLAs antagonistically regulate hypocotyl cell elongation genes by direct protein-protein interaction. To elucidate further the role of PKL in GA signaling and plant development, we studied the genetic interaction between PKL and DELLAs using the hextuple mutant containing pkl and della pentuple (dP) mutations. Here, we show that PKL is required for most of GA-promoted developmental processes, including vegetative growth such as hypocotyl, leaf, and inflorescence stem elongation, and phase transitions such as juvenile-to-adult leaf and vegetative-to-reproductive phase. The removal of all DELLA functions (in the dP background) cannot rescue these phenotypes in pkl. RNA-sequencing analysis using the ga1 (a GA-deficient mutant), pkl, and the ga1 pkl double mutant further shows that expression of 80% of GA-responsive genes in seedlings is PKL dependent, including genes that function in cell elongation, cell division, and phase transitions. These results indicate that the CHD3 chromatin remodeler PKL is required for regulating gene expression during most of GA-regulated developmental processes. PMID:28057895

  16. Gibberellin Signaling Requires Chromatin Remodeler PICKLE to Promote Vegetative Growth and Phase Transitions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongmoo; Oh, Dong-Ha; Dassanayake, Maheshi; Nguyen, Khoa Thi; Ogas, Joe; Choi, Giltsu; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2017-02-01

    PICKLE (PKL) is an ATP-dependent chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding domain (CHD3) chromatin remodeling enzyme in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previous studies showed that PKL promotes embryonic-to-vegetative transition by inhibiting expression of seed-specific genes during seed germination. The pkl mutants display a low penetrance of the "pickle root" phenotype, with a thick and green primary root that retains embryonic characteristics. The penetrance of this pickle root phenotype in pkl is dramatically increased in gibberellin (GA)-deficient conditions. At adult stages, the pkl mutants are semidwarfs with delayed flowering time, which resemble reduced GA-signaling mutants. These findings suggest that PKL may play a positive role in regulating GA signaling. A recent biochemical analysis further showed that PKL and GA signaling repressors DELLAs antagonistically regulate hypocotyl cell elongation genes by direct protein-protein interaction. To elucidate further the role of PKL in GA signaling and plant development, we studied the genetic interaction between PKL and DELLAs using the hextuple mutant containing pkl and della pentuple (dP) mutations. Here, we show that PKL is required for most of GA-promoted developmental processes, including vegetative growth such as hypocotyl, leaf, and inflorescence stem elongation, and phase transitions such as juvenile-to-adult leaf and vegetative-to-reproductive phase. The removal of all DELLA functions (in the dP background) cannot rescue these phenotypes in pkl RNA-sequencing analysis using the ga1 (a GA-deficient mutant), pkl, and the ga1 pkl double mutant further shows that expression of 80% of GA-responsive genes in seedlings is PKL dependent, including genes that function in cell elongation, cell division, and phase transitions. These results indicate that the CHD3 chromatin remodeler PKL is required for regulating gene expression during most of GA-regulated developmental processes.

  17. Does background nitrogen deposition affect the response of boreal vegetation to fertilization?

    PubMed

    Hedwall, P O; Nordin, A; Strengbom, J; Brunet, J; Olsson, B

    2013-10-01

    Forest floor vegetation is an important component of forest biodiversity, and numerous studies have shown that N input alters the vegetation. In some cases, however, the effects of experimental N addition have been small or absent. Two alternative hypotheses have been suggested: (a) competition from the tree layer confounds the response to N, or (b) N response in areas with high background deposition is limited by N saturation. Neither of these hypotheses has so far been explicitly tested. Here, we compile data on forest floor vegetation from N addition experiments, in which the forest had been clear-cut, along an N deposition gradient ranging from 4 to 16 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in Sweden. We analyzed the effects of N addition and its interaction with N deposition on common species and thereby tested the second hypothesis in an environment without the confounding effects of the tree layer. The results show that the effects of the experimental N addition are significantly influenced by background N deposition: the N addition effects are smaller in areas with high N deposition than in areas with low N deposition, despite the fact that the highest N deposition in this study can be considered moderate from an international perspective. The results are important when assessing the reliability of results from N addition experiments on forest floor vegetation in areas with moderate to high background N deposition. We conclude that the interacting effects of N addition and N deposition need to be included when assessing long-term N sensitivity of plant communities.

  18. Bio-geomorphic self-organization of intertidal landscapes through feedbacks between vegetation growth, flow hydrodynamics and morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmerman, S.; Vandenbruwaene, W.; Dijkstra, J. T.; Van Duren, L. A.; De Vries, M. B.; Van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.; Bouma, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Two-way interactions between biological and geomorphic processes, i.e. bio-geomorphic feedbacks, play a key role in the formation and evolution of intertidal landscapes, such as salt marshes, mangroves, and sea grass meadows. The establishment of vegetation on an initially bare tidal flat modifies the patterns of water flow and sedimentation-erosion within and around the vegetation, while the modified flow and sedimentation-erosion patterns further influence the vegetation growth or dieback. Here we study these bio-geomorphic feedbacks by a combination of (1) experiments at the scale of individual vegetation patches (a few m^2 large) and short term (~1 growing season) and (2) up-scaling by numerical modeling at the landscape scale (10^2-10^4 m^2) and long term (decades). At the scale of individual vegetation patches, experiments show that within vegetation patches, flow velocities are reduced and sedimentation takes place, leading there to a higher bottom elevation, less tidal inundation and hence stimulation of plant growth. In contrast, at bare locations in between vegetation patches, the flow is concentrated and scouring and channel erosion takes place around vegetation patches, leading there to inhibition of plant growth. Experiments further demonstrate that the strength of these bio-geomorphic feedbacks strongly depends on the structural properties of the intertidal vegetation, such as the density and stiffness of plant stems. In particular, stiff species that typically grow in salt marshes and mangroves have much stronger effects on flow and sedimentation-erosion patterns than highly flexible sea grass species. The bio-geomorphic feedbacks at the scale of individual vegetation patches were up-scaled to the landscape scale by numerical modeling, incorporating dynamic feedbacks between vegetation growth, hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The model shows that the bio-geomorphic feedbacks lead to the spatial self-organization of both vegetation and landform

  19. Vegetative Characters, Growth Habit and Microsporangiate Strobilus of Lycopsid Minostrobus chaohuensis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Mei-Cen; Wang, De-Ming; Yao, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Late Devonian Minostrobus chaohuensis is one of the earliest monosporangiate-strobilate isoetaleans. Based on new material of this plant, the vegetative axis and microsporangiate strobilus are studied in detail, and the whole plant knowledge is summarized. The vegetative axis is isotomously branched. The stem is up to 55 mm in diameter with helically arranged leaf cushions. Stems and thick branches bear long fusiform leaf cushions and interareas with vertical linear ornamentations. A ligule pit, oblanceolate leaf scar, and vascular bundle scar appear on the leaf cushion. Distal axes have persistent lanceolate leaves and rhombic leaf bases. The microsporangiate strobilus is cylindrical in shape, possesses sporophyll with alate pedicel and long triangular lamina, uniseriate sporangial wall, subarchesporial pad inside the sporangium, and microspore with cingulum. Based on comparisons with other isoetaleans, the usage of the terms “leaf cushion” and “leaf base” is discussed, and Minostrobus chaohuensis is considered as a tree-like lycopsid. It suggests that arborescent isoetaleans with monosporangiate strobili had appeared and diversified in the Late Devonian. The multi-dichotomous branching system of Minostrobus provides new data on the evolution of growth architecture in rhizomorphic lycopsids. PMID:25816297

  20. Foundation species loss affects vegetation structure more than ecosystem function in a northeastern USA forest

    PubMed Central

    Orwig, David A.; Barker Plotkin, Audrey A.; Davidson, Eric A.; Lux, Heidi; Savage, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of foundation tree species rapidly alters ecological processes in forested ecosystems. Tsuga canadensis, an hypothesized foundation species of eastern North American forests, is declining throughout much of its range due to infestation by the nonnative insect Adelges tsugae and by removal through pre-emptive salvage logging. In replicate 0.81-ha plots, T. canadensis was cut and removed, or killed in place by girdling to simulate adelgid damage. Control plots included undisturbed hemlock and mid-successional hardwood stands that represent expected forest composition in 50–100 years. Vegetation richness, understory vegetation cover, soil carbon flux, and nitrogen cycling were measured for two years prior to, and five years following, application of experimental treatments. Litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD), including snags, stumps, and fallen logs and branches, have been measured since treatments were applied. Overstory basal area was reduced 60%–70% in girdled and logged plots. Mean cover and richness did not change in hardwood or hemlock control plots but increased rapidly in girdled and logged plots. Following logging, litterfall immediately decreased then slowly increased, whereas in girdled plots, there was a short pulse of hemlock litterfall as trees died. CWD volume remained relatively constant throughout but was 3–4× higher in logged plots. Logging and girdling resulted in small, short-term changes in ecosystem dynamics due to rapid regrowth of vegetation but in general, interannual variability exceeded differences among treatments. Soil carbon flux in girdled plots showed the strongest response: 35% lower than controls after three years and slowly increasing thereafter. Ammonium availability increased immediately after logging and two years after girdling, due to increased light and soil temperatures and nutrient pulses from leaf-fall and reduced uptake following tree death. The results from this study illuminate ecological processes

  1. Foundation species loss affects vegetation structure more than ecosystem function in a northeastern USA forest.

    PubMed

    Orwig, David A; Barker Plotkin, Audrey A; Davidson, Eric A; Lux, Heidi; Savage, Kathleen E; Ellison, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    Loss of foundation tree species rapidly alters ecological processes in forested ecosystems. Tsuga canadensis, an hypothesized foundation species of eastern North American forests, is declining throughout much of its range due to infestation by the nonnative insect Adelges tsugae and by removal through pre-emptive salvage logging. In replicate 0.81-ha plots, T. canadensis was cut and removed, or killed in place by girdling to simulate adelgid damage. Control plots included undisturbed hemlock and mid-successional hardwood stands that represent expected forest composition in 50-100 years. Vegetation richness, understory vegetation cover, soil carbon flux, and nitrogen cycling were measured for two years prior to, and five years following, application of experimental treatments. Litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD), including snags, stumps, and fallen logs and branches, have been measured since treatments were applied. Overstory basal area was reduced 60%-70% in girdled and logged plots. Mean cover and richness did not change in hardwood or hemlock control plots but increased rapidly in girdled and logged plots. Following logging, litterfall immediately decreased then slowly increased, whereas in girdled plots, there was a short pulse of hemlock litterfall as trees died. CWD volume remained relatively constant throughout but was 3-4× higher in logged plots. Logging and girdling resulted in small, short-term changes in ecosystem dynamics due to rapid regrowth of vegetation but in general, interannual variability exceeded differences among treatments. Soil carbon flux in girdled plots showed the strongest response: 35% lower than controls after three years and slowly increasing thereafter. Ammonium availability increased immediately after logging and two years after girdling, due to increased light and soil temperatures and nutrient pulses from leaf-fall and reduced uptake following tree death. The results from this study illuminate ecological processes underlying

  2. Does Training Affect Growth? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Robin M.; Bass, Shona; Caine, Dennis; Howe, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Adolescent athletes may be at risk of restricted growth and delayed maturation when combining intense training with insufficient energy intake. Because catch-up growth commonly occurs with reduced training, final adult stature is generally not compromised. However, in athletes with long-term, clinically delayed maturation, catch-up growth may be…

  3. [Effects of different fertilization modes on vegetable growth, fertilizer nitrogen utilization, and nitrogen loss from vegetable field].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-feng; Wang, Guo; Li, Wei-hua; Qiu, Xiao-xuan

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment with Chinese cabbage, water spinach, and three-colored amaranth cropped three times in one year was conducted to study the effects of seven fertilization modes, i.e., none fertilization, basal application of chemical fertilizers, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers, basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, and basal application of organic manure, on the plant height, yield, nitrogen accumulation, and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of the vegetables, and the loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N from vegetable field under natural rainfall condition. The results showed that comparing with none fertilization, the fertilization modes '1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure' and 'basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide' improved the agronomic properties of test vegetables, increased their yields by 103%-219% and 93%-226%, and nitrogen accumulation by 153% -216% and 231%-320%, respectively, and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen utilization rate. They also decreased the surface runoff loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N by 48.1% and 46.5%, respectively, compared with the mode 'basal application of chemical fertilizers', and hence, reduced the risk of agricultural non-point pollution. Therefore, these two fertilization modes could be popularized in vegetable production.

  4. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Methods Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, α-tocopherol and Fv/Fm ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Key Results Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of α-tocopherol (up to 2·7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. Conclusions It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants. PMID:19633309

  5. Synthetic polymers active against Clostridium difficile vegetative cell growth and spore outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Suárez, Jose M; Weisblum, Bernard; Gellman, Samuel H; McBride, Shonna M

    2014-10-15

    Nylon-3 polymers (poly-β-peptides) have been investigated as synthetic mimics of host-defense peptides in recent years. These polymers are attractive because they are much easier to synthesize than are the peptides themselves, and the polymers resist proteolysis. Here we describe in vitro analysis of selected nylon-3 copolymers against Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial pathogen that causes highly infectious diarrheal disease. The best polymers match the human host-defense peptide LL-37 in blocking vegetative cell growth and inhibiting spore outgrowth. The polymers and LL-37 were effective against both the epidemic 027 ribotype and the 012 ribotype. In contrast, neither vancomycin nor nisin inhibited outgrowth for the 012 ribotype. The best polymer was less hemolytic than LL-37. Overall, these findings suggest that nylon-3 copolymers may be useful for combatting C. difficle.

  6. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m(3)) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  7. Autophagy contributes to regulation of nuclear dynamics during vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roca, M Gabriela; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. Here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. A search of the F. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8, which is required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes. F. oxysporum Foatg8Δ mutants were generated in a strain harboring H1-cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei to facilitate analysis of nuclear dynamics. The Foatg8Δ mutants did not show MDC-positive staining in contrast to the wild type and the FoATG8-complemented (cFoATG8) strain, suggesting that FoAtg8 is required for autophagy in F. oxysporum. The Foatg8Δ strains displayed reduced rates of hyphal growth, conidiation, and fusion, and were significantly attenuated in virulence on tomato plants and in the nonvertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella. In contrast to wild-type hyphae, which are almost exclusively composed of uninucleated hyphal compartments, the hyphae of the Foatg8Δ mutants contained a significant fraction of hyphal compartments with 2 or more nuclei. The increase in the number of nuclei per hyphal compartment was particularly evident after hyphal fusion events. Time-lapse microscopy analyses revealed abnormal mitotic patterns during vegetative growth in the Foatg8Δ mutants. Our results suggest that autophagy mediates nuclear degradation after hyphal fusion and has a general function in the control of nuclear distribution in F. oxysporum.

  8. Decreased vegetation growth in response to summer drought in Central Asia from 2000 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao-jie; Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Xiao-xiao

    2016-10-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that Central Asia may experience an increase in the frequency and magnitude of temperature and precipitation extremes by the end of the 21st century, but the response regularity of different types of vegetation to climate extremes is uncertain. Based on remote-sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the period of 2000-2012, we examined the diverse responses of vegetation to climate mean/extremes and differentiated climatic and anthropogenic influence on the vegetation in Central Asia. Our results showed that extensive vegetation degradation was related to summer water deficit as a result of the combined effect of decreased precipitation and increased potential evapotranspiration. Water was a primary climatic driver for vegetation changes regionally, and human-induced changes in vegetation confined mainly to local areas. Responses of vegetation to water stress varied in different vegetation types. Grasslands were most responsive to water deficit followed by forests and desert vegetation. Climate extremes caused significant vegetation changes, and different vegetation types had diverse responses to climate extremes. Grasslands represented a symmetric response to wet and dry periods. Desert vegetation was more responsive during wet years than in dry years. Forests responded more strongly to dry than to wet years due to a severe drought occurred in 2008. This study has important implications for predicting how vegetation ecosystems in drylands respond to climate mean/extremes under future scenarios of climate change.

  9. Cronobacter sakazakii in foods and factors affecting its survival, growth, and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Gurtler, Joshua B; Lin, Li-Chun; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Richards, Glenner M

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter sakazakii has been isolated from a wide range of environmental sources and from several foods of animal and plant origin. While infections caused by C. sakazakii have predominantly involved neonates and infants, its presence on or in foods other than powdered infant formula raises concern about the safety risks these foods pose to immunocompromised consumers. We have done a series of studies to better understand the survival and growth characteristics of C. sakazakii in infant formula, infant cereal, fresh-cut produce, and juices made from fresh produce. Over a 12-month storage period, the pathogen survived better in dried formula and cereal at low a(w) (0.25-0.30) than at high a(w) (0.69-0.82) and at 4 degrees C compared to 30 degrees C. C. sakazakii grows in formulas and cereals reconstituted with water or milk and held at 12-30 degrees C. The composition of formulas or cereals does not markedly affect the rate of growth. C. sakazakii grows well on fresh-cut apple, cantaloupe, watermelon, cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, and tomato at 25 degrees C and in some types of produce at 12 degrees C. Treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables with sanitizers such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based solution causes reductions of 1.6-5.4 log CFU/apple, tomato, and lettuce. Cells of C. sakazakii in biofilms formed on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes or dried on the surface of stainless steel have increased resistance to disinfectants. Death of cells in biofilms is affected by atmospheric relative humidity. These studies have contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of C. sakazakii in and on foods and on food-contact surfaces, thereby enabling the development of more effective strategies and interventions for its control.

  10. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  11. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  12. The influence of meteorological factors on growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ragazinskiene, Ona; Seinauskiene, Erika; Janulis, Valdimaras; Jankauskaite, Lina; Milasius, Arvydas

    2006-01-01

    The results of a study on the dependence of growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton upon meteorological factors are presented in the article. The investigations were conducted at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University during vegetation periods in 2001-2005. The object of investigations was Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, a medicinal annual herbaceous plant of Lamiaceae Lindl. family, native of Eastern Asia, which passes the whole development cycle under climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The duration of vegetation period of Perilla frutescens on the average is 167 days. The earliest beginning of vegetation and optimal climatic conditions for growth are when hydrothermic coefficient reaches 1.60-1.80 (conditions of excessive humidity). Optimal climatic conditions for massive flowering and seed maturation are observed when hydrothermic coefficient decreases to 1.20 - then massive flowering starts 10 days earlier and lasts 25 days longer. A strong correlation was found between massive flowering and hydrothermic coefficient (r(2)=0.9408). Using mathematical-statistical methods, the consistent patterns of growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton were determined, specifying the time for raw material preparation what determines its quality and quantity.

  13. Submerged conidiation and product formation by Aspergillus niger at low specific growth rates are affected in aerial developmental mutants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, Joohae; van den Hondel, Cees A; Frisvad, Jens C; Ram, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B(2), B(4), and B(6) were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic

  14. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  15. [Estimation model for daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Long; Li, Jian-Ming; Wu, Pu-Te; Li, Wei-Li; Zhao, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Fei; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    For developing an estimation method of muskmelon transpiration in greenhouse, an estimation model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period was established, based on the greenhouse environmental parameters, muskmelon growth and development parameters, and soil moisture parameters. According to the specific environment in greenhouse, the item of aerodynamics in Penman-Monteith equation was modified, and the greenhouse environmental sub-model suitable for calculating the reference crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse was deduced. The crop factor sub-model was established with the leaf area index as independent variable, and the form of the model was linear function. The soil moisture sub-model was established with the soil relative effective moisture content as independent variable, and the form of the model was logarithmic function. With interval sowing, the model parameters were estimated and analyzed, according to the measurement data of different sowing dates in a year. The prediction accuracy of the model for sufficient irrigation and water-saving irrigation was verified, according to measurement data when the relative soil moisture content was 80%, 70%, and 60%, and the mean relative error was 11.5%, 16.2% , and 16.9% respectively. The model was a beneficial exploration for the application of Penman-Monteith equation under greenhouse environment and water-saving irrigation, having good application foreground and popularization value.

  16. Temperature governs the inactivation rate of vegetative bacteria under growth-preventing conditions.

    PubMed

    Ross, Tom; Zhang, Donglai; McQuestin, Olivia J

    2008-11-30

    Novel studies, in combination with a meta-analysis of available data, were undertaken to explore the kinetics of non-thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli with particular attention to inactivation in fermented meats and including analogous broth-based model systems. The analyses were based on rates of inactivation and specifically investigated the influence of temperature, pH and water activity at levels that alone, or in combination, prevented growth. When independently-derived inactivation data, obtained using different test conditions and diverse E. coli strains, were presented as Arrhenius plots, temperature was found to have a strong effect on the rate of inactivation, explaining 60% of the variance in the data. The slope of the Arrhenius plot changed, however, at temperatures above approximately 47 degrees C, corresponding to the maximum for growth of E. coli. A strong and consistent effect of pH or water activity on inactivation rate was not observed upon meta-analysis of collated data, but the relative effect of both factors was quantified in an analogous broth-based system. We also observed that inactivation rates of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the range 5 to 40 degrees C did not differ systematically from those of four strains of E. coli when growth was prevented by low pH and water activity. The observations of a consistent slope of Arrhenius plots for non-thermal inactivation rate of bacteria under diverse environmental conditions and for different strains and species, but which differ from slopes associated with thermal inactivation, raise the intriguing possibility of a mechanism of inactivation at sub-lethal temperatures, distinct from thermal inactivation, that is common to many vegetative bacteria.

  17. Human tumor cell growth inhibition by nontoxic anthocyanidins, the pigments in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Vareed, Shaiju K; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2005-02-11

    Anthocyanidins, the aglycones of anthocyanins, impart brilliant colors in many fruits and vegetables. The widespread consumption of diets rich in anthocyanin and anthocyanidins prompted us to determine their inhibitory effects on human cancer cell proliferation. Five anthocyanidins, cyanidin (1), delphinidin (2), pelargonidin (3), petunidin (4) and malvidin (5), and four anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside and pelargonidin-3-galactoside were tested for cell proliferation inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines, AGS (stomach), HCT-116 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), NCI H460 (lung), and SF-268 (Central Nervous System, CNS) at 12.5-200 microg/mL concentrations. The viability of cells after exposure to anthocyanins and anthocyanidins was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) colorimetric methods. The anthocyanins assayed did not inhibit cell proliferation of cell lines tested at 200 microg/mL. However, anthocyanidins showed cell proliferation inhibitory activity. Malvidin inhibited AGS, HCT-116, NCI-H460, MCF-7 and SF-268 cell growth by 69, 75.7, 67.7, 74.7 and 40.5%, respectively, at 200 microg/mL. Similarly, pelargonidin inhibited AGS, HCT-116, NCI H460, MCF-7 and SF-268 cell growth by 64, 63, 62, 63 and 34%, respectively, at 200 microg/mL. At 200 microg/mL, cyanidin, delphinidin and petunidin inhibited the breast cancer cell growth by 47, 66 and 53%, respectively. This is the first report of tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activity by anthocyanidins.

  18. How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Henden, John-André; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Ims, Rolf A; Langeland, Knut

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation of willow thickets

  19. How Spatial Variation in Areal Extent and Configuration of Labile Vegetation States Affect the Riparian Bird Community in Arctic Tundra

    PubMed Central

    Henden, John-André; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ims, Rolf A.; Langeland, Knut

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation of willow thickets

  20. Mutation of AREA affects growth, sporulation, nitrogen regulation, and pathogenicity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangcheng; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Meng, Xiangchun; Prusky, Dov

    2017-02-01

    The GATA transcription factor AreA is a global nitrogen regulator that restricts the utilization of complex and poor nitrogen sources in the presence of good nitrogen sources in microorganisms. In this study, we report the biological function of an AreA homolog (the CgareA gene) in the fruit postharvest pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Targeted gene deletion mutants of areA exhibited significant reductions in vegetative growth, increases in conidia production, and slight decreases in conidial germination rates. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of AreA was highly induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Moreover, compared to wild-type and complemented strains, nitrogen metabolism-related genes were misregulated in ΔareA mutant strains. Pathogenicity assays indicated that the virulence of ΔareA mutant strains were affected by the nitrogen content, but not the carbon content, of fruit hosts. Taken together, our results indicate that CgareA plays a critical role in fungal development, conidia production, regulation of nitrogen metabolism and virulence in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

  1. Transgene Induced Co-Suppression during Vegetative Growth in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuying; Wang, Ping; Sun, Sheng; Darwiche, Sabrina; Idnurm, Alexander; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of DNA sequences into the genome often results in homology-dependent gene silencing in organisms as diverse as plants, fungi, flies, nematodes, and mammals. We previously showed in Cryptococcus neoformans that a repeat transgene array can induce gene silencing at a high frequency during mating (∼50%), but at a much lower frequency during vegetative growth (∼0.2%). Here we report a robust asexual co-suppression phenomenon triggered by the introduction of a cpa1::ADE2 transgene. Multiple copies of the cpa1::ADE2 transgene were ectopically integrated into the genome, leading to silencing of the endogenous CPA1 and CPA2 genes encoding the cyclosporine A target protein cyclophilin A. Given that CPA1-derived antisense siRNAs were detected in the silenced isolates, and that RNAi components (Rdp1, Ago1, and Dcr2) are required for silencing, we hypothesize that an RNAi pathway is involved, in which siRNAs function as trans factors to silence both the CPA1 and the CPA2 genes. The silencing efficiency of the CPA1 and CPA2 genes is correlated with the transgene copy number and reached ∼90% in the presence of >25 copies of the transgene. We term this transgene silencing phenomenon asexual co-suppression to distinguish it from the related sex-induced silencing (SIS) process. We further show that replication protein A (RPA), a single-stranded DNA binding complex, is required for transgene silencing, suggesting that RPA might play a similar role in aberrant RNA production as observed for quelling in Neurospora crassa. Interestingly, we also observed that silencing of the ADE2 gene occurred at a much lower frequency than the CPA1/2 genes even though it is present in the same transgene array, suggesting that factors in addition to copy number influence silencing. Taken together, our results illustrate that a transgene induced co-suppression process operates during C. neoformans vegetative growth that shares mechanistic features with quelling. PMID:22916030

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  3. Big plants — Do they affect neighbourhood species richness and composition in herbaceous vegetation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Schamp, Brandon S.; Wight, Stephanie

    2014-02-01

    According to traditional theory, success in competition between plant species generally involves a 'size-advantage'. We predicted therefore that plants with larger body size should impose greater limits on the number of species — especially relatively small ones — that can reside within their immediate neighbourhoods. Species composition was compared within local neighbourhoods surrounding target plants of different sizes belonging to one of the largest herbaceous species found within old-field vegetation in eastern Ontario Canada — Centaurea jacea. Resident species density was generally greater within immediate 'inner' target neighbourhoods than within adjacent circular 'outer' neighbourhoods, and mean body size of resident neighbour species was unrelated to increases in target plant size. As target plant size increased, the proportion of resident neighbour species that were reproductive increased. Relatively big plants of C. jacea do not limit the number or the proportion of reproductive species that can coexist within their immediate neighbourhoods, nor do they cause local exclusion of relatively small species from these neighbourhoods. These results fail to support the 'size-advantage' hypothesis and are more consistent with the 'reproductive economy advantage' hypothesis: success under intense competition is promoted by capacity to recruit offspring that — despite severe suppression — are able to reach their minimum body size needed for reproduction, and hence produce grand-offspring for the next generation. The latter is facilitated by a relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size, which is generally negatively correlated with a relatively large maximum potential body size.

  4. Relationships between vegetation indices and different burn and vegetation ratios: a multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation indices have been widely used in remote sensing literature for burned land mapping and monitoring. In the present study we used satellite data (IKONOS, LANDSAT, ASTER, MODIS) of multiple spectral (visible, near, shortwave infrared) and spatial (1-500 meters) resolutions, acquired shortly after a very destructive fire occurred in the mountain of Parnitha in Attica, Greece the summer of 2007. The aim of our study is to examine and evaluate the performance of some vegetation indices for burned land mapping and also to characterize the relationships between vegetation indices and the percent of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) areas. The available satellite images were processed geometrically, radiometrically and atmospherically. The very high resolution IKONOS imagery was served as a base to estimate the percent of cover of burned areas, bare soil and vegetation by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The percent of cover for each type was then correlated to vegetation indices for all the satellite images, and regression models were fit to characterize those relationships. In total 57 versions of some classical vegetation indices were computed using LANDSAT, ASTER and MODIS data. Most of them were modified by replacing Red with SWIR channel, as the latter has been proved sensitive to burned area discrimination. IPVI and NDVI showed a better performance among the indices tested to estimate the percent of vegetation, while most of the modified versions of the indices showed highest performance to estimate the percent of burned areas.

  5. Major Contribution of Flowering Time and Vegetative Growth to Plant Production in Common Bean As Deduced from a Comparative Genetic Mapping.

    PubMed

    González, Ana M; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Saburido, Soledad; Bretones, Sandra; De Ron, Antonio M; Lozano, Rafael; Santalla, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Determinacy growth habit and accelerated flowering traits were selected during or after domestication in common bean. Both processes affect several presumed adaptive traits such as the rate of plant production. There is a close association between flowering initiation and vegetative growth; however, interactions among these two crucial developmental processes and their genetic bases remain unexplored. In this study, with the aim to establish the genetic relationships between these complex processes, a multi-environment quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach was performed in two recombinant inbred line populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses between determinate and indeterminate genotypes. Additive and epistatic QTLs were found to regulate flowering time, vegetative growth, and rate of plant production. Moreover, the pleiotropic patterns of the identified QTLs evidenced that regions controlling time to flowering traits, directly or indirectly, are also involved in the regulation of plant production traits. Further QTL analysis highlighted one QTL, on the lower arm of the linkage group Pv01, harboring the Phvul.001G189200 gene, homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) gene, which explained up to 32% of phenotypic variation for time to flowering, 66% for vegetative growth, and 19% for rate of plant production. This finding was consistent with previous results, which have also suggested Phvul.001G189200 (PvTFL1y) as a candidate gene for determinacy locus. The information here reported can also be applied in breeding programs seeking to optimize key agronomic traits, such as time to flowering, plant height and an improved reproductive biomass, pods, and seed size, as well as yield.

  6. Major Contribution of Flowering Time and Vegetative Growth to Plant Production in Common Bean As Deduced from a Comparative Genetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M.; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Saburido, Soledad; Bretones, Sandra; De Ron, Antonio M.; Lozano, Rafael; Santalla, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Determinacy growth habit and accelerated flowering traits were selected during or after domestication in common bean. Both processes affect several presumed adaptive traits such as the rate of plant production. There is a close association between flowering initiation and vegetative growth; however, interactions among these two crucial developmental processes and their genetic bases remain unexplored. In this study, with the aim to establish the genetic relationships between these complex processes, a multi-environment quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach was performed in two recombinant inbred line populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses between determinate and indeterminate genotypes. Additive and epistatic QTLs were found to regulate flowering time, vegetative growth, and rate of plant production. Moreover, the pleiotropic patterns of the identified QTLs evidenced that regions controlling time to flowering traits, directly or indirectly, are also involved in the regulation of plant production traits. Further QTL analysis highlighted one QTL, on the lower arm of the linkage group Pv01, harboring the Phvul.001G189200 gene, homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) gene, which explained up to 32% of phenotypic variation for time to flowering, 66% for vegetative growth, and 19% for rate of plant production. This finding was consistent with previous results, which have also suggested Phvul.001G189200 (PvTFL1y) as a candidate gene for determinacy locus. The information here reported can also be applied in breeding programs seeking to optimize key agronomic traits, such as time to flowering, plant height and an improved reproductive biomass, pods, and seed size, as well as yield. PMID:28082996

  7. How will the greening of the Arctic affect an important prey species and disturbance agent? Vegetation effects on arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, H C; Chipperfield, J D; Roland, C; Svenning, J-C

    2015-07-01

    Increases in terrestrial primary productivity across the Arctic and northern alpine ecosystems are leading to altered vegetation composition and stature. Changes in vegetation stature may affect predator-prey interactions via changes in the prey's ability to detect predators, changes in predation pressure, predator identity and predator foraging strategy. Changes in productivity and vegetation composition may also affect herbivores via effects on forage availability and quality. We investigated if height-dependent effects of forage and non-forage vegetation determine burrowing extent and activity of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We collected data on burrow networks and activity of arctic ground squirrels across long-term vegetation monitoring sites in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The implications of height-specific cover of potential forage and non-forage vegetation on burrowing behaviour and habitat suitability for arctic ground squirrels were investigated using hierarchical Bayesian modelling. Increased cover of forbs was associated with more burrows and burrow systems, and higher activity of systems, for all forb heights. No other potential forage functional group was related to burrow distribution and activity. In contrast, height-dependent negative effects of non-forage vegetation were observed, with cover over 50-cm height negatively affecting the number of burrows, systems and system activity. Our results demonstrate that increases in vegetation productivity have dual, potentially counteracting effects on arctic ground squirrels via changes in forage and vegetation stature. Importantly, increases in tall-growing woody vegetation (shrubs and trees) have clear negative effects, whereas increases in forb should benefit arctic ground squirrels.

  8. Factors affecting plant growth in membrane nutrient delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the tubular membrane plant growth unit for the delivery of water and nutrients to roots in microgravity has recently focused on measuring the effects of changes in physical variables controlling solution availability to the plants. Significant effects of membrane pore size and the negative pressure used to contain the solution were demonstrated. Generally, wheat grew better in units with a larger pore size but equal negative pressure and in units with the same pore size but less negative pressure. Lettuce also exhibited better plant growth at less negative pressure.

  9. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  10. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  11. Trichoderma asperellum spore dose depended modulation of plant growth in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we bioprimed seeds of six vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar) with different spore doses of Trichoderma asperellum BHUT8 ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) spores ml(-1) and the effect of biopriming was seen on seed germination and development. The most effective spore dose for enhancement in seed germination and radicle length was found to be 10(3) spores ml(-1) in tomato and ridge gourd, 10(4) spores ml(-1) in brinjal and okra while 10(6) spores ml(-1) in chilli and guar. At the most effective spore dose, the increase in germination percentage was 5, 146.15, 112.5, 5.4, 28.13 and 0% while increase in radicle length was 73.17, 50.83, 171.6, 107.35, 247.19 and 90.79% in tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, ridge gourd and guar, respectively, compared to their controls. Higher spore dose i.e. 10(7)-10(8) spores ml(-1) and 10(6)-10(8) spores ml(-1) in tomato and brinjal, respectively, reduced seed germination percentage and radicle growth compared to their controls. Biopriming with T. asperellum BHUT8 also triggered various defense like responses such as high phenylpropanoid activities and lignifications in bioprimed tomato seedlings compared to the non-bioprimed tomato seedlings demonstrating possible use of BHUT8 against phytopathogens.

  12. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  13. Impact of plant growth and morphology and of sediment concentration on sediment retention efficiency of vegetative filter strips: Flume experiments and VFSMOD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Thomas; François, Sébastien; Lutts, Stanley; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Bielders, Charles L.

    2014-04-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) implemented downstream to the source of pollution can trap sediments and thus limit sediment export from agricultural fields. However, their retention efficiencies are determined by many factors, among others the type of plant species and its growth stage. The impact of plant growth and morphology, as well as of incoming sediment concentration, on the efficiency of VFS to trap sediments was assessed by means of an experimental flume. Two different plant species were tested, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, after 2 and 4 months of plant growth and for 2 different incoming silty-loam sediment concentrations. Measured retention efficiencies were compared to simulated values using VFSMOD based on goodness-of-fit indicators that take into account uncertainty linked to the measurements. The sediment storage capacity upstream of the VFS was limited in terms of mass, and therefore an increase in sediment concentration led to a decrease in sediment retention efficiency. After 2 months of plant growth, plant morphology affected the VFS potential to trap sediments, as reflected in the higher retention efficiency of T. repens due to its creeping shoot architecture. However, plant growth and development modified the plant morphology and VFS trapping potential. Indeed, L. perenne VFS retention efficiency increased from 35% after 2 months of growth to 50% after 4 months, due to the tillering capacity of grass species. Conversely, the trapping efficiency of T. repens decreased from 49% to 40% after 4 months. This highlights the possible degradation of VFS with time, which in the case of T.repens was due to an increased heterogeneity of plant density within the strips. These modifications of plant characteristics with growth stage, which affected sediment trapping efficiencies, can be effectively integrated into mechanistic models like VFSMOD, mainly through stem spacing and Manning's surface roughness coefficient inputs. Since these parameters

  14. Effect of moderate high temperature on the vegetative growth and potassium allocation in olive plants.

    PubMed

    Benlloch-González, María; Quintero, José Manuel; Suárez, María Paz; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Fernández-Escobar, Ricardo; Benlloch, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    There is little information about the prolonged effect of a moderately high temperature on the growth of olive (Olea europaea L.). It has been suggested that when the temperature of the air rises above 35°C the shoot growth of olive is inhibited while there is any reference on how growth is affected when the soil is warmed. In order to examine these effects, mist-cuttings and young plants generated from seeds were grown under moderate high temperature (37°C) for 64 and 42days respectively. In our study, plant dry matter accumulation was reduced when the temperature of both the air and the root medium was moderately high. However, when the temperature of the root medium was 25°C, the inhibitory effect of air high temperature on plant growth was not observed. The exposure of both the aerial part and the root to moderate high temperature also reduced the accumulation of K(+) in the stem and the root, the water use efficiency and leaf relative water content. However, when only the aerial part was exposed to moderate high temperature, the accumulation of K(+) in the stem, the water use efficiency and leaf relative water content were not modified. The results from this study suggest that the olive is very efficient in regulating the water and potassium transport through the plant when only the atmosphere surrounding the aerial part is warmed up. However, an increase in the soil temperature decrease root K(+) uptake and its transport to the aerial parts resulting in a reduction in shoot water status and growth.

  15. Steps in Cu(111) thin films affect graphene growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David L.; Gannett, Will; Keller, Mark W.

    2014-03-01

    The kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of graphene on Cu substrates depend on the relative rates of C diffusion on the surface, C attachment to graphene islands, and removal of C from the surface or from graphene islands by etching processes involving H atoms. Using Cu(111) thin films with centimeter-sized grains, we have grown graphene under a variety of conditions and examined the edges of graphene islands with SEM and AFM. The Cu surface shows a series of regular steps, roughly 2 nm in height, and the graphene islands are diamond-shaped with faster growth along the edges of Cu steps. In contrast, growth on polycrystalline Cu foils under the same conditions shows hexagonal graphene islands with smooth edges.

  16. Monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas using temporal profiles of spectral signal from time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulou, Danai; Koutsias, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus to be helpful for monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas. The aim of this study is to explore the vegetation recovery pattern of the catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Peloponnisos, southern Greece, in 2007. These fires caused the loss of 67 lives and were recognized as the most extreme natural disaster in the country's recent history. Satellite remote sensing data from MODIS and LANDSAT satellites in the period from 2000 to 2014 were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal for selected areas within the fire-affected areas. This dataset and time period analyzed together with the time that these fires occurred gave the opportunity to create temporal profiles seven years before and seven years after the fire. The different scale of the data used gave us the chance to understand how vegetation phenology and therefore the recovery patterns are influenced by the spatial resolution of the satellite data used. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been created and used to assess vegetation recovery in the fire-affected areas. Our analysis was focused in the main land cover types that were mostly affected by the 2007 wildland fires. Based on CORINE land-cover maps these were agricultural lands highly interspersed with large areas of natural vegetation followed by sclerophyllous vegetation, transitional woodland shrubs, complex cultivation patterns and olive groves. Apart of the use of the original spectral data we estimated and used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. In this study we

  17. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  18. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  19. Vegetated linear dunes - chronologically discontinuous archives of several short-term and major dune growth episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Quartz sand dunes cover massive areas defined as arid, making them a potentially important archive of past climates and environments. But, dunes, being highly dynamic and relatively uniform in sedimentological composition, often compromise this potential. Most inland dunes are of the linear type that has a sinuous planar shape. Linear dunes, also associated with active seif dunes, are elongated by oblique cross-(dune) crest deflection of sand grains due to acutely bimodal sand-transporting winds. This prevents formation of long-term and stratigraphically continuous internal dune structure (though fully exposed internal linear dune structures to support this conclusion are rarely found). Therefore, dating of the dune sand by luminescence methods is mainly restricted to the last (re)mobilization phase and cannot track earlier dune growth history. Vegetated linear dunes (VLDs), mainly found in low-latitudes, are characterized by a straight planar shape and a partial shrub cover, and have been proposed to comprise an independent dune type. The stratigraphic cross-section of the VLD includes a sequence of chronologically discontinuous sand units forming the dune core. The accumulation of the units is generally interpreted to pertain to major episodes of strong wind power when sand was available. Possible minor events of sand accumulation are presumed to have been erased by major episodes. The units, often structureless and of similar sedimentological properties can only be discerned by luminescence dating as contacts between units do not necessarily imply chronological boundaries. The VLD core is overlaid by a mantle of sand that while being intermittently morphologically and structurally configured by seasonal winds to depths of several meters, preserves the dune core stratigraphy. Therefore, in a sense, the VLD is a prominent sedimentary body archiving influential short-time and possibly extreme events. Based upon exposed dune stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar

  20. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar.

  1. Planting richness affects the recovery of vegetation and soil processes in constructed wetlands following disturbance.

    PubMed

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory B

    2017-02-01

    The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally after a disturbance (i.e., aboveground harvesting and soil coring). We assessed if the planting richness of macrophyte species influences recovery of constructed wetlands one year after a disturbance. Mesocosms were planted in richness groups with various combinations of either 1, 2, 3, or 4 species (RG 1-4) to create a gradient of richness. Structural wetland traits measured include morphological regrowth of macrophytes, soil bulk density, soil moisture, soil %C, and soil %N. Functional wetland traits measured include above ground biomass production, soil potential denitrification, and soil potential microbial respiration. Total mesocosm cover increased along the gradient of plant richness (43.5% in RG 1 to 84.5% in RG 4) in the growing season after the disturbance, although not all planted individuals recovered. This was largely attributed to the dominance of the obligate annual species. The morphology of each species was affected negatively by the disturbance, producing shorter, and fewer stems than in the years prior to the disturbance, suggesting that the communities had not fully recovered one year after the disturbance. Soil characteristics were almost uniform across the planting richness gradient, but for a few exceptions (%C, C:N, and non-growing season soil moisture were higher slightly in RG 2). Denitrification potential (DEA) increased with increasing planting richness and was influenced by the abundance and quality of soil C. Increased open space in unplanted mesocosms and mesocosms with lower species richness increased labile C, leading to higher C mineralization rates.

  2. Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  3. Mexican propolis flavonoids affect photosynthesis and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Granados-Pineda, Jessica; Bah, Mustapha; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-10-01

    As a continuous effort to find new natural products with potential herbicide activity, flavonoids acacetin (1), chrysin (2) and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) were isolated from a propolis sample collected in the rural area of Mexico City and their effects on the photosynthesis light reactions and on the growth of Lolium perenne, Echinochloa crus-galli and Physalis ixocarpa seedlings were investigated. Acacetin (1) acted as an uncoupler by enhancing the electron transport under basal and phosphorylating conditions and the Mg(2+)-ATPase. Chrysin (2) at low concentrations behaved as an uncoupler and at concentrations up to 100 μM its behavior was as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Finally, 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) in a concentration-dependent manner behaved as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Flavonoids 2 and 3 inhibited the uncoupled photosystem II reaction measured from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and they did not inhibit the uncoupled partial reactions measured from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo) and from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to diclorophenol indophenol (DCPIP). These results indicated that chrysin and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin inhibited the acceptor side of PS II. The results were corroborated with fluorescence of chlorophyll a measurements. Flavonoids also showed activity on the growth of seedlings of Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli.

  4. Evaluation of vineyard growth under four irrigation regimes using vegetation and soil on-the-go sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrón, J. M.; Blanco, J.; Moral, F. J.; Mancha, L. A.; Uriarte, D.; Marques da Silva, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Precision agriculture is a useful tool to assess plant growth and development in vineyards. The present study focused on spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation growth variability, in four irrigation treatments with four replicates. The research was carried out in a vineyard located in the southwest of Spain during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Two multispectral sensors mounted on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) were used in the different growing seasons/stages in order to calculate the vineyard normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was also measured up to 0.8 m soil depth using an on-the-go geophysical sensor. All measured data were analysed by means of principal component analysis (PCA). The spatial and temporal NDVI and ECa variations showed relevant differences between irrigation treatments and climatological conditions.

  5. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.G.; Madore, M. ); Bytnerowicz, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Infrequent composted biosolids applications affect semi-arid grassland soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Paschke, M W; Brobst, R B

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of repeated composted biosolids applications is necessary for improving beneficial reuse program management strategies, because materials will likely be reapplied to the same site at a future point in time. A field trial evaluated a single and a repeated composted biosolids application in terms of long-term (13-14 years) and short-term (2-3 years) effects, respectively, on soil chemistry and plant community in a Colorado semi-arid grassland. Six composted biosolids rates (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 21, 30 Mg ha(-1)) were surface applied in a split-plot design study with treatment (increasing compost rates) as the main factor and co-application time (1991, or 1991 and 2002) as the split factor applications. Short- and long-term treatment effects were evident in 2004 and 2005 for soil 0-8 cm depth pH, EC, NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, total N, and AB-DTPA soil Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, P, and Ba. Soil organic matter increases were still evident 13 and 14 years following composted biosolids application. The repeated composted biosolids application increased soil NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N and decreased AB-DTPA extractable Ba as compared to the single composted biosolids application in 2004; differences between short- and long-term applications were less evident in 2005. Increasing biosolids rates resulted in increased native perennial grass cover in 2005. Plant tissue Cu, Mo, Zn, and P concentrations increased, while Ba content decreased depending on specific plant species and year. Overall, the lack of many significant negative effects suggests that short- or long-term composted biosolids application at the rates studied did not adversely affect this semi-arid grassland ecosystem.

  7. Aerial Photographic Analysis of Historic Riparian Vegetation Growth and Channel Change at Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadol, D. D.; Rathburn, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    Aerial photographs over the past 70 years show that a profound alteration in the channels of Canyon de Chelly National Monument has coincided with the establishment and expansion of riparian vegetation, in particular invasive tamarisk ( Tamarix ssp.) and Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia). Rectification of the air photos, using GIS, enabled detailed mapping of the extent and density of vegetation in the canyon bottom, and analysis of stream channel geometry for each photo set. Photo sets from 1934, 1989, and 2004 were used to track changes in vegetation and channel morphology through time. In 1934, scattered riparian vegetation, including cottonwood ( Populus ssp.) and willow ( Salix ssp.), covered <1% of the canyon bottom. By 2004 the full length of the channel was lined with a riparian vegetation belt, with vegetation covering as much as 40% of the canyon bottom in some 1 km long study reaches . However the width of the riparian belt was spatially discontinuous, with other study reaches having less than 10% coverage of the canyon bottom. Riparian vegetation growth has coincided with an alteration in the hydrology of the streams within the canyon. Air photos from 1934 show a wide sandy wash throughout the extent of the study area. By 1989, some reaches had narrowed, with the channel becoming a single, meandering thread, and with woody riparian vegetation well established on much of the former wash. By 2004, long reaches of the study area were single thread, and dense Russian olive and tamarisk stands filled much of the former wash. While in some reaches the channel changed from a wide braided system to a single thread, other areas remain a sandy wash. Additionally, some reaches of the channel had become deeply incised, as much as 3 meters below the 1934 floodplain, as indicated by persistent cottonwood individuals. Field work indicates that incision was still very active in 2005. However, quantitative analysis of incision through time throughout the study

  8. CO2 and fertility affect growth and reproduction but not susceptibility to aphids in field grown Solanum ptycanthum

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    In general, C3 annual plants respond positively in terms of growth, reproduction and biomass accrued when grown under elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, most studies documenting this response have been conducted in growth chambers where plants can be reared under conditions free form environmental stressors such as nutrient and water constraints, UV exposure and damage from pests. During the 1993 fieldseason, I grew 200 individuals of Solanum ptycanthum in an array of 10 outdoor, open-topped CO2 enclosures (5 @ 700 ppm CO2) at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI. Half of the plants were grown in a 50;50 mix of native C-horizon soil and topsoil (low fertility); the other half were grown in 100% topsoil (high-fertility). Plants were censused throughout the growing season for flower and fruit production, growth rate and degree of infestation of aphids. Fertility and CO2 both significantly affected production of flowers and fruits, but only fertility was significantly related to vegetative growth. Aphid infestation varied significantly among enclosures, but was not related to CO2 or fertility.

  9. Denitrification potential and organic matter as affected by vegetation community, wetland age, and plant introduction in created wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria E; Mitsch, William J

    2007-01-01

    Denitrification potential (DP) and organic matter (OM) in soils were compared in three different vegetation communities-emergent macrophyte, open water, and forested edge-in two 10-yr-old created riverine wetlands. Organic matter, cold water-extractable organic matter (CWEOM), anaerobic mineralizable carbon (AnMC), and DP varied significantly (P<0.05) among vegetation communities. The surface (0 to 9 cm) soils in the emergent macrophyte community (EMC) showed highest DP (0.07+/-0.01 mg N h-1 kg-1), OM (84.90+/-5.60 g kg-1), CWEOM (1.12+/-0.20 g kg-1), and AnMC (1.50+/-0.10 mg C h-1 kg-1). In the deeper layer (9 to 18 cm), DP and CWEOM (0.04+/-0.01 mg N h-1 kg-1 and 1.13+/-0.20 g kg-1, respectively) were significantly higher in the open water community (OWC) than in the emergent macrophyte and forested edge communities. Plant introduction did not affect DP or OM content and characteristics. After 10 yr of wetland development, mean DP increased 25-fold in the surface layer (from 0.002 to 0.053 mg N h-1 kg-1); OM content more than doubled to 90.80+/-19.22 g kg-1, and CWEOM and HWEOM increased 2.5 and 2.7 times respectively from 1993 (prewetland conditions) to 2004. Humic acids were the most abundant form of OM in 2004 and 1993 samples. Significant (P<0.05) positive relationships between DP and OM, CWEOM, and AnMC were found in the surface layer; in the 9- to 18-cm layer, significant positive relationships were found between DP and CWEOM and AnMC.

  10. Effect of surfactants and temperature on germination and vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A; Laing, Mark D; Miller, Ray M

    2015-03-01

    Three non-ionic surfactants: Tween20, Tween80 and Breakthru (®) were screened for their effects on spore germination and mycelial growth rates and for their influence on three isolates of Beauveria bassiana spore germination at various temperatures. Tween20 and Tween80 were compatible with all the B. bassiana isolates in the germination studies, but inhibited germination at higher surfactant concentrations, irrespective of the conidial concentrations . Breakthru (®) had an inhibitory effect on germination even at the lowest concentration of 0.1% on all the B. bassiana isolates. The effects of the surfactants on spore germination did not correspond with their effects on colony growth. Conidial viability within the same formulation declined significantly with increases in temperature, irrespective of the surfactant. The optimal temperature for conidial germination of B. bassiana isolates was approximately 25 °C with an upper limit at 30 °C. Isolate 7320 was identified as the least affected by the different surfactants. This isolate was able to germinate rapidly in a broad temperature range of 25-30 °C after 24 h, this characteristic being an essential factor in controlling house fly populations in poultry houses.

  11. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  12. Temperature affects insulin-like growth factor I and growth of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma.

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Murashige, Ryan; Daniels, Harry V; Godwin, John; Borski, Russell J

    2007-01-01

    Temperature profoundly influences growth of heterothermic vertebrates. However, few studies have investigated the effects of temperature on growth and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in fishes. The aim of this study was to examine effects of temperature on growth and establish whether IGF-I may mediate growth at different temperatures in southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. In two experiments, juvenile flounder were reared at 23 and 28 degrees C and growth was monitored for either 117 or 197 days. Growth was similar across treatments in both experiments until fish reached approximately 100 mm total length. Body size then diverged with fish at 23 degrees C ultimately growing 65-83% larger than those at 28 degrees C. Muscle IGF-I mRNA, plasma IGF-I, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly higher in flounder at 23 degrees C, whereas hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance did not differ with treatment. Muscle IGF-I mRNA was correlated with HSI, while plasma IGF-I was correlated with body size, hepatic IGF-I mRNA, and HSI. These results demonstrate a strong effect of temperature on flounder growth and show that temperature-induced variation in growth is associated with differences in systemic IGF-I and local (i.e., muscle) IGF-I mRNA levels. The results also support the use of plasma IGF-I and HSI as indicators of flounder growth status.

  13. Assessing vulnerability to vegetation growth on earth dikes using geophysical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, Benjamin; Saracco, Ginette; Peyras, Laurent; Vennetier, Michel; Mériaux, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is prone to a plethora of natural hazards including floods. Vegetation growth in hydraulic earth structures, such as flood protections or channel levees and dams, may induce several degradation mechanisms leading to a risk of failure. Typically, trees' rooting generates two types of risks: internal erosion from root development in earth embankments, and external erosion (slopes and crest) which is often related to trees uprooting. To better assess how woody vegetation can compromise levee integrity, we designed a methodology using acoustical and complex electrical tomography as non destructives methods to spot dangerous roots in the embankment. Our work has been first initiated during laboratory experiments; we performed soundings in controlled conditions to determine both acoustical and electrical intrinsic behavior of our root samples. By comparison with soil samples we expected to point out specific signatures that would be useful for the roots anomaly identification in real conditions. Measurements were repeated on several samples to ensure statistical interpretation. With help of an ultrasonic transmission device, we identified significant relative velocity differences of compressional waves propagation between soil and root samples. We also studied spectral properties using wavelet processing method as an additional parameter of root distinction with the surrounding soil. In the case of electrical soundings, complex resistivity was measured and we computed resistivity spectra. Amplitude of resistivity term showed us that root material behaves as an insulator compared to the soil. With the phase resistivity term information, root can also be seen as an electric power capacitance and reveals maximum polarization effect located around 1Hz. Then, as experimental device for the field measurements, we selected a 320 cm high poplar (Populus) planted in a homogeneous loamy-clayed soil, which is the same soil used in laboratory experiment to

  14. Alteration of proteoglycan sulfation affects bone growth and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gualeni, Benedetta; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Marty-Morieux, Caroline; De Leonardis, Fabio; Franchi, Marco; Monti, Luca; Forlino, Antonella; Houillier, Pascal; Rossi, Antonio; Geoffroy, Valerie

    2013-05-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene, leading to reduced intracellular sulfate pool in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Hence, proteoglycans are undersulfated in the cartilage and bone of DTD patients. To characterize the bone phenotype of this skeletal dysplasia we used the Slc26a2 knock-in mouse (dtd mouse), that was previously validated as an animal model of DTD in humans. X-rays, bone densitometry, static and dynamic histomorphometry, and in vitro studies revealed a primary bone defect in the dtd mouse model. We showed in vivo that this primary bone defect in dtd mice is due to decreased bone accrual associated with a decreased trabecular and periosteal appositional rate at the cell level in one month-old mice. Although the osteoclast number evaluated by histomorphometry was not different in dtd compared to wild-type mice, urine analysis of deoxypyridinoline cross-links and serum levels of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides showed a higher resorption rate in dtd mice compared to wild-type littermates. Electron microscopy studies showed that collagen fibrils in bone were thinner and less organized in dtd compared to wild-type mice. These data suggest that the low bone mass observed in mutant mice could possibly be linked to the different bone matrix compositions/organizations in dtd mice triggering changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Overall, these results suggest that proteoglycan undersulfation not only affects the properties of hyaline cartilage, but can also lead to unbalanced bone modeling and remodeling activities, demonstrating the importance of proteoglycan sulfation in bone homeostasis.

  15. Alteration of proteoglycan sulfation affects bone growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gualeni, Benedetta; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Marty-Morieux, Caroline; De Leonardis, Fabio; Franchi, Marco; Monti, Luca; Forlino, Antonella; Houillier, Pascal; Rossi, Antonio; Geoffroy, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene, leading to reduced intracellular sulfate pool in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Hence, proteoglycans are undersulfated in the cartilage and bone of DTD patients. To characterize the bone phenotype of this skeletal dysplasia we used the Slc26a2 knock-in mouse (dtd mouse), that was previously validated as an animal model of DTD in humans. X-rays, bone densitometry, static and dynamic histomorphometry, and in vitro studies revealed a primary bone defect in the dtd mouse model. We showed in vivo that this primary bone defect in dtd mice is due to decreased bone accrual associated with a decreased trabecular and periosteal appositional rate at the cell level in one month-old mice. Although the osteoclast number evaluated by histomorphometry was not different in dtd compared to wild-type mice, urine analysis of deoxypyridinoline cross-links and serum levels of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides showed a higher resorption rate in dtd mice compared to wild-type littermates. Electron microscopy studies showed that collagen fibrils in bone were thinner and less organized in dtd compared to wild-type mice. These data suggest that the low bone mass observed in mutant mice could possibly be linked to the different bone matrix compositions/organizations in dtd mice triggering changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Overall, these results suggest that proteoglycan undersulfation not only affects the properties of hyaline cartilage, but can also lead to unbalanced bone modeling and remodeling activities, demonstrating the importance of proteoglycan sulfation in bone homeostasis. PMID:23369989

  16. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  17. Drosophila melanogaster Natural Variation Affects Growth Dynamics of Infecting Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Hotson, Alejandra Guzmán; Schneider, David S.

    2015-01-01

    We find that in a Listeria monocytogenes/Drosophila melanogaster infection model, L. monocytogenes grows according to logistic kinetics, which means we can measure both a maximal growth rate and growth plateau for the microbe. Genetic variation of the host affects both of the pathogen growth parameters, and they can vary independently. Because growth rates and ceilings both correlate with host survival, both properties could drive evolution of the host. We find that growth rates and ceilings are sensitive to the initial infectious dose in a host genotype–dependent manner, implying that experimental results differ as we change the original challenge dose within a single strain of host. PMID:26438294

  18. α1-Tubulin FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and conidiation in Fusarium asiaticum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiang; Zheng, Jingwu; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium asiaticum contains two homologous genes FaTUA1 and FaTUA2 encoding α-tubulins. In this study, we found that FaTUA2 was dispensable for vegetative growth and sporulation in F. asiaticum. The deletion of FaTUA1 however led to dramatically reduced mycelial growth, twisted hyphae and abnormal nuclei in apical cells of hyphae. The FaTUA1 deletion mutant (ΔFaTuA1-5) also showed a significant decrease in conidiation, and produced abnormal conidia. Pathogenicity assays showed that ΔFaTuA1-5 exhibited decreased virulence on wheat head. Unexpectedly, the deletion of FaTUA1 led to resistance to high temperatures. In addition, ΔFaTuA2 showed increased sensitivity to carbendazim. Furthermore, increased FaTUA2 expression in ΔFaTuA1-5 partially restored the defects of the mutant in mycelial growth, conidial production and virulence, vice versa, increased FaTUA1 expression in the FaTUA2 deletion mutant also partially relieved the defect of the mutant in the delay of conidial germination. Taken together, these results indicate that FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and development, and the functions of FaTuA1 and FaTuA2 are partially interchangeable in F. asiaticum.

  19. [Variability of vegetation growth season in different latitudinal zones of North China: a monitoring by NOAA NDVI and MSAVI].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaobing; Han, Ruibo; Ge, Yongqin

    2006-12-01

    In this study, North China was latitudinally divided into five zones, i.e., 32 degrees - 36 degrees N (Zone I), 36 degrees - 40 degrees N (Zone II), 40 degrees - 44 degrees N (Zone III), 44 degrees - 48 degrees N (Zone IV) and 48 degrees - 52 degrees N (Zone V), and the NOAA/ AVHRR NDVI and MSAVI time-series images from 1982 to 1999 were smoothed with Savitzky-Golay filter algorithm. Based on the EOF analysis, the principal components of NDVI and MSAVI for the vegetations in different latitudinal zones of North China were extracted, the annual beginning and ending dates and the length of growth season in 1982 - 1999 were estimated, and the related parameters were linearly fitted, aimed to analyze the variability of vegetation growth season. The results showed that the beginning date of the growth season in different zones tended to be advanced, while the ending date tended to be postponed with increasing latitude. The length of the growth season was also prolonged, with the prolonging time exceeded 10 days.

  20. Effects of shading on early growth of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Fagaceae) in subtropical abandoned fields: Implications for vegetation restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaojun; Liu, Canran; Yu, Xingjun; Ma, Keping

    2008-03-01

    In order to restore natural ecosystems and improve the environment, the restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to their native vegetation is urgent and challenging work. In response to a new initiative in China, the National Engineering Program on Converting Abandoned Agriculture Land to Forest Stands, this study was undertaken to seek novel approaches for accelerating forest restoration efforts. We tested the hypothesis that the late-successional tree species, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, is not able to establish and grow in full-sun environments on abandoned lands due to inhibited early growth of C. glauca seedlings. We carried out a 2-year field experiment on early growth of C. glauca in subtropical abandoned fields under three different shade treatments (no shade, fully exposed to ambient sunlight; medium shade and heavy shade, about 40% and 22% of full ambient sunlight, respectively) and compared their growth and biomass to 2-year old C. glauca seedlings growing in a natural forest environment. Our results showed that: 1) both medium shade and heavy shade treatments enhanced the establishment and early growth of C. glauca seedlings as compared to no shade, and that growth and survivorship was greatest in the heavy shade treatment; and 2) the growth and biomass of C. glauca seedlings on abandoned fields (in the cleared and prepared plots in this study) were equal to or greater than the growth and biomass of seedlings growing in nearby forests. This study supports the viewpoint that consideration of species shade tolerance is important when developing restoration management strategies.

  1. Temporal variations of low molecular mass organic acids during vegetation period in temperate forest soil affected by acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejnecky, V.; Drabek, O.; Bradová, M.; Němeček, K.; Šebek, O.; Zenáhlíková, J.; Boruvka, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids (LMMOA) are essential in processes affecting the soils and represent reactive fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). LMMOA influence soil-chemistry behaviour, participate in transport of mineral nutrition and reduce potential toxicity of selected elements like Al. The aim of this research was to assess behaviour, amount and composition of LMMOA in forest soil under different vegetation cover. The researched area is located in the naturally acid Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic), which was further affected by acid deposition and improper forest management. Soil samples from organic F and H horizons, organo-mineral A horizon and spodic or cambic mineral B horizons were taken under beech and spruce stands monthly (from April to October). Both stands were located immediately next to each other. The collected soil samples were analyzed immediately in a "fresh" state. Contents of LMMOA in deionised water extract were determined by means of ion-exchange chromatography (ICS-1600, Dionex, USA) with suppressed conductivity and gradient elution of KOH mobile phase. The contents of LMMOAS were also determined in precipitation samples. In addition, other selected elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg and K), Al speciation and main inorganic anions were determined in water extract and precipitation samples. The highest amounts of LMMOA (mainly lactic, acetic, formic, malic and oxalic acid) were observed in organic F and H horizons and measured amounts decreased with increasing soil profile depth. Higher contents were determined in soil under spruce forest than under beech forest. External inputs of LMMOA in a form of precipitation were assessed as less significant in comparison with the soil processes (e.g. soil biological activity, soil organic matter decomposition processes). LMMOA amounts were higher in spring and summer (from April to August), caused by increased biological activity, while lower amounts were observed during the autumn period

  2. FMRI activation with an "affective speech" paradigm in vegetative and minimally conscious States: applicability and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Piperno, R; Battistini, A; Cevolani, D; Maffei, M; Leonardi, M; Agati, R

    2012-07-01

    Vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are considered different clinical entities but their differential diagnosis remains challenging. Some VS patients can show an MCS-like activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that seems to predict recovery from VS. We studied fMRI activation with an affective speech paradigm in a cohort of non-communicative brain-injured individuals consecutively admitted to a post-acute neurorehabilitation facility in five years. Among 93 eligible subjects, 65 met the clinical criteria for VS and 28 for MCS. Because of exclusion criteria, activation studies were performed in only 30 cases out of 93 and analysed in only 24 (about ¼ of the eligible cases): 19 VS and five MCS patients. The passive acoustic stimulus consisted in a familiar voice narrating a significant episode in the patient's life, administered by nonmagnetic earphones. All the MCS patients showed an activation spread to secondary associative cortices but also 52.7% of the VS patients displayed an "atypical" large-scale activation pattern. Regarding the clinical outcome, 80% of the patients with large-scale network activation (LSNA) had some recovery of consciousness. Our results confirm that the VS patients with LSNA at fMRI study have potential for further recovery of consciousness, whereas no patient without activation or only typical activation improved. fMRI study with an affective speech paradigm, when applicable, seems to have a valuable prognostic value in VS patients, even if there are major limitations in terms of applicability.

  3. Analysis on spatio-temporal trends and drivers in vegetation growth during recent decades in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiaqiang; Shu, Jianmin; Yin, Junqi; Yuan, Xinjie; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Xiong, Shanshan; He, Ping; Liu, Weiling

    2015-06-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. In this study, a non-stationary 1982-2012 AVHRR NDVI3g time series, the newest dataset, were used to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation changes in Xinjiang province of China at regional, biome and pixel scales over progressively longer periods from 18 to 31 years, starting in 1982, and their linkages to climatic factors and human activities were analyzed. At regional scale, the increases were statistically significant for autumn NDVI during fourteen periods, for growing season and summer NDVI during the most periods, and for spring only during the first four periods. The rates of NDVI increase in growing season and all seasons significantly decreased over fourteen periods. At pixel scale, areas with significant browning rapidly increased over fourteen periods for growing season and all seasons, and these areas were mainly concentrated in northern desert of Xinjiang. Vegetation growth in Xinjiang was regulated by both moisture and thermal conditions: the response of NDVI in spring and autumn was more sensitive to thermal factors, such as temperature and potential evapotranspiration, and correlations between NDVI and precipitation and between NDVI and humidity index were stronger in summer and growing season. Extensive use of fertilizers and expanded farmland irrigated area increased vegetation growth for cropland. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation may reduce spring NDVI in the part of farmlands. Trend analysis during the multiple nested time series may contribute to a better and deep understanding of NDVI dynamic and foreseeing changes in the future. Accordingly, NDVI in Xinjiang will continuously increase at regional scale and the areas showing significant browning will also furthermore grow.

  4. Clarifying the Effects of Dwarfing Rootstock on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth during Tree Development: A Study on Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    Costes, E.; García-Villanueva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the widespread use of dwarfing rootstocks in the fruit-tree industry, their impact on tree architectural development and possible role in the within-tree balance between growth and flowering are still poorly understood, in particular during the early years of growth. The present study addressed this question in apple trees, through a detailed analysis of shoot populations, i.e. both vegetative and flowering shoots, during tree development. Methods Architectural databases were constructed for trees of two cultivars that were either own-rooted or grafted on dwarfing rootstock. Within-tree shoot demographics and annual shoot characteristics, i.e. their dimensions, number of laterals and flowering, were observed from the first to the fifth year of growth and compared among scion/root system combinations. Key Results Differences in axis demographics appeared among scion/root system combinations after the second year of growth. Differences were found (a) in the number of long axes and (b) the number of medium axes. Dwarfing rootstock reduced the total number of axes developed in a tree, and this reduction resulted from proportionally more medium axes and spurs than long axes. The life span of spurs was also shortened. These phenomena appeared after an increase in flowering that started in the second year of growth and involved both axillary and terminal positions. Flowering regularity was also increased in grafted trees. Conclusions These results confirm that the number of long shoots and flowering potential depend on the cultivar. They indicate that tree architectural plasticity in response to its root system mainly derives from the number of medium shoots developed and follows priorities within the whole tree axis population. There was also evidence for dwarfing rootstock involvement in adjusting the flowering abundance and that differences in flowering occurrence take precedence over those regarding vegetative growth during tree development

  5. Shifts in vegetation growth in response to multiple factors on the Mongolian Plateau from 1982 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lijuan; Liu, Qiang; Fraser, Richard; He, Bin; Cui, Xuefeng

    The Mongolian Plateau (MP) steppe is one of the largest steppe environments in the world. To monitor the terrestrial vegetation dynamics on the MP and to ascertain what the driving forces, this study examined the vegetation dynamics in Republic of Mongolia (M) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IM) of China from the period 1982 to 2011, based on the satellite-derived GIMMS NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data across three biomes (desert, grassland and forest). The results are as followed: (1) Vegetation coverage in IM was generally greater than that in M. Before 2002, time series of NDVI over the MP increased at an average rate of 0.05% yr-1. Additionally, after 2002, the NDVI increased at a rate of 0.21% yr-1. From 1982 to 2011, the area of IM and M with positive anomalies in the NDVI increased at a separate rate of 1.82% yr-1 and 1.76% yr-1, respectively. (2) At the biome scale, the inter-annual forest NDVI variation in IM and desert NDVI for the entire MP had a significant increasing trend (0.06% yr-1 and 0.04% yr-1, respectively). (3) Climate forcing was a dominant controlling factor affecting the vegetation, and the anthropogenic behavior exhibited no significant value in the whole region. However, overgrazing was the most important reason for the regional degradation, particularly in IM. (4) In the future, the forest biome will go to recovery, whereas both the grassland and desert biomes are predicted to degrade continuously.

  6. Study on gametophyte vegetative growth of Undaria pinnatifida and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shao-Jun; Wu, Chao-Yuan

    1996-09-01

    When cultured under certain environmental conditions (25°C, light intensity 80 μmol/m2·s, LD 12/12, in enriched seawater medium with 7×10-4 mol/L NO3-N, 1.56×10-4 mol/L, PO4-P and supplements of other elements like Mn, Fe, I, etc.), male and female gametophytes of U. pinnatifida kept growing vegetatively and propagated fast at average daily fresh weight increase rate of about 20%. The empirical formula G m= G o·3m was established to estimate the output of vegetative gametophytes. Vigorous vegetative gametophyte cells began to form reproductive structures (oogonium and spermatangium, when the temperature was lower than 25°C and other environmental factors were kept optimal. The sufficient supply of gametophyte cells provided enough seeds for raising Undaria sporelings on production scale. Controlled cross-breeding experiments using selected male and female gametophyte clones which increase their cell number by mitosis instead of meiosis were also carried out in vitro. Juvenile sporophytes from the cross-breeding had almost the same length and width increase rates as those of the control. The fact that vegetative gametophytes can be purposely selected, propagated quickly, cross-bred, with the resulting sporophytes having almost the same characteristics leads to a new way to select desired Undaria strains for long time use without losing the desired economic characteristics.

  7. Discrimination of growth and water stress in wheat by various vegetation indices through a clear a turbid atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Slater, P. M.; Pinter, P. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance data were obtained over a drought-stressed and a well-watered wheat plot with a hand-held radiometer having bands similar to the MSS bands of the LANDSAT satellites. Data for 48 clear days were interpolated to yield reflectance values for each day of the growing season, from planting until harvest. With an atmospheric path radiance model and LANDSAT-2 calibration data, the reflectance were used to simulate LANDSAT digital counts (not quantized) for the four LANDSAT bands for each day of the growing season, through a clear (approximately 100 km meteorological range) and a turbid (approximately 10 km meteorological range) atmosphere. Several ratios and linear combinations of bands were calculated using the simulated data, then assessed for their relative ability to discriminate vegetative growth and plant stress through the two atmospheres. The results show that water stress was not detected by any of the indices until after growth was retarded, and the sensitivity of the various indices to vegetation depended on plant growth stage and atmospheric path radiance.

  8. Constraints to obtaining consistent annual yields in perennial tree crops. I: Heavy fruit load dominates over vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harley M; Samach, Alon

    2013-06-01

    Farmers lack effective methods to achieve and maintain stable production from year to year in many commercial fruit crops. Annual fruit yield within a region often alternates between high and low fruit load and is termed alternate bearing. The underlying cause of alternate bearing is the negative impact of high fruit load on vegetative growth and next year's flowering. In this review, we emphasize common responses of diverse perennials to heavy crop load. We present botanical, ecological and horticultural perspectives on irregular bearing. The later part of this review focuses on understanding how high fruit load dominates over vegetative growth. We discuss sink strengths and putative mobile signals (hormones), perhaps seed-derived. We highlight gaps in current understanding of alternate bearing, and discuss new approaches to better understand fruit load dominance. Assuming the effect of high fruit load may be related to other mechanisms of sink partitioning, other forms of dominance are presented such as apical, first fruit and king fruit dominance. Dominance seems to be enforced, in independent cases through the establishment of a polar auxin transport system from the stronger sink. Once established this somehow perturbs the transport of auxin out of weaker sinks. Possibly, fruit derived auxin may alter the polar auxin transport system of the shoot to inhibit shoot growth.

  9. Analysis of the use of microcystin-contaminated water in the growth and nutritional quality of the root-vegetable, Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Machado, J; Azevedo, J; Freitas, M; Pinto, E; Almeida, A; Vasconcelos, V; Campos, A

    2017-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are often observed in freshwaters and may reflect the increased eutrophication of these environments and alterations in climate. Cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), are an effective threat to many life forms, ranging from plants to humans. Despite the research conducted to date on cyanotoxins, the risks associated to the use of contaminated water in agriculture require further elucidation. To tackle this aim, a research was conducted with the root-vegetable Daucus carota. The specific aims of this work were the following: (i) to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on the plant growth and photosynthesis; (ii) to evaluate the nutritional quality of carrot roots; and (iii) to measure bioaccumulation. To this purpose, young carrots were grown in soil during 1 month in natural conditions and exposed to Mycrocystis aeruginosa aqueous extracts containing environmentally realistic concentrations of MC-LR (10 and 50 MC-LR μg/L). The results showed that MC-LR may decrease root growth after 28 days of exposure to 50 μg/L and increase photosynthetic efficiency. We also observed changes in mineral and vitamin content in carrots as a result of the exposure to contaminated water. Moreover, MC-LR was detected in carrot roots by ELISA at very low concentration 5.23 ± 0.47 ng MC eq./g FW. The soil retained 52.7 % of the toxin potentially available for plants. This result could be attributed to MC-LR adsorption by soil particles or due to microbial degradation of the toxin. We conclude that the prolonged use of MC-LR-contaminated water may affect crop growth, alter the nutritional value of vegetable products, and potentiate contamination.

  10. Dissecting the function of the different chitin synthases in vegetative growth and sexual development in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Somera, Rosa A; Jöhnk, Bastian; Bayram, Özgür; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H; Riquelme, Meritxell

    2015-02-01

    Chitin, one of the most important carbohydrates of the fungal cell wall, is synthesized by chitin synthases (CHS). Seven sequences encoding CHSs have been identified in the genome of Neurospora crassa. Previously, CHS-1, -3 and -6 were found at the Spitzenkörper(Spk) core and developing septa. We investigated the functional importance of each CHS in growth and development of N. crassa. The cellular distribution of each CHS tagged with fluorescent proteins and the impact of corresponding gene deletions on vegetative growth and sexual development were compared. CHS-2, -4, -5 and -7 were also found at the core of the Spk and in forming septa in vegetative hyphae. As the septum ring developed, CHS-2-GFP remained at the growing edge of the septum until it localized around the septal pore. In addition, all CHSs were located in cross-walls of conidiophores. A partial co-localization of CHS-1-m and CHS-5-GFP or CHS-2-GFP occurred in the Spk and septa. Analyses of deletion mutants suggested that CHS-6 has a role primarily in hyphal extension and ascospore formation, CHS-5 in aerial hyphae, conidia and ascospore formation, CHS-3 in perithecia development and CHS-7 in all of the aforementioned. We show that chs-7/csmB fulfills a sexual function and chs-6/chsG fulfills a vegetative growth function in N. crassa but not in Aspergillus nidulans, whereas vice versa chs-2/chsA fulfills a sexual function in A. nidulans but not in N. crassa. This suggests that different classes of CHSs can fulfill distinct developmental functions in various fungi. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry of CHS-1-GFP, CHS-4-GFP and CHS-5-GFP identified distinct putative interacting proteins for each CHS. Collectively, our results suggest that there are distinct populations of chitosomes, each carrying specific CHSs, with particular roles during different developmental stages.

  11. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries.

  12. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F; Steyaert, Johanna M; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. "atroviride B" LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions.

  13. Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female Holstein calves in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G A; Dohoo, I R; Montgomery, D M; Bennett, F L

    1998-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affect performance (growth) between birth and 14 months of age in a convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms. Data collected on each calf at birth included farm of origin, birth date, weight, height at the pelvis, and serum total protein (a measure of colostral immunoglobulin absorption). Birth season was dichotomized into summer and winter using meteorological data collected by University of Florida Agricultural Research Stations. Data collected at approximately 6 and 14 months of age included age, weight, height at the pelvis, and height at the withers. Growth in weight and stature (height) was calculated for each growth period; growth period 1 (GP1) = birth to 6 months, and growth period 2 (GP2) = 6 to 14 months. Health data collected included data of initial treatment and number of treatments for the diseases diarrhea, omphalitis, septicemia, pneumonia and keratoconjunctivitis. After adjusting for disease occurrence, passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins had no significant effect on body weight gain or pelvic height growth. Season of birth and occurrence of diarrhea, septicemia and respiratory disease were significant variables decreasing heifer growth (height and weight) in GP1. These variables plus farm, birth weight and exact age when '6 month' data were collected explained 20% and 31% of the variation in body weight gain and pelvic height growth, respectively, in GP1. The number of days treated for pneumonia before 6 months of age significantly decreased average daily weight gain in GP2 (P < 0.025), but did not affect stature growth. Treatment for pneumonia after 6 months of age did not significantly affect weight or height gain after age 6 months. Neither omphalitis nor keratoconjunctivitis explained variability in growth in either of the growth periods.

  14. Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. A.; Islam, A. F.; Iji, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP) diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM). Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP) diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM) or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP) were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05) than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001) on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001) and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01) when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets. PMID:25358319

  15. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  16. Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M; Dubousset, L; Meuriot, F; Etienne, P; Avice, J-C; Ourry, A

    2010-06-01

    Because it has a high demand for sulphur (S), oilseed rape is particularly sensitive to S limitation. However, the physiological effects of S limitation remain unclear, especially during the rosette stage. For this reason a study was conducted to determine the effects of mineral S limitation on nitrogen (N) and S uptake and remobilization during vegetative growth of oilseed rape at both the whole-plant and leaf rank level for plants grown during 35 d with 300 microM (34)SO(4)(2-) (control plants; +S) or with 15 microM (34)SO(4)(2-) (S-limited plants; -S). The results highlight that S-limited plants showed no significant differences either in whole-plant and leaf biomass or in N uptake, when compared with control plants. However, total S and (34)S (i.e. deriving from S uptake) contents were greatly reduced for the whole plant and leaf after 35 d, and a greater redistribution of endogenous S from leaves to the benefit of roots was observed. The relative expression of tonoplast and plasmalemma sulphate transporters was also strongly induced in the roots. In conclusion, although S-limited plants had 20 times less mineral S than control plants, their development remained surprisingly unchanged. During S limitation, oilseed rape is able to recycle endogenous S compounds (mostly sulphate) from leaves to roots. However, this physiological adaptation may be effective only over a short time scale (i.e. vegetative growth).

  17. The MdTFL1 gene of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) reduces vegetative growth and generation time.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Peil, Andreas; Tränkner, Conny; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-10-01

    TFL1 is known as a floral repressor in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In apple there are two TFL1 homologs, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2. The MdTFL1-1 gene was silenced in transgenic clones expressing a hairpin gene construct of a 323 bp fragment of MdTFL1-1. The hairpin gene construct was transferred to three different apple genotypes. Of 22 transgenic clones, 21 showed a significant reduction in MdTFL1-1 mRNA expression. Precocious flowering was obtained for 20 clones, which flowered already during in vitro cultivation. Nineteen clones could successfully be transferred to the greenhouse where 18 of them flowered within a few weeks followed by the death or at least a strongly inhibited vegetative growth of the plant. Most of the transgenic flowers developed abnormally. Results obtained on greenhouse-grown plants of the transgenic clones and transgenic seedlings clearly demonstrated the major role of MdTFL1 genes in maintaining the vegetative growth as prerequisite for a perennial lifecycle. It was shown that MdTFL1 dsRNAi promotes a life history similar to annual plants. Preliminary results obtained from grafting experiments with non-transgenic scions grafted onto MdTFL1 dsRNAi transgenic rootstocks indicated that the flower-inducing signal obtained after silencing of MdTFL1 genes seems not to be graft-transmissible.

  18. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  19. Survival, growth, and body residues of Hyalella azteca (Saussure) exposed to fipronil contaminated sediments from non-vegetated and vegetated microcosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed chronic effects of fipronil and metabolite contaminated sediments from non-vegetated and Thallia dealbata vegetated wetland microcosms on Hyalella azteca during wet and dry exposures. Mean sediment concentrations (ng g-1) ranged from 0.72-1.26, 0.01-0.69, 0.07-0.23, and 0.49-7.87 for fip...

  20. Effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes in vegetative and reproductive growth stages of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Satoshi; Shimada, Sanae; Murai, Koji

    2012-01-01

    The photoperiod sensitivity gene Ppd-1 influences the timing of flowering in temperate cereals such as wheat and barley. The effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes was assessed by examining the expression levels of the vernalization genes VRN1 and VRN3/WFT and of two CONSTANS-like genes, WCO1 and TaHd1, during vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Two near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used: the first carried a photoperiod-insensitive allele of Ppd-1 (Ppd-1a-NIL), the other, a photoperiod-sensitive allele (Ppd-1b-NIL). We found that the expression pattern of VRN1 was similar in Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants, suggesting that VRN1 is not regulated by Ppd-1. Under long day conditions, VRN3/WFT showed similar expression patterns in Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants. However, expression differed greatly under short day conditions: VRN3/WFT expression was detected in Ppd-1a-NIL plants at the 5-leaf stage when they transited from vegetative to reproductive growth; very low expression was present in Ppd-1b-NIL throughout all growth stages. Thus, the Ppd-1b allele acts to down-regulate VRN3/WFT under short day conditions. WCO1 showed high levels of expression at the vegetative stage, which decreased during the phase transition and reproductive growth stages in both Ppd-1a-NIL and Ppd-1b-NIL plants under short day conditions. By contrast to WCO1, TaHd1 was up-regulated during the reproductive stage. The level of TaHd1 expression was much higher in Ppd-1a-NIL than the Ppd-1b-NIL plants, suggesting that the Ppd-1b allele down-regulates TaHd1 under short day conditions. The present study indicates that down-regulation of VRN3/WFT together with TaHd1 is the cause of late flowering in the Ppd-1b-NIL plants under short day conditions.

  1. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  2. Soil C, N, P and Its Stratification Ratio Affected by Artificial Vegetation in Subsoil, Loess Plateau China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial vegetation restoration can induce variations in accumulation and distribution of soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, little is known about variations in soil C, N and P nutrient fraction stratification following artificial vegetation in Loess Plateau China. Based on the hypothesis that re-vegetated can improve soil quality and stratification ratios (SR) can be used as an indicator to evaluate soil quality. This study measured contents and storages of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and their SRs in topsoil (0–20 cm) and subsoil (20–60 cm) in three 30-year re-vegetated lands that had been converted from arable land (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Caragana Korshinskii Kom. and abandoned cropland with low interferences and few management measures) and one slope cropland (SC) as a control for three soil profiles(0–20 cm, 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm) from June 2009 to June 2013. The results showed that the contents and storages of SOC, TN and TP in re-vegetated land were significantly higher than those in the SC in both topsoil and subsoil. The storages of SOC, TN and TP in the topsoil (0–20 cm) of the re-vegetated lands increased by 16.2%-26.4%, 12.7%-28.4% and 16.5%-20.9%, respectively, and increased by smaller but significant amounts in subsoil from 2009 to 2013. The SRs for SOC, TN and TP in the re-vegetated lands were mostly >2 (either for 0–20:20–40 cm or 0–20:40–60 cm) and greater than that in the SC. The SRs showed an increasing trend with increasing restoration age. The results also showed that the land use type and soil depth were the most influential factors for the SRs and storages, and the SRs of SOC and TN had significantly positive correlations with their storages. The SRs were concluded to be a good indicator for evaluating the soil quality, which can be significantly enhanced through vegetation restoration. Moreover, vegetation restoration can significantly enhance SOC, TN

  3. Impact of early season apical meristem injury by gall inducing tipworm (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on reproductive and vegetative growth of cranberry.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

    2013-06-01

    Larvae of cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson, disrupt early season growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) uprights or shoots by feeding on apical meristem tissue. A 2-yr field study was carried out at three different locations to determine the impact of tipworm feeding injury on the reproductive and vegetative growth of two cranberry cultivars ('Howes' and 'Stevens') in Massachusetts. In addition to tipworm-injured and intact control uprights, an artificial injury treatment simulating tipworm feeding was also included. Individual uprights of cranberry exhibited tolerance to natural (tipworm) and simulated apical meristem injury in the current growing season (fruit production) and results were corroborated by a greenhouse study. In the field study, weight of fruit was higher in tipworm-injured uprights as compared with intact control uprights at the sites with Howes. However, majority of injured uprights (tipworm and simulated) did not produce new growth from lateral buds (side-shoots) before the onset of dormancy. In the next growing season, fewer injured uprights resumed growth and produced flowers as compared with intact uprights at two of the three sites. We suggest that multiple-year studies focusing on whole plant response to tipworm herbivory will be required to determine the costs of chronic feeding injury over time.

  4. A carbohydrate supply and demand model of vegetative growth: response to temperature and light.

    PubMed

    Gent, Martin P N; Seginer, Ido

    2012-07-01

    Photosynthesis is the limiting factor in crop growth models, but metabolism may also limit growth. We hypothesize that, over a wide range of temperature, growth is the minimum of the supply of carbohydrate from photosynthesis, and the demand of carbohydrate to synthesize new tissue. Biosynthetic demand limits growth at cool temperatures and increases exponentially with temperature. Photosynthesis limits growth at warm temperatures and decreases with temperature. Observations of tomato seedlings were used to calibrate a model based on this hypothesis. Model predictions were tested with published data for growth and carbohydrate content of sunflower and wheat. The model qualitatively fitted the response of growth of tomato and sunflower to both cool and warm temperatures. The transition between demand and supply limitation occurred at warmer temperatures under higher light and faster photosynthesis. Modifications were required to predict the observed non-structural carbohydrate (NSC). Some NSC was observed at warm temperatures, where demand should exceed supply. It was defined as a required reserve. Less NSC was found at cool temperatures than predicted from the difference between supply and demand. This was explained for tomato and sunflower, by feedback inhibition of NSC on photosynthesis. This inhibition was much less in winter wheat.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN OFF-CHANNEL HABITATS AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH ANNUAL FLOODING PATTERNS, UPPER MAIN STEM, WILLAMETTE RIVER, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeomorphic processes drive riparian vegetation establishment, growth, and longevity. The stage of vegetation development (e.g. age, composition, height, density) affects its degree of functionality with respect to hydrology, nutrient cycling, and terrestrial and aquatic hab...

  6. Disruption of the lower food web in Lake Ontario: Did it affect alewife growth or condition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, R.; Prindle, S.E.; Lantry, J.R.; Lantry, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    From the early 1980s to the late 1990s, a succession of non-native invertebrates colonized Lake Ontario and the suite of consequences caused by their colonization became known as "food web disruption". For example, the native burrowing amphipod Diporeia spp., a key link in the profundal food web, declined to near absence, exotic predaceous cladocerans with long spines proliferated, altering the zooplankton community, and depth distributions of fishes shifted. These changes had the potential to affect growth and condition of planktivorous alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the most abundant fish in the lake. To determine if food web disruption affected alewife, we used change-point analysis to examine alewife growth and adult alewife condition during 1976-2006 and analysis-of-variance to determine if values between change points differed significantly. There were no change points in growth during the first year of life. Of three change points in growth during the second year of life, one coincided with the shift in springtime distribution of alewife to deeper water but it was not associated with a significant change in growth. After the second year of life, no change points in growth were evident, although growth in the third year of life spiked in those years when Bythotrephes, the largest of the exotic cladocerans, was abundant suggesting that it was a profitable prey item for age-2 fish. We detected two change points in condition of adult alewife in fall, but the first occurred in 1981, well before disruption began. A second change point occurred in 2003, well after disruption began. After the springtime distribution of alewife shifted deeper during 1992-1994, growth in the first two years of life became more variable, and growth in years of life two and older became correlated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, food web disruption had no negative affect on growth and condition of alewife in Lake Ontario although it appears to have resulted in growth in the first two years of

  7. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  8. Constructing a new integrated genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for vegetative mycelium growth rate in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying-Ying; Bian, Yin-Bing; Zhou, Yan; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Cheung, Man Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The most saturated linkage map for Lentinula edodes to date was constructed based on a monokaryotic population of 146 single spore isolates (SSIs) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, and the mating-type loci. Five hundred and twenty-four markers were located on 13 linkage groups (LGs). The map spanned a total length of 1006.1 cM, with an average marker spacing of 2.0 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was utilized to uncover the loci regulating and controlling the vegetative mycelium growth rate on various synthetic media, and complex medium for commercial cultivation of L. edodes. Two and 13 putative QTLs, identified respectively in the monokaryotic population and two testcross dikaryotic populations, were mapped on seven different LGs. Several vegetative mycelium growth rate-related QTLs uncovered here were clustered on LG4 (Qmgr1, Qdgr1, Qdgr2 and Qdgr9) and LG6 (Qdgr3, Qdgr4 and Qdgr5), implying the presence of main genomic areas responsible for growth rate regulation and control. The QTL hotspot region on LG4 was found to be in close proximity to the region containing the mating-type A (MAT-A) locus. Moreover, Qdgr2 on LG4 was detected on different media, contributing 8.07 %-23.71 % of the phenotypic variation. The present study provides essential information for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in L. edodes.

  9. Cortisol, growth hormone, free fatty acids, and experimentally evoked affective arousal.

    PubMed

    Brown, W A; Heninger, G

    1975-11-01

    Eight male volunteers who viewed selected control, suspense, and erotic films experienced significant changes in affect that were limited to fatigue, anxiety, and sexual arousal, respectively. All subjects showed free fatty acid elevations with the suspense and erotic films and those subjects with the most anxiety and sexual arousal showed cortisol elevation with the suspense and erotic films, respectively. Growth hormone elevations occurred independently of cortisol elevations and were not clearly related to film or affect. Thus, activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathetic nervous systems appears to occur not in relation to a specific dysphoric state but rather with nonspecific affective arousal.

  10. Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.

    A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus…

  11. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  12. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  13. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  14. Salinity fluctuation of the brine discharge affects growth and survival of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa.

    PubMed

    Garrote-Moreno, A; Fernández-Torquemada, Y; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2014-04-15

    The increase of seawater desalination plants may affect seagrasses as a result of its hypersaline effluents. There are some studies on the salinity tolerance of seagrasses under controlled laboratory conditions, but few have been done in situ. To this end, Cymodocea nodosa shoots were placed during one month at four localities: two close to a brine discharge; and the other two not affected by the discharge, and this experiment was repeated four times. The results obtained showed a decrease in growth and an increased mortality at the localities affected by the brine discharge. An increase was detected in the percentage of horizontal shoots in respect to vertical shoots at the impacted localities. It is probably that not only the average salinity, but also the constant salinity fluctuations and slightly higher temperatures associated with the brine that may have caused physiological stress thus reducing C. nodosa growth and survival.

  15. Soil Fungal Distribution and Functionality as Affected by Grazing and Vegetation Components of Integrated Crop-Livestock Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated crop and livestock (ICL) agroecosystems are characterized by a mixture of perennial or annual vegetation grazed by livestock and annual harvested crops. Compared to annual crops, ICLs hold the potential to enhance soil organic matter (OM) inputs, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, an...

  16. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Monteiro, Sérgio; Padrão, Patrícia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Study background Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Methods Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale [‘like extremely’ (1) to ‘dislike extremely’ (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale [‘dislike very much’ (1) to ‘like very much’ (5)]. Results After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). Conclusions A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly. PMID:25317121

  17. The Fragaria vesca homolog of suppressor of overexpression of constans1 represses flowering and promotes vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Mouhu, Katriina; Kurokura, Takeshi; Koskela, Elli A; Albert, Victor A; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-09-01

    In the annual long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, suppressor of overexpression of constans1 (SOC1) integrates endogenous and environmental signals to promote flowering. We analyzed the function and regulation of the SOC1 homolog (Fragaria vesca [Fv] SOC1) in the perennial short-day plant woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca). We found that Fv SOC1 overexpression represses flower initiation under inductive short days, whereas its silencing causes continuous flowering in both short days and noninductive long days, similar to mutants in the floral repressor Fv terminal flower1 (Fv TFL1). Molecular analysis of these transgenic lines revealed that Fv SOC1 activates Fv TFL1 in the shoot apex, leading to the repression of flowering in strawberry. In parallel, Fv SOC1 regulates the differentiation of axillary buds to runners or axillary leaf rosettes, probably through the activation of gibberellin biosynthetic genes. We also demonstrated that Fv SOC1 is regulated by photoperiod and Fv flowering locus T1, suggesting that it plays a central role in the photoperiodic control of both generative and vegetative growth in strawberry. In conclusion, we propose that Fv SOC1 is a signaling hub that regulates yearly cycles of vegetative and generative development through separate genetic pathways.

  18. The Fragaria vesca Homolog of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 Represses Flowering and Promotes Vegetative Growth[W

    PubMed Central

    Mouhu, Katriina; Kurokura, Takeshi; Koskela, Elli A.; Albert, Victor A.; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    In the annual long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) integrates endogenous and environmental signals to promote flowering. We analyzed the function and regulation of the SOC1 homolog (Fragaria vesca [Fv] SOC1) in the perennial short-day plant woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca). We found that Fv SOC1 overexpression represses flower initiation under inductive short days, whereas its silencing causes continuous flowering in both short days and noninductive long days, similar to mutants in the floral repressor Fv TERMINAL FLOWER1 (Fv TFL1). Molecular analysis of these transgenic lines revealed that Fv SOC1 activates Fv TFL1 in the shoot apex, leading to the repression of flowering in strawberry. In parallel, Fv SOC1 regulates the differentiation of axillary buds to runners or axillary leaf rosettes, probably through the activation of gibberellin biosynthetic genes. We also demonstrated that Fv SOC1 is regulated by photoperiod and Fv FLOWERING LOCUS T1, suggesting that it plays a central role in the photoperiodic control of both generative and vegetative growth in strawberry. In conclusion, we propose that Fv SOC1 is a signaling hub that regulates yearly cycles of vegetative and generative development through separate genetic pathways. PMID:24038650

  19. Adaptation to metal-contaminated soils in populations of the moss, Ceratodon purpureus: Vegetative growth and reproductive expression

    SciTech Connect

    Jules, E.S.; Shaw, A.J. )

    1994-06-01

    Many observations suggest that morphological evolution occurs slowly in bryophytes, and this has been suggested to reflect low genetic diversity within species. Isozyme studies, however, stand in apparent contrast and have shown that bryophytes can contain high levels of genetic variability within and among populations. In light of this conflict, we tested the potential of the moss, Ceratodon purpureus, to undergo adaptive change (i.e., ecotypic differentiation) in response to soils that have been contaminated with high levels of metals for 90 years by measuring gametophytic growth and reproductive expression under experimental conditions. Variation in protonemal growth in sterile culture indicates that plants from one population growing on contaminated soil near a smelter are significantly more tolerant of zinc, cadmium, and lead than plants from uncontaminated sites. Results from a common garden experiment, in which plants were grown on soil from the smelter site, indicate that plants from near the smelter are significantly more tolerant of contaminated soils than plants from uncontaminated sites for vegetative growth. The same experiment suggests that plants from the smelter site are also more tolerant in terms of gametangial production (although we could not test this statistically). Our results demonstrate that C. purpureus has been able to undergo relatively rapid evolution in response to strong selective pressures. 29 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, M.; Dubousset, L.; Meuriot, F.; Etienne, P.; Avice, J-C.; Ourry, A.

    2010-01-01

    Because it has a high demand for sulphur (S), oilseed rape is particularly sensitive to S limitation. However, the physiological effects of S limitation remain unclear, especially during the rosette stage. For this reason a study was conducted to determine the effects of mineral S limitation on nitrogen (N) and S uptake and remobilization during vegetative growth of oilseed rape at both the whole-plant and leaf rank level for plants grown during 35 d with 300 μM 34SO42– (control plants; +S) or with 15 μM 34SO42– (S-limited plants; –S). The results highlight that S-limited plants showed no significant differences either in whole-plant and leaf biomas or in N uptake, when compared with control plants. However, total S and 34S (i.e. deriving from S uptake) contents were greatly reduced for the whole plant and leaf after 35 d, and a greater redistribution of endogenous S from leaves to the benefit of roots was observed. The relative expression of tonoplast and plasmalemma sulphate transporters was also strongly induced in the roots. In conclusion, although S-limited plants had 20 times less mineral S than control plants, their development remained surprisingly unchanged. During S limitation, oilseed rape is able to recycle endogenous S compounds (mostly sulphate) from leaves to roots. However, this physiological adaptation may be effective only over a short time scale (i.e. vegetative growth). PMID:20403880

  1. Fusarium Oxysporum Volatiles Enhance Plant Growth Via Affecting Auxin Transport and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bitas, Vasileios; McCartney, Nathaniel; Li, Ningxiao; Demers, Jill; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hye-Seon; Brown, Kathleen M; Kang, Seogchan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption.

  2. Fusarium Oxysporum Volatiles Enhance Plant Growth Via Affecting Auxin Transport and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bitas, Vasileios; McCartney, Nathaniel; Li, Ningxiao; Demers, Jill; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hye-Seon; Brown, Kathleen M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption. PMID:26617587

  3. Transition zones between vegetation patches in a heterogeneous Arctic landscape: how plant growth and photosynthesis change with abundance at small scales.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Benjamin J; Press, Malcolm C; Baxter, Robert; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-05-01

    Arctic vegetation is often highly heterogeneous, consisting of mosaics of vegetation patches. Vegetation transition zones at the boundaries between patches can therefore make up a significant proportion of the landscape, yet performance of plants in transition zones, compared with their main patches, has not been previously investigated. Not only does this limit our understanding of plant productivity in highly heterogeneous landscapes, this knowledge is also needed to improve our understanding of the controls on Arctic ecosystem productivity, and improve modelling uncertainty in estimates of landscape C fluxes. We investigated changes in annual growth and photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) of two widely distributed dwarf shrubs (Empetrum hermaphroditum and Vaccinium uliginosum) in these species' own patches where they dominate, in transition zones at their patch edges and vegetation beyond these in vegetation where the species had lowest abundance. Maximum shoot growth occurred not in the study species' own patches but in patches where both species mixed with a taller dwarf shrub Betula nana. Here shoot growth was 23 and 25% higher for E. hermaphroditum and V. uliginosum, respectively, compared to within their own patches. However, A(max) was maintained at similar levels at all sites, with a slight tendency toward increased rates in vegetation towards more nutrient-rich, wetter areas compared to the species' own patches, despite these more nutrient-rich areas having greater shading. There was only a very minor tendency towards decreased A(max) in vegetation towards drier, more exposed areas compared to the species' own patches. We show that, despite large changes in abundance and growth, A(max) is not highly variable at small scales, meaning that variation in A(max) is unlikely to be a large source of error when modelling whole-landscape C fluxes using measurements made within patches.

  4. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  5. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant−1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant−1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant-1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant-1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with

  7. Gα proteins Gvm2 and Gvm3 regulate vegetative growth, asexual development, and pathogenicityon apple in Valsa mali

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Baitao; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Ming; Voegele, Ralf Thomas; Gao, Xiaoning; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    In fungi, heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) are key elements of signal transduction pathways, which control growth, asexual and sexual development, as well as virulence. In this study, we have identified two genes encoding heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits, named Gvm2 and Gvm3, from Valsa mali, the causal agent of apple Valsa canker. Characterization of Gvm2 and Gvm3 mutants indicates that Gvm3 may be a crucial regulator of vegetative growth. Deletion of the corresponding gene results in a 20% reduction in growth rate. Besides, Gvm2 and Gvm3 seem to be involved in asexual reproduction, and mutants are hypersensitive to oxidative and cell membrane stresses. Interestingly, both G protein alpha subunits were most probably involved in V. mali virulence. In infection assays using Malus domestica cv. ‘Fuji’ leaves and twigs, the size of lesions caused by deletion mutants △Gvm2, or △Gvm3 are significantly reduced. Furthermore, many genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes—important virulence factors in V. mali—are expressed at a lower level in these deletion mutants. Our results suggest that Gvm2 and Gvm3 play an important role in virulence probably by regulation of expression of cell wall degrading enzymes. △Gvm2, and △Gvm3 mutants were further analyzed with respect to their impact on the transcript levels of genes in the cAMP/PKA pathway. The expression of the genes encoding adenylate cyclase VmAC, protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit VmPKR, and PKA catalytic subunit VmPKA1 are down-regulated in both mutants. Further analyses indicated that intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity are down-regulated in the △Gvm3 mutant, but are basically unchanged in the △Gvm2 mutant. Overall, our findings indicate that both Gvm2 and Gvm3 play diverse roles in the modulation of vegetative growth, asexual development, and virulence in V. mali. PMID:28267786

  8. Modeling the Growth of Archaeon Halobacterium halobium Affected by Temperature and Light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Cheng, Jay; Rose, Robert B; Classen, John J; Simmons, Otto D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop sigmoidal models, including three-parameter (Quadratic, Logistic, and Gompertz) and four-parameter models (Schnute and Richards) to simulate the growth of archaeon Halobacterium halobium affected by temperature and light. The models were statistically compared by using t test and F test. In the t test, confidence bounds for parameters were used to distinguish among models. For the F test, the lack of fit of the models was compared with the prediction error. The Gompertz model was 100 % accepted by the t test and 97 % accepted by the F test when the temperature effects were considered. Results also indicated that the Gompertz model was 94 % accepted by the F test when the growth of H. halobium was studied under varying light intensities. Thus, the Gompertz model was considered the best among the models studied to describe the growth of H. halobium affected by temperature or light. In addition, the biological growth parameters, including specific growth rate, lag time, and asymptote changes under Gompertz modeling, were evaluated.

  9. Guar meal germ and hull fractions differently affect growth performance and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Bailey, C A; Cartwright, A L

    2003-10-01

    High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%) on intestinal viscosity, measures of growth, and feed conversion in broiler chickens fed to 20 d of age. Growth and feed conversion ratio were not affected by inclusion of as much as 7.5% of the germ fraction into poultry diets, while inclusion of the hull fraction reduced growth at all concentrations. The hull fraction increased intestinal viscosity at all inclusion levels fed, although feed conversion was not affected until the inclusion rate exceeded 5.0%. The germ fraction significantly increased intestinal viscosity at 7.5 and 10% inclusion rates. When germ fraction was fed, relative organ weights remained constant through all concentrations except for the ventriculus and duodenum at 7.5 and 10% inclusion levels. Relative pancreas weight was significantly increased at the 10% level of the hull fraction. Increases in intestinal viscosity corresponded with growth depression. These results suggest that residual gum was responsible for some deleterious effects seen when guar meal was fed. The germ fraction was a superior ingredient when compared with the hull fraction. The guar meal germ fraction constituting as much as 7.5% of the diet supported growth and feed conversion measures similar to those observed with a typical corn-soybean poultry ration.

  10. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere stored mungbean sprouts: the use of vegetable-associated bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bennik, M H; van Overbeek, W; Smid, E J; Gorris, L G

    1999-03-01

    Two bacteriocinogenic strains of Pediococcus parvulus and one bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii strain were evaluated for their potential to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on refrigerated, modified atmosphere (MA) stored mungbean sprouts. These three strains, which were isolated from minimally-processed vegetables, were shown to grow in culture broth at 4, 8, 15 and 30 degrees C. However, only Ent. mundtii was capable of bacteriocin production at 4-8 degrees C. Examination of the growth of these strains on agar under 1.5% O2 in combination with 0, 5, 20 or 50% CO2 revealed significantly higher maximum specific growth rates for Ent. mundtii than for Pediococcus parvulus at CO2 concentrations below 20%, which are relevant for MA-storage of vegetables. Enterococcus mundtii was subsequently evaluated for its ability to control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vegetable agar and fresh mungbean sprouts under 1.5% O2/20% CO2/78.5% N2 at 8 degrees C. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited by bacteriocinogenic Ent. mundtii on sterile vegetable-medium but not on fresh produce. However, mundticin, the bacteriocin produced by Ent. mundtii, was found to have potential as a biopreservative agent for MA-stored mungbean sprouts when used in a washing step or a coating procedure.

  11. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    PubMed

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  12. [Soil nutrient accumulation and its affecting factors during vegetation succession in karst peak-cluster depressions of South China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ke-Lin; Liu, Su-Juan; Ye, Ying-Ying; Pan, Fu-Jing; He, Xu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Taking the typical karst peak-cluster depressions in Huanjiang County of northwest Guangxi as the objects, and by using the method of replacing time with space, an analysis was made on the dynamic changes of top soil (0-15 cm) nutrients and their dominant controlling factors during the process of vegetation succession. With the positive succession of vegetation (herb-shrub-secondary forest-primary forest), the soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents increased significantly, with the soil SOC, TN, and TP increased from 29.1 g x kg(-1), 2.48 g x kg(-1), and 0.72 g x kg(-1) in herb community to 73.9 g x kg(-1), 8.10 g x kg(-1), and 1.6 g x kg(-1) in primary forest, respectively, which indicated that the positive succession of vegetation was helpful to the soil nutrient accumulation. The soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) had close relationships with the soil SOC and TN, being the primary controlling factor for the accumulation of the soil C and N. The litter P content, C/P ratio, and N/P ratio were the major factors controlling the P accumulation in the topsoil. The litters higher P content and N/P ratio and smaller C/P ratio were helpful for the P accumulation. Topographic indices (slope, aspect, and rock exposure ratio) had little effects on the soil nutrients.

  13. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying. PMID:28042845

  14. A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake of arsenic by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect home gardeners neighboring contaminated environments. A controlled greenhouse study was conducted in parallel with a co-created citizen science program (home garden experiment) to characterize the uptake of arsenic by common homegrown vegetables near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in southern Arizona. The greenhouse and home garden arsenic soil concentrations varied considerably, ranging from 2.35 to 533 mg kg−1. In the greenhouse experiment four vegetables were grown in three different soil treatments and in the home garden experiment a total of 63 home garden produce samples were obtained from 19 properties neighboring the site. All vegetables accumulated arsenic in both the greenhouse and home garden experiments, ranging from 0.01 to 23.0 mg kg−1 dry weight. Bioconcentration factors were determined and show that arsenic uptake decreased in the order: Asteraceae > Brassicaceae > Amaranthaceae > Cucurbitaceae > Liliaceae > Solanaceae > Fabaceae. Certain members of the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families have been previously identified as hyperaccumulator plants, and it can be inferred that members of these families have genetic and physiological capacity to accumulate, translocate, and resist high amounts of metals. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of arsenic that accumulated in the edible portion of the plant and the arsenic soil concentration for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Fabaceae families. The results suggest that home gardeners neighboring mining operations or mine tailings with elevated arsenic levels should be made aware that arsenic can accumulate considerably in certain vegetables, and in particular, it is recommended that gardeners limit consumption of vegetables from the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families. PMID:23201696

  15. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  16. Impacts of summer ozone exposure on the growth and overwintering of UK upland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Felicity; Mills, Gina; Williams, Philip; Harmens, Harry; Büker, Patrick

    The effects of ozone exposure on species of an upland grassland were assessed. Thirty-three species from Snowdonia, North Wales, UK, were exposed for 10 weeks to a weekly episodic ozone regime in solardomes representing predicted future concentrations. Two solardomes were used as controls, with ozone added to charcoal-filtered air to give a continuous ozone concentration of 30 ppb (O 3(30)). A weekly episodic ozone regime was applied to two other solardomes, with concentrations rising for 8 h per day to 80 ppb on day 1, 100 ppb on days 2 and 3, and 80 ppb on day 4; ozone concentrations remained at 30 ppb at all other times (O 3(30+peaks)). The control and background ozone concentrations of 30 ppb were maintained throughout the night as well as during the daytime. During exposure to the episodic ozone regime, some species were sensitive to ozone and showed ozone-specific leaf injury symptoms (e.g . Carex echinata) and/or premature senescence (e.g. Festuca rubra) and/or changes in above-ground biomass (e.g. Armeria maritima), whereas other species (e.g Holcus lanatus and Carex demissa) showed no effects. Some species, although showing no effects during the 10-week ozone exposure, showed carry-over effects on biomass the following spring, after a winter period of ambient ozone exposure (e.g. Galium saxatile, Nardus stricta and Saxifraga stellaris). The carry-over effects shown in this study indicate the potential ecological impact of ozone on semi-natural vegetation species and indicate the importance of longer-term studies on the effects of ozone on plants.

  17. Alcohol-induced brain growth restrictions (microencephaly) were not affected by concurrent exposure to cocaine during the brain growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Chen, W J; Andersen, K H; West, J R

    1994-09-01

    The prevalence of concomitant use of alcohol and cocaine among drug abusers has raised concern about the possible increased risk of fetal damage. The aim of this study was to assess the interactive effects of alcohol and cocaine on lethality, somatic growth, and brain growth using an animal model system. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were used as subjects. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 9 artificially reared groups which varied with respect to the combination treatments of cocaine (0, 40, or 60 mg/kg) and alcohol (0, 3.3, or 4.5 g/kg). All artificially reared pups were given daily cocaine and alcohol treatments during a major part of the brain growth spurt period (postnatal days 4-9). An additional group of suckled control animals raised by their natural dams was included to control for artificial rearing. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Drug-induced lethality was higher in cocaine-treated groups when compared with non-cocaine-treated groups, and the concurrent administration of high doses of alcohol and cocaine significantly increased the mortality rate. 2) Somatic growth, in terms of body weight, was not affected by alcohol, cocaine, or the combination of both drugs using the artificial rearing technique. 3) Alcohol exposure during this brain growth spurt period significantly reduced whole brain weight, as well as forebrain, cerebellum, and brain stem weights. 4) In contrast to alcohol, cocaine failed to exert a detrimental effect on brain weight measures during this early postnatal period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The microtubule-associated protein MAP18 affects ROP2 GTPase activity during root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Erfang; Zheng, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Ming; Yalovsky, Shaul; Zhu, Lei; Fu, Ying

    2017-03-17

    Establishment and maintenance of the polar site are important for root hair tip growth. We previously reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) functions in controlling the direction of pollen tube growth and root hair elongation. Additionally, the Rop GTPase ROP2 was reported as a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth in Arabidopsis. Both loss-of-function of ROP2 or knock-down of MAP18 leads to a decrease in root hair length, whereas overexpression of either MAP18 or ROP2 causes multiple tips or a branching hair phenotype. However, it is unclear whether MAP18 and ROP2 coordinately regulate root hair growth. In the present study, we demonstrate that MAP18 and ROP2 interact genetically and functionally. MAP18 physically interacts with ROP2 in vitro and in vivo and preferentially binds to the inactive form of the ROP2 protein. MAP18 promotes ROP2 activity during root hair tip growth. Further investigation revealed that MAP18 competes with RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (AtRhoGDI1)/SUPERCENTIPEDE1 (SCN1) for binding to ROP2, in turn affecting localization of active ROP2 in the plasma membrane of the root hair tip. These results reveal a novel function of MAP18 in the regulation of ROP2 activation during root hair growth.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term 'IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc' was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  20. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  1. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  2. Exploring posttraumatic growth in Tamil children affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004.

    PubMed

    Exenberger, Silvia; Ramalingam, Panch; Höfer, Stefan

    2016-10-13

    Few studies explore posttraumatic growth (PTG) in children from Eastern cultures. To help address this gap, the present study examined PTG among 177 South Indian children aged 8-17 years who were affected by the 2004 Tsunami. The study identifies the underlying factor structure of the Tamil version of the Revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R), and aims to explore the prevalence of PTG, the relationship between distress and growth, and gender and age differences in PTG. The results of the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure with an interpersonal and a person-centred dimension of growth. The total scores of the Tamil PTGI-C-R were positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and age. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between age and the person-centred growth subscale. Non-parametric tests found no gender differences in perceived growth. The role of socio-cultural factors on the nature of PTG is discussed.

  3. Growth potential of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in nine types of ready-to-eat vegetables stored at variable temperature conditions during shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Barbosa, Matheus S; Destro, Maria Teresa; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2012-06-15

    Growth potential (δ) is defined as the difference between the population of a microorganism at the end of shelf-life of specific food and its initial population. The determination of δ of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in RTE vegetables can be very useful to determine likely threats to food safety. However, little is known on the behavior of these microorganisms in several RTE vegetables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the δ of both pathogens in nine different types of RTE vegetables (escarole, collard green, spinach, watercress, arugula, grated carrot, green salad, and mix for yakisoba) stored at refrigeration (7°C) and abuse temperature (15°C). The population of aerobic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria, including those showing antimicrobial activity has been also determined. Results indicated that L. monocytogenes was able to grow (δ≥0.5 log(10)) in more storage conditions and vegetables than Salmonella. Both microorganisms were inhibited in carrots, although a more pronounced effect has been observed against L. monocytogenes. The highest δ values were obtained when the RTE vegetables were stored 15°C/6days in collard greens (δ=3.3) and arugula (δ=3.2) (L. monocytogenes) and arugula (δ=4.1) and escarole (δ=2.8) (Salmonella). In most vegetables and storage conditions studied, the counts of total aerobic microorganisms raised significantly independent of the temperature of storage (p<0.05). Counts of lactic acid bacteria were higher in vegetables partially or fully stored at abuse temperature with recovery of isolates showing antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes may grow and reach high populations in RTE vegetables depending on storage conditions and the definition of effective intervention strategies are needed to control their growth in these products.

  4. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

  5. Macronutrient content of plant-based food affects growth of a carnivorous arthropod.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-02-01

    Many arthropods engage in mutualisms in which they consume plant-based foods including nectar, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which the specific macronutrients in these plant-based resources affect growth, especially for carnivorous arthropods. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments, we tested (1) how plant-based foods, together with ad libitum insect prey, affect the growth of a carnivorous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and (2) which macronutrients in these resources (i.e., carbohydrates, amino acids, or both) contribute to higher colony growth. Access to honeydew increased the production of workers and brood in experimental colonies. This growth effect appeared to be due to carbohydrates alone as colonies provided with the carbohydrate component of artificial extrafloral nectar had greater worker and brood production compared to colonies deprived of carbohydrates. Surprisingly, amino acids only had a slight interactive effect on the proportion of a colony composed of brood and negatively affected worker survival. Diet choice in the laboratory and field matched performance in the laboratory with high recruitment to carbohydrate baits and only slight recruitment to amino acids. The strong, positive effects of carbohydrates on colony growth and the low cost of producing this macronutrient for plants and hemipterans may have aided the evolution of food-for-protection mutualisms and help explain why these interactions are so common in ants. In addition, greater access to plant-based resources in the introduced range of S. invicta may help to explain the high densities achieved by this species throughout the southeastern United States.

  6. Patatin-related phospholipase A, pPLAIIIα, modulates the longitudinal growth of vegetative tissues and seeds in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangmeng; Zhang, Ke; Ai, Jun; Deng, Xianjun; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-11-01

    Patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyses glycerolipids to produce fatty acids and lysoglycerolipids. The Oryza sativa genome has 21 putative pPLAs that are grouped into five subfamilies. Overexpression of OspPLAIIIα resulted in a dwarf phenotype with decreased length of rice stems, roots, leaves, seeds, panicles, and seeds, whereas OspPLAIIIα-knockout plants had longer panicles and seeds. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants were less sensitive than wild-type and knockout plants to gibberellin-promoted seedling elongation. OspPLAIIIα overexpression and knockout had an opposite effect on the expression of the growth repressor SLENDER1 in the gibberellin signalling process. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants had decreased mechanical strength and cellulose content, but exhibited increases in the expression of several cellulose synthase genes. These results indicate that OspPLAIIIα plays a role in rice vegetative and reproductive growth and that the constitutive, high activity of OspPLAIIIα suppresses cell elongation. The decreased gibberellin response in overexpressing plants is probably a result of the decreased ability to make cellulose for anisotropic cell expansion.

  7. Studies on the growth metabolism of Bacillus thuringiensis and its vegetative insecticidal protein engineered strains by microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Liu, Y; Tuo, Y; Zhu, J; Qin, X; Dong, J; Qu, S; Yu, Z

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic power-times curves of Bacillus thuringiensis and its vegetative insecticidal protein engineered strains were determined at 30 degrees C by using a thermal activity monitor air Isothermal Microcalorimeter, ampoule method. From the power-times curves, the maximum power (Pmax) in the log phase, the growth rate constant (k), the generation times (tG), the time of the maximum power (tmax), the heat effects (Qlog) for log phase, and the total heat effect in 45 h (Qtotal) of B. thuringiensis strains can be obtained. The results indicate that their power-times curves are different. The relationship between their metabolic power-times curves and character of bacteria metabolism, and thermokinetics and gene expression were analyzed and discussed. The character of the bacteria power-times curves reflected the physiologic character of gene expression. The microcalorimetric method proved to be a reliable and sensitive tool for the assessment of the growth metabolism, the heat output in bacteria and its engineered strains. The determination of the thermokinetic character is beneficial to the control of fermentation.

  8. A rootstock provides water conservation for a grafted commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) line in response to mild-drought conditions: a focus on vegetative growth and photosynthetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erik T; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for

  9. Soil particle heterogeneity affects the growth of a rhizomatous wetland plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Xue, Wei; Peng, Yi-Ke; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Soil is commonly composed of particles of different sizes, and soil particle size may greatly affect the growth of plants because it affects soil physical and chemical properties. However, no study has tested the effects of soil particle heterogeneity on the growth of clonal plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which individual ramets of the wetland plant Bolboschoenus planiculmis were grown in three homogeneous soil treatments with uniformly sized quartz particles (small: 0.75 mm, medium: 1.5 mm, or large: 3 mm), one homogeneous treatment with an even mixture of large and medium particles, and two heterogeneous treatments consisting of 16 or 4 patches of large and medium particles. Biomass, ramet number, rhizome length and spacer length were significantly greater in the treatment with only medium particles than in the one with only large particles. Biomass, ramet number, rhizome length and tuber number in the patchy treatments were greater in patches of medium than of large particles; this difference was more pronounced when patches were small than when they were large. Soil particle size and soil particle heterogeneity can greatly affect the growth of clonal plants. Thus, studies to test the effects of soil heterogeneity on clonal plants should distinguish the effects of nutrient heterogeneity from those of particle heterogeneity.

  10. Feedback dynamics of grazing lawns: Coupling vegetation change with animal growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, Brian T.; Herzog, M.P.; Ruess, Roger W.; Sedinger, J.S.; Anthony, R. Michael; Babcock, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effects of grazing by Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) geese (hereafter Brant) on plant community zonation and gosling growth between 1987 and 2000 at a nesting colony in southwestern Alaska. The preferred forage of Brant, Carex subspathacea, is only found as a grazing lawn. An alternate forage species, C. ramenskii, exists primarily as meadow but also forms grazing lawns when heavily grazed. We mowed plots of ungrazed C. ramenskii meadows to create swards that Brant could select and maintain as grazing lawns. Fecal counts were higher on mowed plots than on control plots in the year after plots were mowed. Both nutritional quality and aboveground biomass of C. ramenskii in mowed plots were similar to that of C. subspathacea grazing lawns. The areal extent of grazing lawns depends in part on the population size of Brant. High Brant populations can increase the areal extent of grazing lawns, which favors the growth of goslings. Grazing lawns increased from 3% to 8% of surface area as the areal extent of C. ramenskii meadows declined between 1991 and 1999. Gosling mass was lower early in this time period due to density dependent effects. As the goose population stabilized, and area of grazing lawns increased, gosling mass increased between 1993 and 1999. Because larger goslings have increased survival, higher probability of breeding, and higher fecundity, herbivore-mediated changes in the distribution grazing lawn extent may result in a numerical increase of the population within the next two decades.

  11. Transcriptional Profile of Bacillus subtilis sigF-Mutant during Vegetative Growth.

    PubMed

    Overkamp, Wout; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Sigma factor F is the first forespore specific transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis and controls genes required for the early stages of prespore development. The role of sigF is well studied under conditions that induce sporulation. Here, the impact of sigF disruption on the transcriptome of exponentially growing cultures is studied by micro-array analysis. Under these conditions that typically don't induce sporulation, the transcriptome showed minor signs of sporulation initiation. The number of genes differentially expressed and the magnitude of expression were, as expected, quite small in comparison with sporulation conditions. The genes mildly down-regulated were mostly involved in anabolism and the genes mildly up-regulated, in particular fatty acid degradation genes, were mostly involved in catabolism. This is probably related to the arrest at sporulation stage II occurring in the sigF mutant, because continuation of growth from the formed disporic sporangia may require additional energy. The obtained knowledge is relevant for various experiments, such as industrial fermentation, prolonged experimental evolution or zero-growth studies, where sporulation is an undesirable trait that should be avoided, e.g by a sigF mutation.

  12. Metal/metalloid fixation by litter during decomposition affected by silicon availability during plant growth.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Organic matter is known to accumulate high amounts of metals/metalloids, enhanced during the process of decomposition by heterotrophic biofilms (with high fixation capacity for metals/metalloids). The colonization by microbes and the decay rate of the organic matter depends on different litter properties. Main litter properties affecting the decomposition of organic matter such as the nutrient ratios and the content of cellulose, lignin and phenols are currently described to be changed by silicon availability. But less is known about the impact of silicon availability during plant growth on elemental fixation during decay. Hence, this research focuses on the impact of silicon availability during plant growth on fixation of 42 elements during litter decay, by controlling the litter properties. The results of this experiment are a significantly higher metal/metalloid accumulation during decomposition of plant litter grown under low silicon availability. This may be explained by the altered litter properties (mainly nutrient content) affecting the microbial decomposition of the litter, the microbial growth on the litter and possibly by the silicon double layer, which is evident in leaf litter with high silicon content and reduces the binding sites for metals/metalloids. Furthermore, this silicon double layer may also reduce the growing biofilm by reducing the availability of carbon compounds at the litter surface and has to be elucidated in further research. Hence, low silicon availability during plant growth enhances the metal/metalloid accumulation into plant litter during aquatic decomposition.

  13. Gonadotropin ratio affects the in vitro growth of rhesus ovarian preantral follicles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Young; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chung Gyu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Liu, Hung Ching; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ku, Seung-Yup

    2016-01-01

    In vitro follicle growth (IVFG) strategy is critical in the fertility preservation of cancer survivors; however, its optimal protocol needs to be developed using primate models since the availability of human samples is limited. Only a few previous studies have reported the successful IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries using low-dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (0.3 or 3 ng/mL) and long-term culture (up to 5 weeks) and it is still uncertain in regard to the optimal culture duration and effective dose of treated gonadotropins applicable to the IVFG of rhesus preantral follicles. Recently, we have reported that the FSH to luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio affects the in vitro growth of murine ovarian follicles. We aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin ratios affect the efficiency of rhesus follicular growth in vitro. Ovaries were collected from six necropsied rhesus macaques (4–9 years) and preantral follicles were retrieved and cultured for 14 days using 200 mIU/mL FSH. The characteristics of follicular growth were compared between the FSH:LH=1:1 (n=24) and FSH:LH=2:1 (n=24) groups. High concentration gonadotropin treatment shortened the duration required for in vitro maturation of rhesus preantral follicles. The FSH:LH=2:1 group showed a faster follicular growth and enabled the acquisition of mature oocytes, although the expression of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Taken together, high dose gonadotropin treatment can shorten the duration of IVFG and the gonadotropin ratio is important in the IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries. PMID:26980777

  14. Scorched Earth: how will changes in the strength of the vegetation sink to ozone deposition affect human health and ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, L. D.; Kitwiroon, N.; Beevers, S.; Büker, P.; Cinderby, S.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of ozone (O3) deposition on ground level O3 concentrations and subsequent human health and ecosystem risk under hot summer "heat wave" type meteorological events. Under such conditions, extended drought can effectively "turn off" the O3 vegetation sink leading to a substantial increase in ground level O3 concentrations. Two models that have been used for human health (the CMAQ chemical transport model) and ecosystem (the DO3SE O3 deposition model) risk assessment are combined to provide a powerful policy tool capable of novel integrated assessments of O3 risk using methods endorsed by the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study investigates 2006, a particularly hot and dry year during which a heat wave occurred over the summer across much of the UK and Europe. To understand the influence of variable O3 dry deposition three different simulations were investigated during June and July: (i) actual conditions in 2006, (ii) conditions that assume a perfect vegetation sink for O3 deposition and (iii) conditions that assume an extended drought period that reduces the vegetation sink to a minimum. The risks of O3 to human health, assessed by estimating the number of days during which running 8 h mean O3 concentrations exceeded 100 μg m-3, show that on average across the UK, there is a difference of 16 days exceedance of the threshold between the perfect sink and drought conditions. These average results hide local variation with exceedances between these two scenarios reaching as high as 20 days in the East Midlands and eastern UK. Estimates of acute exposure effects show that O3 removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition during the June and July period would have been responsible for approximately 460 premature deaths. Conversely, reduced O3 dry deposition will decrease the amount of O3 taken up by vegetation and, according to flux-based assessments of vegetation damage, will lead to a reduction in

  15. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  16. ChSte7 Is Required for Vegetative Growth and Various Plant Infection Processes in Colletotrichum higginsianum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meijuan; Yan, Yaqin; Gu, Qiongnan; Huang, Junbin

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an important hemibiotrophic phytopathogen that causes crucifer anthracnose in various regions of the world. In many plant-pathogenic fungi, the Ste11-Ste7-Fus3/Kss1 kinase pathway is essential to pathogenicity and various plant infection processes. To date, the role of ChSte7 in C. higginsianum encoding a MEK orthologue of Ste7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has not been elucidated. In this report, we investigated the function of ChSte7 in the pathogen. The ChSte7 is predicted to encode a 522-amino-acid protein with a S_TKc conserved domain that shares 44% identity with Ste7 in S. cerevisiae. ChSte7 disruption mutants showed white colonies with irregularly shaped edges and extremely decreased growth rates and biomass productions. The ChSte7 disruption mutants did not form appressoria and showed defects in pathogenicity on leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. When inoculated onto wounded leaf tissues, the ChSte7 disruption mutants grew only on the surface of host tissues but failed to cause lesions beyond the wound site. In contrast, both the wild-type and complementation strains showed normal morphology, produced appressoria, and caused necrosis on leaves of Arabidopsis. Analysis with qRT-PCR suggested that ChSte7 was highly expressed during the late stages of infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ChSte7 is involved in regulation of vegetative growth, appressorial formation of C. higginsianum, and postinvasive growth in host tissues. PMID:27563675

  17. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  18. Growth conditions affect carotenoid-based plumage coloration of great tit nestlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrak, P.; Vellau, Helen; Ots, Indrek; Møller, Anders Pape

    Carotenoid-based integument colour in animals has been hypothesised to signal individual phenotypic quality because it reliably reflects either foraging efficiency or health status. We investigated whether carotenoid-derived yellow plumage coloration of fledgling great tits (Parus major) reflects their nestling history. Great tit fledglings reared in a poor year (1998) or in the urban habitat were less yellow than these reared in a good year (1999) or in the forest. The origin of nestlings also affected their coloration since nestlings from a city population did not improve their coloration when transferred to the forest. Brood size manipulation affected fledgling colour, but only in the rural population, where nestlings from reduced broods developed more yellow coloration than nestlings from increased and control broods. Effect of brood size manipulation on fledgling plumage colour was independent of the body mass, indicating that growth environment affects fledgling body mass and plumage colour by different pathways.

  19. The ecological characteristics of the riparian vegetation affected by river overflowing disturbance in the lower Tarim River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hailiang; Ye, Mao; Li, Jimei

    2009-10-01

    Based on data obtained from field investigations, this paper aims to analyze the influence of the river overflow on the desert riparian vegetation and discuss the function of the river overflow on the vegetation restoration at the lower Tarim River. The results show that (1) there are only 17 species, 13 genera and 9 families in the study areas before river overflow, while there are 34 species, 26 genera and 12 families after the overflowing in which 18 species emerged newly; (2) judging by the biodiversity indices, the species diversity and species richness in the river overflowed area increase more significantly than those in the un-overflow area; (3) judging by the importance of different species after years of river overflowing, the annual herbs germinate quickly at first, while the perennial herbs with deep roots or root clones become dominant in the plant community; (4) after several times of river overflowing, some arbors and shrubs such as Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima germinate easily and can dominate gradually in the plant community. The results indicate that the river overflowing restores the severely degraded ecosystem in the lower Tarim River and the function is connected with restoration of eco-hydrological processes in the study areas. The results suggest that experimental overflowing has initiated a process of restoring ecosystem function within the riparian forest.

  20. Cruciferous vegetable phytochemical sulforaphane affects phase II enzyme expression and activity in rat cardiomyocytes through modulation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Motori, Elisa; Fabbri, Daniele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-09-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), abundant in Cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce antioxidant/detoxification enzymes in many cancer cell lines, but studies focused on its cytoprotective action in nontransformed cells are just at the beginning. Since we previously demonstrated that SF elicits cardioprotection through an indirect antioxidative mechanism, the aim of this study was to analyze the signaling pathways through which SF exerts its protective effects. Using cultured rat cardiomyocytes, we investigated the ability of SF to activate Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways, which are implicated in cardiac cell survival, and to increase the phosphorylation of Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its binding to the antioxidant response element. By means of specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway represents a mechanism through which SF influences both expression and activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, analyzed by western immunoblotting and spectrophotometric assay, respectively, and modulates Nrf2 binding and phosphorylation resulting in a cytoprotective action against oxidative damage. Results of this study confirm the importance of phase II enzymes modulation as cytoprotective mechanism and support the nutritional assumption of Cruciferous vegetables as source of nutraceutical cardioprotective agents.

  1. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) affects vegetation more than seed banks in mixed-grass prairies of the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Haines, Dustin F.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plants have the ability to modify soil seed banks in habitats they invade, but little is known about the legacy of invasion on seed banks once an exotic plant has successfully been controlled. Natural areas previously invaded by leafy spurge in the northern Great Plains typically have one of two fates following its removal: a return of native plants, or a secondary invasion of other exotic plants. It is unknown, however, if this difference in plant communities following leafy spurge control is due to seed bank differences. To answer this question, we monitored seed banks and standing vegetation for 2 yr in mixed-grass prairies that were previously invaded by leafy spurge but controlled within 5 yr of our study. We found that native plant seed banks were largely intact in areas previously invaded by leafy spurge, regardless of the current living plant community, and leafy spurge invasion history had a larger impact on cover and diversity of the vegetation than on the seed banks. Differences in plant communities following leafy spurge control do not appear to be related to the seed banks, and soil conditions may be more important in determining trajectories of these postinvasion communities.

  2. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice.

  3. InxGa1-xP Nanowire Growth Dynamics Strongly Affected by Doping Using Diethylzinc.

    PubMed

    Otnes, Gaute; Heurlin, Magnus; Zeng, Xulu; Borgström, Magnus T

    2017-02-08

    Semiconductor nanowires are versatile building blocks for optoelectronic devices, in part because nanowires offer an increased freedom in material design due to relaxed constraints on lattice matching during the epitaxial growth. This enables the growth of ternary alloy nanowires in which the bandgap is tunable over a large energy range, desirable for optoelectronic devices. However, little is known about the effects of doping in the ternary nanowire materials, a prerequisite for applications. Here we present a study of p-doping of InxGa1-xP nanowires and show that the growth dynamics are strongly affected when diethylzinc is used as a dopant precursor. Specifically, using in situ optical reflectometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we show that the doping results in a smaller nanowire diameter, a more predominant zincblende crystal structure, a more Ga-rich composition, and an increased axial growth rate. We attribute these effects to changes in seed particle wetting angle and increased TMGa pyrolysis efficiency upon introducing diethylzinc. Lastly, we demonstrate degenerate p-doping levels in InxGa1-xP nanowires by the realization of an Esaki tunnel diode. Our findings provide insights into the growth dynamics of ternary alloy nanowires during doping, thus potentially enabling the realization of such nanowires with high compositional homogeneity and controlled doping for high-performance optoelectronics devices.

  4. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  5. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  6. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  7. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The FT/TFL1 gene family controls important aspects of plant development: MFT-like genes affect germination, TFL1-like genes act as floral inhibitors, and FT-like genes are floral activators. Gene duplications produced paralogs with modified functions required by the specific lifestyles of various angiosperm species. We constructed the transcriptome of the weedy annual plant Chenopodium rubrum and used it for the comprehensive search for the FT/TFL1 genes. We analyzed their phylogenetic relationships across Amaranthaceae and all angiosperms. We discovered a very ancient phylogenetic clade of FT genes represented by the CrFTL3 gene of C. rubrum. Another paralog CrFTL2 showed an unusual structural rearrangement which might have contributed to the functional shift. We examined the transcription patterns of the FT/TFL1 genes during the vegetative growth and floral transition in C. rubrum to get clues about their possible functions. All the genes except for the constitutively expressed CrFTL2 gene, and the CrFTL3 gene, which was transcribed only in seeds, exhibited organ-specific expression influenced by the specific light regime. The CrFTL1 gene was confirmed as a single floral activator from the FT/TFL1 family in C. rubrum. Its floral promoting activity may be counteracted by CrTFL1. C. rubrum emerges as an easily manipulated model for the study of floral induction in weedy fast-cycling plants lacking a juvenile phase. PMID:27473314

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of soil biochar content affects soil quality and wheat growth and yield.

    PubMed

    Olmo, Manuel; Lozano, Ana María; Barrón, Vidal; Villar, Rafael

    2016-08-15

    Biochar (BC) is a carbonaceous material obtained by pyrolysis of organic waste materials and has been proposed as a soil management strategy to mitigate global warming and to improve crop productivity. Once BC has been applied to the soil, its imperfect and incomplete mixing with soil during the first few years and the standard agronomic practices (i.e. tillage, sowing) may generate spatial heterogeneity of the BC content in the soil, which may have implications for soil properties and their effects on plant growth. We investigated how, after two agronomic seasons, the spatial heterogeneity of olive-tree prunings BC applied to a vertisol affected soil characteristics and wheat growth and yield. During the second agronomic season and just before wheat germination, we determined the BC content in the soil by an in-situ visual categorization based on the soil darkening, which was strongly correlated to the BC content of the soil and the soil brightness. We found a high spatial heterogeneity in the BC plots, which affected soil characteristics and wheat growth and yield. Patches with high BC content showed reduced soil compaction and increased soil moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient availability (P, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, and Zn); consequently, wheat had greater tillering and higher relative growth rate and grain yield. However, if the spatial heterogeneity of the soil BC content had not been taken into account in the data analysis, most of the effects of BC on wheat growth would not have been detected. Our study reveals the importance of taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of the BC content.

  9. Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Esqueda, Martín; Gutiérrez, Aldo; Beltrán-García, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The chemical changes in barley-straw (BS), wheat-straw (WS) and vineyard-pruning (VP) substrates were determined during colonization of Lentinula edodes mycelia (during primordium development) in solid state fermentation. Primordia appeared 39-50 days after inoculation. VP appeared to promote early sporophore initiation. The concentration of hemicellulose in BS and VP decreased gradually from 25.5% to 15.6% and from 15.8% to 12.3%, respectively. However in WS, hemicellulose decreased from 27.2% to 9.5%. Lignin broke down continuously in BS and WS, with 31.8% and 34.4% degradation, respectively; higher than that of cellulose. During the pinning stage, the C:N ratio decreased in VP and BS, but not in WS. On all substrates the phenols decreased notably throughout the first week of mycelial growth. The time elapsed (days) to pinning was positively correlated with cellulose content (r=0.89), total sugar (r=0.85) and inversely correlated to lignin (r=−1.00) and phenol content (r=−0.55). PMID:24031601

  10. A Plastic Vegetative Growth Threshold Governs Reproductive Capacity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Noble, Luke M; Holland, Linda M; McLauchlan, Alisha J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-11-01

    Ontogenetic phases separating growth from reproduction are a common feature of cellular life. Long recognized for flowering plants and animals, early literature suggests this life-history component may also be prevalent among multicellular fungi. We establish the basis of developmental competence-the capacity to respond to induction of asexual development-in the filamentous saprotroph Aspergillus nidulans, describing environmental influences, including genotype-by-environment interactions among precocious mutants, gene expression associated with wild type and precocious competence acquisition, and the genetics of competence timing. Environmental effects are consistent with a threshold driven by metabolic rate and organism density, with pH playing a particularly strong role in determining competence timing. Gene expression diverges significantly over the competence window, despite a lack of overt morphological change, with differentiation in key metabolic, signaling, and cell trafficking processes. We identify five genes for which mutant alleles advance competence timing, including the conserved GTPase RasB (AN5832) and ambient pH sensor PalH (AN6886). In all cases examined, inheritance of competence timing is complex and non-Mendelian, with F1 progeny showing highly variable transgressive timing and dominant parental effects with a weak contribution from progeny genotype. Competence provides a new model for nutrient-limited life-cycle phases, and their elaboration from unicellular origins. Further work is required to establish the hormonal and bioenergetic basis of the trait across fungi, and underlying mechanisms of variable inheritance.

  11. Monitoring and Characterizing Seasonal Drought, Water Supply Pattern and Their Impact on Vegetation Growth Using Satellite Soil Moisture Data, GRACE Water Storage and In-situ Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E, AMSR-2 and SMAP, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE, in-situ groundwater measurements and atmospheric moisture data to delineate and characterize the evolution of drought and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE TWS provides spatially continuous observations of total terrestrial water storage changes and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite derived soil moisture estimates provide enhanced delineation of plant-available soil moisture. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from water components at different depth in relation to satellite based vegetation metrics, including vegetation greenness (NDVI) measures from MODIS and related higher order productivity (GPP) before, during and following the major drought events observed in the continental US for the past 14 years. We observe consistent trends and significant correlations between monthly time series of TWS, SM, NDVI and GPP. We study how changes in atmosphere moisture stress and coupling of water storage components at different depth impact on the spatial and temporal correlation between TWS, SM and vegetation metrics. In Texas, we find that surface SM and GRACE TWS agree with each other in general, and both capture the underlying water supply constraints to vegetation growth. Triggered by a transit increase in precipitation following the 2011 hydrological drought, vegetation productivity in Texas shows more sensitivity to surface SM than TWS. In the Great Plains, the correspondence between TWS and vegetation productivity is modulated by temperature-induced atmosphere moisture stress and by the coupling between surface soil moisture and groundwater through irrigation.

  12. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  13. Temperature trends in desert cities: how vegetation and urbanization affect the urban heat island dynamics in hyper-arid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marpu, P. R.; Lazzarini, M.; Molini, A.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas represent a unique micro-climatic system, mainly characterized by scarcity of vegetation and ground moisture, an albedo strictly dependent on building materials and urban forms, high heat capacity, elevated pollutants emissions, anthropogenic heat production, and a characteristic boundary layer dynamics. For obvious historical reasons, the first to be addressed in the literature were the effects of urbanization on the local microclimate of temperate regions, where most of the urban development took place in the last centuries. Here micro-climatic characteristics all contribute to the warming of urban areas, also known as 'urban heat island' effect, and are expected to crucially impact future energy and water consumption, air quality, and human health. However, rapidly increasing urbanization rates in arid and hyper-arid developing countries could soon require more attention towards studying the effects of urban development on arid climates, which remained mainly unexplored till now. In this talk we investigate the climatology of urban heat islands in seven highly urbanized desert cities based on day and night temporal trends of land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) acquired using MODIS satellite during 2000-2012. Urban and rural areas are distinguished by analyzing the high-resolution temporal variability and averaged monthly values of LST, NDVI and Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) for all the seven cities and adjacent sub-urban areas. Different thermal behaviors were observed at the selected sites, also including temperature mitigation and inverse urban heat island, and are here discussed together with detailed analysis of the corresponding trends.

  14. Vegetative and reproductive growth of salt-stressed chickpea are carbon-limited: sucrose infusion at the reproductive stage improves salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hammad A; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-05-02

    Reproductive processes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are particularly sensitive to salinity. We tested whether limited photoassimilate availability contributes to reproductive failure in salt-stressed chickpea. Rupali, a salt-sensitive genotype, was grown in aerated nutrient solution, either with non-saline (control) or 30mM NaCl treatment. At flowering, stems were either infused with sucrose solution (0.44M), water only or maintained without any infusion, for 75 d. The sucrose and water infusion treatments of non-saline plants had no effect on growth or yield, but photosynthesis declined in response to sucrose infusion. Salt stress reduced photosynthesis, decreased tissue sugars by 22-47%, and vegetative and reproductive growth were severely impaired. Sucrose infusion of salt-treated plants increased total sugars in stems, leaves and developing pods, to levels similar to those of non-saline plants. In salt-stressed plants, sucrose infusion increased dry mass (2.6-fold), pod numbers (3.8-fold), seed numbers (6.5-fold) and seed yield (10.4-fold), yet vegetative growth and reproductive failure were not rescued completely by sucrose infusion. Sucrose infusion partly rescued reproductive failure in chickpea by increasing vegetative growth enabling more flower production and by providing sucrose for pod and seed growth. We conclude that insufficient assimilate availability limits yield in salt-stressed chickpea.

  15. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass traits in F2 intercross chickens.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Y; Sato, S; Odawara, S; Nokata, H; Oyamada, Y; Taguchi, Y; Yanai, S; Sasaki, O; Takahashi, H; Nirasawa, K; Kobayashi, E

    2009-03-01

    We constructed a chicken F(2) resource population to facilitate the genetic improvement of economically important traits, particularly growth and carcass traits. An F(2) population comprising 240 chickens obtained by crossing a Shamo (lean, lightweight Japanese native breed) male and White Plymouth Rock breed (fat, heavyweight broiler) females was measured for BW, carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and thigh muscle weight (TMW) and was used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analysis, using a total of 240 microsatellite markers. A total of 14 QTL were detected at a 5% chromosome-wide level, and 7 QTL were significant at a 5% experiment-wide level for the traits evaluated in the F(2) population. For growth traits, significant and suggestive QTL affecting BW (measured at 6 and 9 wk) and average daily gain were identified on similar regions of chromosomes 1 and 3. For carcass traits, the QTL effects on CW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 3, with the greatest F-ratio of 15.0 being obtained for CW on chromosome 3. Quantitative trait loci positions affecting BMW and TMW were not detected at the same loci as those detected for BMW percentage of CW and TMW percentage of CW. For AFW, QTL positions were detected at the same loci as those detected for AFW percentage of CW. The present study identified significant QTL affecting BW, CW, and AFW.

  16. Role of plants in the vegetative and reproductive growth of saprobic basidiomycetous ground fungi.

    PubMed

    Gramss, Gerhard; Bergmann, Hans

    2008-11-01

    Non-symbiotic microorganisms engineered or expensively selected to degrade xenobiotic hydrocarbons or modify heavy-metal uptake of plants in soil remediations die back after their introduction into the target soils. Mycelia of saprobic basidiomycetes were therefore inoculated into soil samples of 1 l in glass vessels to record mycelial growth and reproduction in the immediate rhizosphere of up to 11 herbaceous plant species, or to study their responses to the separate volatiles from whole plant swards or their root balls whose emanations had been collected in 1.5-l plastic bags fixed to the glass vessels. Excess CO2 was controlled with NaOH solution. Volatiles from root balls of parsley and pea but not wheat, from unplanted soils, from the fungus-permeated, unplanted substrate soil itself, and from the rooting soil of whole wheat sward increased mycelial densities in Clitocybe sp. more than in Agaricus macrocarpus and indicated thus a higher nutrient state of the mycelia. Organic volatiles proved therefore to be a significant carbon source for certain basidiomycetes in poor natural soils. The contemporary decline in the number of basidiocarp initials to 0 to 36% in both fungi relative to the unplanted and aerated controls was caused by volatiles from rooted and unplanted soil and pointed thus to their ecological role as antibiotics, fumigants, toxins, and hormonal compounds. Aqueous extracts from root balls of wheat stimulated mycelial density and fruiting in A. macrocarpus contemporarily because of their contents in soil-derived macronutrients. They suppressed once more fruiting in the more sensitive Clitocybe sp. by active agents in the aqueous phase. Within plant rhizospheres, densities of Clitocybe sp. mycelia were stimulated in the presence of alfalfa, carrot, red clover, ryegrass, and spinach, whereas those of A. macrocarpus were halved by 7 of 10 plant species including alfalfa, red clover, ryegrass, and spinach. Mycelia of A. macrocarpus may thereby have

  17. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed.

  18. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (p<0.05). Delphacidae was most abundance during maturing stages, while the abundance of Cicadelidae peaked during reproductive stage of rice growth. Differences in temporal abundance of the population of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  19. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  20. Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

  1. Long-term cleaner fish presence affects growth of a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Clague, Gillian E.; Cheney, Karen L.; Goldizen, Anne W.; McCormick, Mark I.; Waldie, Peter A.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning behaviour is considered to be a classical example of mutualism. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have measured the benefits to clients in terms of growth. In the longest experimental study of its kind, over an 8 year period, cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus were consistently removed from seven patch reefs (61–285 m2) and left undisturbed on nine control reefs, and the growth and parasite load of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis determined. After 8 years, growth was reduced and parasitic copepod abundance was higher on fish from removal reefs compared with controls, but only in larger individuals. Behavioural observations revealed that P. moluccensis cleaned by L. dimidiatus were 27 per cent larger than nearby conspecifics. The selective cleaning by L. dimidiatus probably explains why only larger P. moluccensis individuals benefited from cleaning. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that cleaners affect the growth rate of client individuals; a greater size for a given age should result in increased fecundity at a given time. The effect of the removal of so few small fish on the size of another fish species is unprecedented on coral reefs. PMID:21733872

  2. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5-10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles.

  3. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5–10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles. PMID:26039692

  4. Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-29

    Alliance General Types of Internet Services B2B Business-to-Business B2G Business-to-Government G2B Government-to-Business G2C Government-to-Citizen G2G...Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code 98-67 STM Internet : An...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Internet : An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  5. Two novel herbicide candidates affect Arabidopsis thaliana growth by inhibiting nitrogen and phosphate absorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chongchong; Jin, Yujian; He, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; He, Hongwu; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2015-09-01

    Both 2-[(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetoxy](methy)lmethyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one (termed as IIa) and 2-[(4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)-acetoxy](methyl)methyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one (termed as IIr) are novel herbicide candidates that positively affect herbicidal activity via the introduction of a phosphorus-containing heterocyclic ring. This report investigated the mechanism of IIa and IIr on weed control in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana at physiological, ultrastructural and molecular levels. IIa and IIr significantly inhibited the growth of A. thaliana and altered its root structure by inhibiting energy metabolism and lipid or protein biosynthesis. These compounds also significantly affected the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus by down-regulating the transcripts of nitrate transporter-related genes, ammonium transporter-related genes and phosphorus transporter-related genes.

  6. Essential oils from clove affect growth of Penicillium species obtained from lemons.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J A; González, R

    2013-01-01

    Continuous use of fungicides to control citrus postharvest diseases has led to increasing resistant strains of pathogens. Since the appearance of fungicide resistance has become an important factor in limiting the efficacy fungicide treatments, new studies have been needed in order to improve control methods. There is a growing consumer's concern about the possible harmful effects of synthetic fungicides on the human health and the environment. Alternatives to synthetic fungicides for citrus decay control include essential oils. These compounds are known for their natural components and they are searched for potential bioactive plant extracts against fungi. In this study, two isolates of P. digitatum and P. italicum each were collected from lemon fruits affected by green and blue mould, respectively. Isolates were purified in potato dextrose agar (PDA) in order to separate the two species which we are demonstrated that they commonly grow together in nature. In vitro assays, in which isolates were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing PDA for up to 17 days, were carried out by pouring several doses of essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) on PDA to obtain the following concentrations (v/v): 1.6; 8, 40, 200 and 500 microL L(-1) + tween 80 (0.1 mL L(-1)). Mycelial growth curves and growth, conidiation, mass of aerial mycelium and conidial size were measured. Penicillium isolates showed a slight degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate. 500 microL L(-1) inhibited the growth of all the isolates, whereas concentrations lower than 40 microL L(-1) slightly increased the growth. 200 microL L(-1) reduced both growth and conidiation in all isolates. Aerial mycelium of P. digitatum was not affected by clove, whereas reduced the mass of mycelium of P. italicum at concentrations higher than 8 microL L(-1). In vivo experiment was carried out inoculating a drop of an extract of conidia with a hypodermal syringe though a

  7. Heatwave 2003: high summer temperature, rather than experimental fertilization, affects vegetation and CO2 exchange in an alpine bog.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Bragazza, Luca; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus were added experimentally in a bog in the southern Alps. It was hypothesized that alleviating nutrient limitation will increase vascular plant cover. As a consequence, more carbon will be fixed through higher rates of net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE). The vascular cover did increase at the expense of Sphagnum mosses. However, such vegetation changes were largely independent of the treatment and were probably triggered by an exceptional heatwave in summer 2003. Contrary to the tested hypothesis, NEE was unaffected by the nutrient treatments but was strongly influenced by temperature and water-table depth. In particular, ecosystem respiration in the hot summer of 2003 increased dramatically, presumably owing to enhanced heterotrophic respiration in an increased oxic peat layer. At the end of the experiment, the Sphagnum cover decreased significantly in the nitrogen-fertilized treatment at hummock microhabitats. In the long term, this will imply a proportionally greater accumulation of vascular litter, more easily decomposable than the recalcitrant Sphagnum litter. As a result, rates of carbon fixation may decrease because of stimulated respiration.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Contrasting Effects of Resident Vegetation on Establishment, Growth and Reproduction of Dry Grassland Plants: Implications for Seed Addition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Knappová, Jana; Knapp, Michal; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Successful establishment of plants is limited by both biotic and abiotic conditions and their interactions. Seedling establishment is also used as a direct measure of habitat suitability, but transient changes in vegetation might provide windows of opportunity allowing plant species to colonize sites which otherwise appear unsuitable. We aimed to study spatio-temporal variability in the effects of resident vegetation on establishment, growth and reproduction of dry grassland species in abandoned arable fields representing potentially suitable habitats. Seeds were sown in disturbed (bare of vegetation and roots) and undisturbed plots in three fields abandoned in the last 20 years. To assess the effects of temporal variation on plant establishment, we initiated our experiments in two years (2007 and 2008). Seventeen out of the 35 sown species flowered within two years after sowing, while three species completely failed to become established. The vegetation in the undisturbed plots facilitated seedling establishment only in the year with low spring precipitation, and the effect did not hold for all species. In contrast, growth and flowering rate were consistently much greater in the disturbed plots, but the effect size differed between the fields and years of sowing. We show that colonization is more successful when site opening by disturbance coincide with other suitable conditions such as weather or soil characteristics. Seasonal variability involved in our study emphasizes the necessity of temporal replication of sowing experiments. Studies assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing should either involve both vegetation removal treatments and untreated plots or follow the gradient of vegetation cover. We strongly recommend following the numbers of established individuals, their sizes and reproductive success when assessing habitat suitability by seed sowing since one can gain completely different results in different phases of plant life cycle. PMID:23755288

  9. Non-patient related variables affecting levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in urine biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Kirk, M J; Hayward, R M; Sproull, M; Scott, T; Smith, S; Cooley-Zgela, T; Crouse, N S; Citrin, D E; Camphausen, K

    2008-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic protein proposed to be an important biomarker for the prediction of tumour growth and disease progression. Recent studies suggest that VEGF measurements in biospecimens, including urine, may have predictive value across a range of cancers. However, the reproducibility and reliability of urinary VEGF measurements have not been determined. We collected urine samples from patients receiving radiation treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and examined the effects of five variables on measured VEGF levels using an ELISA assay. To quantify the factors affecting the precision of the assay, two variables were examined: the variation between ELISA kits with different lot numbers and the variation between different technicians. Three variables were tested for their effects on measured VEGF concentration: the time the specimen spent at room temperature prior to assay, the addition of protease inhibitors prior to specimen storage and the alteration of urinary pH. This study found that VEGF levels were consistent across three different ELISA kit lot numbers. However, significant variation was observed between results obtained by different technicians. VEGF concentrations were dependent on time at room temperature before measurement, with higher values observed 3-7 hrs after removal from the freezer. No significant difference was observed in VEGF levels with the addition of protease inhibitors, and alteration of urinary pH did not significantly affect VEGF measurements. In conclusion, this determination of the conditions necessary to reliably measure urinary VEGF levels will be useful for future studies related to protein biomarkers and disease progression.

  10. Mapping agroecological zones and time lag in vegetation growth by means of Fourier analysis of time series of NDVI images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Verhoef, W.; Van Swol, R.

    1993-01-01

    Examples are presented of applications of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to analyze time series of images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values. The results obtained for a case study on Zambia indicated that differences in vegetation development among map units of an existing agroclimatic map were not significant, while reliable differences were observed among the map units obtained using the Fourier analysis.

  11. Waving and skewing: how gravity and the surface of growth media affect root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Michele; Dunand, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis seedlings growing on inclined agar surfaces exhibit characteristic root behaviours called 'waving' and 'skewing': the former consists of a series of undulations, whereas the latter is a deviation from the direction of gravity. Even though the precise basis of these growth patterns is not well understood, both gravity and the contact between the medium and the root are considered to be the major players that result in these processes. The influence of these forces on root surface-dependent behaviours can be verified by growing seedlings at different gel pitches: plants growing on vertical plates present roots with slight waving and skewing when compared with seedlings grown on plates held at minor angles of < 90 degrees . However, other factors are thought to modulate root growth on agar; for instance, it has been demonstrated that the presence and concentration of certain compounds in the medium (such as sucrose) and of drugs able to modify the plant cell cytoskeleton also affect skewing and waving. The recent discovery of an active role of ethylene on surface-dependent root behaviour, and the finding of new mutants showing anomalous growth, pave the way for a more detailed description of these phenomena.

  12. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment.

  13. Salt affects plant Cd-stress responses by modulating growth and Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium contamination is a serious environmental problem for modern agriculture and human health. Salinity affects plant growth and development, and interactions between salt and cadmium have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms of salinity-cadmium interactions are not fully understood. Here, we show that a low concentration of salt alleviates Cd-induced growth inhibition and increases Cd accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Supplementation with low concentrations of salt reduced the reactive oxygen species level in Cd-stressed roots by increasing the contents of proline and glutathione and down-regulating the expression of RCD1, thereby protecting the plasma membrane integrity of roots under cadmium stress. Salt supplementation substantially reduces the Cd-induced elevation of IAA oxidase activity, thereby maintaining auxin levels in Cd-stressed plants, as indicated by DR5::GUS expression. Salt supply increased Cd absorption in roots and increased Cd accumulation in leaves, implying that salt enhances both Cd uptake in roots and the root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. The elevated Cd accumulation in plants in response to salt was found to be correlated with the elevated levels of phytochelatin the expression of heavy metal transporters AtHMA1-4, especially AtHMA4. Salt alleviated growth inhibition caused by Cd and increased Cd accumulation also was observed in Cd accumulator Solanum nigrum.

  14. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  15. PMT family of Candida albicans: five protein mannosyltransferase isoforms affect growth, morphogenesis and antifungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Prill, Stephan K-H; Klinkert, Birgit; Timpel, Claudia; Gale, Cheryl A; Schröppel, Klaus; Ernst, Joachim F

    2005-01-01

    Protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmt proteins) initiate O-mannosylation of secretory proteins. The PMT gene family of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans consists of PMT1 and PMT6, as well as three additional PMT genes encoding Pmt2, Pmt4 and Pmt5 isoforms described here. Both PMT2 alleles could not be deleted and growth of conditional strains, containing PMT2 controlled by the MET3- or tetOScHOP1-promoters, was blocked in non-permissive conditions, indicating that PMT2 is essential for growth. A homozygous pmt4 mutant was viable, but synthetic lethality of pmt4 was observed in combination with pmt1 mutations. Hyphal morphogenesis of a pmt4 mutant was defective under aerobic induction conditions, yet increased in embedded or hypoxic conditions, suggesting a role of Pmt4p-mediated O-glycosylation for environment-specific morphogenetic signalling. Although a PMT5 transcript was detected, a homozygous pmt5 mutant was phenotypically silent. All other pmt mutants showed variable degrees of supersensitivity to antifungals and to cell wall-destabilizing agents. Cell wall composition was markedly affected in pmt1 and pmt4 mutants, showing a significant decrease in wall mannoproteins. In a mouse model of haematogenously disseminated infection, PMT4 was required for full virulence of C. albicans. Functional analysis of the first complete PMT gene family in a fungal pathogen indicates that Pmt isoforms have variable and specific roles for in vitro and in vivo growth, morphogenesis and antifungal resistance.

  16. Modest maternal caffeine exposure affects developing embryonic cardiovascular function and growth.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Nobuo; Tinney, Joseph P; Liu, Li J; Elshershari, Huda; Hoffmann, Paul J; Ralphe, John C; Keller, Bradley B; Tobita, Kimimasa

    2008-05-01

    Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is reported to increase the risk of in utero growth restriction and spontaneous abortion. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that modest maternal caffeine exposure affects in utero developing embryonic cardiovascular (CV) function and growth without altering maternal hemodynamics. Caffeine (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) subcutaneous) was administered daily to pregnant CD-1 mice from embryonic days (EDs) 9.5 to 18.5 of a 21-day gestation. We assessed maternal and embryonic CV function at baseline and at peak maternal serum caffeine concentration using high-resolution echocardiography on EDs 9.5, 11.5, 13.5, and 18.5. Maternal caffeine exposure did not influence maternal body weight gain, maternal CV function, or embryo resorption. However, crown-rump length and body weight were reduced in maternal caffeine treated embryos by ED 18.5 (P < 0.05). At peak maternal serum caffeine concentration, embryonic carotid artery, dorsal aorta, and umbilical artery flows transiently decreased from baseline at ED 11.5 (P < 0.05). By ED 13.5, embryonic aortic and umbilical artery flows were insensitive to the peak maternal caffeine concentration; however, the carotid artery flow remained affected. By ED 18.5, baseline embryonic carotid artery flow increased and descending aortic flow decreased versus non-caffeine-exposed embryos. Maternal treatment with the adenosine A(2A) receptor inhibitor reproduced the embryonic hemodynamic effects of maternal caffeine exposure. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene expression levels of ED 11.5 embryo and ED 18.5 uterus were decreased. Results suggest that modest maternal caffeine exposure has adverse effects on developing embryonic CV function and growth, possibly mediated via adenosine A(2A) receptor blockade.

  17. Dietary electrolyte balance affects growth performance, amylase activity and metabolic response in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Peixoto, Maria-João; Pereira, Luis; Silva-Brito, Francisca; Fontinha, Filipa; Gonçalves, José F M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Schrama, Johan W; Ozório, Rodrigo O A

    2017-03-16

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60-66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90-96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance.

  18. Defoliation negatively affects plant growth and the ectomycorrhizal community of Pinus pinaster in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pestaña, Montserrat; Santolamazza-Carbone, Serena

    2011-03-01

    In this work, by artificially reproducing severe (75%) and moderate (25%) defoliation on maritime pines Pinus pinaster in NW Spain, we investigated, under natural conditions, the consequences of foliage loss on reproduction, abundance, diversity and richness of the fungal symbionts growing belowground and aboveground. The effect of defoliation on tree growth was also assessed. Mature needles were clipped during April 2007 and 2008. Root samples were collected in June-July 2007 and 2008. Collection of sporocarps was performed weekly from April 2007 to April 2009. Taxonomic identity of ectomycorrhizal fungi was assessed by using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, subsequent direct sequencing and BLAST search. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was significantly reduced (from 54 to 42%) in 2008 by 75% defoliation, accompanied with a decline in species richness and diversity. On the other hand, sporocarp abundance, richness and diversity were not affected by foliage loss. Some ECM fungal symbionts, which are assumed to have a higher carbon cost according to the morphotypes structure, were reduced due to severe (75%) defoliation. Furthermore, 75% foliage loss consistently depressed tree growth, which in turn affected the ectomycorrhizal growth pattern. Defoliation impact on ECM symbionts largely depends on the percentage of foliage removal and on the number of defoliation bouts. Severe defoliation (75%) in the short term (2 years) changed the composition of the ECM community likely because root biomass would be adjusted to lower levels in parallel with the depletion of the aboveground plant biomass, which probably promoted the competition among mycorrhizal types for host resources. The persistence of fungal biomass in mycorrhizal roots would be crucial for nutrient up-take and recovery from defoliation stress of the host plants.

  19. Does Coral Disease Affect Symbiodinium? Investigating the Impacts of Growth Anomaly on Symbiont Photophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John Henrik Robert; Gregg, Toni Makani; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2013-01-01

    Growth anomaly (GA) is a commonly observed coral disease that impairs biological functions of the affected tissue. GA is prevalent at Wai ‘ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai ‘i Island. Here two distinct forms of this disease, Type A and Type B, affect the coral, Montiporacapitata. While the effects of GA on biology and ecology of the coral host are beginning to be understood, the impact of this disease on the photophysiology of the dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium spp., has not been investigated. The GA clearly alters coral tissue structure and skeletal morphology and density. These tissue and skeletal changes are likely to modify not only the light micro-environment of the coral tissue, which has a direct impact on the photosynthetic potential of Symbiodinium spp., but also the physiological interactions within the symbiosis. This study utilized Pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM) to characterize the photophysiology of healthy and GA-affected M. capitata tissue. Overall, endosymbionts within GA-affected tissue exhibit reduced photochemical efficiency. Values of both Fv/Fm and ΔF/ Fm’ were significantly lower (p<0.01) in GA tissue compared to healthy and unaffected tissues. Tracking the photophysiology of symbionts over a diurnal time period enabled a comparison of symbiont responses to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) among tissue conditions. Symbionts within GA tissue exhibited the lowest values of ΔF/Fm’ as well as the highest pressure over photosystem II (p<0.01). This study provides evidence that the symbionts within GA-affected tissue are photochemically compromised compared to those residing in healthy tissue. PMID:23967301

  20. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  1. Integrin antagonists affect growth and pathfinding of ventral motor nerves in the trunk of embryonic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; McLane, Mary Ann; Becker, Catherina G

    2003-05-01

    Integrins are thought to be important receptors for extracellular matrix (ECM) components on growing axons. Ventral motor axons in the trunk of embryonic zebrafish grow in a midsegmental pathway through an environment rich in ECM components. To test the role of integrins in this process, integrin antagonists (the disintegrin echistatin in native and recombinant form, as well as the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide) were injected into embryos just prior to axon outgrowth at 14-16 h postfertilization (hpf). All integrin antagonists affected growth of ventral motor nerves in a similar way and native echistatin was most effective. At 24 hpf, when only the three primary motor axons per trunk hemisegment had grown out, 80% (16 of 20) of the embryos analyzed had abnormal motor nerves after injection of native echistatin, corresponding to 19% (91 of 480) of all nerves. At 33 hpf, when secondary motor axons were present in the pathway, 100% of the embryos were affected (24 of 24), with 20% of all nerves analyzed (196 of 960) being abnormal. Phenotypes comprised abnormal branching (64% of all abnormal nerves) and truncations (36% of all abnormal nerves) of ventral motor nerves at 24 hpf and mostly branching of the nerves at 33 hpf (94% of all abnormal nerves). Caudal branches were at least twice as frequent as rostral branches. Surrounding trunk tissue and a number of other axon fascicles were apparently not affected by the injections. Thus integrin function contributes to both growth and pathfinding of axons in ventral motor nerves in the trunk of zebrafish in vivo.

  2. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  3. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  4. Unilateral Nasal Obstruction during Later Growth Periods Affects Craniofacial Muscles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uchima Koecklin, Karin H.; Hiranuma, Maya; Kato, Chiho; Funaki, Yukiha; Kataguchi, Taku; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nasal obstruction can occur at different life stages. In early stages of life the respiratory system is still under development, maturing during the growth period. Previous studies have shown that nasal obstruction in neonatal rats alters craniofacial function. However, little is known about the effects of nasal obstruction that develops during later growth periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nasal obstruction during later periods of growth on the functional characteristics of the jaw-opening reflex (JOR) and tongue-protruding muscles. In total, 102 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into either a control or experimental group (both n = 51). In order to determine the appropriate timing of nasal obstruction, the saturation of arterial oxygen (SpO2) was monitored at 8 days, and at 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks in the control group. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction at the age of 5 weeks. The SpO2 was monitored at 7, 9, and 11 weeks in the experimental group. The electromyographic responses of JOR and the contractile properties of the tongue-protruding muscles were recorded at 7, 9, and 11 weeks. In the control group, SpO2 decreased until 5 weeks of age, and remained relatively stable until 11 weeks of age. The SpO2 was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control. In the experimental group, JOR changes included a longer latency and smaller peak-to-peak amplitude, while changes in the contractile properties of the tongue-protruding muscles included larger twitch and tetanic forces, and a longer half-decay time. These results suggest that nasal obstruction during later growth periods may affect craniofacial function. PMID:28119621

  5. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  6. Temperature-induced elevation of basal metabolic rate does not affect testis growth in great tits.

    PubMed

    Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-07-01

    The timing of reproduction varies from year to year in many bird species. To adjust their timing to the prevailing conditions of that year, birds use cues from their environment. However, the relative importance of these cues, such as the initial predictive (e.g. photoperiod) and the supplemental factors (e.g. temperature), on the seasonal sexual development are difficult to distinguish. In particular, the fine-tuning effect of temperature on gonadal growth is not well known. One way temperature may affect timing is via its strong effect on energy expenditure as gonadal growth is an energy-demanding process. To study the interaction of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal development, we first exposed 35 individually housed male great tits (Parus major) to mid-long days (after 6 weeks of 8 h L:16 h D at 15 degrees C, photoperiod was set to 13 h L:11 h D at 15 degrees C). Two weeks later, for half of the males the temperature was set to 8 degrees C, and for the other half to 22 degrees C. Unilateral laparotomies were performed at weeks 5 (i.e one week before the birds were transferred to mid-long days), 8 and 11 to measure testis size. Two measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were performed at the end of the experiment (weeks 11 and 12). Testis size increased significantly during the course of the experiment, but independently of the temperature treatment. BMR was significantly higher in birds exposed to the cold treatment. These results show that temperature-related elevation of BMR did not impair the long-day-induced testis growth in great tits. As a consequence, temperature may not be a crucial cue and/or constraint factor in the fine-tuning of the gonadal recrudescence in male great tits, and testis growth is not a high energy-demanding seasonal process.

  7. Stiff Mutant Genes of Phycomyces Affect Turgor Pressure and Wall Mechanical Properties to Regulate Elongation Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.; Munoz, Cindy M.; Blakley, Scott E.; Truong, Jason T.; Ortega, Elena L.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). “Stiff” mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the “growth zone.” Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (−) and C216 geo- (−). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell

  8. Stiff mutant genes of phycomyces affect turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Joseph K E; Munoz, Cindy M; Blakley, Scott E; Truong, Jason T; Ortega, Elena L

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). "Stiff" mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the "growth zone." Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (-) and C216 geo- (-). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell wall.

  9. The rice REDUCED CULM NUMBER11 gene controls vegetative growth under low-temperature conditions in paddy fields independent of RCN1/OsABCG5.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Atsushi; Takano, Sho; Matsuda, Shuichi; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2013-10-01

    Low temperature tolerance during vegetative growth is an important objective in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding programs. We isolated a novel reduced culm number mutant, designated reduced culm number11 (rcn11), by screening under low-temperature condition in a paddy fields. Since the shoot architecture of the rcn11 was very similar to that of the rcn1, we examined whether RCN11 is involved in RCN1/OsABCG5-associated vegetative growth control. The rcn11 mutant has no mutation in the RCN1/OsABCG5 gene and rcn11 has no effect on RCN1/OsABCG5 gene expression. In the rcn1 mutant, RCN1/OsABCG5 was upregulated showing that RCN1/OsABCG5 is controlled by negative feedback regulation. Absence of an effect of rcn11 on RCN1/OsABCG5 feedback regulation supported that RCN11 is not involved in the RCN1/OsABCG5-associated transport system. A genetic allelism test and molecular mapping study showed that rcn11 is independent of rcn1 on rice chromosome 3 and located on chromosome 8. The rcn1 rcn11 phenotype suggests that RCN11 acts on vegetative growth independent of RCN1/OsABCG5. A root development comparison between rcn1 and rcn11 in young seedlings represented that rcn11 reduced crown root number and elongation, whereas rcn1 reduced lateral root density and elongation. Thus, rcn11 will shed new light on vegetative growth control under low temperature.

  10. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R.; McLetchie, D. Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Methods Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. Key Results The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Conclusions Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 9 is a novel modulator of negative affect

    PubMed Central

    Aurbach, Elyse L.; Inui, Edny Gula; Turner, Cortney A.; Hagenauer, Megan H.; Prater, Katherine E.; Li, Jun Z.; Absher, Devin; Shah, Najmul; Blandino, Peter; Bunney, William E.; Myers, Richard M.; Barchas, Jack D.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Both gene expression profiling in postmortem human brain and studies using animal models have implicated the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in affect regulation and suggest a potential role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). FGF2, the most widely characterized family member, is down-regulated in the depressed brain and plays a protective role in rodent models of affective disorders. By contrast, using three microarray analyses followed by quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, we show that FGF9 expression is up-regulated in the hippocampus of individuals with MDD, and that FGF9 expression is inversely related to the expression of FGF2. Because little is known about FGF9’s function in emotion regulation, we used animal models to shed light on its potential role in affective function. We found that chronic social defeat stress, an animal model recapitulating some aspects of MDD, leads to a significant increase in hippocampal FGF9 expression, paralleling the elevations seen in postmortem human brain tissue. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of FGF9 increased both anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, knocking down FGF9 expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using a lentiviral vector produced a decrease in FGF9 expression and ameliorated anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that high levels of hippocampal FGF9 play an important role in the development or expression of mood and anxiety disorders. We propose that the relative levels of FGF9 in relation to other members of the FGF family may prove key to understanding vulnerability or resilience in affective disorders. PMID:26351673

  12. The protective function of personal growth initiative among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Forgeard, Marie J C; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors. Our results suggest that PGI may constitute an important mindset for facilitating adaptive functioning in the aftermath of adversity and in the midst of psychological distress, and as such they might have practical applications for the development of intervention programs.

  13. Zebra pattern in rocks as a function of grain growth affected by second-phase particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In this communication we present a simple microdynamic model which can explain the beginning of the zebra pattern formation in rocks. The two dimensional model consists of two main processes, mineral replacement along a reaction front, and grain boundary migration affected by impurities. In the numerical model we assume that an initial distribution of second-phase particles is present due to sedimentary layering. The reaction front percolates the model and redistributes second-phase particles by shifting them until the front is saturated and drops the particles again. This produces and enhances initial layering. Grain growth is hindered in layers with high second-phase particle concentrations whereas layers with low concentrations coarsen. Due to the grain growth activity in layers with low second-phase particle concentrations these impurities are collected at grain boundaries and the crystals become very clean. Therefore the white layers in the pattern contain large grains with low concentration of second-phase particles, whereas the dark layers contain small grains with a large second-phase particle concentration.

  14. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-02

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (μmax) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the μmax of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The μmax decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry.

  15. Cellular glycosylation affects Herceptin binding and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Diluka; Spector, Alexander F.; Lomax-Browne, Hannah; Azimi, Tayebeh; Ramesh, Bala; Loizidou, Marilena; Welch, Hazel; Dwek, Miriam V.

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in protein glycosylation are a key feature of oncogenesis and have been shown to affect cancer cell behaviour perturbing cell adhesion, favouring cell migration and metastasis. This study investigated the effect of N-linked glycosylation on the binding of Herceptin to HER2 protein in breast cancer and on the sensitivity of cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DXR) and growth factors (EGF and IGF-1). The interaction between Herceptin and recombinant HER2 protein and cancer cell surfaces (on-rate/off-rate) was assessed using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor revealing an increase in the accessibility of HER2 to Herceptin following deglycosylation of cell membrane proteins (deglycosylated cells Bmax: 6.83 Hz; glycosylated cells Bmax: 7.35 Hz). The sensitivity of cells to DXR and to growth factors was evaluated using an MTT assay. Maintenance of SKBR-3 cells in tunicamycin (an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation) resulted in an increase in sensitivity to DXR (0.1 μM DXR P < 0.001) and a decrease in sensitivity to IGF-1 alone and to IGF-1 supplemented with EGF (P < 0.001). This report illustrates the importance of N-linked glycosylation in modulating the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic and biological treatments and highlights the potential of glycosylation inhibitors as future combination treatments for breast cancer. PMID:28223691

  16. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations.

  17. A review on the factors affecting mite growth in stored grain commodities.

    PubMed

    Collins, D A

    2012-03-01

    A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system.

  18. A pathway of bisphenol A affecting mineral element contents in plant roots at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Xia, Binxin; Wang, Lihong; Nie, Lijun; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is an important industrial raw material. The wide use of BPA has increased the risk of BPA release into the environment, and it has become a new environmental pollutant. In this work, the ecological deleterious effects of this new pollutant on soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the contents of mineral elements (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and analyzing root activity and the activities of critical respiratory enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase). Our results revealed that low dose (1.5mg/L) of BPA increased the levels of P, K, Mg, and Ca in soybean roots at different growth stages. Whereas, high doses (6.0 and 12.0mg/L) of BPA decreased the levels of P, K, and Mg contents in a dose-dependent manner. BPA had a promotive effect on the content of Ca in soybean roots. Synchronous observation showed that the aforementioned dual response to BPA were also observed in the root activity and respiratory enzyme activities. The effects of BPA on the mineral element contents, root activity and respiratory enzyme activities in soybean roots at different growth stages followed the order: flowering and podding stage>seed-filling stage>seedling stage (mineral element contents); seedling stage>flowering and podding stage>seed-filling stage (root activity and respiratory enzyme activities). In a word, the response of plant root activity and respiratory enzyme activities to BPA pollution is a pathway of BPA affecting mineral element contents in plant roots.

  19. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation

    PubMed Central

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes. PMID:20363863

  20. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential.

  1. Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xian-feng; Yang, Kai; Yang, Xiao-qing; Liu, Ying-fu; Cheng, Yuan-chi; Chen, Xu-yi; Tu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These findings confirm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus results in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes. PMID:26604916

  2. How Hydrogen Bonds Affect the Growth of Reverse Micelles around Coordinating Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Baofu; Demars, Thomas; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Ellis, Ross J

    2014-04-17

    Extensive research on hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) have illustrated their critical role in various biological, chemical and physical processes. Given that existing studies are predominantly performed in aqueous conditions, how H-bonds affect both the structure and function of aggregates in organic phase is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of H-bonds on the hierarchical structure of an aggregating amphiphile-oil solution containing a coordinating metal complex by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray techniques. For the first time, we show that H-bonds not only stabilize the metal complex in the hydrophobic environment by coordinating between the Eu(NO3)3 outer-sphere and aggregating amphiphiles, but also affect the growth of such reverse micellar aggregates. The formation of swollen, elongated reverse micelles elevates the extraction of metal ions with increased H-bonds under acidic condition. These new insights into H-bonds are of broad interest to nanosynthesis and biological applications, in addition to metal ion separations.

  3. Time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Donghai; Zhao, Xiang; Liang, Shunlin; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Kaicheng; Tang, Bijian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2015-09-01

    Climate conditions significantly affect vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems, the vegetation responses to climate vary considerably with the diverse spatial patterns and the time-lag effects, which are the most important mechanism of climate-vegetation interactive effects. Extensive studies focused on large-scale vegetation-climate interactions use the simultaneous meteorological and vegetation indicators to develop models; however, the time-lag effects are less considered, which tends to increase uncertainty. In this study, we aim to quantitatively determine the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors using the GIMMS3g NDVI time series and the CRU temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation datasets. First, this study analyzed the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors. Then, a multiple linear regression model and partial correlation model were established to statistically analyze the roles of different climatic factors on vegetation responses, from which the primary climate-driving factors for different vegetation types were determined. The results showed that (i) both the time-lag effects of the vegetation responses and the major climate-driving factors that significantly affect vegetation growth varied significantly at the global scale, which was related to the diverse vegetation and climate characteristics; (ii) regarding the time-lag effects, the climatic factors explained 64% variation of the global vegetation growth, which was 11% relatively higher than the model ignoring the time-lag effects; (iii) for the area with a significant change trend (for the period 1982-2008) in the global GIMMS3g NDVI (P < 0.05), the primary driving factor was temperature; and (iv) at the regional scale, the variation in vegetation growth was also related to human activities and natural disturbances. Considering the time-lag effects is quite

  4. The impact of long-term water stress on tree architecture and production is related to changes in transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth in the 'Granny Smith' apple cultivar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; Pallas, Benoît; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Martinez, Sébastien; Han, Mingyu; Costes, Evelyne

    2016-11-01

    Water stress (WS) generates a number of physiological and morphological responses in plants that depend on the intensity and duration of stress as well as the plant species and development stage. In perennial plants, WS may affect plant development through cumulative effects that modify plant functions, architecture and production over time. Plant architecture depends on the fate of the terminal and axillary buds that can give rise, in the particular case of apple, to reproductive or vegetative growth units (GUs) of different lengths. In this study, the impact of long-term WS (7 years) on the fate of terminal and axillary buds was investigated in relation to flowering occurrence and production pattern (biennial vs regular) in the 'Granny Smith' cultivar. It was observed that WS decreased the total number of GUs per branch, regardless of their type. Conversely, WS did not modify the timing of the two successive developmental phases characterized by the production of long and medium GUs and an alternation of floral GUs over time, respectively. The analysis of GU successions over time using a variable-order Markov chain that included both the effects of the predecessor and water treatment revealed that WS reduced the transition towards long and medium GUs and increased the transition toward floral, short and dead GUs. WS also slightly increased the proportion of axillary floral GUs. The higher relative frequency of floral GUs compared with vegetative ones reduced the tendency to biennial bearing under WS. The accelerated ontogenetic trend observed under WS suggests lower vegetative growth that could, in turn, be beneficial to floral induction and fruit set.

  5. GneZ, a UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, is required for S-layer assembly and vegetative growth of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ting; Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2014-08-15

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, forms an S-layer atop its peptidoglycan envelope and displays S-layer proteins and Bacillus S-layer-associated (BSL) proteins with specific functions to support cell separation of vegetative bacilli and growth in infected mammalian hosts. S-layer and BSL proteins bind via the S-layer homology (SLH) domain to the pyruvylated secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) with the repeat structure [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→]n, where α-GlcNAc and β-GlcNAc are substituted with two and one galactosyl residues, respectively. B. anthracis gneY (BAS5048) and gneZ (BAS5117) encode nearly identical UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAc. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase enzymes have been shown to be required for the attachment of the phage lysin PlyG with the bacterial envelope and for bacterial growth. Here, we asked whether gneY and gneZ are required for the synthesis of the pyruvylated SCWP and for S-layer assembly. We show that gneZ, but not gneY, is required for B. anthracis vegetative growth, rod cell shape, S-layer assembly, and synthesis of pyruvylated SCWP. Nevertheless, inducible expression of gneY alleviated all the defects associated with the gneZ mutant. In contrast to vegetative growth, neither germination of B. anthracis spores nor the formation of spores in mother cells required UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity.

  6. Various light source treatments affect body and skeletal muscle growth by affecting skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in broilers.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Biran, I; Rozenboim, I

    1998-06-01

    In this study we addressed the effect of various monochromatic light treatments on muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation in broilers (Gallus domesticus). Broilers were reared under green (560 nm), blue (480 nm) and red (660 nm) monochromatic lights and white light as a control from day one until 35 days of age. At five days of age, satellite cells were prepared from the experimental chicks. The number of satellite cells per gram of breast muscle and total number of satellite cells derived from the experimental broilers was substantially higher in the groups reared under green and blue light, compared to the red and white light groups. Growth hormone receptor gene expression was also higher in the former groups. High correlation was found between the breast muscle weight observed on day 35 and the number of satellite cells per gram of breast muscle (r = 0.915) and total number of satellite cells (r = 0.833), derived from the experimental chicks as early as five days of age. In addition, the protein/DNA ratio found in breast muscle at 35 days of age was significantly lower in chicks that were reared under green and blue lights. The lowest ratio which was found in the green group and was twice as low as in the control group, indicates the highest number of nuclei in the former group. As satellite cells are the only source of additional nuclei in skeletal muscles of postnatal animals, our results suggest that the higher muscle weight found in the green and blue light groups was due to increased satellite cell proliferation during the first days of age.

  7. Pinus halepensis tree-ring widths at the periphery of the eastern Mediterranean forest growth as a possible proxy for recontruction of vegetation greeness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababneh, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC report (2014) signifies the importance of understanding the dynamic and elastic relationship between global climate change and forest growth as ramifications are still uncertain despite increased experimental efforts (IPCC 2014, Frank et al.,2015). Further, understanding and modeling this relationship is over emphasized in arid to semi-arid areas such as the Middle East where limited natural resources have proven record of correlation with conflict (e.g.Kelley et al., 2015). This work reports on the response of a forest stand of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) from north Jordan to variability in precipitation using instrumental and satellite derived data. The site is located in north Jordan on the transitional zones from forest to steppe of the eastern Mediterranean as classified by the European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN, 2015). The aim is to model the relationship between annual earlywood, latewood and tree-ring width indices with instrumental data, reanalysis data and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the period from 1976-2012 for a possible use of tree-ring widths as vegetation greenness proxy. The highest significant correlation (p< 0.005, α =0.05) is between current year's growth and prior spring precipitation (instrumental and reanalysis) and NDVI. Reanalysis data correlates significantly (p<0.005, α =0.05, r: 0.85) with instrumental data (1976-2012) but is limited by the records' length. There is definitely a proven correlation between seasonal tree-ring widths and vegetation index that offers the potential for reconstruction of vegetation index if applied at the regional level and could be extrapolated to desert areas that lacks proxy data with annually resolved resolution such as tree-rings.

  8. Analyzing nonlinear variations in terrestrial vegetation in China during 1982-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanxu; Liu, Xianfeng; Hu, Yi'na; Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin

    2015-11-01

    effects of human management on spatial patterns, develop trend-fitting methods, and explore more refined methods of analyzing the driving forces affecting large-scale changes in vegetative growth.

  9. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    PubMed

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  10. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using satellite VEGETATION, MODIS, TM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, C.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Therefore variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 1998 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different type of environmenta diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective is to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at different temporal and

  11. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using VEGETATION, MODIS, TM satellite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didonna, I.; Coluzzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 2000 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION, MODIS and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different types of environmental diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective was to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at differen temporal and

  12. Ice cover affects the growth of a stream-dwelling fish.

    PubMed

    Watz, Johan; Bergman, Eva; Piccolo, John J; Greenberg, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Protection provided by shelter is important for survival and affects the time and energy budgets of animals. It has been suggested that in fresh waters at high latitudes and altitudes, surface ice during winter functions as overhead cover for fish, reducing the predation risk from terrestrial piscivores. We simulated ice cover by suspending plastic sheeting over five 30-m-long stream sections in a boreal forest stream and examined its effects on the growth and habitat use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) during winter. Trout that spent the winter under the artificial ice cover grew more than those in the control (uncovered) sections. Moreover, tracking of trout tagged with passive integrated transponders showed that in the absence of the artificial ice cover, habitat use during the day was restricted to the stream edges, often under undercut banks, whereas under the simulated ice cover condition, trout used the entire width of the stream. These results indicate that the presence of surface ice cover may improve the energetic status and broaden habitat use of stream fish during winter. It is therefore likely that reductions in the duration and extent of ice cover due to climate change will alter time and energy budgets, with potentially negative effects on fish production.

  13. Histopathology of Growth Anomaly Affecting the Coral, Montipora capitata: Implications on Biological Functions and Population Viability

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John H. R.; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1–93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8–67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2–29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8–46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7–49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  14. Bioprospecting for microbial products that affect ice crystal formation and growth.

    PubMed

    Christner, Brent C

    2010-01-01

    At low temperatures, some organisms produce proteins that affect ice nucleation, ice crystal structure, and/or the process of recrystallization. Based on their ice-interacting properties, these proteins provide an advantage to species that commonly experience the phase change from water to ice or rarely experience temperatures above the melting point. Substances that bind, inhibit or enhance, and control the size, shape, and growth of ice crystals could offer new possibilities for a number of agricultural, biomedical, and industrial applications. Since their discovery more than 40 years ago, ice nucleating and structuring proteins have been used in cryopreservation, frozen food preparation, transgenic crops, and even weather modification. Ice-interacting proteins have demonstrated commercial value in industrial applications; however, the full biotechnological potential of these products has yet to be fully realized. The Earth's cold biosphere contains an almost endless diversity of microorganisms to bioprospect for microbial compounds with novel ice-interacting properties. Microorganisms are the most appropriate biochemical factories to cost effectively produce ice nucleating and structuring proteins on large commercial scales.

  15. Paternal MHC expression on mouse trophoblast affects uterine vascularization and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Madeja, Zofia; Yadi, Hakim; Apps, Richard; Boulenouar, Selma; Roper, Stephen J; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco; Hemberger, Myriam

    2011-03-08

    The mammalian fetus represents a semiallograft within the maternal uterus yet is not rejected. This situation is particularly pronounced in species with a hemochorial type of placentation, such as humans and rodents, where maternal tissues and blood are in direct contact with fetal trophoblast and thus potentially with paternal antigens. The main polymorphic antigens responsible for graft rejection are MHC antigens. In humans the trophoblast cells invading into the decidua have a unique pattern of MHC class I expression characterized by both classical (HLA-C) and nonclassical (HLA-G and HLA-E) molecules. Whether such an unusual MHC repertoire on the surface of trophoblast is a conserved feature between species with hemochorial placentation has not been resolved. Here we demonstrate, using a range of methods, that C57BL/6 mouse trophoblast predominantly expresses only one MHC class I antigen, H2-K, at the cell surface of giant cells but lacks expression of nonclassical MHC molecules. Antigenic disparity between parental MHCs affects trophoblast-induced transformation of the uterine vasculature and, consequently, placental and fetal gowth. Maternal uterine blood vessels were more dilated, allowing for increased blood supply, in certain combinations of maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, and these allogeneic fetuses and placentas were heavier at term compared with syngeneic controls. Thus, maternal-fetal immune interactions are instrumental to optimize reproductive success. This cross-talk has important implications for human disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

  16. Bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism affects stress response in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Noriko; Tanaka, Sigefumi; Ardiyanti, Astrid; Katoh, Kazuo; Sato, Shusuke

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the associations between growth hormone (GH) gene polymorphism and behavioral and physiological responses to stressors and learning ability in Japanese Black cattle. Flight distance test was conducted in the first experiment. Steers with haplotype C of GH gene polymorphism avoided human approaches at a significantly greater distance than ones without haplotype C (C: 1.9 ± 0.9, non-C: 1.0 ± 0.2 m, P < 0.05). An open-field test was conducted in the second experiment. Behavioral responses did not differ significantly between steers with and without haplotype C. Increases of heart rates to dropping of iron pipes was significantly higher in steers with haplotype C (C:161.7 ± 21.8, non-C:130.7 ± 31.3%, P < 0.05). Despite basal serum concentrations not being different between steers with and without haplotype C, serum cortisol in blood sampling immediately after severe confinement in a race tended to be higher in steers with haplotype C (P = 0.1). The maze test was conducted as the third experiment. There was no difference in performance in the maze test between steers with and without haplotype C. It is concluded that genetic polymorphism of GH may affect stress responses through GH concentration in steers.

  17. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  18. Analyses of expressed sequence tags from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identify novel genes expressed during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth

    PubMed Central

    Bluhm, Burton H; Dhillon, Braham; Lindquist, Erika A; Kema, Gert HJ; Goodwin, Stephen B; Dunkle, Larry D

    2008-01-01

    Background The ascomycete fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis is an aggressive foliar pathogen of maize that causes substantial losses annually throughout the Western Hemisphere. Despite its impact on maize production, little is known about the regulation of pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis at the molecular level. The objectives of this study were to generate a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from C. zeae-maydis and evaluate their expression during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth. Results A total of 27,551 ESTs was obtained from five cDNA libraries constructed from vegetative and sporulating cultures of C. zeae-maydis. The ESTs, grouped into 4088 clusters and 531 singlets, represented 4619 putative unique genes. Of these, 36% encoded proteins similar (E value ≤ 10-05) to characterized or annotated proteins from the NCBI non-redundant database representing diverse molecular functions and biological processes based on Gene Ontology (GO) classification. We identified numerous, previously undescribed genes with potential roles in photoreception, pathogenesis, and the regulation of development as well as Zephyr, a novel, actively transcribed transposable element. Differential expression of selected genes was demonstrated by real-time PCR, supporting their proposed roles in vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth. Conclusion Novel genes that are potentially involved in regulating growth, development, and pathogenesis were identified in C. zeae-maydis, providing specific targets for characterization by molecular genetics and functional genomics. The EST data establish a foundation for future studies in evolutionary and comparative genomics among species of Cercospora and other groups of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:18983654

  19. Increasing water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Losciale, Pasquale; Manfrini, Luigi; Zibordi, Marco; Anconelli, Stefano; Galli, Fabio; Pierpaoli, Emanuele; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2014-10-15

    Drought stress negatively affects many physiological parameters and determines lower yields and fruit size. This paper investigates on the effects of prolonged water restriction on leaf gas exchanges, water relations and fruit growth on a 24-h time-scale in order to understand how different physiological processes interact to each other to face increasing drought stress and affect pear productive performances during the season. The diurnal patterns of tree water relations, leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth, fruit vascular and transpiration flows were monitored at about 50, 95 and 145 days after full bloom (DAFB) on pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fétel, subjected to two irrigation regimes, corresponding to a water restitution of 100% and 25% of the estimated Etc, respectively. Drought stress progressively increased during the season due to lower soil tensions and higher daily vapour pressure deficits (VPDs). Stem water potential was the first parameter to be negatively affected by stress and determined the simultaneous reduction of fruit xylem flow, which at 95 DAFB was reflected by a decrease in fruit daily growth. Leaf photosynthesis was reduced only from 95 DAFB on, but was not immediately reflected by a decrease in fruit phloem flow, which instead was reduced only at 145 DAFB. This work shows how water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow. This determines a progressive increase in the phloem relative contribution to growth, which lead to the typical higher dry matter percentages of stressed fruit.

  20. Scaling Vegetation on Experimental Channel Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breemen, D. M.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    There are strong feedbacks between river channels, floodplains and riparian and floodplain vegetation. We study the effect of experimental vegetation on channel pattern. Through linear bar theory it is known that channel width-depth ratio affects bar pattern and relatively narrow channels with strong banks are required for meandering. Riparian vegetation is able to alter the channel width-depth ratio and therefore the channel pattern through strengthening of the banks. Floodplain vegetation adds hydraulic resistance so the flow is more focused into the channels. However, determination of the underlying mechanisms and processes has remained scarce and qualitative and hence these effects are not yet fully understood. The objectives of this study are 1) to develop a controllable and scalable method to reproduce vegetation effect in experimental self-formed channels, and 2) to experimentally determine the effects of riparian vegetation on bank strength, channel pattern and meandering dynamics. Sprouts of three plant species were systematically subjected to different seeding densities and to various growing conditions, including light intensity, submergence and nutrient starvation. Denser seeding reduced sprout growth after about a week. Stronger light increased plant growth and plant strength. Nutrient starvation caused different branching intensity of the root system. Tens of small-scale bank erosion experiments and bank failure experiments (see Kleinhans et al., this conference) were performed to quantify the strength of banks reinforced by plant roots at the experimental scale, demonstrating that bank strength is strongly determined by seeding density, rooting density and depth relative to channel depth. To study pattern evolution and morphodynamics we used a 1.25x7.5 m flume with a constant discharge and sediment feed. The introduction of vegetation in experiments results in narrower and deeper channels. Higher vegetation density leads to static channels with

  1. Endogenous abscisic acid promotes hypocotyl growth and affects endoreduplication during dark-induced growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Humplík, Jan F; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jandová, Michaela; Šimura, Jan; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tomanec, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings.

  2. Does seawater acidification affect survival, growth and shell integrity in bivalve juveniles?

    PubMed

    Bressan, M; Chinellato, A; Munari, M; Matozzo, V; Manci, A; Marčeta, T; Finos, L; Moro, I; Pastore, P; Badocco, D; Marin, M G

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are leading to decreases in pH and changes in the carbonate chemistry of seawater. Ocean acidification may negatively affect the ability of marine organisms to produce calcareous structures while also influencing their physiological responses and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced pH on the survival, growth and shell integrity of juveniles of two marine bivalves from the Northern Adriatic sea: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the striped venus clam Chamelea gallina. An outdoor flow-through plant was set up and two pH levels (natural seawater pH as a control, pH 7.4 as the treatment) were tested in long-term experiments. Mortality was low throughout the first experiment for both mussels and clams, but a significant increase, which was sensibly higher in clams, was observed at the end of the experiment (6 months). Significant decreases in the live weight (-26%) and, surprisingly, in the shell length (-5%) were observed in treated clams, but not in mussels. In the controls of both species, no shell damage was ever recorded; in the treated mussels and clams, damage proceeded via different modes and to different extents. The severity of shell injuries was maximal in the mussels after just 3 months of exposure to a reduced pH, whereas it progressively increased in clams until the end of the experiment. In shells of both species, the damaged area increased throughout the experiment, peaking at 35% in mussels and 11% in clams. The shell thickness of the treated and control animals significantly decreased after 3 months in clams and after 6 months in mussels. In the second experiment (3 months), only juvenile mussels were exposed to a reduced pH. After 3 months, the mussels at a natural pH level or pH 7.4 did not differ in their survival, shell length or live weight. Conversely, shell damage was clearly visible in the treated mussels from the 1st month onward. Monitoring the

  3. Red5 and three nuclear pore components are essential for efficient suppression of specific mRNAs during vegetative growth of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Wanatabe, Nobuyoshi; Kitahata, Eri; Tani, Tokio; Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie

    2013-07-01

    Zinc-finger domains are found in many nucleic acid-binding proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proteins carrying zinc-finger domains have important roles in various nuclear transactions, including transcription, mRNA processing and mRNA export; however, for many individual zinc-finger proteins in eukaryotes, the exact function of the protein is not fully understood. Here, we report that Red5 is involved in efficient suppression of specific mRNAs during vegetative growth of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Red5, which contains five C3H1-type zinc-finger domains, localizes to the nucleus where it forms discrete dots. A red5 point mutation, red5-2, results in the upregulation of specific meiotic mRNAs in vegetative mutant red5-2 cells; northern blot data indicated that these meiotic mRNAs in red5-2 cells have elongated poly(A) tails. RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization results demonstrate that poly(A)(+) RNA species accumulate in the nucleolar regions of red5-deficient cells. Moreover, Red5 genetically interacts with several mRNA export factors. Unexpectedly, three components of the nuclear pore complex also suppress a specific set of meiotic mRNAs. These results indicate that Red5 function is important to meiotic mRNA degradation; they also suggest possible connections among selective mRNA decay, mRNA export and the nuclear pore complex in vegetative fission yeast.

  4. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  5. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  6. Vegetation against dune mobility.

    PubMed

    Durán, Orencio; Herrmann, Hans J

    2006-11-03

    Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes driven by the dimensionless fixation index theta which is the ratio between the dune characteristic erosion rate and vegetation growth velocity. We find a fixation index theta(c) below which the dunes are stabilized, characterized by scaling laws.

  7. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  8. Embryonic zebrafish neuronal growth is not affected by an applied electric field in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Peter; Robinson, Kenneth R

    2007-01-10

    Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) have been implicated in cell guidance during embryonic development and adult wound healing. Embryonic Xenopus laevis neurons sprout preferentially towards the cathode, turn towards the cathode, and migrate faster towards the cathode in the presence of an external EF in vitro. A recent Phase 1 clinical trial has investigated the effects of oscillating EFs on human spinal cord regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether embryonic zebrafish neurons respond to an applied EF, and thus extend this research into another vertebrate system. Neural tubes of zebrafish embryos (16-17 somites) were dissected and dissociated neuroblasts were plated onto laminin-coated glass. A 100 mV/mm EF was applied to cell cultures for 4 or 20 h and the responses of neurons to the applied EFs were investigated. After 4h in an EF neurites were significantly shorter than control neurites. No other statistically significant effects were observed. After 20 h, control and EF-exposed neurites were no different in length. No length difference was seen between cathodally- and anodally-sprouted neurites. Application of an EF did not affect the average number of neurons in a chamber. Growth cones did not migrate preferentially towards either pole of the EF and no asymmetry was seen in neurite sprout sites. We conclude that zebrafish neurons do not respond to a 100 mV/mm applied EF in vitro. This suggests that neurons of other vertebrate species may not respond to applied EFs in the same ways as Xenopus laevis neurons.

  9. Transitions in high-Arctic vegetation growth patterns and ecosystem productivity tracked with automated cameras from 2000 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine Højlund; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Klosterman, Stephen; Abermann, Jakob; Hansen, Birger Ulf

    2017-02-01

    Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast Greenland to assess the seasonal response of a dwarf shrub heath, grassland, and fen, to inter-annual variation in snow-cover, soil moisture, and air and soil temperatures. A late snow melt and start of growing season is counterbalanced by a fast greenup and a tendency to higher peak greenness values. Snow water equivalents and soil moisture explained up to 77 % of growing season duration and senescence phase, highlighting that water availability is a prominent driver in the heath site, rather than temperatures. We found a significant advance in the start of spring by 10 days and in the end of fall by 11 days, resulting in an unchanged growing season length. Vegetation greenness, derived from the imagery, was correlated to primary productivity, showing that the imagery holds valuable information on vegetation productivity.

  10. Interactive effects of soil temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil N on root development, biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat during vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Gavito, M E; Curtis, P S; Mikkelsen, T N; Jakobsen, I

    2001-09-01

    Nutrient requirements for plant growth are expected to rise in response to the predicted changes in CO(2) and temperature. In this context, little attention has been paid to the effects of soil temperature, which limits plant growth at early stages in temperate regions. A factorial growth-room experiment was conducted with winter wheat, varying soil temperature (10 degrees C and 15 degrees C), atmospheric CO(2) concentration (360 and 700 ppm), and N supply (low and high). The hypothesis was that soil temperature would modify root development, biomass allocation and nutrient uptake during vegetative growth and that its effects would interact with atmospheric CO(2) and N availability. Soil temperature effects were confirmed for most of the variables measured and 3-factor interactions were observed for root development, plant biomass components, N-use efficiency, and shoot P content. Importantly, the soil temperature effects were manifest in the absence of any change in air temperature. Changes in root development, nutrient uptake and nutrient-use efficiencies were interpreted as counterbalancing mechanisms for meeting nutrient requirements for plant growth in each situation. Most variables responded to an increase in resource availability in the order: N supply >soil temperature >CO(2).

  11. The timing of "catch-up growth" affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by programming future feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The present study examined the consequence of early or late "catch-up growth" after IUGR on feeding behavior and metabolic cues of male offspring of rat dams exposed to protein restriction during gestation and/or lactation. Our results suggest that early catch-up growth may be favorable for fasting metabolic parameters at weaning, as no differences were observed on plasma leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels compared with controls. In contrast, if pups remained malnourished until weaning, low insulin concentration was detected and was accompanied by hyperphagia associated with a large increase in hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. At adult age, on a regular chow diet, only the meal structure was modified by fetal programming. The two IUGR groups demonstrated a reduced meal duration that enhanced the speed of food ingestion and consequently increased the rest period associated to the satiety state without changes in the hypothalamic expression of appetite neuropeptides. Our findings demonstrate that in IUGR, regardless of postnatal growth magnitude, metabolic programming occurred in utero and was responsible for both feeding behavior alteration and postprandial higher insulin level in adults. Additionally, catch-up growth immediately after early malnutrition could be a key point for the programming of postprandial hyperleptinemia.

  12. Rhizobium Promotes Non-Legumes Growth and Quality in Several Production Steps: Towards a Biofertilization of Edible Raw Vegetables Healthy for Humans

    PubMed Central

    García-Fraile, Paula; Carro, Lorena; Robledo, Marta; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Flores-Félix, José-David; Fernández, María Teresa; Mateos, Pedro F.; Rivas, Raúl; Igual, José Mariano; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Peix, Álvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2012-01-01

    The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization. PMID:22675441

  13. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  14. Salt stress differentially affects growth-mediating β-expansins in resistant and sensitive maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Zörb, Christian; Mühling, Karl H

    2010-12-01

    Salinity mainly reduces shoot growth by the inhibition of cell division and elongation. Expansins loosen plant cell walls. Moreover, the expression of some isoforms is clearly correlated with growth. Effects of salinity on β-expansin transcripts protein abundance were recently reported for different crop species. This study provides a broad analysis of the impact of an 8-day 100mM NaCl stress treatment on the mRNA expression of different maize (Zea mays L.) β-Expansin isoforms using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The composite β-expansin protein expression was analyzed by western blotting using an anti-peptide antibody raised against a conserved 15-amino-acid region shared by vegetatively expressed β-expansin isoforms. For the first time, changes in β-expansin transcript and protein abundance have been analyzed together with the salinity-induced inhibition of shoot growth. A salt-resistant and a salt-sensitive cultivar were compared in order to elucidate physiological changes. Genotypic differences in the relative concentration of six β-expansin transcripts together with differences in the abundance β-expansin protein are shown in response NaCl stress. In salt-sensitive Lector, reduced β-expansin protein expression was found to correlate positively with reduced shoot growth under stress. A down-regulation of ZmExpB2, ZmExpB6, and ZmExpB8 transcripts possibly contribute to this decrease in protein abundance. In contrast, the maintenance of shoot growth in salt-resistant SR03 might be related to an unaffected abundance of growth-mediating β-expansin proteins in the shoot. Our data suggest that the up-regulation of ZmExpB2, ZmExpB6, and ZmExpB8 may sustain the stable expression of β-expansin protein under conditions of salt stress.

  15. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions. PMID:23064313

  16. Sub-toxic nicotine concentrations affect extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling gene expressions in human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Marinucci, Lorella; Bodo, Maria; Balloni, Stefania; Locci, Paola; Baroni, Tiziano

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to nicotine and other compounds contained in cigarette smoking affects human health. This study examined the effects of exposure to a single or multiple sub-toxic nicotine concentrations on human osteoblasts. Cell growth and expression of genes involved in bone differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism, and growth factor signaling pathways were investigated in nicotine-treated cells compared to untreated cells. Depending on osteoblast concentration and maturation stages, nicotine differently regulated cell growth. Real-time PCR showed regulated expressions of genes expressed by nicotine-treated osteoblasts compared to untreated cells. Among ECM genes, type I collagen was down-regulated and osteonectin was up-regulated in nicotine-treated osteoblasts; similarly, fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), two members of FGF signaling system, were discordantly modulated; genes involved in osteoblast maturation and differentiation such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were over-expressed after drug treatment. Our results show a positive association between nicotine exposure and osteoblast phenotype and illustrate for the first time a mechanism whereby acute or chronic exposure to sub-toxic nicotine concentrations may affect bone formation through the impairment of growth factor signaling system and ECM metabolism.

  17. Multiple States in the Vegetation-Atmosphere System during the Early Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations suggest that different initial conditions can lead to multiple stable vegetation-atmosphere states in the present-day Sahara. Here, we explore the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in the warm, nearly ice-free early Eocene climate. Using the MPI-ESM, we simulate the early Eocene vegetation starting from two different states: Continents are either completely covered by forest or completely barren, devoid of any vegetation. The soil albedo is similar to vegetation albedo. Hence, the albedo effect of vegetation is negligible. Without the albedo effect, the Charney effect which is suggested to cause multiple stable vegetation states in the present-day Sahara is absent. In our simulations, the hydrological effect of vegetation plays the major role. We perform the same simulations with preindustrial conditions to compare the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in both climate states. A desert evolves in Central Asia in both early Eocene simulations. This Asian desert is larger when the simulation starts from bare soil instead forest. Bare soil causes a dry climate in Central Asia in the beginning of the simulation. In the dry climate, vegetation does not establish. Forest enhances evaporation relative to bare soil leading to a stronger Asian monsoon and higher precipitation rates. The increased precipitation sustains plant growth and a smaller Asian desert evolves than in the simulation started from bare soil. Moreover, the stronger Asian monsoon affects global climate. Therefore, the two vegetation states in Central Asia accompany two globally different vegetation-atmosphere states. In the preindustrial climate, the Sahara is larger when the initial vegetation is bare soil instead of forest. The same hydrological effect causes the multiple vegetation states the Sahara as in the early Eocene Asian desert. However, the multiple stable vegetation states in the Sahara do not affect the global climate. This result emphasises that the

  18. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, Kristi

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as I plan to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  19. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  20. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, K.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as the authors plans to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  1. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2012-12-01

    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products.

  2. Small doses, big troubles: modeling growth dynamics of organisms affecting microalgal production cultures in closed photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Forehead, Hugh I; O'Kelly, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The destruction of mass cultures of microalgae by biological contamination of culture medium is a pervasive and expensive problem, in industry and research. A mathematical model has been formulated that attempts to explain contaminant growth dynamics in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). The model simulates an initial growth phase without PBR dilution, followed by a production phase in which culture is intermittently removed. Contaminants can be introduced at any of these stages. The model shows how exponential growth from low initial inocula can lead to "explosive" growth in the population of contaminants, appearing days to weeks after inoculation. Principal influences are contaminant growth rate, PBR dilution rate, and the size of initial contaminant inoculum. Predictions corresponded closely with observed behavior of two contaminants, Uronema sp. and Neoparamoeba sp., found in operating PBRs. A simple, cheap and effective protocol was developed for short-term prediction of contamination in PBRs, using microscopy and archived samples.

  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit.

  4. Contribution of PPi-Hydrolyzing Function of Vacuolar H+-Pyrophosphatase in Vegetative Growth of Arabidopsis: Evidenced by Expression of Uncoupling Mutated Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Ferjani, Ali; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The vacuolar-type H+-pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) catalyzes a coupled reaction of pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis and active proton translocation across the tonoplast. Overexpression of H+-PPase improves growth in various plant species, and loss-of-function mutants (fugu5s) of H+-PPase in Arabidopsis thaliana have post-germinative developmental defects. Here, to further clarify the physiological significance of this important enzyme, we newly generated three varieties of H+-PPase overexpressing lines with different levels of activity that we analyzed together with the loss-of-function mutant fugu5-3. The H+-PPase overexpressors exhibited enhanced activity of H+-PPase during vegetative growth, but no change in the activity of vacuolar H+-ATPase. Overexpressors with high enzymatic activity grew more vigorously with fresh weight increased by more than 24 and 44%, compared to the wild type and fugu5-3, respectively. Consistently, the overexpressors had larger rosette leaves and nearly 30% more cells in leaves than the wild type. When uncoupling mutated variants of H+-PPase, that could hydrolyze PPi but could not translocate protons, were introduced into the fugu5-3 mutant background, shoot growth defects recovered to the same levels as when a normal H+-PPase was introduced. Taken together, our findings clearly demonstrate that additional expression of H+-PPase improves plant growth by increasing cell number, predominantly as a consequence of the PPi-hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme. PMID:27066051

  5. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E. J.; Ngyuen, Thy P. H.; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W.; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M.; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation. PMID:26924988

  6. Fibroblast cell interactions with human melanoma cells affect tumor cell growth as a function of tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, I; Theodorescu, D; Man, S; Herlyn, M; Jambrosic, J; Kerbel, R S

    1991-01-01

    It is known from a variety of experimental systems that the ability of tumor cells to grow locally and metastasize can be affected by the presence of adjacent normal tissues and cells, particularly mesenchymally derived stromal cells such as fibroblasts. However, the comparative influence of such normal cell-tumor cell interactions on tumor behavior has not been thoroughly investigated from the perspective of different stages of tumor progression. To address this question we assessed the influence of normal dermal fibroblasts on the growth of human melanoma cells obtained from different stages of tumor progression. We found that the in vitro growth of most (4 out of 5) melanoma cell lines derived from early-stage radial growth phase or vertical growth phase metastatically incompetent primary lesions is repressed by coculture with normal dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that negative homeostatic growth controls are still operative on melanoma cells from early stages of disease. On the other hand, 9 out of 11 melanoma cell lines derived from advanced metastatically competent vertical growth phase primary lesions, or from distant metastases, were found to be consistently stimulated to grow in the presence of dermal fibroblasts. Evidence was obtained to show that this discriminatory fibroblastic influence is mediated by soluble inhibitory and stimulatory growth factor(s). Taken together, these results indicate that fibroblast-derived signals can have antithetical growth effects on metastatic versus metastatically incompetent tumor subpopulations. This resultant conversion in responsiveness to host tissue environmental factors may confer upon small numbers of metastatically competent cells a growth advantage, allowing them to escape local growth constraints both in the primary tumor site and at distant ectopic tissue sites. PMID:2068080

  7. Relevance of fruits, vegetables and flavonoids from fruits and vegetables during early life, mid-childhood and adolescence for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas; Penczynski, Katharina J; Bolzenius, Katja; Wudy, Stefan A; Buyken, Anette E

    2016-02-14

    The growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to insulin metabolism and cancer risk. Experimental evidence indicates that the GH-IGF axis itself can be influenced by dietary flavonoids. As fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a major source of flavonoid consumption, FV's beneficial health effects may be explained via flavonoids' influence on the GH-IGF axis, but observational evidence is currently rare. We used data from Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants to analyse prospective associations between FV, fruit intake and flavonoid intake from FV (FlavFV) with IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Subjects needed to provide a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years) and at least two 3-d weighed dietary records in early life (0·5-2 years, n 191), mid-childhood (3-7 years, n 265) or adolescence (girls: 9-15 years, boys: 10-16 years, n 261). Additional analyses were conducted among those providing at least three 24-h urine samples in adolescence (n 236) to address the predictor urinary hippuric acid (HA), a biomarker of polyphenol intake. Higher fruit intake in mid-childhood and adolescence was related to higher IGFBP-2 in adulthood (P=0·03 and P=0·045). Comparable trends (P=0·045-0·09) were discernable for FV intake (but not FlavFV) in all three time windows. Similarly, higher adolescent HA excretion tended to be related (P=0·06) to higher adult IGFBP-2 levels. Regarding IGFBP-3, a marginal (P=0·08) positive association was observed with FlavFV in mid-childhood only. None of the investigated dietary factors was related to IGF-1. In conclusion, higher fruit and FV intakes during growth may be relevant for adult IGFBP-2, but probably not for IGFBP-3 or IGF-1.

  8. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-01-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories. PMID:27706381

  9. Nitrogen stress affects the turnover and size of nitrogen pools supplying leaf growth in a grass.

    PubMed

    Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Wild, Melanie; Schnyder, Hans

    2013-08-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) stress on the pool system supplying currently assimilated and (re)mobilized N for leaf growth of a grass was explored by dynamic ¹⁵N labeling, assessment of total and labeled N import into leaf growth zones, and compartmental analysis of the label import data. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants, grown with low or high levels of N fertilization, were labeled with ¹⁵NO₃⁻/¹⁴NO₃⁻ from 2 h to more than 20 d. In both treatments, the tracer time course in N imported into the growth zones fitted a two-pool model (r² > 0.99). This consisted of a "substrate pool," which received N from current uptake and supplied the growth zone, and a recycling/mobilizing "store," which exchanged with the substrate pool. N deficiency halved the leaf elongation rate, decreased N import into the growth zone, lengthened the delay between tracer uptake and its arrival in the growth zone (2.2 h versus 0.9 h), slowed the turnover of the substrate pool (half-life of 3.2 h versus 0.6 h), and increased its size (12.4 μg versus 5.9 μg). The store contained the equivalent of approximately 10 times (low N) and approximately five times (high N) the total daily N import into the growth zone. Its turnover agreed with that of protein turnover. Remarkably, the relative contribution of mobilization to leaf growth was large and similar (approximately 45%) in both treatments. We conclude that turnover and size of the substrate pool are related to the sink strength of the growth zone, whereas the contribution of the store is influenced by partitioning between sinks.

  10. Plasticity in Vegetative Growth over Contrasted Growing Sites of an F1 Olive Tree Progeny during Its Juvenile Phase

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sadok, Inès; Martinez, Sebastien; Moutier, Nathalie; Garcia, Gilbert; Leon, Lorenzo; Belaj, Angelina; De La Rosa, Raúl; Khadari, Bouchaib; Costes, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Climatic changes impact fruit tree growth and severely limit their production. Investigating the tree ability to cope with environmental variations is thus necessary to adapt breeding and management strategies in order to ensure sustainable production. In this study, we assessed the genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) during the early tree growth. One hundred and twenty olive seedlings derived from the cross ‘Olivière’ x ‘Arbequina’ were examined across two sites with contrasted environments, accounting for ontogenetic trends over three years. Models including the year of growth, branching order, environment, genotype effects, and their interactions were built with variance function and covariance structure of residuals when necessary. After selection of a model, broad sense heritabilities were estimated. Despite strong environmental effect on most traits, no GxE was found. Moreover, the internal structure of traits co-variation was similar in both sites. Ontogenetic growth variation, related to (i) the overall tree form and (ii) the growth and branching habit at growth unit scale, was not altered by the environment. Finally, a moderate to strong genetic control was identified for traits at the whole tree scale and at internode scale. Among all studied traits, the maximal internode length exhibited the highest heritability (H2 = 0.74). Considering the determinant role of this trait in tree architecture and its stability across environments, this study consolidates its relevance for breeding. PMID:26062090

  11. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding—as observed in a previous study—probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  12. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  13. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    PubMed

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding--as observed in a previous study--probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  14. Traffic pollution affects P. pinea growth according to tree ring width and C and N isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Altieri, Simona; Strumia, Sandro; Cherubini, Paolo; Cotrufo, M. Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization and industrialization are rapidly growing, as a consequence roads and their associated vehicular traffic exerts major and increasing impacts on adjacent ecosystems. Various studies have shown the impact of vehicle exhausts on road side vegetation through their visible and non-visible effects (Farmer and Lyon 1977, Sarkar et al., 1986, Angold 1997, Nuhoglu 2005) but, presently there is little known about the long term effect of air pollution on vegetation and on trees, in particular. Developing proxies for atmospheric pollution that would be used to identify the physiological responses of trees under roadside car exhaust pollution stress is needed. In this context we propose a novel method to determine the effect of car exhaust pollution on tree growth, coupling classical dendrochronological analyses and analyses of 15N and 13C in tree rings, soils and leaves with tree ring radiocarbon (14C) data. Pinus pinea individuals, adjacent to main roads in the urban area of Caserta (South Italy) and exposed to large amounts of traffic exhausts since 1980, were sampled and the time-related trend in the growth residuals was estimated. We found a consistent decrease in the ring width starting from 1980, with a slight increase in δ13C value, which was considered to be a consequence of environmental stress. No clear pattern was identified in δ15N, while an increasing effect of the fossil fuel dilution on the atmospheric bomb-enriched 14C background was detected in tree rings, as a consequence of the increase in traffic exhausts. Our findings suggest that radiocarbon is a very sensitive tool to investigate small-scale (i.e. traffic exhaust at the level crossing) and large-scale (urban area pollution) induced disturbances. References Angold PG. Impact of a road upon adjacent heathland vegetations: effect on plant species compositions. J Appl Ecol 1997; 34 (2): 409-417. Farmer JC, Lyon TDB. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil. Sci Tot Environ 1977; 8: 89-93. Nuhoglu

  15. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  16. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jujie; Dai, Zhicong; Li, Feng; Liu, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth. PMID:27847511

  17. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    PubMed

    Jia, Jujie; Dai, Zhicong; Li, Feng; Liu, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth.

  18. Diffuse growth pattern affects E-cadherin expression in invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Ulrich; Jacobs, Susanne; Neuss, Michael; Tory, Kalman; Rath, Werner; Kulle, Bettina; Füzesi, Laszlo

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the correlations between growth patterns and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemistry and the presence of mutations of exons 6-10 of the E-cadherin gene by PCR-SSCP, in 79 cases of invasive lobular and ductal breast cancer. E-cadherin expression showed a tendency to be lower in lobular than in ductal carcinomas (p=0.064). In 60% of lobular carcinomas the diffuse growth pattern and in 72% of ductal carcinomas the compact growth pattern predominated. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in diffuse than in compact tumor area (p<0.001) and not related to carcinoma type when it was considered in tumor areas with either diffuse (p=0.278) or compact (p=0.128) growth pattern. No mutations were detected. In conclusion, loss of E-cadherin expression is related to an increase of diffuse growth pattern in both lobular and ductal types of breast cancer, and the differential proportions of growth patterns in both tumor types cause the tendency for lower E-cadherin expression in the lobular type.

  19. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth.

  20. A critical functional missense mutation (H173R) in the bovine PROP1 gene significantly affects growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chuanying; Wu, Chongyang; Jia, Wenchao; Xu, Yao; Lei, Chuzhao; Hu, Shenrong; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    The PROP1 protein, encoded by the prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) gene, exhibits both DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities. Its expression leads to the ontogenesis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and pituitary hormone. The missense mutation H173R in PROP1 may result in deficiencies of GH, PRL, TSH, and Pit-1, thereby affecting growth traits. The objective of this study was to characterize the H173R mutation within the PROP1 gene and examine its associations with growth traits in cattle. Accordingly, the H173R mutation was genotyped in 1207 cows belonging to five Chinese native breeds. Three genotypes were identified among the specimens, with genotype AA being the major one. Consequently, the "G" allele was the minor allele. Association testing revealed that the H173R mutation was significantly associated with body weight, average daily weight gain and physical parameters in the analyzed breeds. Interestingly, the cows with genotype AG and/or AA had superior growth traits compared with those expressing the GG genotype, in all tested breeds. These findings revealed that the "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits, which was consistent with the increasing binding ability and enhanced activation capacity associated with the bovine isoform PROP1-173H, representing the "A" allele. Therefore, the H173R mutation can be considered as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits, thereby contributing to research on breeding and genetics in the beef industry.

  1. Autocrine Transforming Growth Factor-β Growth Pathway in Murine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines Associated with Inability to Affect Phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Letterio, John J.; Yeung, Choh L.; Pegtel, Michiel; Helman, Lee J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. Production of active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β ) by human osteosarcoma may contribute to malignant progression through mechanisms that include induction of angiogenesis, immune suppression and autocrine growth stimulation of tumor cell growth.To study events associated with induction of cell proliferation by TGF-β , we have evaluated the TGF-β pathway in two murine osteosarcoma cell lines, K7 and K12. Results. Northern and immunohistochemical analyses show that each cell line expressesTGF-β1 and TGF-β3 mRNA and protein. Both cell lines secrete activeTGF-β 1 and display a 30–50% reduction in growth when cultured in the presence of a TGF-β blocking antibody. Expression of TGF-β receptors TβRI, TβRII and TβRIII is demonstrated by affinity labeling with 125 -TGF-β 1, and the intermediates, Smads 2, 3 and 4, are uniformly expressed. Smads 2 and 3 are phosphorylated in response toTGF-β , while pRb phosphorylation in each osteosarcoma cell line is not affected by either exogenousTGF-β or TGF-β antibody. Conclusions. The data implicate events downstream of Smad activation, including impaired regulation of pRb, in the lack of a growth inhibitory response toTGF-β , and indicate that this murine model of osteosarcoma is valid for investigating the roles of autocrineTGF-β in vivo. PMID:18521287

  2. Warfarin inhibits metastasis of Mtln3 rat mammary carcinoma without affecting primary tumour growth.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.; George, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Coumarin anticoagulants inhibit metastasis in several animal models, but the mechanism of this effect is uncertain. In order to determine the role of cytotoxic and/or cytostatic actions of coumarins on the tumour cells, we have studied the effects of warfarin on tumour cell growth in a model in which tumour metastasis is inhibited by this drug. Clonogenic assay, growth curve analysis and thymidine labelling index revealed that warfarin had no effects on Mtln3 mammary carcinoma cell growth in vitro at concentrations below 1 mM. The growth rate of subcutaneously implanted Mtln3 tumour deposits in female F344 rats, assessed by weight and by stathmokinetic analysis of the tumour tissue, was identical in warfarin-treated and control animals. Spontaneous metastasis from such tumours to the lungs was, however, significantly reduced in warfarin-treated animals (median 0 pulmonary tumours per animal in warfarin treated, eight tumours per animal in control animals; P less than 0.05, Mann-Whitney). The mean plasma warfarin concentration in warfarin treated rats was 1.63 microM. These results suggest that warfarin treatment of the host animal can inhibit tumour metastasis without having any direct or indirect effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells. PMID:2930682

  3. Slow growth of the overexploited milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus affects its sustainability in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ba, A; Diouf, K; Guilhaumon, F; Panfili, J

    2015-10-01

    Age and growth of Rhizoprionodon acutus were estimated from vertebrae age bands. From December 2009 to November 2010, 423 R. acutus between 37 and 112 cm total length (LT ) were sampled along the Senegalese coast. Marginal increment ratio was used to check annual band deposition. Three growth models were adjusted to the length at age and compared using Akaike's information criterion. The Gompertz growth model with estimated size at birth appeared to be the best and resulted in growth parameters of L∞ = 139.55 (LT ) and K = 0.17 year(-1) for females and L∞ = 126.52 (LT ) and K = 0.18 year(-1) for males. The largest female and male examined were 8 and 9 years old, but the majority was between 1 and 3 years old. Ages at maturity estimated were 5.8 and 4.8 years for females and males, respectively. These results suggest that R. acutus is a slow-growing species, which render the species particularly vulnerable to heavy fishery exploitation. The growth parameters estimated in this study are crucial for stock assessments and for demographic analyses to evaluate the sustainability of commercial harvests.

  4. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  5. [Seasonal characteristics of soil respiration and affecting factors under typical vegetations in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-Hui; Fan, Jun; Qi, Li-Bin; Hao, Ming-De

    2010-12-01

    By the soil respiration system, the characteristics of soil respiration were investigated to explore the correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil water and soil nutrient under different land use patterns in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that the seasonal changing characteristics of soil respiration were distinguished significantly among different vegetations, and soil water content and temperature were the main influencing factors. Soil respiration seasonal changing ranges, such as bare land, crop land, Medicago sativa land, Caragana korshinskii land, abandoned wild grass land, Stipa bungeana land, wild grass land, degraded Medicago sativa land, sloping Medicago sativa land, sloping abandoned wild grass land, sloping crop land and terraced crop land, were 0.32-0.82, 0.41-2.83, 0.74-2.81, 0.76-3.07, 0.67-2.79, 0.51-2.12, 0.56-2.05, 0.59-1.66, 0.42-2.09, 0.31-1.86, 0.32-1.93 and 0.41-3.17 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Comparing seasonal changing magnitudes of soil respiration, crop land was the biggest (167% - 203%), abandoned wild grass land (117% -154%), Caragana korshinskii land (134%), Stipa bungeana land (129%), Medicago sativa land (119%-120%) and bare land (94%) followed crop land. The smallest was degraded Medicago sativa land (92%). Bare land and degraded Medicago sativa land had small seasonal variation during the study period. Monthly average values of soil carbon flux (soil respiration) of Medicago sativa land and Caragana korshinskii land were maximal, but the maximum values under crop land were observed in July and August. Besides Q10 of crop land was also maximal, which reached 1.86. There were significant correlations between soil respiration and soil organic matter and available K. Moreover, soil respiration was affected by soil organic matter and total nitrogen in July and August when the water and heat condition were plentiful, but soil ammonium nitrogen had negative impact

  6. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  7. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Singh, Lauren N; Manary, Mark J

    2016-11-05

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnosis or treatment of moderate or severe malnutrition during pregnancy. Establishing clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment will be essential in elevating the problem. Possible anthropometric measurements used to detect and monitor maternal malnutrition include pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, and mid upper arm circumference. Food supplements have the potential to increase gestational weight gain and energy intake which are positively associated with fetal growth and development. Overall more studies are needed to conclude the impact of food/nutrient supplements on infant growth in undernourished pregnant women in developing countries. Currently, a study underway may provide much needed documentation of the benefits of treating malnutrition in pregnancy.

  8. Low intensity electromagnetic irradiation with 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies affects Escherichia coli growth and changes water properties.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Kalantaryan, Vitaly; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-07-01

    The low intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequency is resonant for Escherichia coli but not for water. In this study, E. coli irradiation with this EMI during 1 h directly and in bi-distilled water or in the assay buffer with those frequencies resulted with noticeable changes in bacterial growth parameters. Furthermore, after EMI, 2 h rest of bacteria renewed their growth in 1.2-fold, but repeated EMI--had no significant action. Moreover, water absorbance, pH, and electric conductance were changed markedly after such irradiation. The results point out that EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequency can interact with bacteria affecting growth and in the same time with the surrounding medium (water) as well.

  9. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  10. Elevated pressure of carbon dioxide affects growth of thermophilic Petrotoga sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Schippers, Axel; Schlömann, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a promising new technology which reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decelerates global warming. During CCS, carbon dioxide is captured from emission sources (e.g. fossil fuel power plants or other industries), pressurised, and finally stored in deep geological formations, such as former gas or oil reservoirs as well as saline aquifers. However, with CCS being a very young technology, there are a number of unknown factors that need to be investigated before declaring CCS as being safe. Our research investigates the effect of high carbon dioxide concentrations and pressures on an indigenous microorganism that colonises a potential storage site. Growth experiments were conducted using the thermophilic thiosulphate-reducing bacterium Petrotoga sp., isolated from formation water of the gas reservoir Schneeren (Lower Saxony, Germany), situated in the Northern German Plain. Growth (OD600) was monitored over one growth cycle (10 days) at different carbon dioxide concentrations (50%, 100%, and 150% in the gas phase), and was compared to control cultures grown with 20% carbon dioxide. An additional growth experiment was performed over a period of 145 days with repeated subcultivation steps in order to detect long-term effects of carbon dioxide. Cultivation over 10 days at 50% and 100% carbon dioxide slightly reduced cell growth. In contrast, long-term cultivation at 150% carbon dioxide reduced cell growth and finally led to cell death. This suggested a more pronounced effect of carbon dioxide at prolonged cultivation and stresses the need for a closer consideration of long-term effects. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a sterilising effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures

  11. Cytohistological analysis of roots whose growth is affected by a 60-Hz electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Brulfert, A.; Miller, M.W.; Robertson, D.; Dooley, D.A.; Economou, P.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Pisum sativum were exposed for 48 h to 60-Hz electric fields of 430 V/m in an aqueous inorganic growth medium. The growth in length of the exposed roots was 44% of that for control roots. Root tips were analyzed for mitotic index and cell cycle duration. Mature, differentiated root sections from tissue produced after electrode energization were analyzed for cell lengths and number of files. The major reason for the observation that exposed roots are shorter than control roots is that cell elongation in the former is greatly diminished relative to controls. 15 references, 1 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  13. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellioscaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellioscaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  14. Atmospheric oxygen level affects growth trajectory, cardiopulmonary allometry and metabolic rate in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Elsey, Ruth M; Hicks, James W

    2009-05-01

    Recent palaeoatmospheric models suggest large-scale fluctuations in ambient oxygen level over the past 550 million years. To better understand how global hypoxia and hyperoxia might have affected the growth and physiology of contemporary vertebrates, we incubated eggs and raised hatchlings of the American alligator. Crocodilians are one of few vertebrate taxa that survived these global changes with distinctly conservative morphology. We maintained animals at 30 degrees C under chronic hypoxia (12% O(2)), normoxia (21% O(2)) or hyperoxia (30% O(2)). At hatching, hypoxic animals were significantly smaller than their normoxic and hyperoxic siblings. Over the course of 3 months, post-hatching growth was fastest under hyperoxia and slowest under hypoxia. Hypoxia, but not hyperoxia, caused distinct scaling of major visceral organs-reduction of liver mass, enlargement of the heart and accelerated growth of lungs. When absorptive and post-absorptive metabolic rates were measured in juvenile alligators, the increase in oxygen consumption rate due to digestion/absorption of food was greatest in hyperoxic alligators and smallest in hypoxic ones. Hyperoxic alligators exhibited the lowest breathing rate and highest oxygen consumption per breath. We suggest that, despite compensatory cardiopulmonary remodelling, growth of hypoxic alligators is constrained by low atmospheric oxygen supply, which may limit their food utilisation capacity. Conversely, the combination of elevated metabolism and low cost of breathing in hyperoxic alligators allows for a greater proportion of metabolised energy to be available for growth. This suggests that growth and metabolic patterns of extinct vertebrates would have been significantly affected by changes in the atmospheric oxygen level.

  15. Effects of Understory Vegetation and Litter on Plant Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), N∶P Ratio and Their Relationships with Growth Rate of Indigenous Seedlings in Subtropical Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Yang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N]), phosphorus ([P]), and N∶P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra) transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation). We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR) of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N∶P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained) generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N∶P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N∶P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N∶P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth. PMID:24386340

  16. Remobilization of leaf S compounds and senescence in response to restricted sulphate supply during the vegetative stage of oilseed rape are affected by mineral N availability.

    PubMed

    Dubousset, L; Abdallah, M; Desfeux, A S; Etienne, P; Meuriot, F; Hawkesford, M J; Gombert, J; Ségura, R; Bataillé, M-P; Rezé, S; Bonnefoy, J; Ameline, A F; Ourry, A; Le Dily, F; Avice, J C

    2009-01-01

    The impact of sulphur limitation on the remobilization of endogenous S compounds during the rosette stage of oilseed rape, and the interactions with N availability on these processes, were examined using a long-term (34)SO(4)(2-) labelling method combined with a study of leaf senescence progression (using SAG12/Cab as a molecular indicator) and gene expression of the transporters, BnSultr4;1 and BnSultr4;2, involved in vacuolar sulphate efflux. After 51 d on hydroponic culture at 0.3 mM (34)SO(4)(2-) (1 atom% excess), the labelling was stopped and plants were subject for 28 d to High S-High N (HS-HN, control), Low S-High N (LS-HN) or Low S-Low N (LS-LN) conditions. Compared with the control, LS-HN plants showed delayed leaf senescence and, whilst the shoot growth and the foliar soluble protein amounts were not affected, S, (34)S, and SO(4)(2-) amounts in the old leaves declined rapidly and were associated with the up-regulation of BnSultr4;1. In LS-LN plants, shoot growth was reduced, leaf senescence was accelerated, and the rapid S mobilization in old leaves was accompanied by decreased (34)S and SO(4)(2-), higher protein mobilization, and up-regulation of BnSultr4;2, but without any change of expression of BnSultr4;1. The data suggest that to sustain the S demand for growth under S restriction (i) vacuolar SO(4)(2-) is specifically remobilized in LS-HN conditions without any acceleration of leaf senescence, (ii) SO(4)(2-) mobilization is related to an up-regulation of BnSultr4;1 and/or BnSultr4;2 expression, and (iii) the relationship between sulphate mobilization and up-regulation of expression of BnSultr4 genes is specifically dependent on the N availability.

  17. Remobilization of leaf S compounds and senescence in response to restricted sulphate supply during the vegetative stage of oilseed rape are affected by mineral N availability

    PubMed Central

    Dubousset, L.; Abdallah, M.; Desfeux, A. S.; Etienne, P.; Meuriot, F.; Hawkesford, M. J.; Gombert, J.; Ségura, R.; Bataillé, M-P.; Rezé, S.; Bonnefoy, J.; Ameline, A. F.; Ourry, A.; Dily, F. Le; Avice, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of sulphur limitation on the remobilization of endogenous S compounds during the rosette stage of oilseed rape, and the interactions with N availability on these processes, were examined using a long-term 34SO42− labelling method combined with a study of leaf senescence progression (using SAG12/Cab as a molecular indicator) and gene expression of the transporters, BnSultr4;1 and BnSultr4;2, involved in vacuolar sulphate efflux. After 51 d on hydroponic culture at 0.3 mM 34SO42− (1 atom% excess), the labelling was stopped and plants were subject for 28 d to High S-High N (HS-HN, control), Low S-High N (LS-HN) or Low S-Low N (LS-LN) conditions. Compared with the control, LS-HN plants showed delayed leaf senescence and, whilst the shoot growth and the foliar soluble protein amounts were not affected, S, 34S, and SO42− amounts in the old leaves declined rapidly and were associated with the up-regulation of BnSultr4;1. In LS-LN plants, shoot growth was reduced, leaf senescence was accelerated, and the rapid S mobilization in old leaves was accompanied by decreased 34S and SO42−, higher protein mobilization, and up-regulation of BnSultr4;2, but without any change of expression of BnSultr4;1. The data suggest that to sustain the S demand for growth under S restriction (i) vacuolar SO42− is specifically remobilized in LS-HN conditions without any acceleration of leaf senescence, (ii) SO42− mobilization is related to an up-regulation of BnSultr4;1 and/or BnSultr4;2 expression, and (iii) the relationship between sulphate mobilization and up-regulation of expression of BnSultr4 genes is specifically dependent on the N availability. PMID:19553370

  18. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  19. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  20. The Ecology of Technological Progress: How Symbiosis and Competition Affect the Growth of Technology Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnabuci, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    We show that the progress of technological knowledge is an inherently ecological process, wherein the growth rate of each technology domain depends on dynamics occurring in "other" technology domains. We identify two sources of ecological interdependence among technology domains. First, there are symbiotic interdependencies, implying…

  1. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dang, Mai T; Wehrli, Suzanne; Dang, Chi V; Curran, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice.

  2. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  3. Factors Affecting the Growth and Usage of a Student Mental Health Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaranto, Ernesto A.; Wepman, Barry J.

    1978-01-01

    The five-year growth of an active Student Mental Health Service (SMHS) in an urban academic health center is described. The function of SMHS is limited strictly to therapeutic and consultative services for the students and operates as an outpatient treatment facility using a standard 12-session goal-oriented treatment plan. (LBH)

  4. Lysine supplementation of commercial fishmeal-free diet in hybrid striped bass affect growth expression genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of first-limiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. Previously, we conducted a growth trial to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting ami...

  5. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  6. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  7. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order.

    PubMed

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm's owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl's main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species.

  8. Factors affecting growth and survival of the asiatic clam Corbicula sp. under controlled laboratory conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Double, D.D.; Daly, D.S.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1983-04-01

    Growth of Corbicula sp. was determined in relation to food supply, water temperature, and clam size as an aid to researchers conducting chronic effects toxicity studies. Water temperatures for the two 84-day test series were 10, 20, and 30/sup 0/C. Linear models provided good relationships (r/sup 2/ > 0.90) between clam shell length (SL), total weight (TW), and wet/dry tissue weights. Clam growth was minimal during low phytoplankton densities (approx. 300 cells/ml), and all three size groups lost weight at 20 and 30/sup 0/C. Mortality of small clams at 30/sup 0/C was 100% after 71 days. At phytoplankton densities > 1000 cells/ml, overall differences in growth with respect to clam size and temperature were detectable at p < 0.01; growth of all clam groups was greatest at 30/sup 0/C. Small clams exhibited the greatest absolute increase in mean shell length at all test temperatures, and weight gains were similar to those of medium and large clams.

  9. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  10. Propagation container and timing of propagation affects growth and quality of oak seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the container effect and the timeline of seed propagation on germination and subsequent shoot and root development for container-grown oaks. Quercus nigra and Q. texana had equal or better growth and better root ratings when acorns were sown in Anderson t...

  11. Stocker growth on rye and ryegrass pastures affects subsequent feedlot gains and carcass traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker calves were stocked on annual rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures using stocking strategies (STK) to create graded levels of gain to assess subsequent growth rates, feedlot performance, and carcass traits. During two consecutive years, yearling Angus, Here...

  12. Study of factors affecting growth and cold acclimation of Vitis callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro grape tissue culture initiation, growth, and cold acclimation were studied. Factors involved were genotypes, media, plant growth regulators, age, light, temperature, antioxidant, clearing and adsorbing agents, sucrose level, osmotic potential, ABA, chilling and freezing treatments. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1 ..mu..M 2,4-d + 0.1 uM Ba, MS containing 1 uM 2,4-D, and woody plant medium containing 1 uM 2,4-D + 0.1 uM BA produced abundant callus tissue for most grape genotypes; either WPM or MS containing 1 uM BA stimulated shoot growth in all the 12 genotypes tested. Adding 1 uM abscisic acid (ABA) to the B5 medium with 1 uM 2,4-D and 0.5 uM BA enhanced growth and quality of Chancellor callus. /sup 3/H-ABA was taken up actively by callus tissue at 12 days after subculture, but by 20 d this effect disappeared. When /sup 14/C-sucrose was added to the medium. /sup 14/C level of cells reached a plateau after 48 h; this plateau was higher if ABA was also present in the medium. Cells on media containing ABA were larger in size, lighter in color, and more loosely connected.

  13. Vascular flows and transpiration affect peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) fruit daily growth.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Rieger, Mark; Grappadelli, Luca Corelli

    2007-01-01

    The relative contributions of xylem, phloem, and transpiration to fruit growth and the daily patterns of their flows have been determined in peach, during the two stages of rapid diameter increase, by precise and continuous monitoring of fruit diameter variations. Xylem, phloem, and transpiration contributions to growth were quantified by comparing the diurnal patterns of diameter change of fruits, which were then girdled and subsequently detached. Xylem supports peach growth by 70%, and phloem 30%, while transpiration accounts for approximately 60% of daily total inflows. These figures and their diurnal patterns were comparable among years, stages, and cultivars. Xylem was functional at both stage I and III, while fruit transpiration was high and strictly dependent on environmental conditions, causing periods of fruit shrinkage. Phloem imports were correlated to fruit shrinkage and appear to facilitate subsequent fruit enlargement. Peach displays a growth mechanism which can be explained on the basis of passive unloading of photoassimilates from the phloem. A pivotal role is played by the large amount of water flowing from the tree to the fruit and from the fruit to the atmosphere.

  14. Factors affecting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed fresh endive.

    PubMed

    Carlin, F; Nguyen-the, C; Abreu da Silva, A

    1995-06-01

    The influence of various factors on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes on cut leaves of broad-leaved endive has been studied. Factors considered were temperature, characteristics of the leaves (age, quantity and quality of the epiphytic microflora) and characteristics of the L. monocytogenes inoculum (concentration, strain). The increases in numbers of L. monocytogenes were lower than those of the aerobic mesophilic microflora at 3 degrees, 6 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees C. Doubling times of the populations of L. monocytogenes were in the same order of magnitude as those of aerobic bacteria at 10 degrees and 20 degrees C, but longer at 3 degrees and 6 degrees C. There were positive significant correlations between growth of L. monocytogenes and populations of aerobic bacteria, and between growth of L. monocytogenes and extent of spoilage on the leaves. Of 225 bacteria isolated from the leaves, 84% were identified as fluorescent pseudomonads; there was no difference in the species isolated from leaves that showed a low growth of L. monocytogenes and leaves that showed a high growth of L. monocytogenes. Populations of L. monocytogenes increased faster during the first 2 and 4 d of storage at 10 degrees C on leaves inoculated with 10-10(3) cfu g-1 than on leaves inoculated with about 10(5) cfu g-1, but the population reached after 7 d was lower. The behaviour of L. monocytogenes was similar among the three strains tested.

  15. The longissimus thoracis muscle proteome in Alentejana bulls as affected by growth path.

    PubMed

    Almeida, André M; Nanni, Paolo; Ferreira, Ana M; Fortes, Claudia; Grossmann, Jonas; Bessa, Rui J B; Costa, Paulo

    2017-01-30

    Beef production is an important economic activity. In Southern Europe there are two types of beef production systems based on growth paths: continuous (CG) versus discontinuous growth (DG). DG is a traditional system dependent on pasture; whereas in CG animals are supplemented on concentrate feed. We compare the protein abundance profiles of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in CG and DG animals using label-free quantitative proteomics. Twenty three Alentejana male calves (9months-old, 239kg live-weight) were allocated to two feeding regimens. In CG (n=12) production system, animals were fed ad libitum on concentrates plus hay and slaughtered at 18months. In DG (n=11) production system, animals were fed ad libitum on hay from 9 to 15months of age and then the same diet provided to the CG group and slaughtered at 24months. The LT muscle was sampled and protein abundance profiles determined using label-free quantification. We identified 510 proteins, of which 26 showed differential abundance. Several proteins (e.g. Myozenin-2, glyoclythic enzymes and 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta) are proposed as indicators of a more intensive growth path. Myosin binding protein H had higher abundance in the DG group, suggesting it could be associated to discontinuous growth path.

  16. Growth of and fumitremorgin production by Neosartorya fischeri as affected by temperature, light, and water activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, P V; Beuchat, L R; Frisvad, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effects of temperature, light, and water activity (aw) on the growth and fumitremorgin production of a heat-resistant mold, Neosartorya fischeri, cultured on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) were studied for incubation periods of up to 74 days. Colonies were examined visually, and extracts of mycelia and CYA on which the mold was cultured were analyzed for mycotoxin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Growth always resulted in the production of the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C. The optimum temperatures for the production of verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C on CYA at pH 7.0 were 25, 30, and 37 degrees C, respectively. The production of fumitremorgin C by N. fischeri has not been previously reported. Fumitremorgin production was retarded at 15 degrees C, but an extension of the incubation period resulted in concentrations approaching those observed at 25 degrees C. Light clearly enhanced fumitremorgin production on CYA (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C), but not as dramatically as did the addition of glucose, fructose, or sucrose to CYA growth medium (pH 3.5, 25 degrees C). Growth and fumitremorgin production was greatest at aw of 0.980 on CYA supplemented with glucose or fructose and at aw of 0.990 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Growth and fumitremorgin production were observed at aw as low as 0.925 on glucose-supplemented CYA but not at aw lower than 0.970 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Verruculogen was produced in the highest amount on all test media, followed by fumitremorgin A and fumitremorgin C. PMID:3415223

  17. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p < 0.05) higher values in fish fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the resistance of fish fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio.

  18. Optimal growth condition of earthworms and their vermicompost features during recycling of five different fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Xia, Hui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Cui, Guangyu; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to promote vermicomposting performance for recycling fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) and to assess microbial population and community of final products. Five fresh FVWs including banana peels, cabbage, lettuce, potato, and watermelon peels were chosen as earthworms' food. The fate test of earthworms showed that 30 g fresh FVWs/day was the optimal loading and the banana peels was harmful for the survival of Eisenia fetida. The followed vermicomposting test revealed lower contents of total carbon and weaker microbial activity in final vermicomposts, relative to those in compared systems without earthworms worked. The leachate from FVWs carried away great amounts of nutrients from reactors. Additionally, different fresh FVWs displayed dissimilar stabilization process. Molecular biological approaches revealed that earthworms could broaden bacterial diversity in their products, with significant greater populations of actinobacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria than in control. This study evidences that vermicomposting efficiency differs with the types and loadings of fresh FVWs and vermicomposts are rich in agricultural probiotics.

  19. Measuring the Affective and Cognitive Growth of Regularly Admitted and Developmental Studies Students Using the "Learning and Study Strategies Inventory" (LASSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the utility and predictive validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) as a means of measuring college students' cognitive and affective growth following a study strategies course. Finds cognitive and affective growth in both regularly admitted and developmental studies students. Finds that LASSI cannot yet be used…

  20. Patchy Distributions of Competitors Affect the Growth of a Clonal Plant When the Competitor Density Is High

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wei; Huang, Lin; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Environments are patchy in not only abiotic factors but also biotic ones. Many studies have examined effects of spatial heterogeneity in abiotic factors such as light, water and nutrients on the growth of clonal plants, but few have tested those in biotic factors. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine how patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a rhizomatous wetland plant Bolboschoenus planiculmis and whether such effects depend on the density of the competitors. We grew one ramet of B. planiculmis in the center of each of the experimental boxes without competitors (Schoenoplectus triqueter), with a homogeneous distribution of the competitors of low or high density, and with a patchy distribution of the competitors of low or high density. The presence of competitors markedly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets, number of tubers and rhizome length) of the B. planiculmis clones. When the density of the competitors was low, the growth of B. planiculmis did not differ significantly between the competitor patches and competitor-free patches. However, when the density of the competitors was high, the growth of B. planiculmis was significantly higher in the competitor-free patches than in the competitor patches. Therefore, B. planiculmis can respond to patchy distributions of competitors by placing more ramets in competition-free patches when the density of competitors is high, but cannot do so when the density of competitors is low. PMID:24205165

  1. Germination and Growth of a Vegetable Exposed to Very Severe Environmental Conditions Experimentally Induced by High Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takashi; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

    1982-09-01

    Ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission power lines are required in order to reduce transmission energy losses, and to transfer more power across long distances. However, the ecological and biological influence of UHV lines has not been documented well. Possible influences of UHV lines are: electro-magnetic field, ozone, NOx, and ion shower. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the germination and growth of Raphanus sativus L.cv. Kaiware-daikon exposed to an experimental environment in which all the above influences at very severe intensity levels were working simultaneously. Several environmental conditions severer than those predicted for future UHV lines were set up, using a high voltage at 60 Hz. The germination and growth of this plant were suppressed under the experimental conditions used, the suppression being greater the severer the conditions. When the electric field is strong, corona discharge occurs at the tip of the plant.

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Type 1/Indian Hedgehog Expression Is Preserved in the Growth Plate of Human Fetuses Affected with Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Type 3 Activating Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Sarah; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence; Bonaventure, Jacky; Silve, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) and Indian hedgehog (IHH)/parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor type 1 (PTHR1) systems are both essential regulators of endochondral ossification. Based on mouse models, activation of the FGFR3 system is suggested to regulate the IHH/PTHR1 pathway. To challenge this possible interaction in humans, we analyzed the femoral growth plates from fetuses carrying activating FGFR3 mutations (9 achondroplasia, 21 and 8 thanatophoric dysplasia types 1 and 2, respectively) and 14 age-matched controls by histological techniques and in situ hybridization using riboprobes for human IHH, PTHR1, type 10 and type 1 collagen transcripts. We show that bone-perichondrial ring enlargement and growth plate increased vascularization in FGFR3-mutated fetuses correlate with the phenotypic severity of the disease. PTHR1 and IHH expression in growth plates, bone-perichondrial rings and vascular canals is not affected by FGFR3 mutations, irrespective of the mutant genotype and age, and is in keeping with cell phenotypes. These results indicate that in humans, FGFR3 signaling does not down-regulate the main players of the IHH/PTHR1 pathway. Furthermore, we show that cells within the bone-perichondrial ring in controls and patients express IHH, PTHR1, and type 10 and type 1 collagen transcripts, suggesting that bone-perichondrial ring formation involves cells of both chondrocytic and osteoblastic phenotypes. PMID:12368206

  3. Viral Effects of a dsRNA Mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) on the Vegetative Growth of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha-Yeon; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Hansaem; Choi, Dahye

    2016-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P. ostreatus strains with a virus-infected strain, isogenic virus-cured P. ostreatus strains were obtained by the mycelial fragmentation method for virus curing. The absence of virus was verified with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification and Northern blot analysis using a partial RdRp cDNA of PoV-ASI2792. The growth rate and mycelial dry weight of virus-infected P. ostreatus strain with PoV-ASI2792 mycovirus were compared to those of three virus-free isogenic strains on 10 different media. The virus-cured strains showed distinctly higher mycelial growth rates and dry weights on all kinds of experimental culture media, with at least a 2.2-fold higher mycelial growth rate on mushroom complete media (MCM) and Hamada media, and a 2.7-fold higher mycelial dry weight on MCM and yeastmalt-glucose agar media than those of the virus-infected strain. These results suggest that the infection of PoV mycovirus has a deleterious effect on the vegetative growth of P. ostreatus. PMID:28154486

  4. Watermelon seedling growth and mortality as affected by Anasa tristis (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Edelson, J V; Duthie, J; Roberts, W

    2002-06-01

    Adult squash bugs, Anasa tristis (De Geer), were confined on seedling watermelon plants at densities of zero, one, two, and four per plant. Squash bugs were allowed to feed on the plants until plants died or reached 30 cm in height. Number of leaves and length of plant vine were recorded at 2- or 3-d intervals. Seedling foliage, stems, and roots were harvested and dried after plants reached 30 cm in height. Growth of seedlings was regressed on number of squash bugs and results indicated that an increasing density of squash bugs feeding on seedlings resulted in a significant reduction in plant growth. Additionally, increased density of squash bugs resulted in reduced weight of foliage and root dry biomass. Seedling mortality increased as the density of squash bugs increased.

  5. Emerging aquatic insects affect riparian spider distribution and growth rates in a temperate rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, L. B.; Richardson, J. S.

    2005-05-01

    Emerging aquatic insects from streams provide a temporally shifting, alternative source of energy to riparian web-building spiders. The effects of dynamics in aquatic insect emergence on spider distributions are poorly understood. We manipulated the abundance of aquatic insects in riparian forests of British Columbia by excluding aquatic insects using a greenhouse type covering from May through the end of July. In the absence of manipulations, aquatic insect abundance generally peaks in July. The overall density of riparian spiders was reduced when aquatic insects were excluded in May and July but not in June. As in similar studies, tetragnathid spiders in particular showed a strong response to aquatic insect exclusion. The ideal free distribution predicts that organisms at low densities should have equal access to resources for growth to those at high densities. Using comparisons of body size low and high densities of animals we determined that tetragnathid abundance and growth patterns do represent an ideal free distribution.

  6. Factors that affect postnatal bone growth retardation in the twitcher murine model of Krabbe disease.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Miguel Agustin; Ries, William Louis; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Krabbe disease is an inherited lysosomal disorder in which galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) accumulates mainly in the central nervous system. To gain insight into the possible mechanism(s) that may be participating in the inhibition of the postnatal somatic growth described in the animal model of this disease (twitcher mouse, twi), we studied their femora. This study reports that twi femora are smaller than of those of wild type (wt), and present with abnormality of marrow cellularity, bone deposition (osteoblastic function), and osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, lipidomic analysis indicates altered sphingolipid homeostasis, but without significant changes in the levels of sphingolipid-derived intermediates of cell death (ceramide) or the levels of the osteoclast-osteoblast coupling factor (sphingosine-1-phosphate). However, there was significant accumulation of psychosine in the femora of adult twi animals as compared to wt, without induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6. Analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma levels, a liver secreted hormone known to play a role in bone growth, indicated a drastic reduction in twi animals when compared to wt. To identify the cause of the decrease, we examined the IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein levels in the liver. The results indicated a significant reduction of IGF-1 mRNA as well as protein levels in the liver from twi as compared to wt littermates. Our data suggest that a combination of endogenous (psychosine)