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Sample records for affect water-quality conditions

  1. WATER QUALITY AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources. These can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality which can be used for health research. We developed a water quality index for all United States counties and assessed a...

  2. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed.

  3. WATER QUALITY IN THE NEAR COASTAL WATERS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AFFECTED BY HURRICANE KATRINA: BEFORE AND AFTER THE STORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality was assessed following Hurricane Katrina in the affected waters of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Post-landfall water quality was compared to pre-hurricane conditions using indicators assessed by EPA's National Coastal Assessment program and additional indicat...

  4. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  5. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  6. Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio; Phase III, evaluation of existing data for use in assessing regional water-quality conditions and trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, J. Michael; Hren, Janet; Myers, Donna N.; Chaney, Thomas H.; Childress, Carolyn J. Oblinger

    1990-01-01

    During the past several years, a growing number of questions have been raised by members of Congress and others about the status of current waterquality conditions in the Nation, trends in water quality, and the major factors that affect water-quality conditions and trends. One area of particular interest and concern has been the suitability of existing water-quality data for addressing these types of questions at regional and national scales. In response to these questions and concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study in Colorado and Ohio to (1) determine the characteristics of current water-quality data-collection activities of Federal, State, regional, and local agencies and universities; and (2) determine how well the data from these activities, collected for various purposes and using different procedures, can be used to improve our ability to address the aforementioned questions.Colorado and Ohio were chosen for the pilot study because they represent regions with different types of water-quality issues and programs. The results of the study are specific to the two States and are not intended to be extrapolated to other States.The study was divided into three phases whose objectives were:Phase I Identify and inventory 1984 water-quality data-collection programs, including costs, in Colorado and Ohio, and identify those programs that meet a set of broad criteria for producing data that potentially are appropriate for water-quality assessments of regional and national scope. Phase II Evaluate the quality assurance of field and laboratory procedures used to produce the data from programs that met the broad criteria of Phase I. Phase III Compile the qualifying data from Phase II and evaluate the extent to which the resulting data base can be used to address selected water-quality questions for the two States.This report presents the results of Phase III, focusing on (1) the number of measurements made at each data-collection site for selected

  7. Water quality in the near coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico affected by Hurricane Katrina: before and after the storm.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa M; Macauley, John M; Harwell, Linda C; Chancy, Cynthia A

    2009-07-01

    Water quality was assessed following Hurricane Katrina in the affected waters of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Post-landfall water quality was compared to pre-hurricane conditions using indicators assessed by EPA's National Coastal Assessment program and additional indicators of contaminants in water and pathogens. Water quality data collected after Hurricane Katrina suggest that the coastal waters affected by the storm exhibited higher salinity and concentrations of chlorophyll a, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, and total suspended solids following the storm compared to the previous 5-year averages. Higher bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations and light attenuation were also observed. Contaminant concentrations measured in the water column were very low or undetectable, as were the presence of pathogens. Overall water quality did not significantly differ from water quality assessed in the five years preceding the storm. Statistical analyses indicate that use of a probabilistic survey design is appropriate for making pre-storm and post storm comparisons for water quality condition on an areal basis.

  8. Marine water quality under climate change conditions/scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Brigolin, Daniele; Carniel, Sandro; Pastres, Roberto; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The increase of sea temperature and the changes in marine currents are generating impacts on coastal waters such as changes in water biogeochemical and physical parameters (e.g. primary production, pH, salinity) leading to progressive degradation of the marine environment. With the main aim of analysing the potential impacts of climate change on coastal water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic (i.e. coastal water bodies of the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions, Italy). RRA integrates the outputs of regional models providing information on macronutrients (i.e. dissolved inorganic nitrogen e reactive phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and temperature, etc., under future climate change scenarios with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. biotic index, presence and extension of seagrasses, presence of aquaculture). The presented approach uses Geographic Information Systems to manage, analyse, and visualize data and employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the integration of stakeholders preferences and experts judgments into the evaluation process. RRA outputs are hazard, exposure, vulnerability, risk and damage maps useful for the identification and prioritization of hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets in the considered region. Therefore, the main aim of this contribution is to apply the RRA methodology to integrate, visualize, and rank according to spatial distribution, physical and chemical data concerning the coastal waters of the North Adriatic Sea in order to predict possible changes of the actual water quality.

  9. Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Water-quality conditions at selected landfills in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1986-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrell, G.M.; Smith, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Water-quality conditions at five municipal landfills in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, were studied during 1986-92. Analytical results of water samples from monitoring wells and streams at and near the landfills were used to evaluate effects of leachate on surface and ground water. Ground-water levels at monitoring wells were used to determine directions of ground-water flow at the landfills. Data from previous studies were used for analysis of temporal trends in selected water-quality properties and chemical constituents. Effects of leachate, such as large biochemical- and chemical-oxygen demands, generally were evident in small streams originating within the landfills, whereas effects of leachate generally were not evident in most of the larger streams. In larger streams, surface-water quality upstream and downstream from most of the landfills was similar. However, the chemical quality of water in Irwin Creek appears to have been affected by the Statesville Road landfill. Concentrations of several constituents indicative of leachate were larger in samples collected from Irwin Creek downstream from the Statesville Road landfill than in samples collected from Irwin Creek upstream from the landfill. The effect of leachate on ground-water quality generally was largest in water from wells adjacent to waste-disposal cells. Concentrations of most constituents considered indicative of leachate generally were smaller with increasing distance from waste-disposal cells. Water samples from offsite wells generally indicated no effect or very small effects of leachate. Action levels designated by the Mecklenburg County Engineering Department and maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded in some samples from the landfills. Ground-water samples exceeded action levels and maximum contaminant levels more commonly than surface-water samples. Iron and manganese were the constituents that most commonly exceeded action levels

  11. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  12. Water quality and ecological condition of urban streams in Independence, Missouri, June 2005 through December 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, D.; Harris, Thomas E.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the sources of selected constituents in urban streams and better understand processes affecting water quality and their effects on the ecological condition of urban streams and the Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Independence Water Pollution Control Department initiated a study in June 2005 to characterize water quality and evaluate the ecological condition of streams within Independence. Base-flow and stormflow samples collected from five sites within Independence, from June 2005 to December 2008, were used to characterize the physical, chemical, and biologic effects of storm runoff on the water quality in Independence streams and the Little Blue River. The streams draining Independence-Rock Creek, Sugar Creek, Mill Creek, Fire Prairie Creek, and the Little Blue River-drain to the north and the Missouri River. Two small predominantly urban streams, Crackerneck Creek [12.9-square kilometer (km2) basin] and Spring Branch Creek (25.4-km2 basin), were monitored that enter into the Little Blue River between upstream and downstream monitoring sites. The Little Blue River above the upstream site is regulated by several reservoirs, but streamflow is largely uncontrolled. The Little Blue River Basin encompasses 585 km2 with about 168 km2 or 29 percent of the basin lying within the city limits of Independence. Water-quality samples also were collected for Rock Creek (24.1-km2 basin) that drains the western part of Independence. Data collection included streamflow, physical properties, dissolved oxygen, chloride, metals, nutrients, common organic micro-constituents, and fecal indicator bacteria. Benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys and habitat assessments were conducted to establish a baseline for evaluating the ecological condition and health of streams within Independence. Additional dry-weather screenings during base flow of all streams draining Independence were conducted to

  13. Water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  14. Water-Quality Assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas--Surface-Water Quality, Shallow Ground-Water Quality, and Factors Affecting Water Quality in the Rincon Valley, South-Central New Mexico, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, surface-water and ground-water samples were collected in 1994 and 1995 for analysis of common constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, radioactivity, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides to characterize surface- water quality and shallow ground-water quality and to determine factors affecting water quality in the Rincon Valley, south-central New Mexico. Samples of surface water were collected from three sites on the Rio Grande and from sites on three agricultural drains in the Rincon Valley in January 1994 and 1995, April 1994, and October 1994. Ground-water samples were collected in late April and early May 1994 from 30 shallow wells that were installed during the investigation. Dissolved-solids concentrations in surface water ranged from 434 to 1,510 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Dissolved-solids concentrations were smallest in water from the Rio Grande below Caballo Dam and largest in the drains. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 3.3 mg/L as nitrogen, and ammonia concentrations ranged from less than 0.015 to 0.33 mg/L as nitrogen in surface-water samples. Trace-element concentrations in surface water were significantly smaller than the acute-fisheries standards. One or more pesticides were detected in 34 of 37 surface-water samples. DCPA (dacthal) and metolachlor were the most commonly detected pesticides. No standards have been established for the pesticides analyzed for in this study. Dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow ground water ranged from 481 to 3,630 mg/L. All but 2 of 30 samples exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for dissolved solids of 500 mg/L. Water from about 73 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L for sulfate, and water from about 7 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L for chloride. Nitrite plus nitrate

  15. A method to identify estuarine water quality exceedances associated with ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cheryl A; Nelson, Walter G

    2015-03-01

    Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the USA results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possesses high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwelling water entrainment events would represent extreme values for water quality thresholds derived from typical estuarine conditions. Tools are therefore needed to distinguish upwelled waters from other causes of exceedances of water quality thresholds within estuaries of the region. We present an example application of logistic regression models to predict the probability of exceedance of a water quality threshold, using DO data from the Yaquina estuary, Oregon, USA. Models including water temperature and salinity correctly classified exceedances of DO about 80 % of the time. Inclusion of in situ fluorescence in the logistic regression model for DO improved the model performance and reduced the rate of false positives.

  16. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  17. The quality of our Nation's waters: factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination: understanding observed water quality and anticipating future water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, Sandra M.; Thomas, Mary Ann; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, a study was conducted from 2001 to 2011 to shed light on factors that affect the vulnerability of water from public-supply wells to contamination (referred to hereafter as “public-supply-well vulnerability”). The study was designed as a follow-up to earlier NAWQA studies that found mixtures of contaminants at low concentrations in groundwater near the water table in urban areas across the Nation and, less frequently, in deeper groundwater typically used for public supply. Beside the factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination, this circular describes measures that can be used to determine which factor (or factors) plays a dominant role at an individual public-supply well. Case-study examples are used throughout to show how such information can be used to improve water quality. In general, the vulnerability of the water from public-supply wells to contamination is a function of contaminant input within the area that contributes water to a well, the mobility and persistence of a contaminant once released to the groundwater, and the ease of groundwater and contaminant movement from the point of recharge to the open interval of a well. The following measures described in this circular are particularly useful for indicating which contaminants in an aquifer might reach an individual public-supply well and when, how, and at what concentration they might arrive: * Sources of recharge—Information on the sources of recharge for a well provides insight into contaminants that might enter the aquifer with the recharge water and potentially reach the well. * Geochemical conditions—Information on the geochemical conditions encountered by groundwater traveling to a well provides insight into contaminants that might persist in the water all the way to the well. * Groundwater-age mixtures—Information on the ages of the different waters that mix in a well

  18. Water-quality conditions near the confluence of the Snake and Boise Rivers, Canyon County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Etheridge, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) have been established under authority of the Federal Clean Water Act for the Snake River-Hells Canyon reach, on the border of Idaho and Oregon, to improve water quality and preserve beneficial uses such as public consumption, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The TMDL sets targets for seasonal average and annual maximum concentrations of chlorophyll-a at 14 and 30 micrograms per liter, respectively. To attain these conditions, the maximum total phosphorus concentration at the mouth of the Boise River in Idaho, a tributary to the Snake River, has been set at 0.07 milligrams per liter. However, interactions among chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and other key water-quality parameters that may affect beneficial uses in the Snake and Boise Rivers are unknown. In addition, contributions of nutrients and chlorophyll-a loads from the Boise River to the Snake River have not been fully characterized. To evaluate seasonal trends and relations among nutrients and other water-quality parameters in the Boise and Snake Rivers, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted near their confluence in water years (WY) 2009 and 2010. The study also provided information on the relative contribution of nutrient and sediment loads from the Boise River to the Snake River, which has an effect on water-quality conditions in downstream reservoirs. State and site-specific water-quality standards, in addition to those that relate to the Snake River-Hells Canyon TMDL, have been established to protect beneficial uses in both rivers. Measured water-quality conditions in WY2009 and WY2010 exceeded these targets at one or more sites for the following constituents: water temperature, total phosphorus concentrations, total phosphorus loads, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and chlorophyll-a concentrations (WY2009 only). All measured total phosphorus concentrations in the Boise River near Parma exceeded the seasonal target of 0.07 milligram per liter. Data collected

  19. Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Leslie M.; Kromschroeder, Lea; Atwill, Edward R.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1) quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli), total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2) compare results to a) water quality regulatory benchmarks, b) recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c) estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3) examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA’s national E. coli FIB benchmarks–the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study–over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and

  20. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  1. Water-Quality Data

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  2. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    and Grand Rivers). The increase in total suspended solids concentrations could be because of soil erosion from land cultivated for row crops. Most trace element data examined in the study were highly censored and could not be used for flow-adjusted trend analyses. Water-quality conditions were assessed to explore relations between data from sites and to the State water-quality standards where applicable for selected constituents. Streamflow varied at each site because of drainage area, land use, and groundwater inputs. Dissolved oxygen and water temperature were similar at all sites except the urban site located on Wilson Creek. Specific conductance was similar between the most northern (South Fabius and Grand River sites) and the most southern sites (Current and Elk River sites). Total suspended solids concentrations were near the method reporting level at all sites, except the northern sites. Streams in northern Missouri are more turbid than streams in southern Missouri and are affected by large volumes of sediment deposition because of soil erosion from land cultivated for row crops. Geometric means of Escherichia coli were calculated from the recreational seasons within the study period. Only the Grand River site exceeded the whole-body-contact standard for frequently used waters. The South Fabius and Grand River sites and the Wilson Creek site had statistically larger densities of both fecal indicator bacteria types than the remaining sites.

  3. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING SHORT-TERM DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three ...

  4. GEOGRAPHIC-SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT WITH MONITORING DATA USING CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES - A PROPOSED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conditional probability approach using monitoring data to develop geographic-specific water quality criteria for protection of aquatic life is presented. Typical methods to develop criteria using existing monitoring data are limited by two issues: (1) how to extrapolate to an...

  5. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  6. Water-Quality Conditions of Chester Creek, Anchorage, Alaska, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Between October 1998 and September 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program evaluated the water-quality conditions of Chester Creek, a stream draining forest and urban settings in Anchorage, Alaska. Data collection included water, streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and aquatic organisms samples from urban sites along the stream. Urban land use ranged from less than 1 percent of the basin above the furthest upstream site to 46 percent above the most downstream site. Findings suggest that water quality of Chester Creek declines in the downstream direction and as urbanization in the watershed increases. Water samples were collected monthly and during storms at a site near the stream's mouth (Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard) and analyzed for major ions and nutrients. Water samples collected during water year 1999 were analyzed for selected pesticides and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined monthly during calendar year 2000. During winter, spring, and summer, four water samples were collected at a site upstream of urban development (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Tank Trail) and five from an intermediate site (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Boniface Parkway). Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate in water increased in the downstream direction. Nitrate concentrations were similar at the three sites and all were less than the drinking-water standard. About one-quarter of the samples from the Arctic Boulevard site had concentrations of phosphorus that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline for preventing nuisance plant growth. Water samples collected at the Arctic Boulevard site contained concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl that exceeded the guideline for protecting aquatic life. Every water sample revealed a low concentration of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene

  7. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types. PMID:28129405

  8. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

  9. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Benjamin; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; van der Geest, Harm H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell) proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community). This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality. PMID:26664799

  10. Evaluation of future base-flow water-quality conditions in the Hillsborough River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Goetz, C.L.; Miller, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state, water-quality model was developed for a 30.0 mile reach of the Hillsborough River to evaluate water-quality conditions to be expected from future development. The model was calibrated and verified using data collected under critical base-flow conditions in April and December 1978. Dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and total and fecal coliforms were modeled for most of the study reach. Model results were used to evaluate the impacts of two typical housing developments on water-quality conditions in Tampa Reservoir. One development is located in the Cypress Creek basin and the other near the upper end of the study reach. Model results show development in the Hillsborough River basin may cause increased total and fecal coliform conditions. Simulated total coliforms at the Tampa water treatment plant for 1-, 3-, and 5-square-mile developments located in the Cypress Creek basin were 3,000, 5,400, and 8,300 colonies per 100 milliliters. Similar developments, however, located near the upper end of the study reach were 2,000, 3,600, and 5,100 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated fecal coliforms were 360, 700, and 100 and 180, 350, and 510 colonies per 100 milliliters, respectively. Other constituents modeled showed only minor increases in concentrations. (USGS)

  11. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high

  12. Water quality of a reservoir as affected by agriculture in the east of Thailand: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tonmanee, N; Wada, H

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study on the water quality of a reservoir, affected by agriculture, in the east of Thailand was conducted during 1996-1997. Monitoring water quality of a reservoir is important because the sloping lands surrounding the reservoirs are mainly utilized for cultivating cash crops (pineapple, cassava, etc). A lot of fertilizers and agrochemicals were applied to soil and crops which can polluted the water. The results from the preliminary studied will be applied for the monitoring of the water quality in other reservoirs in the 16 pilot areas.

  13. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    During June-October 2005, water quality data were collected from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in Oregon, and meteorological data were collected around and within Upper Klamath Lake. Data recorded at two continuous water quality monitors in Agency Lake showed similar temperature patterns throughout the field season, but data recorded at the northern site showed more day-to-day variability for dissolved oxygen concentration and saturation after late June and more day-to-day variability for pH and specific conductance values after mid-July. Data recorded from the northern and southern parts of Agency Lake showed more comparable day-to-day variability in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH from September through the end of the monitoring period. For Upper Klamath Lake, seasonal (late July through early August) lows of dissolved oxygen concentrations and saturation were coincident with a seasonal low of pH values and seasonal highs of ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations, specific conductance values, and water temperatures. Patterns in these parameters, excluding water temperature, were associated with bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae in Upper Klamath Lake. In Upper Klamath Lake, water temperature in excess of 28 degrees Celsius (a high stress threshold for Upper Klamath Lake suckers) was recorded only once at one site during the field season. Large areas of Upper Klamath Lake had periods of dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 4 milligrams per liter and pH value greater than 9.7, but these conditions were not persistent throughout days at most sites. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake on time scales of days and months appeared to be influenced, in part, by bathymetry and prevailing current flow patterns. Diel patterns of water column stratification were evident, even at the deepest sites. This diel pattern of stratification was attributable to diel wind speed patterns and the shallow

  14. Comparisons of water quality during various streamflow conditions in five streams in northern New Jersey, 1982-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Relations between water-quality and flow characteristics and the relative importance of constant (point sources and ground-water discharge) and intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) sources were determined for eight water-quality stations located on the Flat Brook and the Delaware, Musconetcong, Whippany, and Saddle Rivers. Water-quality and streamflow data were categorized on the basis of streamflow at the time of sample collection. Differences in concentrations and yields of selected water-quality constituents, including nutrients and bacteria, (1) among the stations during eight streamflow conditions and (2) at each station (a) between base flow and stormflow; (b) among before, during, and after a storm; and (c) among low, medium, and high flows were determined and related to the predominant type(s) of land development in the areas contributing drainage. At the station on the Delaware River, yields of fecal-coliform bacteria were affected more by contributions from storm runoff than by contributions from point sources and ground-water discharges; yields during a storm [7.0 x 108 (MPN/d)mi2 (most probable number per day per square mile)] were greater than yields during base flow (3.7 x 108 (MPN/d)mi2). Yields of nitrate plus nitrite, alkalinity, and chloride were affected more by contributions from point sources and ground-water discharges than by contributions from storm runoff; yields of these constituents were not significantly different during base flows and stormflows. At the Flat Brook and Whippany River stations, yields of most water-quality constituents were affected more by contributions from storm runoff than by contributions from point sources and ground-water discharge. For example, yields of nitrate plus nitrite were greater during stormflow (1.20 (lb/d)/mi2 (pounds per day per square mile) and 15.88 (lb/d)/mi2, respectively) than during base flow (0.26 (lb/d)/mi2 and 8.20 (lb/d)/mi2, respectively). At the Musconetcong River station, yields of total

  15. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  16. Water-quality and algal conditions in the Clackamas River basin, Oregon, and their relations to land and water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled the Clackamas River, its major tributaries, and reservoirs to characterize basic water quality (nutrients, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and conductance), water quantity (water sources within the basin), and algal conditions (biomass and species composition). Sampling locations reflected the dominant land uses in the basin (forest management, agriculture, and urban development) as well as the influence of hydroelectric projects, to examine how these human influences might be affecting water quality and algal conditions. Nuisance algal growths, with accompanying negative effects on water quality, were observed at several locations in the basin during this study. Algal biomass in the lower Clackamas River reached a maximum of 300 mg/m2 chlorophyll a, producing nuisance algal conditions, including fouled stream channels and daily fluctuations in pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations to levels that did not meet water-quality standards. Algal biomass was highest at sites immediately downstream from the hydroelectric project's reservoirs and/or powerhouses. Nuisance algal conditions also were observed in some of the tributaries, including the North Fork of the Clackamas River, Clear Creek, Rock Creek, and Sieben Creek. High amounts of drifting algae increased turbidity levels in the Clackamas River during June, which coincided with a general increase in the concentration of disinfection by-products found in treated Clackamas River water used for drinking, presumably due to the greater amounts of organic matter in the river. The highest nutrient concentrations were found in the four lowermost tributaries (Deep, Richardson, Rock, and Sieben Creeks), where most of the agriculture and urban development is concentrated. Of these, the greatest load of nutrients came from Deep Creek, which had both high nutrient concentrations and relatively high streamflow. Streams draining forestland in the upper basin (upper Clackamas River

  17. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  18. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Hoilman, Gene; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water quality monitoring program gathered information from multiparameter continuous water quality monitors, physical water samples, dissolved oxygen production and consumption experiments, and meteorological stations during the June-October 2006 field season. The 2006 study area included Agency Lake and all of Upper Klamath Lake. Seasonal patterns in water quality were similar to those observed in 2005, the first year of the monitoring program, and were closely related to bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) in the two lakes. High dissolved oxygen and pH conditions in both lakes before the bloom declined in July, which coincided with seasonal high temperatures and resulted in seasonal lows in dissolved oxygen and decreased pH. Dissolved oxygen and pH in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes increased again after the bloom recovered. Seasonal low dissolved oxygen and decreased pH coincided with seasonal highs in ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations. Seasonal maximum daily average temperatures were higher and minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower in 2006 than in 2005. Conditions potentially harmful to fish were influenced by seasonal patterns in bloom dynamics and bathymetry. Potentially harmful low dissolved oxygen and high un-ionized ammonia concentrations occurred mostly at the deepest sites in the Upper Klamath Lake during late July, coincident with a bloom decline. Potentially harmful pH conditions occurred mostly at sites outside the deepest parts of the lake in July and September, coincident with a heavy bloom. Instances of possible gas bubble formation, inferred from dissolved oxygen data, were estimated to occur frequently in shallow areas of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes simultaneously with potentially harmful pH conditions. Comparison of the data from monitors in nearshore areas and monitors near the surface of the water column in the open waters of

  19. CO2-induced shift in microbial activity affects carbon trapping and water quality in anoxic bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Santillan, Eugenio F. U.; Sanford, Robert A.; Altman, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity is a potentially important yet poorly understood control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. In this study we examine how variation in CO2 abundance affected competition between Fe(III) and SO42--reducers in anoxic bioreactors inoculated with a mixed-microbial community from a freshwater aquifer. We performed two sets of experiments: one with low CO2 partial pressure (∼0.02 atm) in the headspace of the reactors and one with high CO2 partial pressure (∼1 atm). A fluid residence time of 35 days was maintained in the reactors by replacing one-fifth of the aqueous volume with fresh medium every seven days. The aqueous medium was composed of groundwater amended with small amounts of acetate (250 μM), phosphate (1 μM), and ammonium (50 μM) to stimulate microbial activity. Synthetic goethite (1 mmol) and SO42- (500 μM influent concentration) were also available in each reactor to serve as electron acceptors. Results of this study show that higher CO2 abundance increased the ability of Fe(III) reducers to compete with SO42- reducers, leading to significant shifts in CO2 trapping and water quality. Mass-balance calculations and pyrosequencing results demonstrate that SO42- reducers were dominant in reactors with low CO2 content. They consumed 85% of the acetate after acetate consumption reached steady state while Fe(III) reducers consumed only 15% on average. In contrast, Fe(III) reducers were dominant during that same interval in reactors with high CO2 content, consuming at least 90% of the acetate while SO42- reducers consumed a negligible amount (<1%). The higher rate of Fe(III) reduction in the high-CO2 bioreactors enhanced CO2 solubility trapping relative to the low-CO2 bioreactors by increasing alkalinity generation (6X). Hence, the shift in microbial activity we observed was a positive feedback on CO2 trapping. More rapid Fe(III) reduction degraded water quality, however, by

  20. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, N.L.; Everman, E.J.; Kuo, I.-L.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Water quality and aquatic toxicity data of 2002 spring thaw conditions in the upper Animas River watershed, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, D.L.; Wirt, L.; Besser, J.M.; Wright, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic, water-quality, and biologic toxicity data collected during the annual spring thaw of 2002 in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The spring-thaw runoff is a concern because elevated concentrations of iron oxyhydroxides can contain sorbed trace metals that are potentially toxic to aquatic life. Water chemistry of streams draining the San Juan Mountains is affected by natural acid drainage and weathering of hydrothermal altered volcanic rocks and by more than a century of mining activities. The timing of the spring-thaw sampling effort was determined by reviewing historical climate and stream-flow hydrographs and current weather conditions. Twenty-one water-quality samples were collected between 11:00 AM March 27, 2002 and 6:00 PM March 30, 2002 to characterize water chemistry at the A-72 gage on the upper Animas River below Silverton. Analyses of unfiltered water at the A-72 gage showed a relation between turbidity and total-recoverable iron concentrations, and showed diurnal patterns. Copper and lead concentrations were related to iron concentrations, indicating that these elements are probably sorbed to colloidal iron material. Calcium, strontium, and sulfate concentrations showed overall decreasing trends due to dilution, but the loads of those constituents increased over the sampling period. Nine water-quality samples were collected near the confluence of Mineral Creek with the Animas River, the confluence of Cement Creek with the Animas River, and on the upper Animas River above the confluence with Cement Creek (three samples at each site). A total of six bulk water-toxicity samples were collected before, during, and after the spring thaw from the Animas River at the A-72 gage site. Toxicity tests conducted with the bulk water samples on amphipods did not show strong differences in toxicity among the three sampling periods; however, toxicity of river water to fathead minnows showed a decreasing trend

  2. Wetlands monitoring - hydrological conditions and water quality in selected transects of Biebrza National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmaszczyk, Mateusz; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    Water Framework Directive (WFD) obligates Member States to prevent further deterioration as well as to protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. In order to fulfill one of the WFD objectives - to keep wetlands in good surface water and groundwater status (determined by good ecological, chemical and quantitative status) it is necessary to specify most favourable conditions for them. In that case monitoring of factors responsible for wetlands status in natural areas is a key issue. Further, achieved knowledge of existing relations in ecosystems can be implemented in protection and restoration projects. There are a number of factors influencing diversity of habitats responsible for developing different wetland ecosystems and their sustaining in good ecological status. It's believed that among significant factors such as hydrological conditions, water quality, nutrient availability in the soil, pH value and management (e.g. grazing, mowing) the hydrological conditions are the most important. In presented work authors concentrated on hydrological conditions and water quality and theirs influence on wetland vegetation of Biebrza National Park (BNP). BNP located north-east part of Poland is recognized by many scientist as a unique undisturbed wetland reference area. Five transects located in different basins of BNP were chosen. Transects consist of piezometers in which the water table levels and water quality were measured. Analysis of electroconductivity (EC), alkalinity (HCO3-) and pH were done directly in the field. In the laboratory anions (NO3-, PO43-, Cl-, SO42-) and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Br+, Li+, Na+, K+) concentration was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). D-divers, electronic devices to permanent measurement of groundwater level changes were located in some of the piezometers. Piezometers were located in the sites characterized by different hydrological conditions, from groundwater fed to river fed areas

  3. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Water-quality conditions in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    Eleven (2002) to 14 (2003 and 2004) continuous water-quality monitors that measured pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance, were placed in Upper Klamath Lake to support a telemetry tracking study of endangered adult shortnose and Lost River suckers. Samples for the analysis of chlorophyll a and nutrients were collected at a subset of the water-quality monitor sites in each year. The seasonal pattern in the occurrence of supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations and high pH associated with photosynthetic activity, as well as the undersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations associated with oxygen demand through respiration and decay in excess of photosynthetic production, were well described by the dynamics of the massive blooms of Aphanizomenon flos aquae (AFA) that occur each year. Data from the continuous monitors provided a means to quantify the occurrence, duration, and spatial extent of water-quality conditions potentially harmful to fish (dissolved- oxygen concentration less than 4 milligrams per liter, pH greater than 9.7, and temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius) in the northern part of the lake, where the preferred adult sucker habitat is found. There were few observations of temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius, suggesting that temperature is not a significant source of chronic stress to fish, although its role in the spread of disease is harder to define. Observations of pH greater than 9.7 were common during times when the AFA bloom was growing rapidly, so pH may be a source of chronic stress to fish. Dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 4 milligrams per liter were common in all 3 years at the deeper sites, in the lower part of the water column and for short periods during the day. Less common were instances of widespread low dissolved oxygen, throughout the water column and persisting through the entire day, but this was the character of a severe low dissolved oxygen event (LDOE) that culminated in the

  5. Water Quality-Chapter 5 for National Wetland Condition Assessment technical report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives of the water quality data analyses presented here are to examine the extent to which water quality could be sampled across US wetlands, to evaluate the various measurement endpoints obtained (e.g., variability, repeatability, information content), to present broad patt...

  6. Ambient bioassays for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.

    1995-04-01

    Short-term EPA-approved tests with fish, aquatic invertebrates or algae can be used to estimate the acute or chronic toxicity of effluent and can be used to assess water-quality conditions in streams or rivers that receive pollutants from industry or municipal or agricultural areas. These methods also can be used to assess water quality in receiving streams. However, in effluent testing, the key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. Specific case-study examples are provided demonstrating the kinds of information that can be extracted from ambient toxicity testing by use of different statistical methods. Examples also are given supporting the idea that an effective ambient testing program should be long-term, and contain a diagnostic-testing component analogous to the toxicity identification procedures used to supplement effluent-testing programs. Recommendations derived as {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

  7. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  8. Do reports on drinking water quality affect customers' concerns? Experiments in report content.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2003-10-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 required U.S. utilities to report on drinking water quality to their customers annually, beginning in fall 1999, on the assumption that such reports would alert them to quality problems and perhaps mobilize pressure for improvement. A random sample of New Jersey customers read alternative versions of a water quality report, in an experiment on reactions to water quality information under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) rules. Experiment design was 2 x 3 + 1: two versions each--one with, one without, a violation of a health standard--of a report that was (1) Qualitative (without water quality numbers, thus not meeting USEPA rules); (2) Basic, with minimal information meeting the rules; or (3) Extended, adding reading aids and utility performance information; plus a control instrument without any hypothetical report. Results of ANOVA suggest the reports will have less effect than hoped or feared. These manipulations were successful: people reading the Qualitative versions were less likely to say that the report gave the amounts of substances found in the water, and those reading Violation versions were more likely to report a violation of a health standard. The main differences in responses to the report involved the judged adequacy of the information, and to a lesser extent responses on a Concern scale (constructed from measures of concern, judged risk, clean-up intentions, distrust of utility information, and doubt that the utility was doing all it could to improve water quality). Overall judgments of water quality and utility performance did not change, either relative to the controls or in before versus after responses. Qualitative reports performed worse than others, confirming the decision to have utilities report actual contaminant levels. Extended reports did only slightly better than the Basic versions on these measures. Many respondents had trouble identifying the presence or absence of substance

  9. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    , geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  10. Water-quality and biological conditions in selected tributaries of the Lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, water years 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were studied in selected tributaries of the lower Boise River during water years 2009–12, including Fivemile and Tenmile Creeks in 2009, Indian Creek in 2010, and Mason Creek in 2011 and 2012. Biological samples, including periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in Mason Creek in October 2011. Synoptic water-quality sampling events were timed to coincide with the beginning and middle of the irrigation season as well as the non-irrigation season, and showed that land uses and irrigation practices affect water quality in the selected tributaries. Large increases in nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads occurred over relatively short stream reaches and affected nutrient and sediment concentrations downstream of those reaches. Escherichia coli (E. coli) values increased in study reaches adjacent to pastured lands or wastewater treatment plants, but increased E. coli values at upstream locations did not necessarily affect E. coli values at downstream locations. A spatial loading analysis identified source areas for nutrients, sediment, and E. coli, and might be useful in selecting locations for water-quality improvement projects. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants increased nutrient loads in specific reaches in Fivemile and Indian Creeks. Increased suspended-sediment loads were associated with increased discharge from irrigation returns in each of the studied tributaries. Samples collected during or shortly after storms showed that surface runoff, particularly during the winter, may be an important source of nutrients in tributary watersheds with substantial agricultural land use. Concentrations of total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and E. coli exceeded regulatory water-quality targets or trigger levels at one or more monitoring sites in each tributary studied, and exceedences occurred during irrigation season more often than during non-irrigation season. As with water-quality

  11. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  12. Recent (2003-05) water quality of Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, with emphasis on factors affecting variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Garner, Bradley D.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Guilfoyle, Amber L.; Rao, Mohan V.

    2006-01-01

    From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected and analyzed water samples from the four springs (orifices) of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas (Upper, Main, Eliza, and Old Mill Springs), with the objective of characterizing water quality. Barton Springs is the major discharge point for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer. A three-pronged sampling approach was used: physicochemical properties (including specific conductance and turbidity) were measured continuously; samples were collected from the four springs routinely every 2 weeks (during August-September 2003) to 3 weeks (during June 2004-June 2005) and analyzed for some or all major ions, nutrients, trace elements, soluble pesticides, and volatile organic compounds; and samples were collected from the four springs at more closely spaced intervals during the 2 weeks following two storms and analyzed for the same suite of constituents. Following the two storms, samples also were collected from five of the six major streams that provide recharge to Barton Springs. Spring discharge during both sample collection periods was above average (60 cubic feet per second or greater). Barton Springs was found to be affected by persistent low concentrations of atrazine (an herbicide), chloroform (a drinking-water disinfection by-product), and tetrachloroethene (a solvent). Increased recharge from the major recharging streams resulted in increased calcium, sulfate, atrazine, simazine, and tetrachloroethene concentrations and decreased concentrations of most other major ions, nitrate, and chloroform at one or more of the springs. These changes in concentration demonstrate the influence of water quality in recharging streams on water quality at the springs even during non-stormflow conditions. The geochemical compositions of the four springs indicate that Upper Spring is more contaminated and is influenced by a contributing flow path that

  13. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    An investigation of the water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during December 1990. The objectives of the study were to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and adverse affects on biota in the streams resulting from creosote-related discharge originating of this Superfund site.

  14. Water-quality variations in the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon, under 1978 to 1983 management conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    During the period October 1978 to September 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Portland (Oregon) Water Bureau, conducted a study in the Bull Run River basin to define the hydrologic characteristics of the basin, and to examine relations between basin characteristics (both natural and man-made) and stream water quality and quantity within the basin. Hydrologically, the 1978-1983 period can be characterized as representative of the long-term average, with no records of extreme events. Likewise, water quality constituent concentrations affected by quantity of streamflow are representative of average values and ranges and exclude values that would be obtained during periods of extreme events. Ranges of concentration of major anions and cations for surface water collected October 1978 to September 1983 are similar to values collected historically. The ratio of constituent to chloride values determined for precipitation data collected during the period June 1980 to September 1981 indicated that other sources besides seawater contributed to its composition. In ratios of constituents in precipitation, Bull Run values are similar to those of other remote sites in Alaska, Washington, and California. Comparisons of storm-related suspended sediment load to annual suspended sediment loads indicated that 62% to 78% of the total annual loads occurred in 3 to 4 days during an average year. Multiple-linear regression analysis using discharge, suspended sediment and specific conductance indicated that most of the variation in the annual values could be explained by naturally occurring processes within the basin. A nonparametric time-trend analysis of 24 water quantity and quality constituents showed no statistically significant trends with estimated slopes large enough to be readily measurable for a particular year. Four constituents that were sampled weekly (turbidity, specific conductance, silica, and phytoplankton) had statistically significant

  15. UTILIZING SHELLFISH RESPONSES TO SET TARGET WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF OYSTER REEFS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volety, Aswani K., S.G. Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Utilizing Shellfish Responses to Set Target Water Quality Conditions for the Restoration of Oyster Reefs in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Presented at the International Workshop on Restoration of Benthic Invertebr...

  16. Managing water quality under drought conditions in the Llobregat River Basin.

    PubMed

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Munné, Antoni; Manzano, Andreu; Arnau, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-01-15

    The primary effects of droughts on river basins include both depleted quantity and quality of the available water resources, which can render water resources useless for human needs and simultaneously damage the environment. Isolated water quality analyses limit the action measures that can be proposed. Thus, an integrated evaluation of water management and quality is warranted. In this study, a methodology consisting of two coordinated models is used to combine aspects of water resource allocation and water quality assessment. Water management addresses water allocation issues by considering the storage, transport and consumption elements. Moreover, the water quality model generates time series of concentrations for several pollutants according to the water quality of the runoff and the demand discharges. These two modules are part of the AQUATOOL decision support system shell for water resource management. This tool facilitates the analysis of the effects of water management and quality alternatives and scenarios on the relevant variables in a river basin. This paper illustrates the development of an integrated model for the Llobregat River Basin. The analysis examines the drought from 2004 to 2008, which is an example of a period when the water system was quantitative and qualitatively stressed. The performed simulations encompass a wide variety of water management and water quality measures; the results provide data for making informed decisions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the importance of combining these measures depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  17. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N. L.; Everman, E.; Kuo, I.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-12-01

    A new web-based decision support system has been developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program's (NAWQA) effort to provide ready access to Spatially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) results of stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via an intuitive graphical user interface with a map-based display. The SPARROW Decision Support System (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions, distribution of nutrient sources, nutrient delivery to downstream waterbodies, and simulations of altered nutrient inputs including atmospheric and agricultural sources. The DSS offers other features for analysis including various background map layers, model output exports, and the ability to save and share prediction scenarios. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. The underlying modeling framework and server infrastructure illustrate innovations in the information technology and geosciences fields for delivering SPARROW model predictions over the web by performing intensive model computations and map visualizations of the predicted conditions within the stream network.

  18. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a Mid-Atlantic Highlands watershed, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Y.; Viadero, R.C.; Wei, X.; Fortney, Ronald H.; Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-Atlantic highlands watershed, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Stuart C.; Wei, Xinchao; Hedrick, Lara B.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997–2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  20. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-atlantic highlands watershed, USA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Roger C; Wei, Xinchao; Fortney, Ronald; Hedrick, Lara B; Welsh, Stuart A; Anderson, James T; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  1. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Emporia- Lyon County Landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, N.C.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the Emporia-Lyon County Landfill, eastern Kansas, were investigated from April 1988 through April 1989. Potentiometric-surface maps indicated groundwater movement from the northeast and northwest towards the landfill and then south through the landfill to the Cottonwood River. The maps indicate that during periods of low groundwater levels, groundwater flows northward in the north-west part of the landfill, which may have been induced by water withdrawal from wells north of the landfill or by water ponded in waste lagoons south and west of the landfill. Chemical analysis of water samples from monitoring wells upgradient and downgradient of the landfill indicate calcium bicarbonate to be the dominant water type. No inorganic or organic chemical concentrations exceeded Kansas or Federal primary drinking-water standards. Kansas secondary drinking-water standards were equaled or exceeded, however, in water from some or all wells for total hardness, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese. Water from one upgradient well contained larger concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, and smaller concentrations of bicarbonate, alkalinity, ammonia, arsenic, iron, and manganese as compared to all other monitoring wells. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater quality downgradient of well MW-2 has increased concentrations of some inorganic and organic compounds. Due to the industrial nature of the area and the changing directions of groundwater flow, it is not clear what the source of these compounds might be. Long-term monitoring, additional wells, and access to nearby waste lagoons and waste-lagoon monitoring wells would help define the sources of increased inorganic and organic compounds. (USGS)

  2. Water-quality conditions in the New River, Imperial County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The New River, when entering the United States at Calexico, Calif., often contains materials which have the appearance of industrial and domestic wastes. Passage of some of these materials is recognized by a sudden increase in turbidity over background levels and the presence of white particulate matter. Water samples taken during these events are usually extremely high in organic content. During a 4-day reconnaissance of water quality in May 1977, white-to-brown extremely turbid water crossed the border on three occasions. On one of these occasions , the water was intensively sampled. The total organic-carbon concentration ranged from 80 to 161 milligrams per liter (mg/l); dissolved organic carbon ranged from 34 to 42 mg/l, and the chemical oxygen demand was as high as 510 mg/l. River profiles showed a dissolved-oxygen sag, with the length of the zone of depressed dissolved-oxygen concentrations varying seasonally. During the summer months, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the river were lower and the zone of depressed dissolved-oxygen concentrations was longer. The largest increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration from reaeration occurred at the three drop structures and the rock weir near Seeley. The effects of oxygen demanding materials crossing the border extended as far as Highway 80, 19.5 miles downstream from the international boundary at Calexico. Fish kills and anaerobic conditions were also detected as far as Highway 80. Standard bacteria indicator tests for fecal contamination showed a very high health-hazard potential near the border. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Toxicity testing strategies for assessing water-quality conditions in receiving streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explores the use of short-term, EPA-approved laboratory toxicity tests for assessing water-quality conditions in streams and rivers. Strategies for the cost-effective application of such tests for long-term monitoring objectives are considered in the context of logistic constraints and statistical design. A subtle but important difference in objectives for effluent versus ambient testing is this: in effluent testing for regulatory purposes, a key objective is to determine how toxic an effluent is; in ambient testing, the main objective usually is that of determining if the water at a site is toxic. This difference shapes the strategy for cost-effective ambient testing and determines the framework for effective statistical analysis and interpretation of ambient toxicity test results. Recommendations derived as `` lessons learned`` from large-scale ambient toxicity testing programs for receiving streams at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities include: (1) testing more frequently with one species (preferably Ceriodaphnia) generally is more effective, in terms of information gained per dollar spent, than testing less frequently with two or more species; (2) use five or more sites per test period, plus two or more reference sites, whenever possible; (3) use four to six test periods per year; and (4) use diagnostic testing to supplement the ambient-testing program. Various laboratory and in situ methods for environmental assessment are now under development, but these methods probably will not gain acceptance for use in regulatory situations for many years. Rapid growth in need for ecological risk assessments outstrips the rate at which new test procedures are approved for regulatory purposes. Thus, laboratory tests for estimating possible environmental impacts of toxic or disruptive pollutants are likely to be used more frequently, not less frequently, during the next decade.

  4. Analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics in Lake Maumelle, Arkansas, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, W. Reed

    2001-01-01

    well when compared to measured values. A simulated spill of conservative material at the upper end of Lake Maumelle during a major storm event took less than 102 hours to disperse the entire length of the reservoir. Simulation of a nursery pond release into a tributary to Lake Maumelle demonstrated how the released water plunges within the receiving embayment and enters the main stem of the reservoir at mid depths. Simulations of algal response to increases of nitrogen and phosphorus loads demonstrate the phosphorus limiting condition in Lake Maumelle. Results from this study will provide waterresource management with information to better understand how changes in hydrology and water quality in the basin affects water quality in the reservoir. With this information, managers will be able to more effectively manage their drinking-water source supply.

  5. Approaches to Identify Exceedances of Water Quality Thresholds Associated with Ocean Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    WED scientists have developed a method to help distinguish whether failures to meet water quality criteria are associated with natural coastal upwelling by using the statistical approach of logistic regression. Estuaries along the west coast of the United States periodically ha...

  6. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System: 2006 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    YANKTON 7.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska...19 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 19 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT...95 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES

  7. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System 2007 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    103 7.3 LAKE YANKTON 7.3.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River...3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 19 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS...96 7 MAINSTEM ANCILLARY LAKES

  8. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System. 2010 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION 7.3.1.1 Lake Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South...17 3.4 Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake Yankton, Lake Pocasse...and Lake Audubon ............................. 17 4 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

  9. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System. 2009 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Description Lake Yankton is an “ oxbow ” lake of the Missouri River that straddles the Nebraska and South Dakota border, just downstream of Gavins...Fort Randall Dam to Rulo, Ne .................................................................... 17  3.4  Mainstem System Ancillary Lakes – Lake ...Yankton, Lake Pocasse, and Lake Audubon ............. 17  4  WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS

  10. A Method to Identify Estuarine Water Quality Exceedances Associated with Ocean Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wind driven coastal upwelling along the Pacific Northwest Coast of the US results in oceanic water that may be periodically entrained into adjacent estuaries and which possess high nutrients and low dissolved oxygen (DO). Measurement of water quality indicators during these upwe...

  11. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  12. Biological, habitat, and water quality conditions in the upper Merced River drainage, Yosemite National Park, California, 1993-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Short, Terry M.

    1999-01-01

    The general conclusion from these studies is that water quality in the upper Merced River was very good from 1993-1996, despite high levels of human activities in some areas. Fish communities did not appear to be a useful indicator of habitat and water quality because of low species richness and the apparent importance of physical barriers in determining species distributions. Measurements of fish densities and size-distributions might be useful, but would be logistically difficult. Benthic algae and benthic invertebrates do appear to be useful in monitoring environmental conditions. Benthic algae may be more sensitive than benthic invertebrates to small environmental differences within years. Benthic algae were also more responsive than benthic invertebrates to differences in discharge between years. Thus, benthic invertebrates may be more useful in comparing environmental conditions between years, independent of discharge conditions.

  13. Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

  14. Assessment of water quality conditions Ohio River main stem 1980-81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), is an assessment of the water quality of the Ohio River and lower reaches of its major tributaries together with information on Commission water pollution control programs for the years 1980 and 1981. The Commission is an interstate agency formed in 1948 by eight states signatory to a compact to abate existing and control future water pollution in the Ohio River Valley.

  15. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  16. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  17. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  18. Interspecies Correlation Estimation - Applications in Water Quality Criteria and Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria (WQC) designate the maximum concentrations of water-borne toxicants that do not adversely affect specific protection goals under certain natural conditions. As the foundation of water quality standards, WQC provide a critical scientific basis for environmen...

  19. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  20. Macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics as indicators of water-quality conditions in connected depression wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, Billy; Burge, David; Cobb, Jennifer; Marsico, Travis; Bouldin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Methods for assessing wetland conditions must be established so wetlands can be monitored and ecological services can be protected. We evaluated biological indices compiled from macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics developed primarily for streams to assess their ability to indicate water quality in connected depression wetlands. We collected water-quality and biological samples at 24 connected depressions dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (water depths = 0.5–1.0 m). Water quality of the least-disturbed connected depressions was characteristic of swamps in the southeastern USA, which tend to have low specific conductance, nutrient concentrations, and pH. We compared 162 macroinvertebrate metrics and 123 diatom metrics with a water-quality disturbance gradient. For most metrics, we evaluated richness, % richness, abundance, and % relative abundance values. Three of the 4 macroinvertebrate metrics that were most beneficial for identifying disturbance in connected depressions decreased along the disturbance gradient even though they normally increase relative to stream disturbance. The negative relationship to disturbance of some taxa (e.g., dipterans, mollusks, and crustaceans) that are considered tolerant in streams suggests that the tolerance scale for some macroinvertebrates can differ markedly between streams and wetlands. Three of the 4 metrics chosen for the diatom index reflected published tolerances or fit the usual perception of metric response to disturbance. Both biological indices may be useful in connected depressions elsewhere in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion and could have application in other wetland types. Given the paradoxical relationship of some macroinvertebrate metrics to dissolved O2 (DO), we suggest that the diatom metrics may be easier to interpret and defend for wetlands with low DO concentrations in least-disturbed conditions.

  1. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  2. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  3. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  4. Measuring the Contribution of Agricultural Conservation Practices to Observed Trends and Recent Condition in Water Quality Indicators in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Miltner, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the last three decades, significant investments made to upgrade wastewater infrastructure and manage pollution from diffuse sources have resulted in measurably improved water quality and biological conditions in Ohio's rivers and streams. Conservation measures to reduce soil loss appear to have contributed significantly to the improvement witnessed over the last two decades and should therefore be continued. Within the most recent timeframe examined, little difference was found in either total phosphorus or suspended sediment concentration in relation to conservation measures, indicating that the environmental benefits of measures targeting soil loss may be approaching an asymptote. Conservation measures targeting livestock and forage management, however, appear to have reduced nitrogen concentrations within the recent time frame. An examination of the interrelationships between habitat quality, conservation measures, and land use indicated that water quality was generally mediated by interactions with stream habitat quality. However, the positive effect of habitat quality was reduced in catchments draining fine-textured soils. The implication of these latter two findings suggest that proscriptively adding natural function to the large network of ditched and maintained conveyances draining agricultural lands would substantially improve water quality, but management at the field level is necessary to minimize phosphorus losses.

  5. Assessing water quality at large geographic scales: Relations among land use, water physicochemistry, riparian condition, and fish community structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Goldstein, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Data collected from 172 sites in 20 major river basins between 1993 and 1995 as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess relations among basinwide land use (agriculture, forest, urban, range), water physicochemistry, riparian condition, and fish community structure. A multimetric approach was used to develop regionally referenced indices of fish community and riparian condition. Across large geographic areas, decreased riparian condition was associated with water-quality constituents indicative of nonpoint source inputs-total nitrogen and suspended sediment and basin-wide urban land use. Decreased fish community condition was associated with increases in total dissolved solids and rangeland use and decreases in riparian condition and agricultural land use. Fish community condition was relatively high even in areas where agricultural land use was relatively high (>50% of the basin). Although agricultural land use can have deleterious effects on fish communities, the results of this study suggest that other factors also may be important, including practices that regulate the delivery of nutrients, suspended sediments, and total dissolved solids into streams. Across large geographic scales, measures of water physicochemistry may be better indicators of fish community condition than basinwide land use. Whereas numerous studies have indicated that riparian restorations are successful in specific cases, this analysis suggests the universal importance of riparian zones to the maintenance and restoration of diverse fish communities in streams.

  6. Changes in the water quality conditions of Kuwait's marine waters: Long term impacts of nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Hamid, S A; Al-Zaidan, A; Al-Sarawi, H; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Ghofran, L; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Stentiford, G D; Morris, S; da Silva, E T; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    This work analyses a 30 year water quality data set collated from chemical analyses of Kuwait's marine waters. Spatial patterns across six sites in Kuwait Bay and seven sites located in the Arabian Gulf are explored and discussed in terms of the changing influences associated with point and diffuse sources. Statistical modelling demonstrated significant increases for dissolved nutrients over the time period. Kuwait marine waters have been subject to inputs from urban development, untreated sewage discharges and decreasing river flow from the Shatt al-Arab River. Chlorophyll biomass showed a small but significant reduction; the high sewage content of the coastal waters from sewage discharges likely favouring the presence of smaller phytoplankton taxa. This detailed assessment of temporal data of the impacts of sewage inputs into Kuwait's coastal waters establishes an important baseline permitting future assessments to be made as sewage is upgraded, and the river continues to be extracted upstream.

  7. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    PubMed

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future.

  8. Evaluation of the surface-water sampling design in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages in relation to environmental factors affecting water quality at base flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.

    1998-01-01

    The variability in water quality throughout the WMIC Study Unit during base-flow conditions could be described very well by subdividing the area into Relatively Homogeneous Units and sampling a few streams with drainage basins completely within these homogeneous units. This subdivision and sampling scheme enabled the differences in water quality to be directly related to the differences in the environmental characteristics that exist throughout the Study Unit.

  9. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF "STAGNATION CURVES" FOR LEAD AND COPPER, AND WATER QUALITY FACTORS AFFECTING THEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Stagnation curves" are the response of metal levels, particularly lead and copper, to time under conditions of no water flow. Research on lead pipe in the early 1980's in the United States, Germany, and in the United Kingdom suggested that they were characterized by rapid incre...

  10. Identification of key water quality characteristics affecting the filterability of biologically treated effluent in low-pressure membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Fan, L; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2010-01-01

    There are many water quality characteristics which could influence the filterability of biologically treated effluent from Melbourne's Western Treatment Plant (WTP). Statistical correlation was used to identify the key water characteristics affecting the microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) filterability in terms of permeate volume of the treated effluent. The models developed showed that turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended solids (TSS) were the key factors which influenced the MF and UF filterability. Turbidity was the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the model for MF filterability while DOC was the major factor affecting the accuracy of the model for UF filterability. A prediction accuracy of 85% was obtained for MF and 86% for UF filterability of the WTP effluent. The characteristics of the organic components of the wastewater were demonstrated by EEM spectra to have seasonal variation which would have reduced the prediction accuracy. As turbidity, DOC and TSS can be determined on-line, the models would be useful for rapid prediction of the filterability of WTP effluent and this may assist the control of low-pressure membrane filtration processes.

  11. Hydrologic conditions, stream-water quality, and selected groundwater studies conducted in the Lawrenceville area, Georgia, 2003-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Williams, Lester J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic studies conducted during 2003-2008 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Water Program with the City of Lawrenceville, Georgia, provide important data for the management of water resources. The Cooperative Water Program includes (1) hydrologic monitoring (precipitation, streamflow, and groundwater levels) to quantify baseline conditions in anticipation of expanded groundwater development, (2) surface-water-quality monitoring to provide an understanding of how stream quality is affected by natural (such as precipitation) and anthropogenic factors (such as impervious area), and (3) geologic studies to better understand groundwater flow and hydrologic processes in a crystalline rock setting. The hydrologic monitoring network includes each of the two watersheds projected for groundwater development?the Redland-Pew Creek and upper Alcovy River watersheds?and the upper Apalachee River watershed, which serves as a background or control watershed because of its similar hydrologic and geologic characteristics to the other two watersheds. In each watershed, precipitation was generally greater during 2003-2005 than during 2006-2008, and correspondingly streamflow and groundwater levels decreased. In the upper Alcovy River and Redland-Pew Creek watersheds, groundwater level declines during 2003-2008 were mostly between 2 and 7 feet, with maximum observed declines of as much as 28.5 feet in the upper Alcovy River watershed, and 49.1 feet in the Redland-Pew Creek watershed. Synoptic base-flow measurements were used to locate and quantify gains or losses to streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction (groundwater seepage). In September 2006, seepage gains were measured at five of nine reaches evaluated in the upper Alcovy River watershed, with losses in the other four. The four losing reaches were near the confluence of the Alcovy River and Cedar Creek where the stream gradient is low and bedrock is at or near the land surface. In the Redland

  12. Water Quality, Habitat, and Biological Conditions at Selected Sites in the Highly Urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, C. A.; Brown, L. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Santa Ana River Basin of southern California is highly urbanized and is affected by habitat loss, habitat alteration, and changes in water quality of the river and tributary streams. Nineteen sites, selected to represent the range in water source (mountain runoff, ground-water discharge, urban runoff, treated waste water), were sampled during summer 2000, to assess macroinvertebrate community structure and various measures of water quality. Sites were characterized on the basis of water source because much of the water in Santa Ana Basin is imported and does not typically originate within the watershed boundaries. Artificial substrates were employed for biological samples to minimize the effect of channel environments--natural, channelized but unlined, and concrete-lined-- as a confounding variable. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate genera ranged from five to 20 taxa per site. Pesticides were detected at 16 of 19 sites; the number of detections per site ranged from two to nine. Diazinon was the most commonly detected pesticide and was found at 13 of the 16 sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected at 9 of 10 sites; the number of detections ranged from 1 to 10 per site. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane, the most commonly detected VOCs, were found at six sites each. Results from a Microtox toxicity test using extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices installed at 14 sites indicated potential toxicity at 10 of the sites. Results suggest that water source and channel modifications associated with urbanization have altered water quality and associated ecological communities in the streams of the Santa Ana Basin.

  13. Potential impacts of a proposed reservoir on hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Little Rush Creek watershed, Fairfield County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet; Jones, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Water-quality and discharge measurements were made at three sites on Indian Run and one site on Little Rush Creek between February and December, 1979. Indian Run was observed above and below the U.S. Soil Conservation Service Reservoir, VI-D. Little Rush Creek was observed 1.1 miles downstream from the proposed U.S. Soil Conservation Reservoir, VI-A, site. Data from the Indian Run sites were used to predict the potential water-quality conditions in and downstream from the proposed Little Rush Creek Reservoir. Temperatures measured in Indian Run at the reservoir outflow were as much as 4oc greater than those at the inflow. Dissolved-oxygen saturation ranged from 62 to 110 percent in the inflow and from 57 to 120 percent in the outflow. Indian Run and Little Push Creek are characterized by moderately hard to very hard calcium bicarbonate water. The concentration of dieldrin in water samples from both Little Rush Creek and the outflow from the reservoir on Indian Run was 0.01 micrograms per liter, and in reservoir-surface samples it was 0.02 micrograms per liter. Chlordane concentration in a bottom material sample from the reservoir was 26 micrograms per kilogram. Catfish taken from the reservoir contained 190 micrograms per kilogram chlordane. All sites showed a good diversity in benthic invertebrate communities. Blue-green algal blooms occurred in the reservoir, indicating nutrient-enriched conditions. Because of similarities in land use and watershed characteristics, water in the proposed reservoir VI-A is expected to be similar in quality to that of reservoir VI-D. The new reservoir will not significantly affect downstream water quality.

  14. Water-quality and biological conditions in the Lower Boise River, Ada and Canyon Counties, Idaho, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2004-01-01

    The water quality and biotic integrity of the lower Boise River between Lucky Peak Dam and the river's mouth near Parma, Idaho, have been affected by agricultural land and water use, wastewater treatment facility discharge, urbanization, reservoir operations, and river channel alteration. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cooperators have studied water-quality and biological aspects of the lower Boise River in the past to address water-quality concerns and issues brought forth by the Clean Water Act of 1977. Past and present issues include preservation of beneficial uses of the river for fisheries, recreation, and irrigation; and maintenance of high-quality water for domestic and agricultural uses. Evaluation of the data collected from 1994 to 2002 by the USGS revealed increases in constituent concentrations in the lower Boise in a downstream direction. Median suspended sediment concentrations from Diversion Dam (downstream from Lucky Peak Dam) to Parma increased more than 11 times, nitrogen concentrations increased more than 8 times, phosphorus concentrations increased more than 7 times, and fecal coliform concentrations increased more than 400 times. Chlorophyll-a concentrations, used as an indicator of nutrient input and the potential for nuisance algal growth, also increased in a downstream direction; median concentrations were highest at the Middleton and Parma sites. There were no discernible temporal trends in nutrients, sediment, or bacteria concentrations over the 8-year study. The State of Idaho?s temperature standards to protect coldwater biota and salmonid spawning were exceeded most frequently at Middleton and Parma. Suspended sediment concentrations exceeded criteria proposed by Idaho Department of Environmental Quality most frequently at Parma and at all but three tributaries. Total nitrogen concentrations at Glenwood, Middleton, and Parma exceeded national background levels; median flow-adjusted total nitrogen concentrations at Middleton and

  15. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  16. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  17. Analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics and water-quality characteristics in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, 2001 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2006-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir located in the upper White River Basin in northwestern Arkansas. The purpose of this report is to describe the ambient hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Beaver Lake and its inflows and describe a two-dimensional model developed to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Beaver Lake from 2001 through 2003. Water-quality samples were collected at the three main inflows to Beaver Lake; the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Nutrient concentrations varied among the tributaries because of land use and contributions of nutrients from point sources. The median concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen were greater for the White River than Richland and War Eagle Creeks. The greatest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate and total nitrogen, however, were observed at War Eagle Creek. Phosphorus concentrations were relatively low, with orthophosphorus and dissolved phosphorus concentrations mostly below the laboratory reporting limit at the three sites. War Eagle Creek had significantly greater median orthophosphorus and total phosphorus concentrations than the White River and Richland Creek. Dissolved organic-carbon concentrations were significantly greater at the White River than at War Eagle and Richland Creeks. The White River also had significantly greater turbidity than War Eagle Creek and Richland Creek. The temperature distribution in Beaver Lake exhibits the typical seasonal cycle of lakes and reservoirs located within similar latitudes. Beaver Lake is a monomictic system, in which thermal stratification occurs annually during the summer and fall and complete mixing occurs in the winter. Isothermal conditions exist throughout the winter and early spring. Nitrogen concentrations varied temporally, longitudinally, and vertically in Beaver Lake for 2001 through 2003. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally decreased from the

  18. State and regional water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of Michigan's inland lakes, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality are jointly monitoring selected water-quality constituents of inland lakes through 2015 as part of Michigan’s Lake Water Quality Assessment program. During 2001–2005, 433 lake basins from 364 inland lakes were monitored for baseline water-quality conditions and trophic status. This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of those monitored lake basins throughout the State. Regional variation of water quality in lake basins was examined by grouping on the basis of the five Omernik level III ecoregions within Michigan. Concentrations of most constituents measured were significantly different between ecoregions. Less regional variation of phosphorus concentrations was noted between Northern Lakes and Forests (50) and North Central Hardwoods (51) ecoregions during summer possibly because water samples were collected when lake productivity was high; hence the utilization of the limited amount of phosphorus by algae and macrophytes may have resulted in the more uniform concentrations between these two ecoregions. Concentrations of common ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate) measured in the spring typically were higher in the Michigan southern Lower Peninsula in the Eastern Corn Belt Plains (55), Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains (56), and Huron/Erie Lake Plains (57) ecoregions. Most ions whose concentrations were less than the minimum reporting levels or were nondetectable were from lakes in the Michigan northern Lower Peninsula and the Upper Peninsula in the Northern Lakes and Forests (50) and North Central Hardwoods (51) ecoregions. Chlorophyll a concentrations followed a similar distribution pattern. Measured properties such as pH and specific conductance (indicative of dissolved solids) also showed a regional relation. The lakes with the lowest pH and specific conductance were generally in the western

  19. How does higher frequency monitoring data affect the calibration of a process-based water quality model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson-Blake, Leah; Helliwell, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Process-based catchment water quality models are increasingly used as tools to inform land management. However, for such models to be reliable they need to be well calibrated and shown to reproduce key catchment processes. Calibration can be challenging for process-based models, which tend to be complex and highly parameterised. Calibrating a large number of parameters generally requires a large amount of monitoring data, spanning all hydrochemical conditions. However, regulatory agencies and research organisations generally only sample at a fortnightly or monthly frequency, even in well-studied catchments, often missing peak flow events. The primary aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the quality and uncertainty of model simulations produced by a process-based, semi-distributed catchment model, INCA-P (the INtegrated CAtchment model of Phosphorus dynamics), were improved by calibration to higher frequency water chemistry data. Two model calibrations were carried out for a small rural Scottish catchment: one using 18 months of daily total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration data, another using a fortnightly dataset derived from the daily data. To aid comparability, calibrations were carried out automatically using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo - DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (MCMC-DREAM) algorithm. Calibration to daily data resulted in improved simulation of peak TDP concentrations and improved model performance statistics. Parameter-related uncertainty in simulated TDP was large when fortnightly data was used for calibration, with a 95% credible interval of 26 μg/l. This uncertainty is comparable in size to the difference between Water Framework Directive (WFD) chemical status classes, and would therefore make it difficult to use this calibration to predict shifts in WFD status. The 95% credible interval reduced markedly with the higher frequency monitoring data, to 6 μg/l. The number of parameters that could be reliably auto

  20. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    permeable upper part of the Magothy aquifer. Identification of the three point sources and delineation of their areas of influence improved definition of ambient ground-water quality and delineation of the reclaimed-wastewater plume.

  1. Streamflow, water-quality, and biological conditions in the Big Black Creek basin, St. Clair County, Alabama, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Clark, Amy E.; Stricklin, Victor E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997 synoptic streamflow, water-quality, and biological investi- gations in the Big Black Creek Basin were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Moody, St. Clair County, and the Birmingham Water Works Board. Data obtained during these synoptic investigations provide a one-time look at the streamflow and water-quality conditions in the Big Black Creek Basin during a stable, base-flow period when streamflow originated only from ground-water discharge. These data were used to assess the degree of water-quality degradation in the Big Black Creek Basin from land-use activities in the basin, including leakage of leachate from the Acmar Regional Land- fill. Biological data from the benthic invertebrate community investigation provided an assessment of the cumulative effects of stream conditions on organisms in the basin. The synoptic measurement of streamflow at 28 sites was made during a period of baseflow on August 27, 1997. Two stream reaches above the landfill lost water to the ground-water system, but those below the landfill had significantly higher ground-water gains. If significant leakage of leachate from the landfill had occurred during the measurement period, the distribution of ground-water discharge suggests that leachate would travel relatively short distances before resurfacing as ground-water discharge to the stream. Benthic invertebrate communities were sampled at four sites in the Big Black Creek Basin during July 16-17, 1997. Based on Alabama Department of Environmental Management criteria and on comparison with a nearby unimparied reference site, the benthic invertebrate communities at the sites sampled were considered unimpaired or only slightly impaired during the sample period. This would imply that landfill and coal-mining activities did not have a detrimental effect on the benthic invertebrate communities at the time of the study. Synoptic water-column samples were collected at nine sites on Big Black Creek and

  2. The evolution of hydrological and water quality conditions on Techirghiol Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Carmen; Buta, Constantin; Tofan, Lucica

    2015-04-01

    Changes in climate and environment conditions alter the hydraulic and chemical properties of lakes. With a surface from 1300ha, the Techirghiol Lake, situated on the littoral of the Black Sea at 15km from Constanta town, is considered the greatest hypersaline lake of Romania very well known (from 1891) especially for the curative qualities of its water and mud. Physical and geographical conditions associated with an arid climate regime - where the annual precipitation is less than 400mm and the average temperatures exceed (lead evaporative potential to 700-1000mm), cause a strong concentration of mineral salts that give the lake an excessive salinity. In conditions of excessive salinity forms a therapeutic mud as a result of bacterial decomposition of aquatic organisms that have done there, especially crustaceans Arthemia and algae that live in water. This mud, highly hydrated, rich in minerals, has therapeutic properties, for this reason in Techirghiol has developed a strong health resort. Fresh water is a threat to the therapeutic lake properties. In hydrological year 1961-1962, the overland flow value to the lake was approximately 0.4 million m3, and from 1972-1973 the value reached 6 million cubic meters per year a great contribution was from the irrigation water. One of the consequences is the increasing of the lake level and the second is the decreasing of salinity. For this reason a hydraulic work system has been built to separate the saline water of the lake and the freshwater. The aim of this paper is to investigate the hydrologic and chemical responses of the Techirghiol Lake to the changes in climate and environment conditions.

  3. Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2014-12-15

    Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ∼24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared

  4. Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variation of Surface Water Quality in Streams Affected by Coalbed Methane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Liu, T.; Caffrey, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Water quality data have been collected from three representative stream reaches in a coalbed methane (CBM) development area for over five years to improve the understanding of salt loading in the system. These streams are located within Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek in south-central Wyoming. Significant development of CBM wells is ongoing in the study area. Three representative sampling stream reaches included the Duck Pond Draw and Cow Creek, which receive co-produced water, and; South Fork Creek, and upstream Cow Creek which do not receive co-produced water. Water samples were assayed for various parameters which included sodium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chlorine, nitrate, O-phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, bicarbonates, and other water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, and TDS. Based on these water quality parameters we have investigated various hydrochemical and geochemical processes responsible for the high variability in water quality in the region. However, effective interpretation of complex databases to understand aforementioned processes has been a challenging task due to the system's complexity. In this work we applied multivariate statistical techniques including cluster analysis (CA), principle component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) to analyze water quality data and identify similarities and differences among our locations. First, CA technique was applied to group the monitoring sites based on the multivariate similarities. Second, PCA technique was applied to identify the prevalent parameters responsible for the variation of water quality in each group. Third, the DA technique was used to identify the most important factors responsible for variation of water quality during low flow season and high flow season. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of factors or sources influencing the spatial and temporal variation of water quality. The ultimate goal of this whole research is to

  5. Appraisal of water-quality conditions, lower Black River, Windsor County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    Six hydroelectric power dams are planned along a 22-mile reach of the lower Black River in southeastern Windsor County, Vermont. Data were collected at 10 stations, during water years 1977-81, to appraise quality conditions before construction. Average specific conductance of Black River is 101 micromhos indicating low concentrations of dissolved solids. Concentrations of common constituents and minor elements were generally low and within safe levels for aquatic life. Near-saturated dissolved oxygen concentrations and relatively low mean total organic carbon concentrations indicate little oxygen-consuming substances in Black River. Mean total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.31 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to 0.61 mg/L. The highest concentrations were most likely due to secondary waste discharges entering the river. Nitrate was the primary form of inorganic nitrogen, mean concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 mg/L. Concentrations seem high enough to promote excessive algal growth in the proposed Hawks Mountain Reservoir. Mean concentrations of total phosphorus ranged from 0.014 to 0.112 mg/L as P. Maximum concentrations at all stations generally exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggested levels for water entering lakes and reservoirs. Mean orthophosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.029 mg/L, suggesting a potential for nuisance algal conditions to develop in the proposed reservoir. Mean algal growth potential concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 8.8 mg/L, falling within the moderately high to high productivity range. No pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. (USGS)

  6. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Geary County landfill, northeast Kansas, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, N.C.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water from monitoring wells upgradient and downgradient of the Geary County Landfill in Kansas near Junction City indicate the presence of several chemically distinct water types. For the dominant calcium bicarbonate water type, concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents indicate the presence of reducing conditions within the landfill and increased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, ammonia, iron, manganese, and other trace elements downgradient within a leachate plume that extends northeasterly away from the landfill. The orientation of the long axis of the leachate plume does not coincide with the August or September directions of groundwater flow, possibly due to the effect of abundant rainfall and high river stages at other times of the year or preferential flow in very transmissive zones, and thus may indicate the dominant direction of groundwater flow. None of the organic-constituent or inorganic-constituent concentrations exceeded secondary drinking-water standards. Concentrations of benzene, vinyl chloride, and 1,2-trans-dichloroethene exceeded Kansas notification levels. (USGS)

  7. Application of an environmental decision support system to a water quality trading program affected by surface water diversions.

    PubMed

    Obropta, Christopher C; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon's (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  8. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2016-03-08

    Groundwater levels and specific-conductance measurements showed the dependence of freshwater resources on rainfall to recharge the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer system and to influence groundwater flow on Jekyll Island. The unseasonably dry conditions during November 2012 to April 2013 induced saline water infiltration to the water-table zone from the marshland separating the Jekyll River from the island. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.97) of specific conductance to chloride concentration in water samples from wells installed in the water-table zone provided support for the determination of seasonal directions of groundwater flow by confirming salinity changes in the water-table zone. Unseasonably wet conditions during the late spring to August caused groundwater-flow reversals in some areas. The high dependence of the water-table zone in the surficial aquifer system on precipitation to replenish the aquifer with freshwater underscored the importance of monitoring groundwater levels, water quality, and water use to identify aquifer-discharge conditions that have the potential to promote seawater encroachment and degrade freshwater resources on Jekyll Island.

  9. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2015-12-24

    The characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment chemistry in Currituck Sound along the proposed alignment of the Mid-Currituck Bridge summarized herein provides a baseline for determining the effect of bridge construction and bridge deck runoff on environmental conditions in Currituck Sound.

  10. Water resources during drought conditions and postfire water quality in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2010-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherson, Lauren R.; Rice, Steven E.

    2015-07-16

    Changes in climate and increased groundwater and surface-water use are likely to affect the availability of water in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Increased drought probably will increase the potential for wildfires, which can affect downstream water quality and increase flood potential. Climate-research predicted decreases in winter precipitation may have an adverse effect on the amount of groundwater recharge that occurs in the upper Rio Hondo Basin, given the predominance of winter precipitation recharge as indicated by the stable isotope results. Decreases in surface-water supplies because of persistent drought conditions and reductions in the quality of water because of the effects of wildfire may lead to a larger reliance on groundwater reserves in the upper Rio Hondo Basin. Decreasing water levels because of increasing groundwater withdrawal could reduce base flows in the Rio Bonito and Rio Ruidoso. Well organized and scientifically supported regional water-resources management will be necessary for dealing with the likely scenario of increases in demand coupled with decreases in supply in the upper Rio Hondo Basin.

  11. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  12. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  13. WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS DURING LOW FLOW IN THE LOWER YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA, OCTOBER 5-7, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    James I. Sams, III, Karl T. Schroeder; Terry E. Ackman; J. Kent Crawford; Kim L. Otto

    2001-01-01

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snap-shot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites--12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River--were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four mine-discharge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are

  14. Water-quality conditions during low flow in the lower Youghiogheny River basin, Pennsylvania, October 5-7, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sams, J. I.; Schroeder, K.T.; Ackman, T.E.; Crawford, J.K.; Otto, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snapshot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites?12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River?were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four minedischarge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are

  15. Water quality in the St. Louis River Area of Concern, Lake Superior: Historical and current conditions and delisting implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in the lower St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) from two stations over a 60 year period (19532013) and system-wide (20122013) was examined to determine if the AOC beneficial use impairment of excessive loading of sediment and nutrients could be considered for rem...

  16. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  17. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  18. Water-quality conditions and relation to drainage-basin characteristics in the Scituate Reservoir Basin, Rhode Island, 1982-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Barlow, Lora K.; Dickerman, David C.

    2000-01-01

    , nitrate, and iron were largest in subbasins with predominately residential land use. Median instantaneous loads reflected drainage-basin size. However, loads normalized by drainage area (median instantaneous yields) also were largest in residential areas where point and non-point sources are likely, and in areas of poorly drained soils. Significant trends in water-quality constituents from 1982 to 1995 in the Scituate Reservoir Basin indicate that the quality of the water resources in the basin may be slowly changing. Scituate Reservoir subbasins with large amounts of residential land use showed increasing trends in alkalinity and chloride. In contrast, subbasins distributed throughout the drainage basin showed increasing trends in pH, color, nitrate, and iron concentrations, indicating that these characteristics and constituents may be affected more by atmospheric deposition. Although changing, water-quality constituent concentrations in the Scituate Reservoir Basin only occasionally exceeded Rhode Island and USEPA water-quality guidelines and standards. Result of correlation analysis between pH, color, turbidity, and concentrations total coliform bacteria, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese and land use, geology, wetlands, slope, soil drainability, and roads indicated that the percentage of wetlands, roads, and slope appear have the greatest effect on water-quality in the Scituate Reservoir Basin. The percentage of urban, residential, and commercial land use also are important, but to a lesser degree than wetlands, roads, and slope. Finally, geology appears to have the least effect on water quality compared to other drainage-basin characteristics investigated.

  19. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rubao; An, Daizhi; Lu, Wei; Shi, Yun; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Hongjuan; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  20. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, our Nation has sought to improve its water quality; however, many water-quality issues remain unresolved. To address the need for consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program is unique compared with other national water-quality assessment studies in that it integrates the monitoring of the quality of surface and ground waters with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units. These study units represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is one such study unit designed to supplement water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation while addressing issues relevant to the island of Oahu.

  1. Water-quality conditions of the lower Boise River, Ada and Canyon Counties, Idaho, May 1994 through February 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullins, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural land and water use, wastewater treatment facility discharges, land development, road construction, urban runoff, confined-animal feeding operations, reservoir operations, and river channelization affect the water quality and biotic integrity of the lower Boise River between Lucky Peak Dam and the river's mouth at Parma, Idaho. During May 1994 through February 1997, 4 sites on the Boise River, 12 tributary/drain sites, and 3 wastewater treatment facilities were sampled at various intervals during the irrigation (high-flow) and post-irrigation (low-flow) seasons to determine sources, concentrations, and relative loads of nutrients and suspended sediment. Discharge entering the Boise River from the 12 tributary/drain sites and 3 wastewater treatment facilities was measured to determine the nutrient loads being contributed from each source. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment concentrations and loads tended to increase in a downstream direction along the Boise River. Among the 15 sources of discharge to the Boise River, 3 southside tributary/drains and the West Boise wastewater treatment facility contributed the largest loads of total nitrogen; the median daily load was more than 2,000 pounds per day. The West Boise wastewater treatment facility contributed the largest median daily load of total phosphorus (810 pounds per day); Dixie Drain contributed the largest median daily load of suspended sediment (26.4 tons per day). Nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios at the four Boise River sites indicated that phosphorus could be limiting algal growth at the Diversion Dam site, whereas nitrogen could be limiting algal growth at the Glenwood and Middleton sites during some parts of the year. Algal growth in the Boise River near Parma did not appear to be nutrient limited. Because of the complexity of the plumbing system in the lower Boise River (numerous diversions and inflow points), accurate comparisons between discharge and nutrient loads entering

  2. Calibration of a Water-Quality Model for Low-Flow Conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2008-01-01

    A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent

  3. Water-Quality Conditions and Constituent Loads, Water Years 1996-2002, and Water-Quality Trends, Water Years 1983-2002, in the Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2008-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality data and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 2002, (water years (WY) 1996-2002) were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1, 1982 through September 30, 2002 (WY 1983-2002). Water samples were collected and analyzed by Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics were calculated for WY 1996-2002 for all 37 monitoring stations for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform and E. coli bacteria (indicator bacteria), chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese were calculated for all sampling dates during WY 1996-2002 for the 23 stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared to State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines, and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, and road density. Tributary stream water in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area for WY 1996-2002 was slightly acidic (median pH of all stations equal to 6.1) and contained low concentrations of chloride (median 13 milligrams per liter (mg/L)), nitrate (median 0.04 mg/L as N), and orthophosphate (median 0.04 mg/L as P). Turbidity and alkalinity values also were low with median values of 0

  4. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Horse Creek Basin, west-central Florida, October 1992-February 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    A baseline study of the 241-square-mile Horse Creek basin was undertaken from October 1992 to February 1995 to assess the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of one of the last remaining undeveloped basins in west-central Florida. During the period of the study, much of the basin remained in a natural state, except for limited areas of cattle and citrus production and phosphate mining. Rainfall in 1993 and 1994 in the Horse Creek basin was 8 and 31 percent, respectively, above the 30-year long-term average. The lowest and highest maximum instantaneous peak discharge of the six daily discharge stations occurred at the Buzzard Roost Branch and the Horse Creek near Arcadia stations with 185 to 4,180 cubic feet per second, respectively. The Horse Creek near Arcadia station had the lowest number of no-flow days with zero days and the Brushy Creek station had the highest number with 113 days. During the study, the West Fork Horse Creek subbasin had the highest daily mean discharge per square mile with 30.6 cubic feet per second per square mile, and the largest runoff coefficient of 43.7 percent. The Buzzard Roost Branch subbasin had the lowest daily mean discharge per square mile with 5.05 cubic feet per second per square mile, and Brushy Creek and Brandy Branch shared the lowest runoff coefficient of 0.6 percent. Brandy Branch had the highest monthly mean runoff in both 1993 and 1994 with 11.48 and 19.28 inches, respectively. During the high-baseflow seepage run, seepage gains were 8.87 cubic feet per second along the 43-mile Horse Creek channel. However, during the low-baseflow seepage run, seepage losses were 0.88 cubic foot per second. Three methods were used to estimate average annual ground-water recharge in the Horse Creek basin: (1) well hydrograph, (2) chloride mass balance, and (3) streamflow hydrograph. Estimated average annual recharge using these three methods ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 inches. The high percentage of carbonate plus bicarbonate analyzed at

  5. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    PubMed

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  6. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  7. Water-quality conditions and suspended-sediment transport in the Wilson and Trask Rivers, northwestern Oregon, water years 2012–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Bragg, Heather M.; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-07-28

    Results from this study will provide resource managers insight into the seasonality of water-quality conditions and the extent of suspended-sediment transport in the Wilson and Trask Rivers. The data are useful for establishing a baseline and for maintaining best-use land management practices and possibly for aiding in prioritization of restoration actions for both rivers and their respective watersheds. 

  8. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  9. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Domestic Wells in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southeastern United States, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, Marian P.; Crandall, Christy A.; Deacon, Michael; Embry, Teresa L.; Howard, Rhonda S.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is a highly productive carbonate aquifer that provides drinking water to about 10 million people in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. Approximately 1.6 million people rely on domestic wells (privately owned household wells) for drinking water. Withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer system have increased by more than 500 percent from 630 million gallons per day (2.38 cubic meters per day) in 1950 to 4,020 million gallons per day (15.2 cubic meters per day) in 2000, largely due to increases in population, tourism, and agriculture production. Water samples were collected from 148 domestic wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama during 1998-2005 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The wells were located in different hydrogeologic settings based on confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Five networks of wells were sampled con-sisting of 28 to 30 wells each: two networks were in unconfined areas, two networks were in semiconfined areas, and one network was in the confined area. Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, radon, and organic compounds (volatile organic compounds and pesticides) were measured in water samples. Concentrations were compared to water-quality benchmarks for human health, either U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for public water supplies or USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). The MCL for fluoride of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) was exceeded for two samples (about 1 percent of samples). A proposed MCL for radon of 300 picocuries per liter was exceeded in about 40 percent of samples. Nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer ranged from less than the laboratory reporting level of 0.06 to 8 mg/L, with a median nitrate concentration less than 0.06 mg/L (as nitrogen). Nitrate concentrations did not exceed the

  10. Assessment of water-quality conditions in the J.B. Converse Lake watershed, Mobile County, Alabama, 1990-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Gill, Amy C.

    2001-01-01

    J.B. Converse (Converse) Lake is a 3,600-acre, tributary-storage reservoir in Mobile County, southwestern Alabama. The lake serves as the primary drinking-water supply for the city of Mobile. The Converse Lake watershed lies within the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of sand, silt, gravel, and clay underlie the watershed, and are covered by acidic soils. Land use in the watershed is mainly forest (64 percent) and agriculture (31 percent). Residential and commercial development account for only 1 percent of the total land use in the watershed. Converse Lake receives inflow from seven major tributaries. The greatest inflows are from Big Creek, Crooked Creek, and Hamilton Creek that had mean annual streamflows of 72.2, 19.4, and 25.0 cubic feet per second, respectively, for the period 1990 to 1998, which represents about 72 percent of the total annual streamflow to the lake. The total mean annual inflow to the lake is estimated to be about 163 cubic feet per second. In general, water quality in Converse Lake and its tributaries meets the criteria established by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) for drinking-water supplies, whole-body contact, and aquatic life. The exceptions include acidic pH levels, iron and manganese levels above secondary or aesthetic criteria, and fecal bacterial levels in some tributaries above whole-body contact (swimmable) criteria. The pH levels throughout the watershed were commonly below the criteria level of 6.0, but this appears to have been a naturally occurring phenomenon caused by poorly buffered soil types, resistant sediments, and forested land use. Median iron and manganese levels were above aesthetic criteria levels of 300 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively, in some tributaries. All tributary sites in the Converse Lake watershed had median and minimum dissolved-oxygen concentrations above the ADEM criteria level of 5 milligrams per liter except for

  11. Traveltime, reaeration, and water-quality characteristics during low-flow conditions in Wilsons Creek and the James River near Springfield, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Before upgrading the Southwest Wastewater-Treatment Plant near Springfield, Missouri, to tertiary treatment, adverse water quality conditions resulting from discharge of wastewater effluent to Wilson Creek were documented in the creek and in the James River. About 7 years after the upgrading of the treatment plant, traveltime, reaeration, and water quality characteristics were determined in Wilsons Creek and the James River. Traveltime was measured once in Wilsons Creek and twice in the James River during low-flow conditions. Traveltimes in the James River were estimated for discharge between 55 and 200 cu ft/sec at a site near Boaz. Reaeration coefficients were calculated for five reaches in Wilsons Creek and the James River using the modified-tracer technique. Calculated reaeration coefficients were compared with coefficients predicted by twelve empirical equations and one equation was chosen that best fit the data. Water quality data were collected during two 44-hr periods, August 14 to 16, 1984, and July 23 to 25, 1985. Samples were collected at the outflow of the Southwest Wastewater Treatment Plant at seven sites along Wilsons Creek and the James River. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in Wilsons Creek and the James River were all larger than Missouri 's water quality standard of 5.0 mg/l. Ammonia concentrations and 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demands were small, which indicated that the oxygen consumption by oxidizing ammonia and carbonaceous organic materials would be insignificant. Measured streambed oxygen demand in the James River was largest directly downstream from Wilsons Creek. (USGS)

  12. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. PMID:28106779

  13. How Does Higher Frequency Monitoring Data Affect the Calibration of a Process-Based Water Quality Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson-Blake, L.

    2014-12-01

    Process-based catchment water quality models are increasingly used as tools to inform land management. However, for such models to be reliable they need to be well calibrated and shown to reproduce key catchment processes. Calibration can be challenging for process-based models, which tend to be complex and highly parameterised. Calibrating a large number of parameters generally requires a large amount of monitoring data, but even in well-studied catchments, streams are often only sampled at a fortnightly or monthly frequency. The primary aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the quality and uncertainty of model simulations produced by one process-based catchment model, INCA-P (the INtegrated CAtchment model of Phosphorus dynamics), were improved by calibration to higher frequency water chemistry data. Two model calibrations were carried out for a small rural Scottish catchment: one using 18 months of daily total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration data, another using a fortnightly dataset derived from the daily data. To aid comparability, calibrations were carried out automatically using the MCMC-DREAM algorithm. Using daily rather than fortnightly data resulted in improved simulation of the magnitude of peak TDP concentrations, in turn resulting in improved model performance statistics. Marginal posteriors were better constrained by the higher frequency data, resulting in a large reduction in parameter-related uncertainty in simulated TDP (the 95% credible interval decreased from 26 to 6 μg/l). The number of parameters that could be reliably auto-calibrated was lower for the fortnightly data, leading to the recommendation that parameters should not be varied spatially for models such as INCA-P unless there is solid evidence that this is appropriate, or there is a real need to do so for the model to fulfil its purpose. Secondary study aims were to highlight the subjective elements involved in auto-calibration and suggest practical improvements

  14. Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  15. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  16. Water-quality, biological, and physical-habitat conditions at fixed sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, National Water-Quality Assessment Study Unit, October 1998-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program comprises 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Data were collected at eight fixed sites to provide baseline information in areas where no development has taken place, urbanization or logging have occurred, or the effects of recreation are increasing. Collection of water-quality, biology, and physical-habitat data began in October 1998 and ended in September 2001 (water years 1999-2001). The climate for the water years in the study may be categorized as slightly cool-wet (1999), slightly warm-wet (2000), and significantly warm-dry (2001). Total precipitation was near normal during the study period, and air temperatures ranged from modestly cool in water year 1999 to near normal in 2000, and to notably warm in 2001. Snowmelt runoff dominates the hydrology of streams in the Cook Inlet Basin. Average annual flows at the fixed sites were approximately the same as the long-term average annual flows, with the exception of those in glacier-fed basins, which had above-average flow in water year 2001. Water temperature of all streams studied in the Cook Inlet Basin remained at 0 oC for about 6 months per year, and average annual water temperatures ranged from 3.3 to 6.2 degrees Celsius. Of the water-quality constituents sampled, all concentrations were less than drinking-water standards and only one constituent, the pesticide carbaryl, exceeded aquatic-life standards. Most of the stream waters of the Cook Inlet Basin were classified as calcium bicarbonate, which reflects the underlying geology. Streams in the Cook Inlet Basin draining areas with glaciers, rough mountainous terrain, and poorly developed soils have low concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon compared with concentrations of these same constituents in streams in lowland or urbanized areas. In streams draining relatively low-lying areas, most of the suspended sediment

  17. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  18. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  19. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  20. Psychological factors affecting oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Rossi, Elena; Sabato, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The area of psychological factors affecting cancer has been the object of research starting from the early 1950s and consolidating from the 1970s with the development of psychooncology. A series of problems in the DSM and ICD nosological systems, such as the difficult application of the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses (i.e. major depression, adjustment disorders) and the scarce space dedicated to the rubric of psychosocial implications of medical illness (i.e. Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition under 'Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention' in the DSM-IV) represent a major challenge in psycho-oncology. The application of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) has been shown to be useful in a more precise identification of several psychological domains in patients with cancer. The DCPR dimensions of health anxiety, demoralization and alexithymia have been shown to be quite frequent in cancer patient (37.7, 28.8 and 26%, respectively). The overlap between a formal DSM-IV diagnosis and the DCPR is low, with 58% of patients being categorized as non-cases on the DSM-IV having at least one DCPR syndrome. The specific quality of the DCPR in characterizing psychosocial aspects secondary to cancer is also confirmed by the fact that some dimensions of coping (e.g. Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer subscale hopelessness) correlate with the DCPR dimension of demoralization, while a quantitative approach on symptom assessment (e.g. stress symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory) is not useful in discriminating the patients with and without DCPR syndromes. More research is needed in order to understand the relationship between DCPR constructs (e.g. alexithymia) and psychosocial factors which have been shown to be significant in oncology (e.g. emotional repression and avoidance). The role of specific DCPR constructs in influencing the course of illness is also an area that should be investigated.

  1. Reconnaissance Assessment of the Potential for Roadside Dry Wells to Affect Water Quality on the Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Senter, Craig A.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    The County of Hawai'i Department of Public Works (DPW) uses dry wells to dispose of stormwater runoff from roads. Recently, concern has been raised that water entering the dry wells may transport contaminants to groundwater and affect the quality of receiving waters. The DPW operates 2,052 dry wells. Compiling an inventory of these dry wells and sorting it on the basis of presence or absence of urbanization in the drainage area, distance between the bottom of the dry well and the water table, and proximity to receiving waters helps identify the dry wells having greatest potential to affect the quality of receiving waters so that future studies or mitigation efforts can focus on a smaller number of dry wells. The drainage areas of some DPW dry wells encompass urbanized areas, which could be a source of contaminants. Some dry wells penetrate close to or through the water table, eliminating or substantially reducing opportunities for contaminant attenuation between the ground surface and water table. Dry wells that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, penetrate to near the water table, and are near the coast have the highest potential to affect the quality of coastal waters (this study did not consider specific sections of coastline that may be of greater concern than others). Some DPW dry wells, including a few that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, lie within the areas contributing recharge (ACR) to drinking-water wells. Numerical groundwater modeling studies by previous investigators indicate that water infiltrating those dry wells could eventually be pumped at drinking-water wells. Dry wells that have a high potential for affecting coastal receiving waters or drinking-water wells can be the focus of studies to further understand the effect of the dry wells on the quality of receiving waters. Possible study approaches include sampling for contaminants at the dry well and receiving water, injecting and monitoring the movement of tracers

  2. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer.

  3. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  4. Water quality and daily temperature cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the temperature conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a temperature controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in daily temperature cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.

  5. Methods to Identify Changes in Background Water-Quality Conditions Using Dissolved-Solids Concentrations and Loads as Indicators, Arkansas River and Fountain Creek, in the Vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2004-01-01

    Effective management of existing water-storage capacity in the Arkansas River Basin is anticipated to help satisfy the need for water in southeastern Colorado. A strategy to meet these needs has been developed, but implementation could affect the water quality of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek in the vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado. Because no known methods are available to determine what effects future changes in operations will have on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Activity Enterprise, began a study in 2002 to develop methods that could identify if future water-quality conditions have changed significantly from background (preexisting) water-quality conditions. A method was developed to identify when significant departures from background (preexisting) water-quality conditions occur in the lower Arkansas River and Fountain Creek in the vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado. Additionally, the methods described in this report provide information that can be used by various water-resource agencies for an internet-based decision-support tool. Estimated dissolved-solids concentrations at five sites in the study area were evaluated to designate historical background conditions and to calculate tolerance limits used to identify statistical departures from background conditions. This method provided a tool that could be applied with defined statistical probabilities associated with specific tolerance limits. Drought data from 2002 were used to test the method. Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the tolerance limits at all four sites on the Arkansas River at some point during 2002. The number of exceedances was particularly evident when streamflow from Pueblo Reservoir was reduced, and return flows and ground-water influences to the river were more prevalent. No exceedances were observed at the site on Fountain Creek. These comparisons illustrated the need to adjust the concentration data to account for

  6. Seasonal water quality variations in a river affected by acid mine drainage: the Odiel River (South West Spain).

    PubMed

    Olías, M; Nieto, J M; Sarmiento, A M; Cerón, J C; Cánovas, C R

    2004-10-15

    This paper intends to analyse seasonal variations of the quality of the water of the Odiel River. This river, together with the Tinto River, drains the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a region containing an abundance of massive sulphide deposits. Because of mining activity dating back to prehistoric times, these two rivers are heavily contaminated. The Odiel and Tinto Rivers drain into a shared estuary known as the Ría of Huelva. This work studies dissolved contaminant data in water of the Odiel River collected by various organisations, between October 1980 and October 2002, close to the rivers entry into the estuary. Flow data for this location were also obtained. The most abundant metals in the water, in order of abundance, are zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are also present but in much lower quantities. The quality of the river water is linked to precipitation; the maximum sulphate, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations occur during the autumn rains, which dissolve the Fe hydroxysulphates that were precipitated during the summer months. In winter, the intense rains cause an increase in the river flow, producing a dilution of the contaminants and a slight increase in the pH. During spring and summer, the sulphate and metal concentration (except Fe) recover and once again increase. The Fe concentration pattern displays a low value during summer due to increased precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides. The arsenic concentration displays a different evolution, with maximum values in winter, and minimum in spring and summer as they are strongly adsorbed and/or coprecipitated by the ferric oxyhydroxides. Mn and sulphates are the most conservative species in the water. Relative to sulphate, Mn, Zn and Cd, copper displays greater values in winter and lower ones in summer, probably due to its coprecipitation with hydroxysulphates during the spring and summer months. Cd and Zn also appear to be affected by the same

  7. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and

  8. Analysis of water quality in the Blue River watershed, Colorado, 1984 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Miller, Lisa D.; Yacob, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of streams, reservoirs, and groundwater in the Blue River watershed in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado has been affected by local geologic conditions, historical hard-rock metal mining, and recent urban development. With these considerations, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Summit Water Quality Committee, conducted a study to compile historical water-quality data and assess water-quality conditions in the watershed. To assess water-quality conditions, stream data were primarily analyzed from October 1995 through December 2006, groundwater data from May 1996 through September 2004, and reservoir data from May 1984 through November 2007. Stream data for the Snake River, upper Blue River, and Tenmile Creek subwatersheds upstream from Dillon Reservoir and the lower Blue River watershed downstream from Dillon Reservoir were analyzed separately. (The complete abstract is provided in the report)

  9. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Kansas River, northeast Kansas, November 2001-August 2002, and simulation of ammonia assimilative capacity and bacteria transport during low flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Christensen, Victoria G.

    2005-01-01

    Four hypothetical simulations of varied effluent discharges from existing WWTFs and addition of a proposed WWTF near DeSoto were simulated to better understand future water-quality conditions in the Kansas River. Results indicated that ammonia and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Kansas River will decrease from the conditions observed during synoptic surveys II (February 25 through March 1, 2002) and III (July 22 through August 8, 2002) except near the proposed WWTF where concentrations of ammonia would be near or exceed criteria for waterborne species. Effects of the proposed WWTF on dissolved oxygen would result in concentrations less than the State of Kansas aquatic-life-support use criteria of 5.0 milligrams per liter for 1 to 2 miles downstream from either of the proposed sites. 

  10. Water-quality conditions and streamflow gain and loss of the South Prong of Spavinaw Creek basin, Benton County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Robert L.; Green, W. Reed

    1994-01-01

    A study of the South Prong of Spavinaw Creek Basin conducted baween July 14 and July 23. 1993. described the surface- and ground-water quality of the basin and the streamflow gain and loss. Water samples were collected from 10 sites on the mainstem of the South Prong of Spavinaw Creek and from 4 sites on tributaries during periods of low to moderate streamflow (less than 11 cubic feet per second). Water samples were collected from 4 wells and 10 springs located in the basin. In 14 surface-water samples, nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.75 to 4.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen (mg/L). Orthophosphorus concentrations ranged from 0 03 to O. 15 mg/L as phosphorus. Fecal coliform bacteria counts ranged from 61 to 1,400 colonies per 100 milliliters (col/lOO mL), with a median of 120 col/100 mL. Fecal streptococci bacteria counts ranged from 70 to greater than 2,000 col/100 mL with a median of 185 col/lOO mL. Analysis for selected metals collected at one surface-water sites indicates that concentrations were usually below the reporting limit. Diel dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperatures were measured at an upstream and downstream site on the mainstem of the stream. At the upstream site, dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 7.2 to 83 mg/L and temperatures ranged from 15.5 to 17.0 C. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were higher and temperature values were lower at lhe upstream site, which is located close to two springs that produce all of the flow at that site. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate was present in all four wells sampled in the basin with concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 3.5 mg/L as nitrogen. Orthophosphorus was present in concentrations ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus. Volatile organic compound analyses in two wells indicate that toluene was present in both wells and chloroform was present in one well. All other volatile organic compounds were found to be below the reporting limits. Analysis for common

  11. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  12. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  13. Water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Eastern Arkansas, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    During the spring of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, measured 670 water levels in 659 wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas. Groundwater levels are affected by groundwater withdrawals resulting in potentiometric-surface depressions. In 2008, the lowest water-level altitude was 69 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in the center of Arkansas County. The highest water-level altitude was 288 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in northeastern Clay County on the west side of Crowleys Ridge. Two large depressions in the potentiometric surface are located in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties and west of Crowleys Ridge in Craighead, Cross, Lee, Monroe, Poinsett, St. Francis, and Woodruff Counties. The elongated depression in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties has two areas that have changed in horizontal area or depth when compared to previous conditions of the aquifer. The area in Arkansas County in the southeastern half of the depression has not expanded horizontally from recent years, although the center of the depression has deepened. The area in Lonoke and Prairie Counties in the northwestern half of the depression has not expanded and water level in the deeper part of the depression has risen. In Lonoke and Prairie Counties in the northwestern half of the depression, the 90-foot contour shown on the 2006 potentiometric-surface map is not shown on the 2008 potentiometric-surface map. Along the west side of Crowleys Ridge, the area enclosed by 140-foot contour in Cross and Poinsett Counties has expanded further south into Cross County. The 130-foot contour in Poinsett County expanded north in 2008. The 130-foot contour is shown in Cross County, which was not evident in previous years. The 130-foot contour in St. Francis, Monroe, and Woodruff Counties in 2006 is not shown on the 2008

  14. Using δ2H and δ18O in assessing water quality condition of the nation’s water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act mandates reporting on the condition of the nation’s waters. The Environmental Protection Agency implemented National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) to address this mandate, including the National Lakes Assessment conducted in 2007. This study focuses on whe...

  15. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  16. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  17. Mountain Island Lake, North Carolina; analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Sarver, Kathleen M.; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Mountain Island Lake is an impoundment of the Catawba River in North Carolina and supplies drinking water to more than 600,000 people in Charlotte, Gastonia, Mount Holly, and several other communities. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Utilities, conducted an investigation of the reservoir to characterize hydrologic and water-quality conditions and to develop and apply a simulation model to predict the response of the reservoir to changes in constituent loadings or the flow regime. During 1996-97, flows into Mountain Island Lake were dominated by releases from Cowans Ford Dam on Lake Norman, with more than 85 percent of the total inflow to the reservoir coming from Lake Norman. Riverbend Steam Station discharges accounted for about 12 percent of the inflows to the reservoir, and inflows from tributary streams contributed less than 1.5 percent of the total inflows. Releases through Mountain Island Dam accounted for about 81 percent of outflows from the reservoir, while Riverbend Steam Station withdrawals, which were equal to discharge from the facility, constituted about 13 percent of the reservoir withdrawals. About 5.5 percent of the withdrawals from the reservoir were for water supply. Strong thermal stratification was seldom observed in Mountain Island Lake during April 1996-September 1997. As a result, dissolved-oxygen concentrations were only infrequently less than 4 milligrams per liter, and seldom less than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the entire reservoir, including the coves. The Riverbend Steam Station thermal discharge had a pronounced effect on surface-water temperatures near the outfall. McDowell Creek, which drains to McDowell Creek cove, receives treated wastewater from a large municipal facility and has exhibited signs of poor water-quality conditions in the past. During April 1996-September 1997, concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a were higher in McDowell Creek cove

  18. Rhodhiss Lake, North Carolina; analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgino, M.J.; Bales, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    From January 1993 through March 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation of Rhodhiss Lake in cooperation with the Western Piedmont Council of Governments. Objectives of the investigation were to describe ambient hydrologic and water-quality conditions, to estimate loadings of nutrients and suspended solids from selected tributaries and point sources, and to simulate hydraulic circulation and water-quality characteristics in Rhodhiss Lake using a hydrodynamic computer model. The riverine headwaters of Rhodhiss Lake were unstratified, well oxygenated, and contained relatively high concentrations of suspended solids and nutrients throughout the study period. In general, concentrations of suspended solids, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus decreased in a downstream direction from the headwaters to the Rhodhiss Dam. However, increases in specific conductance frequently were observed downstream from a wastewater discharge near mid-reservoir. From mid-reservoir to the dam, Rhodhiss Lake thermally stratified during the summer of 1993. In this reach, dissolved oxygen was rapidly depleted from the bottom waters beginning in May 1993, and anoxic conditions persisted in the hypolimnion through the summer. During summer stratification, concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, and orthophosphate were low in the epilimnion, but concentrations of ammonia, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus increased in the hypolimnion. During fall and winter, Rhodhiss Lake was characterized by alternating periods of stratification and mixing. A maximum chlorophyll-a concentration of 52 micrograms per liter was observed at mid-reservoir on November 17, 1993, and was the only value that exceeded the North Carolina water-quality standard of 40 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters in the headwaters of Rhodhiss Lake 37 percent of the time, and at mid-reservoir and in the forebay 16 percent of

  19. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  20. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  1. Spectral reflectance characteristics and automated data reduction techniques which identify wetland and water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1970-01-01

    Progress on research designed to test the usability of multispectral, high altitude, remotely sensed data to analyze ecological and hydrological conditions in estuarine environments is presented. Emphasis was placed on data acquired by NASA aircraft over the Patuxent River Chesapeake Bay Test Site, No. 168. Missions were conducted over the Chesapeake Bay at a high altitude flight of 18,460 m and a low altitude flight of 3070. The principle objectives of the missions were: (1) to determine feasibility of identifying source and extent of water pollution problems in Baltimore Harbor, Chesapeake Bay and major tributaries utilizing high altitude, ERTS analogous remote sensing data; (2) to determine the feasibility of mapping species composition and general ecological condition of Chesapeake Bay wetlands, utilizing high altitude, ERTS analogous data; (3) to correlate ground spectral reflectance characteristics of wetland plant species with tonal characteristics on multispectral photography; (4) to determine usefulness of high altitude thermal imagery in delinating isotherms and current patterns in the Chesapeake Bay; and (5) to investigate automated data interpretive techniques which may be usable on high altitude, ERTS analogous data.

  2. Analysis of the Impact of Subsurface Contaminant Plumes on Stream Water Quality Under Natural and Managed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, J. P.; Sudicky, E. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM) is a fully-integrated 3D control-volume finite element model which can simulate water flow and solute transport on the two-dimensional land surface and in the three-dimensional dual-continua subsurface under variably-saturated conditions. Full coupling of the surface and subsurface flow regimes is accomplished by simultaneously solving one system of nonlinear discrete equations for overland flow rates and water depths, stream flow rates, subsurface pressure heads, saturations and velocities, as well as water fluxes between continua. The numerical solution of the coupled advection-dispersion equations describing solute transport in the surface and subsurface flow domains is achieved in an analogous manner. High-resolution 3D numerical experiments performed with the model evaluate the downstream surface-water and stream-bottom sediment quality arising from a subsurface solute plume discharging into a stream under natural conditions. These simulations are compared with cases where the plume is intercepted by pumping wells near point of discharge. Comparisons are made for low (baseflow) and high (precipitation-event driven) stream flow rates for each case. A sensitivity analysis involving different surface-subsurface and transport parameters and plume capture scenarios will also be presented.

  3. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  4. Factors affecting water quality and net flux of solutes in two stream basins in the Quabbin Reservoir drainage basin, central Massachusetts,1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rittmaster, R.L.; Shanley, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The factors that affect stream-water quality were studied at West Branch Swift River (Swift River), and East Branch Fever Brook (Fever Brook), two forested watersheds that drain into the Quabbin Reservoir, central Massachusetts, from December 1983 through August 1985. Spatial and temporal variations of chemistry of precipitation, surface water; and ground water and the linkages between chemical changes and hydrologic processes were used to identify the mechanisms that control stream chemistry. Precipitation chemistry was dominated by hydrogen ion (composite p.H 4.23), sulfate, and nitrate. Inputs of hydrogen and nitrate from pre- cipitation were almost entirely retained in the basins, whereas input of sulfate was approximately balanced by export by streamflow draining the basins. Both streams were poorly buffered, with mean pH near 5.7, mean alkalinity less than 30 microequivalents per liter, and sulfate concen- trations greater than 130 microequivalents per liter. Sodium and chloride, derived primarily from highway deicing salts, were the dominant solutes at Fever Brook. After adjustments for deicing salts, fluxes of base cations during the 21-month study were 2,014 and 1,429 equivalents per hectare in Swift River and Fever Brook, respectively. Base cation fluxes were controlled primarily by weathering of hornblende (Fever Brook) and plagioclase (Swift River). The overall weathering rate was greater in the Swift River Basin because easily weathered gabbro underlies one subbasin which comprises 11.2 percent of the total basin area but contributed about 77 percent of the total alkalinity. Alkalinity export was nearly equal in the two basins, however, because some alkalinity was generated in wetlands in the Fever Brook Basin through bacterial sulfate reduction coupled with organic-carbon oxidation.

  5. Temperature and water-quality conditions of the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland, January 1966 through December 1967

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cory, Robert L.; Nauman, Jon W.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of power plant cooling water in raising natural water temperatures at a location near the power plant on the Patuxent River estuary is clearly evident from thermograph records. Surface temperature at a station 333 m (1,000 ft) downstream from the discharge canal was raised an average of about 4 C, and at times by as much as 8 C. Temperature rises were greatest during the winter. Infrared imagery showed that elevated surface temperatures could be detected about 5.5 km (3 nautical miles) upstream at flood tide. Temperature profiles obtained from airborne radiation equipment revealed a complicated surface temperature pattern and also showed the effects of density differences and wind action on the steam-electric station (S.E.S.) effluent plume. Mean annual salinity for a 5-year period (1963–1967) was highest in 1966, about 12.3 ‰, and lowest in 1967, about 9.9‰. Dissolved oxygen values for 1966–1967 ranged from 3.2 to 15.6 mg/l, and saturation ranged from 55 to 152%. Turbidity levels were inversely related to salinity, with the highest annual, mean of 28 JCU (Jackson Candle Units) occurring in 1967, the lowest salinity year. The extreme tide range was 2.1 m (6.7 ft); mean water levels at the Patuxent Bridge were highest in summer and lowest in winter. Water stages are more affected by wind speed and direction than by flow in the river.

  6. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Linn County landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Falwell, R.; Bigsby, P.R.; Myers, N.C. )

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the hydrogeology and groundwater quality conditions near the Linn County Landfill, eastern Kansas was conducted from July 1988 through June 1989. The landfill is located in an unreclaimed coal strip-mine area near Prescott. Analysis of water levels from nine temporary wells and from strip-mine ponds indicated that groundwater flows southwest through the present landfill. A county road west of the landfill acts as a barrier to shallow westerly groundwater flow. Seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow may occur. Water samples from monitoring wells and a strip-mine pond were analyzed for inorganic and organic compounds. Iron, manganese, and dissolved-organic-carbon concentrations were good indicators of the presence of landfill leachate in the groundwater. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were also detected. None of the inorganic or organic compounds detected exceeded Kansas primary drinking-water standards. Chemical concentrations and water levels in some nested wells indicate there is a hydraulic connection between the strip-mine spoil material and the underlying limestone. Leachate-contaminated groundwater has the potential to migrate southwest corner of the landfill through either strip-mine spoil material or through the underlying Pawnee Limestone.

  8. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  9. Tsukamoto fuzzy implementation to identify the pond water quality of koi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qur’ania, A.; Verananda, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The colour quality of koi was affected by the water quality in the pond. Koi fish have a diversity of types differentiated based on the body colour groups, such as one colour pattern, two colour patterns, three colours patterns and even more. Each colour characteristic of the koi have different handling, particularly in the handling of water quality, this is because the colour pigments in the body was affected by the composition of water quality include temperature, pH, TDS, do and salinity. The data of koi fish used were sanke, sowa, kohaku, shiro, yamabuki, ogon and chagoi. The aim of this study is to make an application to inform the condition of the pool water quality that can help breeders to know the water quality that will improve the handling strategies through water media. Tsukamoto Fuzzy method used to produce the three outputs namely water quality, water grade, and water conditions. The output of water quality consists of four categories, namely optimal, moderate, poor, and very poor. The output of water grade consists of grade A to D, while the output of water conditions consist of an excellent, good, bad, and very bad. Input to the application consists of five parameters, namely water temperature, pH, TDS, do and salinity.

  10. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  11. Optical sensors for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in commercially available in situ sensors, data platforms, and new techniques for data analysis provide an opportunity to monitor water quality in rivers, lakes, and estuaries on the time scales in which changes occur. For example, measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances (such as fire and insect outbreaks) affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Transmitting these data in real-time also provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and provide sciencebased decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.

  12. Lake Hickory, North Carolina; analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, J.D.; Giorgino, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    From January 1993 through March 1994, circulation patterns and water- quality characteristics in Lake Hickory varied seasonally and were strongly influenced by inflows from Rhodhiss Dam. The upper, riverine portion of Lake Hickory was unstratified during much of the study period. Downstream from the headwaters to Oxford Dam, Lake Hickory thermally stratified during the summer of 1993. During stratification, releases from Rhodhiss Dam plunged beneath the warmer surface waters of Lake Hickory and moved through the reservoir as interflow. During fall and winter, Lake Hickory was characterized by alternating periods of mixing and weak stratification. Water-quality conditions in the headwaters of Lake Hickory were largely driven by conditions in water being released from Rhodhiss Dam. In general, water clarity increased, and concentrations of suspended solids, phosphorus, and summertime chlorophyll a decreased in a downstream direction from the headwaters of Lake Hickory to Oxford Dam. Two chlorophyll a samples from the upper portion of Lake Hickory exceeded the North Carolina water-quality standard of 40 micrograms per liter during the investigation. Downstream from the headwaters, dissolved oxygen was rapidly depleted from Lake Hickory bottom waters beginning in May 1993, and anoxic conditions persisted in the hypolimnion throughout the summer. During summer stratification, concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, and orthophosphate were low in the epilimnion, but concentrations of ammonia near the bottom of the reservoir increased as the hypolimnion became anoxic. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters in only one of 60 samples collected from Lake Hickory. In contrast, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters in 40 percent of samples collected from the Upper Little River, and in 60 percent of samples collected from the Middle Little River, two tributaries to Lake Hickory

  13. Retrospective evaluation of shoreline water quality along Santa Monica Bay beaches.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth C; Morton, Jessica; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2003-01-01

    Santa Monica Bay (SMB) beaches are the most heavily used in the U.S.A., despite an increased number of water quality postings over the last several years. To assess whether water quality problems are concentrated at a small number of chronically affected sites or whether the problems are widely distributed, we compiled 5 years of monitoring data collected at 59 sites, 22 of which are sampled daily. Other locally available rainfall and sewage spill monitoring information data were added to this data set to assess whether sewage spills, dry-weather runoff, or wet-weather runoff contribute the most to exceedences of water quality thresholds. Approximately 13% of the shoreline mile-days along monitored beaches in SMB exceeded the State of California's beach water quality standards during the 5-year study period. Most of the water quality exceedences occurred near urban runoff drains even though areas affected by drains represent only a small portion of the total shoreline. Although storms are relatively infrequent in southern California, the extent of water quality exceedences resulting from storm water runoff was similar to the extent of water quality exceedences found during dry weather. Sewage spills, while potentially more serious because they lead to beach closures rather than to the more limited posting of warning signs, represented less than 0.1% of the shoreline mile-days that exceeded water quality thresholds. During dry weather conditions, most of the water quality problems occurred near five of the largest drains and at two beach areas that have unique physical characteristics, which limited mixing, dispersion, and dilution. During wet weather conditions, water quality problems were more widespread.

  14. Assessment of Water-Quality Conditions in Fivemile Creek in the Vicinity of the Fivemile Creek Greenway, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Amy C.; Robinson, John A.; Redmond, Jymalyn E.; Bradley, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The watershed of Fivemile Creek (FMC), a tributary to the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River, is located north of Birmingham, Alabama. Areas that have been previously coal-mined border the creek, and portions of the upper watershed have been and are currently (2007) being used for industrial and urban uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Tarrant, the Freshwater Land Trust, and the Jefferson County Commission, conducted a water-quality assessment of 12 sites along FMC during 2003?2005. Water samples were analyzed for basic physical and chemical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, fecal indicator bacteria, organic wastewater compounds, pesticides, trace elements, and semivolatile organic compounds. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Benthic invertebrate communities were evaluated for taxonomic composition and relation to water-quality conditions. Nutrient concentrations in the FMC watershed reflect the influences of natural and anthropogenic sources. Concentrations of total nitrogen in all samples and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in at least one sample each collected from FMC at Hewitt Park, FMC below Springdale Road, FMC at Lewisburg, FMC near Republic, FMC at Brookside, and FMC at Linn Crossing exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecoregion nutrient criteria. Total phosphorus concentrations in about 58 percent of all samples were above the ecoregion nutrient criteria. Concentrations of chlorophyll a, an indicator of algal biomass, in the FMC watershed were below the appropriate USEPA ecoregion criteria. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations occasionally exceeded criteria established by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) and the USEPA to protect human health and aquatic life. Median fecal-coliform concentrations equaled or exceeded USEPA criteria at four of the six sites with multiple samples

  15. Evaluating and Predicting the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure on a Small Watershed Scale - Emphasis on Water Quality, Flow, Thermal Regime, Substrate Integrity, and Biological Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of the effectiveness of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have focused on measurement of load or concentration reductions, which can be translated to predict biological impacts based on chemical water quality criteria. However, many of the impacts of develo...

  16. Water quality, streamflow conditions, and annual flow-duration curves for streams of the San Juan–Chama Project, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, 1935-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Hafich, Katya A.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque–Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority supplements the municipal water supply for the Albuquerque metropolitan area, in central New Mexico, with water diverted from the Rio Grande. Water diverted from the Rio Grande for municipal use is derived from the San Juan–Chama Project, which delivers water from streams in the southern San Juan Mountains in the Colorado River Basin in southern Colorado to the Rio Chama watershed and the Rio Grande Basin in northern New Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Albuquerque–Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, has compiled historical streamflow and water-quality data and collected new water-quality data to characterize the water quality and streamflow conditions and annual flow variability, as characterized by annual flow-duration curves, of streams of the San Juan–Chama Project. Nonparametric statistical methods were applied to calculate annual and monthly summary statistics of streamflow, trends in streamflow conditions were evaluated with the Mann–Kendall trend test, and annual variation in streamflow conditions was evaluated with annual flow-duration curves. The study area is located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado and includes the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, and Navajo River, tributaries of the San Juan River in the Colorado River Basin located in the southern San Juan Mountains, and Willow Creek and Horse Lake Creek, tributaries of the Rio Chama in the Rio Grande Basin. The quality of water in the streams in the study area generally varied by watershed on the basis of the underlying geology and the volume and source of the streamflow. Water from the Rio Blanco and Little Navajo River watersheds, primarily underlain by volcanic deposits, volcaniclastic sediments and landslide deposits derived from these materials, was compositionally similar and had low specific-conductance values relative to the other streams in the study area. Water from the Navajo River

  17. Surface-water-quality conditions and relation to taste-and-odor occurrences in the Lake Olathe Watershed, Northeast Kansas, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Porter, Stephen D.; Pope, Larry M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water in the Lake Olathe watershed, located in northeast Kansas, was sampled from June 2000 through December 2002 to characterize water-quality conditions in relation to physical properties, major ions, sediment, nutrients, selected trace elements, selected pesticides, fecal indicator bacteria, phytoplankton, and taste-and-odor compounds. In addition, two continuous real-time water-quality monitors were operated?one in Cedar Creek at Highway 56, the main tributary to Lake Olathe, and one in Lake Olathe, a supplemental domestic water supply and recreational resource for the city of Olathe. Median concentrations of dissolved and total forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in samples from Cedar Creek were larger than in samples from Lake Olathe, indicating that nutrients in the watershed were transported to Lake Olathe by Cedar Creek from June 2000 through December 2002. Increased concentrations of total phosphorus in samples from the hypolimnion of Lake Olathe compared to the epilimnion indicated that release of total phosphorus from bottom sediments occurred in the lake. Of the 50 pesticides analyzed in water samples from Cedar Creek and Lake Olathe, 10 pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than 0.01 microgram per liter in samples from Cedar Creek, and 9 pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than 0.01 microgram per liter in Lake Olathe, including four herbicides with concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter. Atrazine was detected at larger concentrations than any other pesticide in samples from both Cedar Creek and Lake Olathe during 2001 and 2002. Concentrations did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water annual average criterion of 3.0 micrograms per liter; however, concentrations in single samples were larger than 3.0 micrograms per liter. Regression analysis was used to assist in the estimation of sediment and chemical loads and yields. The estimated mean orthophosphate load for 2001 and 2002

  18. National Water Quality Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the basis for advancing the goal of producing tools in support of quantifying and valuing changes in water quality for EPA regulations. It will also identify specific data and modeling gaps and Improve benefits estimation for more complete benefit-cost a...

  19. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified.

  20. Water quality in Illinois, 1990-1991. Biennial report

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, C.

    1993-01-01

    The report is a summary of the 305(b) Illinois Water Quality Report. It highlights the 1990 - 1991 water quality conditions of Illinois rivers, streams, inland lakes, Lake Michigan, and groundwater. The report also outlines current water quality issues and the IEPA's water pollution control programs.

  1. Recent (2008-10) water quality in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and its contributing zone, central Texas, with emphasis on factors affecting nutrients and bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Sample, Thomas L.; Wong, Corinne I.

    2011-01-01

    The Barton Springs zone, which comprises the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and the watersheds to the west that contribute to its recharge, is in south-central Texas, an area with rapid growth in population and increasing amounts of land area affected by development. During November 2008-March 2010, an investigation of factors affecting the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The primary objectives of the study were to characterize occurrence of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone under a range of flow conditions; to improve understanding of the interaction between surface-water quality and groundwater quality; and to evaluate how factors such as streamflow variability and dilution affect the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria in the Barton Springs zone. The USGS collected and analyzed water samples from five streams (Barton, Williamson, Slaughter, Bear, and Onion Creeks), two groundwater wells (Marbridge and Buda), and the main orifice of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas. During the period of the study, during which the hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought to wetter than normal, water samples were collected routinely (every 3 to 4 weeks) from the streams, wells, and spring and, in response to storms, from the streams and spring. All samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, the bacterium Escherichia coli, and suspended sediment. During the dry period, the geochemistry of groundwater at the two wells and at Barton Springs was dominated by flow from the aquifer matrix and was relatively similar and unchanging at the three sites. At the onset of the wet period, when the streams began to flow, the geochemistry of groundwater samples from the Marbridge well and Barton Springs changed rapidly, and concentrations of most major ions and nutrients and

  2. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  3. Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solberg, P.A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  4. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  5. The Upper Colorado River; National Water-Quality Assessment Program; surface-water-monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began full implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program in 1991. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams, rivers, and aquifers; (2) describe how water quality is changing over time; and (3) improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions (Leahy and others, 1990). To meet these goals, 60 study units representing the Nation's most important river basins and aquifers are being investigated. The program design balances the unique assessment requirements of individual study units with a nationally consistent design structure that incorporates a multiscale, interdisciplinary approach for assessment of surface and ground water.

  6. Preimpoundment hydrologic conditions in the Swatara Creek (1981- 84) and estimated postimpoundment water quality in and downstream from the planned Swatara State Park Reservoir, Lebanon and Schuylkill counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishel, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of Swatara Creek were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, Bureau of State Parks, from July 1981 through September 1984. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of anthracite-coal mining and other point and nonpoint sources on the water quality of a planned 10,500 acre-foot reservoir. The Swatara State Park Reservoir is planned to be used for recreation and drinking-water supply for the city of Lebanon and surrounding communities. Annual precipitation during 1982, 1983, and 1984 was about 8 percent below, near normal, and 29 percent above the long-term average, respectively. The average annual precipitation during a year with near-normal precipitation, the 1983 water year, was 47 inches at Pine Grove. Mean streamflows during 1982, 1983, and 1984 were about 15 percent below, 4 percent above, and 50 percent above the long-term average, respectively. The average streamflow to the planned reservoir area during the 1983 water year was about 220 cubic feet per second. Inflows to, and downstream discharge from, the planned reservoir wer poorly buffered. Median alkalinity ranged from 4 to 7 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and median acidity ranged from 2 to 5 mg/L at the three sampling locations. Maximum total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese concentrations were 100,000, 66,000, and 2,300 micrograms per liter, respectively. During 1983 the annual discharges of total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese to the planned reservoir area were estimated to be 692, 300, and 95 tons, respectively. About 87 percent of the total-recoverable iron and 91 percent of total-recoverable sluminum measured was in the suspended phase. The data indicated that mine drainage affects the quality of Swatara Creek and will affect the quality of the planned reservoir. In addition to mine drainage, point-source nutrient and metal discharges will probably affect the

  7. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  8. Water Quality and Habitat Conditions in Upper Midwest Streams Relative to Riparian Vegetation and Soil Characteirstics, August 1997: Study Design, Methods, and Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Pullets 2 0.620 0.240 Broilers 3 1.100 0.340 Turkeys 3 0.740 0.280 (FIPS) code. Basin boundaries were attributed to county coverages using an ARC/INFO...analysis by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated

  9. Simulation of runoff and water quality for 1990 and 2008 land use conditions in the Reedy Creek watershed, East-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected within the 177-square-mile Reedy Creek, Florida, watershed, beginning as early as 1939, but the data have not been used to evaluate relations among land use, hydrology, and water quality. A model of the Reedy Creek watershed was developed and applied to the period January 1990 to December 1995 to provide a computational foundation for evaluating the effects of future land-use changes on hydrology and water quality in the watershed. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to simulate hydrology and water quality of runoff for pervious land areas, impervious land areas, and stream reaches. Six land-use types were used to characterize the hydrology and water quality of pervious and impervious land areas in the Reedy Creek watershed: agriculture, rangeland, forest, wetlands, rapid infiltration basins, and urban areas. Hydrologic routing and water-quality reactions were simulated to characterize hydrologic and water-quality processes and the movement of runoff and its constituents through the main stream channels and their tributaries. Because of the complexity of the stream system within the Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID) (hydraulic structures, retention ponds) and the anticipated difficulty of modeling the system, an approach of calibrating the model parameters for a subset of the gaged watersheds and confirming the usefulness of the parameters by simulating the remainder of the gaged sites was selected for this study. Two sub-watersheds (Whittenhorse Creek and Davenport Creek) were selected for calibration because both have similar land use to watersheds within the RCID (with the exception of urban areas). Given the lack of available rainfall data, the hydrologic calibration of the Whittenhorse Creek and Davenport Creek sub-watersheds was considered acceptable (for monthly data, correlation coefficients, 0.86 and 0.88, and coefficients of model-fit efficiency, 0.72 and 0

  10. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and parts of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and Alabama during drought conditions, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of the Interior sustainable water strategy, WaterSMART, the U.S. Geological Survey documented hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia during low-flow conditions in July 2011. Moderate-drought conditions prevailed in this area during early 2011 and worsened to exceptional by June, with cumulative rainfall departures from the 1981-2010 climate normals registering deficits ranging from 17 to 27 inches. As a result, groundwater levels and stream discharges measured below median daily levels throughout most of 2011. Water-quality field properties including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured at selected surface-water sites. Record-low groundwater levels measured in 12 of 43 surficial aquifer wells and 128 of 312 Upper Floridan aquifer wells during July 2011 underscored the severity of drought conditions in the study area. Most wells recorded groundwater levels below the median daily statistic, and 7 surficial aquifer wells were dry. Groundwater-level measurements taken in July 2011 were used to determine the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Groundwater generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches where streams discharge to the aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where thick overburden hydraulically separates the aquifer from stream interaction. Hydraulic separation of the Upper Floridan aquifer from streams located east of the Flint River is shown by stream-stage altitudes that differ from groundwater levels measured in close proximity to streams. Most streams located in the study area during 2011 exhibited below normal flows (streamflows less than the 25th percentile), substantiating the severity of drought conditions that year. Streamflow

  11. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  12. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. Monitoring fresh water resources. [water quality of reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Processing and analysis of CCT's for numerous ground truth supported passes over Kansas reservoirs has demonstrated that sun angle and atmospheric conditions are strong influences on water reflectance levels as detected by ERTS-1 and can suppress the contributions of true water quality factors. Band ratios, on the other hand, exhibit very little dependence on sun angle and sky conditions and thus are more directly related to water quality. Band ratio levels can be used to reliably determine suspended load. Other water quality indicators appear to have little or no affect on reflectance levels.

  13. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

  14. Construction of a novel water quality index and quality indicator for reservoir water quality evaluation: A case study in the Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, T. C.; Hauser-Davis, R. A.; Oliveira, T. F.; Silveira, A. M.; Silva, H. A. N.; Tavares, M. R. M.; Saraiva, A. C. F.

    2015-03-01

    A novel Quality Indicator (QI) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were constructed in the present study for the evaluation of the water quality of a Hydroelectric Plant reservoir in the Amazon area, Brazil, taking into account the specific characteristics of the Amazon area. Factor analyses were applied in order to select the relevant parameters to be included in the construction of both indices. Quality curves for each selected parameter were then created and the constructed QI and WQI were then applied to investigate the water quality at the reservoir. The hydrological cycle was shown by the indices to directly affect reservoir water quality, and the WQI was further useful in identifying anthropogenic impacts in the area, since water sampling stations suffering different anthropogenic impacts were categorized differently, with poorer water quality, than stations near the dam and the environmental preservation area, which suffer significantly less anthropogenic impacts, and were categorized as presenting better water quality. The constructed indices are thus helpful in investigating environmental conditions in areas that show well-defined hydrological cycles, in addition to being valuable tools in the detection of anthropogenic impacts. The statistical techniques applied in the construction of these indices may also be used to construct other indices in different geographical areas, taking into account the specificities for each area.

  15. Water-quality modeling of Klamath Straits Drain recirculation, a Klamath River wetland, and 2011 conditions for the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Deas, Michael L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    The upper Klamath River and adjacent Lost River are interconnected basins in south-central Oregon and northern California. Both basins have impaired water quality with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in progress or approved. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc., have conducted modeling and research to inform management of these basins for multiple purposes, including agriculture, endangered species protection, wildlife refuges, and adjacent and downstream water users. A water-quality and hydrodynamic model (CE-QUAL-W2) of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River for 2006–09 is one of the tools used in this work. The model can simulate stage, flow, water velocity, ice cover, water temperature, specific conductance, suspended sediment, nutrients, organic matter in bed sediment and the water column, three algal groups, three macrophyte groups, dissolved oxygen, and pH. This report documents two model scenarios and a test of the existing model applied to year 2011, which had exceptional water quality. The first scenario examined the water-quality effects of recirculating Klamath Straits Drain flows into the Ady Canal, to conserve water and to decrease flows from the Klamath Straits Drain to the Klamath River. The second scenario explicitly incorporated a 2.73×106 m2 (675 acre) off-channel connected wetland into the CE-QUAL-W2 framework, with the wetland operating from May 1 through October 31. The wetland represented a managed treatment feature to decrease organic matter loads and process nutrients. Finally, the summer of 2011 showed substantially higher dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Link-Keno reach than in other recent years, so the Link-Keno model (originally developed for 2006–09) was run with 2011 data as a test of model parameters and rates and to develop insights regarding the reasons for the improved water-quality conditions.

  16. Water-quality conditions and an evaluation of ground- and surface-water sampling programs in the Livermore-Amador Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, S.K.; Cascos, P.V.; Glass, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A program to monitor the ground- and surface water quality in the Livermore-Amador Valley has been operated since 1976. As of 1982, this monitoring network consisted of approximately 130 wells, about 100 of which were constructed specifically for this program, and 9 surface water stations. Increased demand on the groundwater for municipal and industrial water supply in the past has caused a decline in water levels and a gradual buildup of salts from natural surface-water recharge and land disposal of treated wastewater from waste treatment plants. Results of this study identify the salt buildup to be the major problem with the groundwater quality. Established water quality objectives for dissolved solids are exceeded in 52 of 130 wells. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate are also in excess of basin objectives and health standards. Water quality in both surface and groundwater is highly variable areally. Magnesium to calcium magnesium bicarbonate groundwater are found in the areas where most of the high volume municipal wells are located. Large areas of sodium bicarbonate water occur in the northern part of the valley. Except for two stations on Arroyo Las Positas which has sodium chloride water, surface water is mixed-cation bicarbonate water. (USGS)

  17. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  18. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitler, Jason; Papenfus, Michael; Byrd, Kristin; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE) models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  19. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, Jason; Papenfus, Michael; Byrd, Kristin; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE) models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  20. Water-quality and hydrologic conditions at a site of ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds, South Grafton, Massachusetts, September and October 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiSimone, L.A.; Barlow, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water quality and hydrologic data were collected at a site contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in South Grafton, Massachusetts, during September and October 1994. The VOCs have formed a plume of contaminated ground water at an abandoned textile mill adjacent to the Blackstone River. Concentrations of total VOCs in the plume ranged from less than 1 to more than 40,000 micrograms per liter. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the primary chlorinated contaminant, comprising as much as 98 percent of the total VOCs. The highest concentration, 43,000 micrograms per liter, was higher than any previously measured concentration at the site; however, the maximum extent and distribution of concentrations in the VOC plume in September 1994 was similar to that found in July 1993 and in earlier rounds of sampling. In addition to TCE, 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride were detected at most sites. Spatial and temporal changes in concentrations of TCE, 1,2-DCE, and vinyl chloride are consistent with the hypothesis that TCE biodegradation was the source of 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride. Ground water at the site contained low to moderately high concentrations of dissolved solids (44 to 406 milligrams per liter), had a moderately high specific conductance (155 to 670 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius), and was slightly acidic (pH=5.9 to 7.0). Concentrations of the major ions-calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate-were not related to VOC concentrations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were low (0 to 2 milligrams per liter) throughout most of the aquifer. Distribution of nitrogen species, iron, and manganese indicates that zones of varying oxidation-reduction potential were present in the aquifer. Concentrations of trace metals other than iron or manganese, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and copper, generally were less than analytical detection limits. Stream stage in the Blackstone River at the site during September and October 1994

  1. Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ???12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/ discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum

  2. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation

  3. Verification of water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater during ice-cover conditions to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) Model, which used the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E) computer program, was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to verify the model for ice-cover conditions using the same Red River of the North study reach that was used for ice-free conditions. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile downstream of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo, North Dakota, and extends 30.8 miles downstream to a site 0.8 mile upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo River and the Red River of the North. The study reach receives treated wastewater outflow from municipal wastewater-treatment plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and inflow from the Sheyenne River. For simulations conducted for ice-cover conditions, the RRatFGO QW Model will be referred to as the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality (RRatFGOIC QW) Model. Streamflow measurements were made at 10 sites during February 21-24, 1995, and water-quality samples were collected and field properties were measured at 12 sites during February 23-24, 1995. Properties and constituents analyzed for include specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total phosphorus (reported as phosphorus), chlorophyll a, and algal biomass. The RRatFGOIC QW Model simulated streamflow, specific conductance, total organic nitrogen, total ammonia, total nitrite, total nitrite plus nitrate, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The model was considered verified for ice-cover conditions for all of the values or concentrations simulated except for the total organic nitrogen concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the QUAL2E Model computer program that was

  4. Status of Water Levels and Selected Water-Quality Conditions in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Eastern Arkansas, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    analysis of long-term water-level changes (1980-2004) in the depression in Arkansas and Prairie Counties shows the effects of the elongation of this depression. Water samples were collected from 138 wells completed in the alluvial aquifer and measured onsite for specific conductance and temperature. Samples were collected at 71 wells for dissolved chloride analysis at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory. Specific conductance ranged from 205 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Lonoke County to 1,440 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at a well in Monroe County.

  5. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  6. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  7. Communicating water quality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, C.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience.

  8. Changing Nitrate Concentrations in Arid Basin Aquifers- How Anthropogenic and Natural Processes Affect Water Quality and Availability in Trans-Pecos, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. M.; Bohlke, J. K.; Sharp, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    nitrogen. These effects are likely temporally and spatially variable, but have a substantial impact on strategies for addressing water quality and sustainability concerns in these basins and similar environments elsewhere.

  9. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  10. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  11. Hydrological factors behind the water quality changes due to restoration in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Walle Menberu, Meseret; Irannezhad, Masoud; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Penttinen, Jouni; Hokkanen, Reijo; Klöve, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Recovery of hydrological conditions after restoration in previously drained peatlands is typically faster process compared to changes in runoff water quality. Often nutrient load from restored sites increase remarkably during restoration operation and reduce over time when conditions stabilize. However, in some sites nutrient load can remain high for long periods of time which increase negative effects of restoration on downstream water bodies. The factors and challenges behind these processes are poorly understood in practical catchment restoration planning. This study aims to understand factors affecting water quality changes after peatland restoration. Totally 43 peatlands areas of which 24 sites were previously drained and restored during the study and 19 sites at their pristine stage (control sites) were included to the study. The control pristine sites had as little anthropogenic disturbances as possible and the sites were chosen so that the paired study sites closely share similar peatland type, nutrient status and weather conditions. Pore water quality (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, pH, electric conductivity and colour) was measured from all sites and runoff quality and amount from 7 sites in the years 2008-2014. Measured parameters, different peatland types and nutrient loads were studied together with numerous hydrological parameters (variation in water table fluctuations, peat pore water recharge coefficient, physical parameters of peat e.g. specific yield, degree of humification) by statistical methods. Differences in water table dependent hydrological conditions indicate e.g. flow paths and residence time of water that is known to have effect on runoff water quality. As a result, water table related hydrological changes following restoration are as well assumed to explain alterations in water quality in different peatland types. In addition, using water table related hydrological processes as a proxy for water quality

  12. Water Levels and Selected Water-Quality Conditions in the Sparta-Memphis Aquifer (Middle Claiborne Aquifer) in Arkansas, Spring-Summer 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey has monitored water levels in the Sparta Sand of Claiborne Group and Memphis Sand of Claiborne Group (herein referred to as the Sparta Sand and the Memphis Sand, respectively), since the 1920s. Groundwater withdrawals have increased while water levels have declined since monitoring was initiated. Herein, aquifers in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand will be referred to as the Sparta-Memphis aquifer throughout Arkansas. During the spring of 2007, 309 water levels were measured in wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer. During the summer of 2007, 129 water-quality samples were collected and measured for temperature and specific conductance and 102 were collected and analyzed for chloride from wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer. Water-level measurements collected in wells screened in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer were used to produce a regional potentiometric-surface map. The regional direction of groundwater flow in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer is generally to the south-southeast in the northern half of Arkansas and to the east and south in the southern half of Arkansas, away from the outcrop area except where affected by large ground-water withdrawals. The highest water-level altitude measured in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer was 326 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929, located in Grant County in the outcrop at the western boundary of the study area; the lowest water-level altitude was 161 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in Union County near the southern boundary of the study area. Eight cones of depression (generally represented by closed contours) are located in the following counties: Bradley, Drew, and Ashley; Calhoun; Cleveland; Columbia; Crittenden; Arkansas, Jefferson, and Lincoln; Cross and Poinsett; and Union. Two large depressions are shown on the 2007 potentiometric-surface map, centered

  13. Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: Assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wemple, B.; Shanley, J.; Denner, J.; Ross, D.; Mills, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped 'control' basin. West Branch (11.7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001-2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36-46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3-4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18-36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area.

  14. Initial Influence of Fertilizer Nitrogen Types on Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using different sources of nitrogen as fertilizer in nursery ponds may affect water quality and plankton responses. We evaluated water quality variables and plankton population responses when using different nitrogen sources for catfish nursery pond fertilization. We compared calcium nitrate (12% ...

  15. Relations of Water Quality to Agricultural Chemical Use and Environmental Setting at Various Scales - Results from Selected Studies of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of 51 major river basins and aquifers across the United States as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to provide scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The major goals of the NAWQA Program are to assess the status and long-term trends of the Nation's surface- and ground-water quality and to understand the natural and human factors that affect it (Gilliom and others, 1995). In 2001, the NAWQA Program began a second decade of intensive water-quality assessments. The 42 study units for this second decade were selected to represent a wide range of important hydrologic environments and potential contaminant sources. These NAWQA studies continue to address the goals of the first decade of the assessments to determine how water-quality conditions are changing over time. In addition to local- and regional-scale studies, NAWQA began to analyze and synthesize water-quality status and trends at the principal aquifer and major river-basin scales. This fact sheet summarizes results from four NAWQA studies that relate water quality to agricultural chemical use and environmental setting at these various scales: * Comparison of ground-water quality in northern and southern High Plains agricultural settings (principal aquifer scale); * Distribution patterns of pesticides and degradates in rain (local scale); * Occurrence of pesticides in shallow ground water underlying four agricultural areas (local and regional scales); and * Trends in nutrients and sediment over time in the Missouri River and its tributaries (major river-basin scale).

  16. Surface water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, K.D.; Smoot, J.L.; Jackson, J.K.; Choquette, Anne F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment Program, which at present (1987) is in a pilot phase in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for full implementation of the program in the future. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The preliminary plans for the surface water quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin pilot project are described. The Kentucky River basin drains an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi in east central Kentucky and is underlain by rocks that range in composition from limestone to sandstone and shale. Because greater than 95% of the basin population relies on surface water, surface water quality is of great concern. Land use practices that affect the surface water quality in the basin include agriculture, forestry, oil and gas production, coal mining, and urbanization. Water quality concerns resulting from the various land uses include the effects of: oil and gas field brine discharges; agricultural chemicals; sedimentation caused by coal mining; and trace element impacts from industrial and urban environments. Assessment activity is designed to occur over a 9-year period of time. During the first 3-year period of the cycle, concentrated data acquisition and interpretation will occur. For the next 6 years, sample collection will occur at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This 9-year cycle will then be repeated. Historical data will be evaluated to provide, to the extent possible, a description of existing and past trends in water quality conditions and to develop conceptual models that relate the observed conditions to the sources and causes, both natural and human-controlled. New data will be collected to verify the water quality conditions documented by historic data, to track long-term trends in water quality, to intensify

  17. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Water Quality in the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N. E.

    2009-05-01

    A long-term stream water-quality monitoring network was established in the City of Atlanta (COA) during 2003 to assess baseline water-quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically-based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted approximately 12 times per year at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) water-quality stations having continuous measures of stream stage/discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water-quality and sediment-related constituents. This paper summarizes an evaluation of field parameters and concentrations of major ions, minor and trace metals, nutrient species (nitrogen and phosphorus), and coliform bacteria among stations and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. The concentrations of most constituents in the COA streams are statistically higher than those of two nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. The combination of routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows, and real-time water-quality monitoring provided sufficient information about the variability of urban stream water quality to develop hypotheses for causes of water-quality differences among COA streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most individual samples at each station exceeded Georgia's water-quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s), and

  18. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  19. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to assess if urban environments affect floodwater quality, and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited in an urban environment after floodwaters recede. Water samples during major flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) were taken on...

  20. A simulation-based approach for estimating premining water quality: Red Mountain Creek, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A; Walton-Day, Katherine; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are often charged with the task of setting site-specific numeric water quality standards for impaired streams. This task is particularly difficult for streams draining highly mineralized watersheds with past mining activity. Baseline water quality data obtained prior to mining are often non-existent and application of generic water quality standards developed for unmineralized watersheds is suspect given the geology of most watersheds affected by mining. Various approaches have been used to estimate premining conditions, but none of the existing approaches rigorously consider the physical and geochemical processes that ultimately determine instream water quality. An approach based on simulation modeling is therefore proposed herein. The approach utilizes synoptic data that provide spatially-detailed profiles of concentration, streamflow, and constituent load along the study reach. This field data set is used to calibrate a reactive stream transport model that considers the suite of physical and geochemical processes that affect constituent concentrations during instream transport. A key input to the model is the quality and quantity of waters entering the study reach. This input is based on chemical analyses available from synoptic sampling and observed increases in streamflow along the study reach. Given the calibrated model, additional simulations are conducted to estimate premining conditions. In these simulations, the chemistry of mining-affected sources is replaced with the chemistry of waters that are thought to be unaffected by mining (proximal, premining analogues). The resultant simulations provide estimates of premining water quality that reflect both the reduced loads that were present prior to mining and the processes that affect these loads as they are transported downstream. This simulation-based approach is demonstrated using data from Red Mountain Creek, Colorado, a small stream draining a heavily-mined watershed. Model

  1. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  2. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  3. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach is dominated by water released from the hydroelectric project area during summer. Effects of the hydroelectric project include seasonal control of streamflow, water temperature, and phosphorus concentrations, and the possible release of low but ecologically important concentrations of organic nitrogen. A review of available data and literature suggests that the reservoirs can increase the interception of sediments and large organic debris, and promote their conversion into fine-grained particulate and dissolved organic matter for downstream transport. These effects could be compounded by the effects of forestry in the basin, including alteration of hydrologic cycles, changes in sediment and nutrient runoff, reductions of the transport of large woody debris, and degradation of habitat quality. It is hypothesized that, in the North Umpqua River, these processes have induced a fundamental shift in the river’s food web, from a detritus-based system to a system with a 2 higher emphasis on algal production. Confirmation of these changes and their effects on higher trophic levels are needed to properly manage the aquatic resources for all designated beneficial uses in the basin.

  4. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  5. An innovative index for evaluating water quality in streams.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmend; Stevens, David K; Sehlke, Gerald

    2004-09-01

    A water quality index expressed as a single number is developed to describe overall water quality conditions using multiple water quality variables. The index consists of water quality variables: dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, turbidity, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform. The objectives of this study were to describe the preexisting indices and to define a new water quality index that has advantages over these indices. The new index was applied to the Big Lost River Watershed in Idaho, and the results gave a quantitative picture for the water quality situation. If the new water quality index for the impaired water is less than a certain number, remediation-likely in the form of total maximum daily loads or changing the management practices-may be needed. The index can be used to assess water quality for general beneficial uses. Nevertheless, the index cannot be used in making regulatory decisions, indicate water quality for specific beneficial uses, or indicate contamination from trace metals, organic contaminants, and toxic substances.

  6. [Multi-scale spatial heterogeneity of urban wetland water quality in east suburb of Nanjing City].

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing-feng; Liu, Hong-yu; Hu, Jun-na; An, Jing

    2010-07-01

    An investigation was made on the water quality and plant community in 17 urban wetlands in east suburb of Nanjing City, and the spatial heterogeneity of the water quality was analyzed at ecosystem scale, catchment scale, and functional landscape scale. Wetland type and the characteristics of plant community were the main factors affecting the water quality at ecosystem scale. Primitive wetland had the best water quality, followed by reconstructed wetland, and secondary wetland. The higher plant coverage the wetland had, the better the water quality was. Land use type was the main factor affecting the water quality at catchment scale. Constructive land had greater effects on water nutrients content, while woodland mainly affected water dissolved oxygen. Human activity was the main factor affecting the water quality at functional landscape scale, and the effects differed with different water quality indices.

  7. Integration of Invertebrate Monitoring Data Into a Chemical-Based Water Quality Index for Selected Rivers in British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, S.; Ryan, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) is a recently developed tool used to summarize complex water quality data for communication to senior managers and the public. Within the index, water quality is assessed relative to its desirable state, as defined by water quality objectives, and indicates the degree to which it is affected by human activities. The index combines water quality measures of concern at a particular site (e.g. coliforms, metals, dissolved oxygen) and compares them to objectives to provide a ranking (e.g. good, fair, poor) for rivers and lakes. In British Columbia, the federal and provincial governments collaboratively maintain a network of water quality stations which are sampled routinely for a range of chemical variables. Environment Canada incorporated an annual biomonitoring component at 10 of these stations using the reference condition approach. Benthic invertebrates are used in this approach to assess the health of a stream by comparing expected invertebrate communities with observed communities. At one station the biological community indicated an impaired environment where the CCME WQI indicated "good" water quality. We will discuss options for incorporating the information provided by the benthic invertebrate community into the calculation of the index.

  8. Framework for Evaluating Water Quality of the New England Crystalline Rock Aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    Little information exists on regional ground-water-quality patterns for the New England crystalline rock aquifers (NECRA). A systematic approach to facilitate regional evaluation is needed for several reasons. First, the NECRA are vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural contaminants such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), arsenic, and radon gas. Second, the physical characteristics of the aquifers, termed 'intrinsic susceptibility', can lead to variable and degraded water quality. A framework approach for characterizing the aquifer region into areas of similar hydrogeology is described in this report and is based on hypothesized relevant physical features and chemical conditions (collectively termed 'variables') that affect regional patterns of ground-water quality. A framework for comparison of water quality across the NECRA consists of a group of spatial variables related to aquifer properties, hydrologic conditions, and contaminant sources. These spatial variables are grouped under four general categories (features) that can be mapped across the aquifers: (1) geologic, (2) hydrophysiographic, (3) land-use land-cover, and (4) geochemical. On a regional scale, these variables represent indicators of natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants, as well as generalized physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifer system that influence ground-water chemistry and flow. These variables can be used in varying combinations (depending on the contaminant) to categorize the aquifer into areas of similar hydrogeologic characteristics to evaluate variation in regional water quality through statistical testing.

  9. River water quality modelling under drought situations - the Turia River case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Macián, Javier; Pedro-Monzonís, María; Belda, Edgar; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-10-01

    Drought and water shortage effects are normally exacerbated due to collateral impacts on water quality, since low streamflow affects water quality in rivers and water uses depend on it. One of the most common problems during drought conditions is maintaining a good water quality while securing the water supply to demands. This research analyses the case of the Turia River Water Resource System located in Eastern Spain. Its main water demand comes as urban demand from Valencia City, which intake is located in the final stretch of the river, where streamflow may become very low during droughts. As a result, during drought conditions concentrations of pathogens and other contaminants increase, compromising the water supply to Valencia City. In order to define possible solutions for the above-mentioned problem, we have developed an integrated model for simulating water management and water quality in the Turia River Basin to propose solutions for water quality problems under water scarcity. For this purpose, the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL has been used. The results demonstrate the importance of applying environmental flows as a measure of reducing pollutant's concentration depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  10. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed.

  11. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/xrel.pdf). NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  12. Water quality in the Trinity River basin, Texas, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Moring, J. Bruce; Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Shipp, Allison A.; Ulery, Randy L.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality in the Trinity River basin was studied during 1992-95 as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Studies included chemical sampling of streams, streambed sediments, biota, and ground water; measuring distributions of biological communities in streams; and measuring physical characteristics of streams that affect biological habitat. The sampling design, in general, relates water-quality conditions to causative human and natural environmental factors. The occurrence of pesticides, for example, is related to land use. Trends are mixed, with a substantial improvement in the diversity of fish species downstream from Dallas and large decreases in regulated contaminants such as DDT; but increases in unregulated contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  13. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP7) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  14. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin, Washington; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, S.W.; Rinella, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment program to: (1) provide a nationally consistent description of the current status of water quality, (2) define water quality trends that have occurred over recent decades, and (3) relate past and present water quality conditions to relevant natural features, the history of land and water use, and land management and waste management practices. At present (1987), The National Water Quality Assessment program is in a pilot studies phase, in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for possible full implementation of the program. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The Yakima River basin in Washington is one of the pilot surface water project areas. The Yakima River basin drains in area of 6,155 sq mi and contains about 1,900 river mi of perennial streams. Major land use activities include growing and harvesting timber, dryland pasture grazing, intense farming and irrigated agriculture, and urbanization. Water quality issues that result from these land uses include potentially large concentrations of suspended sediment, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and trace elements that may affect water used for human consumption, fish propagation and passage, contact recreation, livestock watering, and irrigation. Data will be collected in a nine year cycle. The first three years of the cycle will be a period of concentrated data acquisition and interpretation. For the next six years, sample collection will be done at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This nine year cycle would then be repeated. Three types of sampling activities will be used for data acquisition: fixed location station sampling, synoptic sampling, and intensive reach studies. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Water quality in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.; Harned, Douglas A.; Ruhl, Peter M.; Eimers, Jo Leslie; McMahon, Gerard; Smith, Kelly E.; Galeone, David R.; Woodside, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The NAWQA Program is assessing the water-quality conditions of more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers, known as Study Units. Collectively, these Study Units cover about one-half of the United States and include sources of drinking water used by about 70 percent of the U.S. population. Comprehensive assessments of about one-third of the Study Units are ongoing at a given time. Each Study Unit is scheduled to be revisited every decade to evaluate changes in water-quality conditions. NAWQA assessments rely heavily on existing information collected by the USGS and many other agencies as well as the use of nationally consistent study designs and methods of sampling and analysis. Such consistency simultaneously provides information about the status and trends in water-quality conditions in a particular stream or aquifer and, more importantly, provides the basis to make comparisons among watersheds and improve our understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions regionally and nationally. This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. The information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Indeed, this report addresses many of the concerns raised by regulators, water-utility managers, industry representatives, and other scientists, engineers, public officials, and members of stakeholder groups who provided advice and input to the USGS during this NAWQA Study-Unit investigation. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  16. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  17. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  18. The effect of sampling strategies on assessment of water quality criteria attainment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxin; Wilson, Jessica M; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    Sample locations for large river studies affect the representativeness of data, and thus can alter decisions made regarding river conditions and the need for interventions to improve water quality. The present study evaluated three water-quality sampling programs for Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) assessment in the Monongahela River from 2008 to 2012. The sampling plans cover the same 145 km of river but differ in frequency, sample location and type (e.g., river water sample vs drinking water plant intake sample). Differences resulting from temporal and spatial variability in sampling lead to different conclusions regarding water quality in the river (including regulatory listing decisions), especially when low flow leads to concentrations at or near the water quality criteria (500mg/L TDS). Drinking water samples exceeded the criteria 82 out of 650 samples (12.6%), while river water samples exceeded the criteria 47 out of 464 samples (10.1%). Different water sample types could provide different pictures of water quality in the river and lead to different regulatory listing decisions.

  19. Comparison of 2008-2009 water years and historical water-quality data, upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solberg, Patricia A.; Moore, Bryan; Blacklock, Ty D.

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, U.S. Forest Service, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of sites: (1) sites that are considered long term and (2) sites that are considered rotational. Data from the long-term sites assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational sites assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and address local and short-term concerns. Biannual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for stakeholder discussions regarding the location and purpose of water-quality monitoring sites in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This report compares and summarizes the data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 to the historical data available at these sites. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network sites. The remainder of the report is organized around the data collected at individual sites. Data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines

  20. Spatial and temporal trends in water quality in a Mediterranean temporary river impacted by sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    David, Arthur; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Picot, Bernadette

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how changes in hydrological conditions can affect the water quality of a temporary river that receives direct inputs of sewage effluents. Data from 12 spatial surveys of the Vène river were examined. Physico-chemical parameters, major ion, and nutrient concentrations were measured. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses were performed. ANOVA revealed significant spatial differences for conductivity and major ion but no significant spatial differences for nutrient concentrations even if higher average concentrations were observed at stations located downstream from sewage effluent discharge points. Significant temporal differences were observed among all the parameters. Karstic springs had a marked dilution effect on the direct disposal of sewage effluents. During high-flow periods, nutrient concentrations were high to moderate whereas nutrient concentrations ranged from moderate to bad at stations located downstream from the direct inputs of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. Principal component analysis showed that water quality parameters that explained the water quality of the Vène river were highly dependent on hydrological conditions. Cluster analysis showed that when the karstic springs were flowing, water quality was homogeneous all along the river, whereas when karstic springs were dry, water quality at the monitoring stations was more fragmented. These results underline the importance of considering hydrological conditions when monitoring the water quality of temporary rivers. In view of the pollution observed in the Vène river, "good water chemical status" can probably only be achieved by improving the management of sewage effluents during low-flow periods.

  1. Illinois water-quality report, 1988-1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The State of Illinois report, prepared by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, addresses the water quality assessment efforts for 1988 and 1989 (the seventh in a series of biennial reports). The report follows USEPA guidance for reporting water quality conditions in terms of degree of use support or attainment. In addition to stream and lake water quality conditions, discussions of the State's wetland resources and groundwater protection programs are provided. Also included are the lake classification and lake information required by Section 314 and nonpoint source assessments required by Section 319.

  2. Water-quality assessment and macroinvertebrate data for the Upper Yampa River watershed, Colorado, 1975 through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was initiated in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Routt County, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the City of Steamboat Springs, to compile and analyze historic water-quality data and assess water-quality conditions in the Upper Yampa River watershed (UYRW) in northwestern Colorado. Water-quality data for samples collected by federal, state, and local agencies for various periods from 1975 through 2009 were compiled and assessed for streams, lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater in the UYRW, including the Elkhead Creek subwatershed and the Yampa River watershed that is upstream from Elkhead Creek. For selected physical-property and chemical-constituent data for samples collected from surface-water sites and groundwater wells in the UYRW, this report: (1) characterizes available data through statistical summaries, (2) analyzes the spatial and temporal distribution of water-quality conditions, (3) identifies temporal trends in water quality, where possible, (4) provides comparisons to federal and state water-quality standards and recommendations, and (5) identifies factors affecting the quality of water. In addition, the availability and characteristics of macroinvertebrate data collected in the UYRW are described.

  3. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    PubMed

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

  4. Hemodialysis and Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

  5. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  6. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  7. REGIONAL GROUND-WATER-QUALITY NETWORK DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing a regional network to monitor the complex ground-water-quality conditions in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The actual network approximates the ideal network with the constraint of primarily using wells that are already being monitored by someone for some purpose. Further inventories of monitoring networks and installation of some specialized monitoring wells will be needed. Use of statistical network analysis techniques is also needed to make network improvements. Following these actions, the actual network will more closely approximate the ideal network in providing information on ground-water-quality trends, contaminant sources, prevention of future sources of contamination, monitoring well distributions, sampling frequencies, and constituents to be monitored.

  8. Oxycline formation induced by Fe(II) oxidation in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage modeled using a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality model - CE-QUAL-W2.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ester; Galván, Laura; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Soria-Píriz, Sara; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Nardi, Albert; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-08-15

    The Sancho reservoir is an acid mine drainage (AMD)-contaminated reservoir located in the Huelva province (SW Spain) with a pH close to 3.5. The water is only used for a refrigeration system of a paper mill. The Sancho reservoir is holomictic with one mixing period per year in the winter. During this mixing period, oxygenated water reaches the sediment, while under stratified conditions (the rest of the year) hypoxic conditions develop at the hypolimnion. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was calibrated for the Sancho Reservoir to predict the thermocline and oxycline formation, as well as the salinity, ammonium, nitrate, phosphorous, algal, chlorophyll-a, and iron concentrations. The version 3.7 of the model does not allow simulating the oxidation of Fe(II) in the water column, which limits the oxygen consumption of the organic matter oxidation. However, to evaluate the impact of Fe(II) oxidation on the oxycline formation, Fe(II) has been introduced into the model based on its relationship with labile dissolved organic matter (LDOM). The results show that Fe oxidation is the main factor responsible for the oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion of the Sancho Reservoir. The limiting factors for green algal growth have also been studied. The model predicted that ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate were not limiting factors for green algal growth. Light appeared to be one of the limiting factors for algal growth, while chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentrations could not be fully described. We hypothesize that dissolved CO2 is one of the limiting nutrients due to losses by the high acidity of the water column. The sensitivity tests carried out support this hypothesis. Two different remediation scenarios have been tested with the calibrated model: 1) an AMD passive treatment plant installed at the river, which removes completely Fe, and 2) different depth water extractions. If no Fe was introduced into the reservoir, water quality would significantly improve in only two years

  9. Water quality in organic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-point source contamination is a major water quality concern in the upper Midwestern USA, where plant nutrients, especially NO3-N, are susceptible to leaching due to extensive subsurface draining of the highly productive, but poorly drained, soils found in this region. Environmental impacts assoc...

  10. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  11. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  12. Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT) software is to provide a means for analyzing and producing useful remotely sensed data products for an entire estuary, a particular point or area of interest (AOI or POI) in estuaries, or water bodies of interest where pre-pro...

  13. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  14. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  15. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Catchment-wide impacts on water quality: the use of 'snapshot' sampling during stable flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, R. B.; Gippel, C. J.; Finlayson, B. L.; Hart, B. T.

    1997-12-01

    Water quality is usually monitored on a regular basis at only a small number of locations in a catchment, generally focused at the catchment outlet. This integrates the effect of all the point and non-point source processes occurring throughout the catchment. However, effective catchment management requires data which identify major sources and processes. As part of a wider study aimed at providing technical information for the development of integrated catchment management plans for a 5000 km 2 catchment in south eastern Australia, a 'snapshot' of water quality was undertaken during stable summer flow conditions. These low flow conditions exist for long periods so water quality at these flow levels is an important constraint on the health of in-stream biological communities. Over a 4 day period, a study of the low flow water quality characteristics throughout the Latrobe River catchment was undertaken. Sixty-four sites were chosen to enable a longitudinal profile of water quality to be established. All tributary junctions and sites along major tributaries, as well as all major industrial inputs were included. Samples were analysed for a range of parameters including total suspended solids concentration, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, flow rate and water temperature. Filtered and unfiltered samples were taken from 27 sites along the main stream and tributary confluences for analysis of total N, NH 4, oxidised N, total P and dissolved reactive P concentrations. The data are used to illustrate the utility of this sampling methodology for establishing specific sources and estimating non-point source loads of phosphorous, total suspended solids and total dissolved solids. The methodology enabled several new insights into system behaviour including quantification of unknown point discharges, identification of key in-stream sources of suspended material and the extent to which biological activity (phytoplankton growth) affects water quality

  17. Water quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River, Oregon, 1995-2007, and their response to Diamond Lake restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Jones, Mikeal E.

    2014-01-01

    This study also provided an opportunity to examine changes in stream conditions in the main stem North Umpqua River and its tributaries, which were previously sampled in July 1995. The 1995 study was designed to provide background data during relicensing of the upstream hydroelectric facilities, and was partly motivated by anecdotal concerns about increase periphyton growth and reduced water clarity. As part of the 2005–07 study associated with the Diamond Lake restoration project, we repeated the 1995 basinwide synoptic survey in 2005, before the rotenone treatment. Although both samplings were just a snapshot of conditions, these data were evaluated for possible changes between 1995 and 2005.

  18. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  19. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  20. Status of water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas, 1994-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Joseph, Robert L.; Pugh, Aaron L.

    1998-01-01

    During the spring of 1994 and 1996, water levels were measured in more than 600 wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas. Water samples were collected during the summer of 1995 from about 375 wells completed in the alluvial aquifer and measured for specific conductance. Concentrations of dissolved chloride were analyzed in 314 of the samples, and concentrations of dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium were analyzed in 18 of the samples. The regional direction of ground-water flow is generally to the south and east except where affected by ground-water withdrawals. A large depression in the potentiometric surface is located in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties. The comparison of water-level altitudes from 1994 to 1996 reveals that water levels declined and the cone of depression became larger. The water-level altitudes did not decline in every well monitored from 1994 to 1996; however, most water-level altitudes declined during this period and cones of depression became deeper. Shallower depressions are located in Poinsett, Lee, St. Francis, and Woodruff Counties. Potentiometric depressions in this aquifer generally are a result of long-term pumping and probably are affected by variations in aquifer characteristics such as thickness and hydraulic conductivity. Long-term water levels typically declined an average rate of about 1.2 feet per year in the areas of potentiometric depression. Specific conductance ranged from 81 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius in Drew County to 4,640 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius in Chicot County. The lowest ground-water specific-conductance values generally occur along the western border of the study area. Several areas exhibited increased specific conductance with the most prominent areas centered in Chicot, Desha, and northern Arkansas County.

  1. Health and condition of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers relative to water quality and fish assemblages in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Conway, Carla M.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Hoy, Marshal S.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2015-11-25

    Differences in sucker health and condition between lakes were considered the most promising clues to the causes of differential juvenile sucker morality between lakes. A low prevalence of petechial hemorrhaging of the skin (16 percent) and deformed opercula (8 percent) in Upper Klamath Lake suckers may indicate exposure to a toxin other than microcystin. Suckers grew slower in their first year of life, but had similar or greater triglyceride and glycogen levels in Upper Klamath Lake compared to Clear Lake Reservoir. These findings do not suggest a lack of prey quantity but may indicate lower prey quality in Upper Klamath Lake.

  2. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, R; Grue, C E

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequently resulting in highly eutrophic conditions. Recent investigations suggest that these eutrophic conditions (elevated pH, water temperature, and un-ionized ammonia) may be associated with frog embryo mortality or malformations. However, water quality criteria for frogs and other amphibians do not currently exist. Here, we briefly review data that support the need to develop water quality parameters for frogs in agroecosystems and other habitats. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. PMID:7607135

  3. Dependence of silver availability on water quality parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, R.D.; Bills, T.; Forsythe, B.; Wenholz, M.; Klaine, S.; LaPoint, T.; Cobb, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of silver in varying water quality conditions such as chloride content, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon and pH was investigated during a test to measure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. Water quality parameter treatments included four chloride concentrations (3, 10, 20, 40, mg/L), two hardness treatments (100, 200 Mg CaCO{sub 3}/L), four humic acid concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10 mg/L), a pH of 7.5, and alkalinity at 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} eq/L. Varying silver concentrations were added to,each treatment. Total silver concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analytical procedures to determine water quality conditions followed modified ASTM methods. Water quality effects on free and bound silver will be discussed.

  4. Risk-Reliability Programming for Optimal Water Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Orlob, Gerald T.

    1984-06-01

    A risk-reliability programming approach is developed for optimal allocation of releases for control of water quality downstream of a multipurpose reservoir. Additionally, the approach allows the evaluation of optimal risk/reliability values. Risk is defined as a probability of not satisfying constraints given in probabilistic form, e.g., encroachment of water quality reservation on that for flood control. The objective function includes agricultural production losses that are functions of water quality, and risk-losses associated with encroachment of the water quality control functions on reservations for flood control, fisheries, and irrigation. The approach is demonstrated using data from New Melones Reservoir on the Stanislaus River in California. Results indicate that an optimum water quality reservation exists for a given set of quality targets and loss functions. Additional analysis is presented to determine the sensitivity of optimization results to agricultural production loss functions and the influence of statistically different river flows on the optimal reservoir storage for water quality control. Results indicate the dependence of an optimum water quality reservation on agricultural production losses and hydrologic conditions.

  5. National Water Quality Laboratory Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Water Quality Laboratory determines organic and inorganic constituents in samples of surface and ground water, river and lake sediment, aquatic plant and animal material, and precipitation collected throughout the United States and its territories by the U.S. Geological Survey. In water year 1994, the Laboratory produced more than 900,000 analytical results for about 65,000 samples. The Laboratory also coordinates an extensive network of contract laboratories for the determination of radiochemical and stable isotopes and work for the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Contamination Hydrology Program. Heightened concerns about water quality and about the possible effects of toxic chemicals at trace and ultratrace levels have contributed to an increased demand for impartial, objective, and independent data.

  6. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  7. Illinois water quality management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the purpose of the plan to consolidate and streamline portions of approved state and areawide water quality management (WQM) plans in order to facilitate their usage in the operations of all designated WQM agencies. The report identifies both point and nonpoint pollution sources, reviews policies and regulations already in place and makes recommendations for pollution prevention and control. Information on the plan's management structure is also included.

  8. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  9. Influence of process conditions and water quality on the formation of mutagenic byproducts in UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; Harmsen, Danny J H; Puijker, Leo; Baken, Kirsten A; Wols, Bas A; Beerendonk, E F; Keltjens, Leo L M

    2015-05-01

    UV/H2O2 processes in drinking water treatment may generate byproducts which cause an increased response in Ames fluctuation assays. As this probably involves a mixture of substances in very low concentrations, it is challenging to identify the individual byproducts. Therefore it was studied under which conditions mutagenic byproducts are formed and how this can be prevented. It was found that positive Ames fluctuation test responses only are obtained when Medium Pressure UV lamps are used, and not with Low Pressure lamps. This probably is explained by the photolysis of nitrate, which plays an important role in the formation of mutagenic byproducts. The most important parameters involved in the formation of such byproducts were demonstrated to be the nitrate concentration, the natural organic matter, the UV spectrum of the lamps, and the UV dose applied. These factors explain up to 74-87% of the Ames fluctuation test responses after UV/H2O2 drinking water treatment. By taking this into account, drinking water utilities can estimate whether UV processes applied in their case may cause the formation of mutagenic byproducts, and how to take measures to prevent it.

  10. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  11. Low-flow water-quality characterization of the Gore Creek watershed, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, August 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1998-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) is one of 59 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units designed to assess the status and trends of the Nation?s water quality (Leahy and others, 1990). The UCOL study unit began operation in 1994, and surface-water-quality data collection at a network of 14 sites began in October 1995 (Apodaca and others, 1996; Spahr and others, 1996). Gore Creek, which flows through Vail, Colorado, originates in pristine alpine headwaters and is designated a gold-medal trout fishery. The creek drains an area of about 102 square miles and is a tributary to the Eagle River. Gore Creek at the mouth near Minturn (site 13 in fig. 1) is one of the 14 sites in the UCOL network. This site was selected to evaluate water quality resulting from urban development and recreational land use. The Gore Creek watershed has undergone rapid land-use changes since the 1960?s as the Vail area shifted from traditional mountain ranchlands to a four-season resort community. Residential, recreational, commercial, and transportation development continues near Gore Creek and its tributaries to support the increasing permanent and tourist population of the area. Interstate 70 runs through the watershed from Vail Pass near site 14, along the eastern side of Black Gore Creek, and along the northern side of the main stem of Gore Creek to the mouth of the watershed (fig. 1). A major local concern is how increasing urbanization/recreation affects the water quality, gold-medal trout fishery, and aesthetic values of Gore Creek. An evaluation of the spatial characteristics of water quality in the watershed upstream from site 13 at the mouth of Gore Creek (fig. 1) can provide local water and land managers with information necessary to establish water policy and make land-use planning decisions to maintain or improve water quality. Historical data collected at the mouth of Gore Creek provide information about water quality resulting from land use, but a synoptic

  12. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  13. The case for regime-based water quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, Geoffrey C.; Dunham, J.B.; Keenan, D.M.; Sauter, S.T.; McCullough, D.A.; Mebane, Christopher; Lockwood, Jeffrey C.; Essig, Don A.; Hicks, Mark P.; Sturdevant, Debra J.; Materna, E.J.; Spalding, M.; Risley, John; Deppman, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type of water quality standarda??a a??regime standarda??a??would describe desirable distributions of conditions over space and time within a stream network. By mandating the protection and restoration of the aquatic ecosystem dynamics that are required to support beneficial uses in streams, well-designed regime standards would facilitate more effective strategies for management of natural water quality parameters.

  14. Southwest principal aquifers regional ground-water quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  15. Assessment of phytoplankton diversity as an indicator of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Yergeau, S.E.; Lang, A.; Teeters, R.

    1997-08-01

    For the measurement of water quality in freshwater systems, there are established indices using macroinvertebrate larvae. There is no such comparable measure for marine and estuarine environments. A phytoplankton diversity index (PDI), whose basic form was conceived by Dr. Ruth Gyure of Save the Sound, Inc., is being investigated as a possible candidate to rectify this situation. Phytoplankton were chosen as the indicators of water quality since algae have short generation times and respond quickly to changing water quality conditions. The methodologies involved in this initial assessment of the PDI are incorporated into the Adopt-a-Harbor water quality monitoring program and its associated laboratory. The virtues of the procedures are that they are simple and quick to use, suitable for trained volunteers to carry out, easily reproducible, and amenable to quality assurance checks.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  17. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  18. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  19. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  20. Statistical assessment for spatio-temporal water quality in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ki, Seo Jin; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Young Geun; Lee, Yun Seok; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive water quality monitoring was conducted to assess the water quality conditions and to determine the impact of urban infrastructure on ambient water quality in Angkor, Cambodia. During this study, surface water, groundwater, and sediment samples were collected for two distinctive seasons in 2006-2007 at 58 monitoring sites along and near the Siem Reap River, in Tole Sap Lake (TSL), and West Baray, the primary water resources in this region. To assess the seasonal and spatial variability of 27 water quality parameters, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical cluster analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were conducted using the obtained data. Differences and relationships between the surface water and groundwater were also investigated using t-test and correlation analysis, respectively. The results of these tests showed that the bacterial indicators need special attention as the urban infrastructure of the downtown area caused increased levels of these bacterial indicators in both surface water and groundwater. However, for most parameters, though surface water showed strong seasonal variations, groundwater presented relatively stable conditions between seasons (p > 0.05) with site-specific geochemical conditions. Sediment quality illustrated that pollution levels of 10 trace metals were the highest in TSL because of its unique characteristic (river with backward flow), but did not reflect any potential enrichment from urban development. Overall, the results reveal that while the urban infrastructure in this region has not significantly affected most of the water quality parameters, bacteria and coliphages are still a main concern due to their contributions in widespread waterborne diseases. Thus, careful mitigation plans for reducing each pollutant source are needed in the Angkor area.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the American River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shulters, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on an analysis of water-quality data from more than 168 sites, the American River was found to be of overall good quality and suitable for all beneficial uses specified by the State of California, even though its natural condition has been altered by man 's activities in the basin. Time trend analyses indicate an increase in specific conductance (dissolved solids), hardness, and alkalinity over the past 20 years in the lower American River near Sacramento downstream from treated effluent and urban runoff sources. Most violations of specific water quality objectives for the basin have occurred in this segment. Water-quality conditions in the segment are expected to improve in 1982 when sewage treatment facility discharges will be discontinued. Potential water-quality problems in the upper American River basin could result from recreational overuse, improper land-use or poorly managed mining operations. Recreational overuse and increased urban runoff are the principal threats to water quality in the lower American River. Proposed monitoring activities include low-flow investigations on the lower American to measure diurnal variations in water-quality characteristics and studies in the uppper basin to determine the impact of increasing recreation and development as well as the effects of mine discharge. (USGS)

  2. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    PubMed

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) <90% baseline, high dissolved oxygen (DO) >400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the

  3. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  4. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  5. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  6. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  7. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  8. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  9. Coast Salish and U.S. Geological Survey 2009 Tribal Journey water quality project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akin, Sarah K.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    The Salish Sea, contained within the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is the homeland of the Coast Salish Peoples and contains a diverse array of marine resources unique to this area that have sustained Coast Salish cultures and traditions for millennia. In July 2009, the Coast Salish People and U.S. Geological Survey conducted a second water quality study of the Salish Sea to examine spatial and temporal variability of environmental conditions of these surface waters as part of the annual Tribal Journey. Six canoes of approximately 100 towed multi parameter water-quality sondes as the Salish People traveled their ancestral waters during the middle of summer. Sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were measured simultaneously at ten-second intervals, and more than 54,000 data points spanning 1,300 kilometers of the Salish Sea were collected. The project also synthesized Coast Salish ecological knowledge and culture with scientific monitoring to better understand and predict the response of coastal habitats and marine resources. Comparisons with data collected in 2008 reveal significantly higher mean surface-water temperatures in most subbasins in 2009 linked to record air temperatures that affected the Pacific Northwest in July 2009. Through large-scale spatial measurements collected each summer, the project helps to identify patterns in summer water quality, areas of water-quality impairment, and trends occurring through time.

  10. Ground-water quality in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from 92 wells in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho. Current data were compiled with pre-1980 data from 116 wells to define water-quality conditions in major aquifers. Factors affecting water quality are composition of aquifer materials, water temperature, and source of recharge. Mixing of water by interaquifer flow, from confined, hot water aquifers (40 degrees Celsius or greater) with water from cold water aquifers (less than 20 degrees Celsius) occurs along regional complex fault systems, and through partially cased boreholes. Cold water generally contains calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions; hot water generally contains sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Warm water (between 20 degrees and 40 degrees Celsius) has an intermediate chemical composition resulting from mixing. Ground-water quality is acceptable for most uses, although it locally contains chemical constituents or physical properties that may restrict its use. Effects of thermal water used for irrigation on quality of shallow ground water are inconclusive. Long-term increase in concentrations of several constituents in parts of the study area may be due to effects of land- and water-use activities, such as infiltration of septic-tank effluent. (USGS)

  11. Water Quality Records in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1964-01-01

    The quality-of-water investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey are concerned with the chemical and physical characteristics of surface and ground water supplies of the Nation in conjunction with water usage and its availability. The basic records for the 1964 water year for quality of surface waters within the State of California are given in this report. For convenience and interest there are also records for a few water quality stations in bordering States. The data were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of Eugene Brown, district chemist, Quality of Water Branch.

  12. Channel incision and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, F. D.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p < 0.02). Physical aquatic habitat and fish populations in the nonincised urbanizing stream were

  13. Selected findings and current perspectives on urban and agricultural water quality by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Studies by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program in the last decade describe water-quality conditions in nearly 120 agricultural and 35 urban watersheds ('urban' primarily refers to residential and commercial development over the last 50 years). The findings show that for both urban and agricultural areas, nonpoint chemical contamination is an issue. Much work still needs to be done in urban areas with point source contamination as well, including infrastructure improvements. Appreciable improvements in overall water quality, however, will depend upon effective management of point and nonpoint sources. The findings show that nonpoint chemical contamination is an agricultural and urban issue. Whereas a lot of work still needs to be pursued with point source contamination and infrastructure improvements in urban areas (such as related to combined and sanitary sewer overflows), appreciable improvements in water quality also will depend upon management of nonpoint sources. The NAWQA findings also show that water-quality conditions and aquatic health reflect a complex combination of land and chemical use, land-management practices, population density and watershed development, and natural features, such as soils, geology, hydrology, and climate. Contaminant concentrations vary from season to season and from watershed to watershed. Even among seemingly similar land uses and sources of contamination, different areas can have very different degrees of vulnerability and, therefore, have different rates at which improved treatment or management can lead to water-quality improvements.

  14. Environmental setting and water-quality issues in the lower Tennessee River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program are to describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources, identify water-quality changes over time, and identify the primary natural and human factors that affect water quality. The lower Tennessee River Basin is one of 59 river basins selected for study. The water-quality assessment of the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit began in 1997. The lower Tennessee River Basin study unit encompasses an area of about 19,500 square miles and extends from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Paducah, Kentucky. The study unit had a population of about 1.5 million people in 1995.The study unit was subdivided into subunits with relatively homogeneous geology and physiography. Subdivision of the study unit creates a framework to assess the effects of natural and cultural settings on water quality. Nine subunits were delineated in the study unit; their boundaries generally coincide with level III and level IV ecoregion boundaries. The nine subunits are the Coastal Plain, Transition, Western Highland Rim, Outer Nashville Basin, Inner Nashville Basin, Eastern Highland Rim, Plateau Escarpment and Valleys, Cumberland Plateau, and Valley and Ridge.The lower Tennessee River Basin consists of predominantly forest (51 percent) and agricultural land (40 percent). Activities related to agricultural land use, therefore, are the primary cultural factors likely to have a widespread effect on surface- and ground-water quality in the study unit. Inputs of total nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural activities in 1992 were about 161,000 and 37,900 tons, respectively. About 3.7 million pounds (active ingredient) of pesticides was applied to crops in the lower Tennessee River Basin in 1992.State water-quality agencies identified nutrient enrichment and pathogens as water-quality issues affecting both surface and ground water in the lower Tennessee River Basin. Water-quality data collected by State

  15. Developing an Integrated Modeling Tool for River Water Quality Index Assessment.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y C; Chien, C C; Yang, Z H; Surampalli, Rao Y; Kao, C M

    2017-03-01

      The goal of this study was to establish a modeling tool for river water quality with a direct linkage to the water quality index (WQI5) calculation and the river water quality model, the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), for pollutant transport modeling. The integrated WASP and WQI5 tool was field-tested to assess pollutant loadings and their impacts on river environment. Suspended solid (SS) and electric conductivity (EC) correlation equations and the WQI5 calculation tool were included in the water quality model and direct WQI5 calculation. The SS concentration, which was influenced by river flows, had crucial effects on river water quality and WQI5 values. EC value was controlled by dissolution of soil minerals, which was affected by the watershed drainage area and surface runoff. The integrated system could establish a direct correlation for river water quality, river flow, and WQI5.

  16. Application of multivariate statistical methods and water-quality index to evaluation of water quality in the Kashkan River.

    PubMed

    Mostafaei, Abazar

    2014-04-01

    The Kashkan River (KR), located in the west of Iran, is a major source of water supply for residential and agricultural areas as well as livestock. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial and long temporal variations of surface water quality of the KR based on measured chemical ions. The Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) technique was utilized using measurements from 10 sampling stations during a period of 36 years (1974-2009). The measured data included cations (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺), anions (HCO(3)⁻, Cl⁻, SO(4)²⁻), pH, and electrical conductivity. Principal component analysis was performed to identify which of the parameters to be included in the CCME WQI calculations were actually correlated and which ones were responsible for most of the variance observed in the water-quality data. In addition, KR water quality was evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes using conventional methods. Last, trend detection in the WQI time series of the KR showed water-quality degradation at all sampling stations, whereas the Jelhool sub-basin more adversely affects the quality of KR water in the watershed. Nonetheless, on average, the water quality of the KR was rated as fair.

  17. What can data assimilation do for water quality forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Riazi, H.; Seo, D. J.; Shin, C.; Kim, K.

    2014-12-01

    Proactive water quality management through preventive actions requires predictive information. Water quality forecasting can provide such information, e.g., to protect public health from harmful water quality conditions such as algal blooms or bacterial pollution and to allow the decision makers to respond more quickly to emergency situations such as oil spills for protection of water resources systems. Operational water quality forecasting is a large challenge due to the complexities and large uncertainties associated with various physiobiochemical processes involved. As such, there is an added impetus to utilize real-time observations effectively in the forecast process. In this work, we apply data assimilation (DA) to the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) model to improve accuracy of watershed water quality forecast. The DA technique used is based on maximum likelihood ensemble filter (MLEF).The resulting DA module, MLEF-HSPF, has been implemented in the Water Quality Forecast System at the National Institute of Environmental Research (WQFS-NIER) in Korea. In this presentation, we describe MLEF-HSPF, share multi-catchment evaluation results for the Nakdong River Basin in Korea, and identify science and operational challenges.

  18. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  19. Water-quality monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Sweetwater Authority is concerned with the quality of water it provides to its customers. Results from the water-quality monitoring study that the USGS is conducting in the Sweetwater watershed show that the contaminant concentrations in bed sediments, water, and air are reflected in increased urbanization. The bed sediments show the most dramatic evidence of this impact with a sharp increase of persistent organic chemical concentrations over the past 65 years. Water quality is also affected by urbanization in the form of chemicals in the runoff water and deposition of airborne chemicals. The concentrations of the detected organic chemicals in Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs are all well below the guidance limits set by State and Federal agencies to protect human health. Many of these compounds are detected only because of the sensitive analytical methods used. This monitoring program provides the Sweetwater Authority with information on what monitored chemicals are present in the reservoirs, and at what concentrations. With this information, the Authority can assess the associated risks, and consider future water treatment and remediation. These results also help focus and support future efforts by Sweetwater Authority to protect the watershed.

  20. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  1. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-23: Part 2: Science plan for improved water-quality information and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Demas, Charlie R.; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lee, Casey J.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a science strategy for the third decade of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, which since 1991, has been responsible for providing nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater; how water quality is changing over time; and the major natural and human factors that affect current water quality conditions and trends. The strategy is based on an extensive evaluation of the accomplishments of NAWQA over its first two decades, the current status of water-quality monitoring activities by USGS and its partners, and an updated analysis of stakeholder priorities. The plan is designed to address priority issues and national needs identified by NAWQA stakeholders and the National Research Council (2012) irrespective of budget constraints. This plan describes four major goals for the third decade (Cycle 3), the approaches for monitoring, modeling, and scientific studies, key partnerships required to achieve these goals, and products and outcomes that will result from planned assessment activities. The science plan for 2013–2023 is a comprehensive approach to meet stakeholder priorities for: (1) rebuilding NAWQA monitoring networks for streams, rivers, and groundwater, and (2) upgrading models used to extrapolate and forecast changes in water-quality and stream ecosystem condition in response to changing climate and land use. The Cycle 3 plan continues approaches that have been central to the Program’s long-term success, but adjusts monitoring intensities and study designs to address critical information needs and identified data gaps. Restoration of diminished monitoring networks and new directions in modeling and interpretative studies address growing and evolving public and stakeholder needs for water-quality information and improved management, particularly in the face of increasing challenges related to population growth, increasing demands for water, and changing land use and climate

  2. Statewide water-quality network for Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Steeves, Peter A.; Zimmerman, Marc James

    2001-01-01

    A water-quality monitoring program is proposed that would provide data to meet multiple information needs of Massachusetts agencies and other users concerned with the condition of the State's water resources. The program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Watershed Management, with input from many organizations involved in water-quality monitoring in the State, and focuses on inland surface waters (streams and lakes). The proposed monitoring program consists of several components, or tiers, which are defined in terms of specific monitoring objectives, and is intended to complement the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative (MWI) basin assessments. Several components were developed using the Neponset River Basin in eastern Massachusetts as a pilot area, or otherwise make use of data from and sampling approaches used in that basin as part of a MWI pilot assessment in 1994. To guide development of the monitoring program, reviews were conducted of general principles of network design, including monitoring objectives and approaches, and of ongoing monitoring activities of Massachusetts State agencies.Network tiers described in this report are primarily (1) a statewide, basin-based assessment of existing surface-water-quality conditions, and (2) a fixed-station network for determining contaminant loads carried by major rivers. Other components, including (3) targeted programs for hot-spot monitoring and other objectives, and (4) compliance monitoring, also are discussed. Monitoring programs for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads for specific water bodies, which would constitute another tier of the network, are being developed separately and are not described in this report. The basin-based assessment of existing conditions is designed to provide information on the status of surface waters with respect to State water-quality standards and designated uses in accordance with the

  3. Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

    Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

  4. Impacts of Extreme Flood Inundation on Bank Filtration Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascott, Matthew; Lapworth, Daniel; Gooddy, Daren; Sage, Robert; Karapanos, Ilias; Ward, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Bank filtration systems are a significant component of global water supply and considered to be vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources planning and management under potential future climate change. We provide the first systematic assessment of the recovery in water quality following extreme inundation at a bank filtration site following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration > 70 days) flood event. During the inundation event, bank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (fraction of surface water, fSW ˜ 1, high DOC > 140% steady state values (SS), > 1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low SEC < 90% SS, low nitrate, high DO > 500% SS). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2 - 3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (fSW ˜ 0.2 - 0.5, higher nitrate and SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological setting of the site, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Water resources planners and managers should consider flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site if riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events under climate change. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective bank filtration

  5. National patterns in wetland water quality from the 2001 NWCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality (WQ) is central to understanding ecological condition of lakes, streams, and coastal waters but less often assessed in wetlands. The utility of national-scale wetland WQ data was examined in the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment, which covered 48 USA state...

  6. Climate-water quality relationships in Texas reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelca, Rodica; Hayhoe, Katharine; Scott-Fleming, Ian; Crow, Caleb; Dawson, D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of salts in surface water bodies can be affected by the natural environment, local human activities such as surface and ground water withdrawals, land use, and energy extraction, and variability and long-term trends in atmospheric conditions including temperature and precipitation. Here, we quantify the relationship between 121 indicators of mean and extreme temperature and precipitation and 24 water quality parameters in 57 Texas reservoirs using observational data records covering the period 1960 to 2010. We find that water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and phosphorus all show consistent correlations with atmospheric predictors, including high and low temperature extremes, dry days, heavy precipitation events, and mean temperature and precipitation over time scales ranging from one week to two years. Based on this analysis and published future projections for this region, we expect climate change to increase water temperatures, decrease dissolved oxygen levels, decrease pH, increase specific conductance, and increase levels of sulfate, chloride in Texas reservoirs. Over decadal time scales, this may affect aquatic ecosystems in the reservoirs, including altering the risk of conditions conducive to algae occurrence, as well as affecting the quality of water available for human consumption and recreation.

  7. Water Quality of Streams in and near the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, R. Edward; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected during 2002-04 at monitoring stations on 14 streams either within or entering the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. The samples were collected from April through December of each year, mostly under low (base-flow) conditions, and were analyzed for major ions and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Results of the analyses, in concert with land-use information in the drainage basins associated with the samples, were used to define water-quality characteristics; to identify relations among water quality, streamflow, and season; and to establish a baseline and develop a method that could be used to detect future changes in water quality. For a given water-quality characteristic, median values commonly varied among the 14 water-quality monitoring stations. For example, the median concentration of total phosphorus at the station on Sand Hill Creek (0.033 milligrams per liter as P) was four times the corresponding median concentration at the station on Vancampens Brook (0.008 milligrams per liter as P). Results of correlations between median values of water-quality characteristics and land-use characteristics of the drainage basins indicate that agricultural practices and the presence of wetlands could be important factors affecting the concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in these streams. Results of analyses of samples from the nine stations without permitted wastewater facilities in their basins indicate that medians of both total phosphorus and total nitrogen increased with an increase in the area of agricultural land in the drainage basins; the levels of significance are 0.01 for total phosphorus and 0.01 for total nitrogen. When only the seven stations without permitted wastewater facilities and with less than 5 percent of the basin in agricultural land are considered, median concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen increased with an increase in the area of wetlands in the basins; the levels of

  8. Orthopedic conditions that affect the avian pelvic limb.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Brown, Nigel H

    2002-01-01

    Birds are often presented to the veterinarian with injury or disease that affects their ability to use one or both legs. Although in wild birds traumatic injuries usually involve the wing, captive birds especially falconer's birds, are usually presented with injuries to their legs. This article focuses on conditions affecting practice: birds of prey, and injured wild birds. The birds are presented with lameness or loss of use of the leg. The conditions described can be initiated by injury or by disease affecting an area other than the leg, such as the kidney or spinal cord, or they can be toxic or metabolic.

  9. FIRESTORM: Modelling the water quality risk of wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, C. I.; Sheridan, G. J.; Smith, H. G.; Jones, O.; Chong, D.; Tolhurst, K.

    2012-04-01

    Following wildfire, loss of vegetation and changes to soil properties may result in decreases in infiltration rates, less rainfall interception, and higher overland flow velocities. Rainfall events affecting burn areas before vegetation recovers can cause high magnitude erosion events that impact on downstream water quality. For cities and towns that rely upon fire-prone forest catchments for water supply, wildfire impacts on water quality represent a credible risk to water supply security. Quantifying the risk associated with the occurrence of wildfires and the magnitude of water quality impacts has important implications for managing water supplies. At present, no suitable integrative model exists that considers the probabilistic nature of system inputs as well as the range of processes and scales involved in this problem. We present FIRESTORM, a new model currently in development that aims to determine the range of sediment and associated contaminant loads that may be delivered to water supply reservoirs from the combination of wildfire and subsequent rainfall events. This Monte Carlo model incorporates the probabilistic nature of fire ignition, fire weather and rainfall, and includes deterministic models for fire behaviour and locally dominant erosion processes. FIRESTORM calculates the magnitude and associated annual risk of catchment-scale sediment loads associated with the occurrence of wildfire and rainfall generated by two rain event types. The two event types are localised, high intensity, short-duration convective storms, and widespread, longer duration synoptic-scale rainfall events. Initial application and testing of the model will focus on the two main reservoirs supplying water to Melbourne, Australia, both of which are situated in forest catchments vulnerable to wildfire. Probabilistic fire ignition and weather scenarios have been combined using 40 years of fire records and weather observations. These are used to select from a dataset of over 80

  10. Twenty years of water-quality studies in the Cheney Reservoir Watershed, Kansas, 1996-2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.; Kramer, Ariele R.

    2017-03-31

    Since 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Wichita, has done studies in the Cheney Reservoir watershed to understand environmental effects on water-quality conditions. Early studies (1996–2001) determined subwatershed sources of contaminants, nutrient and sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, changes in reservoir sediment quality over time, and watershed sources of phosphorus. Later studies (2001–present) focused on nutrient and sediment concentrations and mass transport from the watershed; the presence of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in the reservoir; and development of regression models for real-time computations of water-quality constituents of interest that may affect drinking-water treatment. This fact sheet summarizes key results from studies done by the USGS during 1996–2016 in the Cheney Reservoir watershed and Cheney Reservoir.

  11. Water quality and surfactant effects on the water repellency of a sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrsch, G. A.; Sojka, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryDifferences in irrigation water quality may affect the water repellency of soils treated or untreated with surfactants. Using simulated irrigations, we evaluated water quality and surfactant application rate effects upon the water repellency of a Quincy sand (Xeric Torripsamment). We used a split plot design with two irrigation water qualities, three surfactant application rates, two irrigations, and 12 sampling depths as fixed effects, with four replications. Each water quality × rate × irrigation combination was a main plot and depth was a repeated-measures subplot. A slightly water repellent Quincy soil (average water drop penetration time, WDPT, of 2.5 s) was packed in 25-mm lifts (or layers) to a bulk density of 1.6 Mg m -3 into 0.15-m-high × 0.105-m-diameter plastic columns. We studied a nonionic surfactant, a blend of an ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer and an alkyl polyglycoside. We sprayed the surfactant at rates of 0, 9.4, and 46.8 L ha -1, diluted with reverse osmosis water (RW) to apply 187 L ha -1 of solution, onto the soil surface of each packed column. About 1 and 5 days after surfactant application, columns were sprinkler irrigated with either RW or well water (WW). The WDPT was then measured with depth on soil air-dried after the first and after the second irrigation. After the first irrigation, WDPT at depths from 97 to 117 mm averaged across surfactant rates reached a maximum of 28 s, regardless of irrigation water quality. WDPT was greatest at 117 mm with RW but only at 97 mm with WW. After the second irrigation, maximum WDPT was 1202 s at 139 mm with RW but only 161 s at 117 mm with WW, nearly 7.5 fold less than with RW. WDPT was greatest near the wetting front, irrespective of water quality. We conclude that irrigation water containing modest amounts of electrolytes or salts, in this case mostly salts of Ca 2+, reduces water repellency in the presence or absence of surfactant. Our experimental results may also help

  12. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Verbal Conditioning of Affective Self-Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1971-01-01

    Subjects were assigned to four experimental groups: neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts, and a control group. Results indicated that introversion, and not neuroticism, facilitated conditioning processes. Neuroticism, however, did not interact on the conditioning of affective self disclosures. Introverted…

  13. Numerical water quality model study for the Los Angeles Harbor Pier 400 project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Port of Los Angeles plans to construct an additional port facility referred to as Pier 400. The Pier 400 harbor facility may affect water quality by changing the tidal circulation and flushing patterns. Numerical water quality model simulations were used to compare flushing and dissolved oxygen (DO) resources at existing conditions and two stages of plan implementation. The flushing simulations computed the transport and dilution of a conservative tracer inserted into various regions of the harbor. The flushing studies provided a qualitative comparison between plans where a decrease in flushing rate prolongs the period of time that oxygen-demanding substances exert their influence on the DO concentration. The water quality simulations included the variables temperature, phytoplankton, phosphate, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, and DO, and were conducted for the period August 1-31, 1987, where a complete set of field data were available to establish initial and boundary conditions and to calibrate the model under existing conditions. Two flushing studies were conducted: injection of tracer into all regions interior to the Federal breakwaters, and injection. of tracer only in the region east of the Stage 1 access causeway. The first flushing study revealed that the two stages of plan implementation inhibited flushing in the LA Outer Harbor, Fish Harbor, Seaplane Lagoon, and Main Channel. The second flushing study showed that the access corridor prevented advection to areas west of the causeway; the dilution rate decreased by an order of three.

  14. Preliminary water-quality assessment of the upper White River near Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wangsness, David J.; Eikenberry, S.E.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    The White River Park Commission is planning the development of park facilities along the White River through Indianapolis, Ind. A key element in the planning is the determination of whether water quality of the river is suitable for recreation. A preliminary water-quality assessment conducted August 4-5, 1980, indicated that, during low-flow steady-state conditions, the river is suitable for partial body contact recreation (any contact with water up to, but not including complete submergence). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations varied but were higher than the Indiana water-quality standards established to ensure conditions for the maintenance of a well-balanced, warm-water fish community. High fecal-coliform densities that have been observed in the White River during high streamflow are probably caused by stormwater runoff carried by combined storm and sanitary sewers. However, during the low-flow, steady-state conditions on August 4-5, 1980, fecal-coliform densities were within the Indiana standards for partial body contact recreation. Quantities of organic matter and concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in the White River were generally within the limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and were generally similar to values for other Indiana rivers. Chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and mercury are accumulating in bottom materials downstream from 30th Street. The phytoplankton concentrations in the White River were high. The dominant phytoplankton species were indicative of rivers moderately affected by organic wastes. (USGS)

  15. Using Scientific Inquiry to Teach Students about Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame

    2012-01-01

    This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…

  16. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  17. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    recent water-quality conditions and trends--is currently underway. The second activity--fixed-station water-quality sampling at eight stations--began in April 1987 and will last at least 3 years. Water-quality data collected at these stations will be used to determine the frequency of occurrence of constituent concentrations, their annual and seasonal loads, and time trends in concentrations for a selected number of constituents. The third activity will be synoptic water-quality studies. Each study will involve sampling many sites at specific flow conditions and for selected water-quality constituents. Information gained from these studies will supplement informa tion gained from fixed-station sampling. A synoptic study of streambed sediments is tentatively planned for the summer of 1987 to describe the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in the basin. The fourth activity will consist of one or more topical subbasin or river-reach studies. The purpose of such studies is to better define certain water-quality conditions in specific areas and gain an understanding of the processes affecting the observed conditions. The fifth activity is the preparation of reports that will describe results from each of the first four activities. Quality assurance and coordination are being provided at both the national and pilot-project levels. A technical quality-assurance plan that addresses all aspects of sample collection, analysis, and reporting is being prepared at the national level. This plan will be appended as needed at the pilot-project level. A National Coordinating Work Group that functions under the auspices of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data and the Advisory Committee on Water Data for Public Use has been established at the national level. A local liaison committee consisting of representatives from Federal, State, and local agencies has been established to enhance communication and to ensure that the scientific information produced by the

  18. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  19. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  20. Diatom (Bacillariophyta) community response to water quality and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Butcher, Jason T.; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic algal communities are sensitive to environmental stresses and are used as indicators of water quality. Diatoms were collected from three streams that drain the Great Marsh at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Diatom communities, water chemistry, and land use were measured at each site to test the hypothesis that differences in land use indirectly affect diatom communities, through changes in water quality. Relationships among these variables were examined by correlation, cluster, and detrended correspondence analysis. Several water chemistry variables were correlated to several land-use categories. Diatom species diversity was most variable in disturbed areas with poorer water quality and was correlated with land use and total alkalinity, total hardness, and specific conductance. Sites within each stream were grouped in terms of their diatom assemblage by both cluster and detrended correspondence analysis with but two exceptions in Dunes Creek. Diatom communities in the three streams responded to land use through its effects on water quality. The results of this study demonstrate the use of diatom assemblages as indicators of water quality, which can be linked to land use in a watershed.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  2. Parameters affecting HS emissions removal and re-circulating water quality in a pilot-scale sequential biological treatment system at a wastewater lift station in Brownsville, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Karre, Anand K; Bairu, Pavan; Jones, Kim D; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a pilot-scale sequential biological treatment system combining a biotrickling filter and biofilter was used to optimize the removal of variable emission H(2)S loadings ranging from 30 to 120 g m(-3) h(-1)at a wastewater lift station in Brownsville, Texas USA. The biotrickling filter recycle water pH remained between 2.0 to 3.0 during the four months of unit operation and the overall removal efficiency for H(2)S was >99%. The biotrickling filter removal efficiency was 70 ± 8%, with an elimination capacity of 10 to 80 g m(-3) h(-1) while the biofilter elimination capacity ranged from 10 to 40 g m(-3) h(-1). The sequential treatment system was operated initially at an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 120 s (50 s for the biotrickling filter and 70 s for biofilter) for two months and then at an EBRT of 60 s (25 s for biotrickling filter and 35s for biofilter) for the remainder of the operating period; remarkably, there was only a slight decrease in removal efficiency at 60 s EBRT. In order to qualitatively evaluate the changes in recycle water quality in the system on the performance of the unit in precipitating sulfur species, the equilibrium chemical model, Visual MINTEQ was employed. The model predicted speciation results based on the feed water quality and sulfur loadings, and also forecast some iron-sulfur complexes which have potential to form some complex precipitates. This research demonstrated that low pH re-circulating water quality in the biological treatment of H(2)S was possible without compromising the high removal efficiency, and that an improved understanding of the recycle water chemistry of the trickling unit of a sequential treatment system could be useful in the overall optimization of the process.

  3. Water Quality and Algal Data for the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    The upper North Umpqua River Basin has experienced a variety of water-quality problems since at least the early 1990's. Several reaches of the North Umpqua River are listed as water-quality limited under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Diamond Lake, a eutrophic lake that is an important source of water and nutrients to the upper North Umpqua River, is also listed as a water-quality limited waterbody (pH, nuisance algae). A draft Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was proposed for various parameters and is expected to be adopted in full in 2006. Diamond Lake has supported potentially toxic blue-green algae blooms since 2001 that have resulted in closures to recreational water contact and impacts to the local economy. Increased populations of the invasive tui chub fish are reportedly responsible, because they feed on zooplankton that would otherwise control the algal blooms. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Diamond Lake Restoration Project advocates reduced fish biomass in Diamond Lake in 2006 as the preferred alternative. A restoration project scheduled to reduce fish biomass for the lake includes a significant water-level drawdown that began in January 2006. After the drawdown of Diamond Lake, the fish toxicant rotenone was applied to eradicate the tui chub. The lake will be refilled and restocked with game fish in 2007. Winter exports of nutrients from Diamond Lake during the restoration project could affect the summer trophic status of the North Umpqua River if retention and recycling in Lemolo Lake are significant. The FEIS includes comprehensive monitoring to assess the water quality of the restored Diamond Lake and the effects of that restoration downstream. One component of the monitoring is the collection of baseline data, in order to observe changes in the river's water quality and algal conditions resulting from the restoration of Diamond Lake. During July 2005, the USGS, in cooperation with Douglas County, performed a synoptic

  4. Managing the water quality of the Kafue River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambole, Michael Sankwe

    Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained

  5. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water-Quality Networks (WQN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Richard B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.; Briel, L.I.; Buttleman, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM set contains data from two USGS national stream water-quality networks, the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) and the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), operated during the past 30 years. These networks were established to provide national and regional descriptions of stream water-quality conditions and trends, based on uniform monitoring of selected watersheds throughout the United States, and to improve our understanding of the effects of the natural environment and human activities on water quality. The HBN, consisting of 63 relatively small, minimally disturbed watersheds, provides data for investigating naturally induced changes in streamflow and water quality and the effects of airborne substances on water quality. NASQAN, consisting of 618 larger, more culturally influenced watersheds, provides information for tracking water-quality conditions in major U.S. rivers and streams.

  6. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  7. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Sheila M; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J

    2013-03-26

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl(-) concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl(-) concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases.

  8. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  9. Water quality and bed sediment quality in the Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, 2012–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moorman, Michelle C.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rhoni-Aref, Ahmed; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-23

    , 12 metals in surficial bed sediments were detected at levels above a published sediment-quality threshold. These metals included chromium, mercury, copper, lead, arsenic, nickel, and cadmium. Sites with several metal concentrations above the respective thresholds had relatively high concentrations of organic carbon or fine sediment (silt plus clay), or both and were predominantly located in the western and northwestern parts of the Albemarle Sound.Results from the second phase were generally similar to those of the first in that relatively few constituents exceeded a water-quality threshold, both pH and chlorophyll a were detected above the respective water-quality thresholds, and many of these elevated concentrations occurred in the northern embayments and in Currituck Sound. In contrast to the results from phase one, the cyanotoxin, microcystin was detected at more than 10 times the water-quality threshold during a phytoplankton bloom on the Chowan River at Mount Gould, North Carolina in August of 2013. This was the only cyanotoxin concentration measured during the entire study that exceeded a respective water-quality threshold.The information presented in this report can be used to improve understanding of water-quality conditions in the Albemarle Sound, particularly when evaluating causal and response variables that are indicators of eutrophication. In particular, this information can be used by State agencies to help develop water-quality criteria for nutrients, and to understand factors like cyanotoxins that may affect fisheries and recreation in the Albemarle Sound region.

  10. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    developed a framework for a comprehensive ground-water-quality monitoring and assessment program for California. The proposed framework relies extensively on previous work conducted by the USGS through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. In particular, the NAWQA program defines three types of ground-water assessment: (1) status, the assessment of the current quality of the ground-water resource; (2) trends, the detection of changes in water quality, and (3) understanding, assessing the human and natural factors that affect ground-water quality. A Statewide, comprehensive ground-water quality-monitoring and assessment program is most efficiently accomplished by applying uniform and consistent study-design and data-collection protocols to the entire State. At the same time, a comprehensive program should be relevant at a variety of scales, and therefore needs to retain flexibility to address regional and local issues. Consequently, many of the program components include a predominant element that will be consistently applied in all basins, and a secondary element that may be applied in specific basins where local conditions warrant attention.

  11. Water quality and macroinvertebrate communities of Emigration and Red Butte Creeks, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise

    2000-01-01

    Residential development in the canyons and foothills surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah, is growing at a rapid pace. Urban development typically degrades the water quality when formerly natural lands are developed. In Emigration Canyon, however, residential development is replacing land formerly used for grazing and recreation. It is not clear how this land use change has affected the water quality and biotic communities in this watershed. The water quality and macroinvertebrate communities of Emigration Creek and neighboring Red Butte Creek were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) during summer 1999.

  12. The Effects of Storm Runoff on Water Quality and the Coping Strategy of a Deep Canyon-Shaped Source Water Reservoir in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weixing; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Zhou, Zizhen; Li, Yang; Zeng, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Storm runoff events in the flooding season affect the water quality of reservoirs and increase risks to the water supply, but coping strategies have seldom been reported. The phenomenon of turbid current intrusion resulting in water turbidity and anoxic conditions reappearing after storm runoff, resulting in the deterioration of water quality, was observed in the flooding season in the deep canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir. The objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of storm runoff on the Heihe Reservoir water quality and find a coping strategy. In this study, an intensive sampling campaign measuring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nutrients, and metals were conducted in the reservoir over a period of two years, and the water-lifting aerators were improved to achieve single aeration and a full layer of mixing and oxygenation functions using different volumes of gas. The operation of the improved water-lifting aerators mixed the reservoir three months ahead of the natural mixing time, and good water quality was maintained during the induced mixing period, thereby extending the good water quality period. The results can provide an effective coping strategy to improve the water quality of a source water reservoir and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:26184258

  13. The Effects of Storm Runoff on Water Quality and the Coping Strategy of a Deep Canyon-Shaped Source Water Reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weixing; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Zhou, Zizhen; Li, Yang; Zeng, Kang

    2015-07-10

    Storm runoff events in the flooding season affect the water quality of reservoirs and increase risks to the water supply, but coping strategies have seldom been reported. The phenomenon of turbid current intrusion resulting in water turbidity and anoxic conditions reappearing after storm runoff, resulting in the deterioration of water quality, was observed in the flooding season in the deep canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir. The objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of storm runoff on the Heihe Reservoir water quality and find a coping strategy. In this study, an intensive sampling campaign measuring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nutrients, and metals were conducted in the reservoir over a period of two years, and the water-lifting aerators were improved to achieve single aeration and a full layer of mixing and oxygenation functions using different volumes of gas. The operation of the improved water-lifting aerators mixed the reservoir three months ahead of the natural mixing time, and good water quality was maintained during the induced mixing period, thereby extending the good water quality period. The results can provide an effective coping strategy to improve the water quality of a source water reservoir and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  14. Using water-quality profiles to characterize seasonal water quality and loading in the upper Animas River basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wright, Winfield G.

    2003-01-01

    One of the important types of information needed to characterize water quality in streams affected by historical mining is the seasonal pattern of toxic trace-metal concentrations and loads. Seasonal patterns in water quality are estimated in this report using a technique called water-quality profiling. Water-quality profiling allows land managers and scientists to assess priority areas to be targeted for characterization and(or) remediation by quantifying the timing and magnitude of contaminant occurrence. Streamflow and water-quality data collected at 15 sites in the upper Animas River Basin during water years 1991?99 were used to develop water-quality profiles. Data collected at each sampling site were used to develop ordinary least-squares regression models for streamflow and constituent concentrations. Streamflow was estimated by correlating instantaneous streamflow measured at ungaged sites with continuous streamflow records from streamflow-gaging stations in the subbasin. Water-quality regression models were developed to estimate hardness and dissolved cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations based on streamflow and seasonal terms. Results from the regression models were used to calculate water-quality profiles for streamflow, constituent concentrations, and loads. Quantification of cadmium, copper, and zinc loads in a stream segment in Mineral Creek (sites M27 to M34) was presented as an example application of water-quality profiling. The application used a method of mass accounting to quantify the portion of metal loading in the segment derived from uncharacterized sources during different seasonal periods. During May, uncharacterized sources contributed nearly 95 percent of the cadmium load, 0 percent of the copper load (or uncharacterized sources also are attenuated), and about 85 percent of the zinc load at M34. During September, uncharacterized sources contributed about 86 percent of the cadmium load, 0 percent of the copper load (or uncharacterized

  15. Texas Water Quality Board Teachers Workshop Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Water Quality Board, Austin.

    These materials are designed for teachers participating in an inservice workshop on water quality. Included in the materials are a workshop agenda, a water awareness pretest, and the various parameters and tests that are used to determine and measure water quality. The parameters are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact to…

  16. Water Quality of a Micronesian Atoll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbett, Arthur N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, a water quality survey of the eastern end of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands was conducted to determine the water quality of selected lagoon and open ocean sites and provide guidance for the construction of a sewerage system. This study revealed that lagoon waters were moderately to severely contaminated. (BT)

  17. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  18. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  19. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  20. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  1. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  2. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  3. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  4. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  5. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  6. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  7. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  8. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  9. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  10. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  11. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  12. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  13. A Review of Surface Water Quality Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibei; Jia, Peng; Qi, Changjun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries. PMID:23853533

  14. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. ); Stewart, E.H. )

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

  15. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  16. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. PMID:27128934

  17. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-04-27

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas.

  18. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  19. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.107 - Changed conditions affecting security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changed conditions affecting security. 1542.107 Section 1542.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY...

  5. Analyzing the potential for water quality externalities as the result of market water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1999-09-01

    This article presents a comparative static framework for predicting the water quality outcomes of water trade. The focus is on a comprehensive treatment of water quality processes. Previous work has assumed that reductions in agriculturally induced water quality externalities are an increasing function of irrigation application rates. The comparative static framework used here allows for the possibility that water transfer can result in both positive and negative water quality externalities as the result of dilution, even when the rate of loading decreases. We apply our model to the Owyhee aquifer of eastern Oregon, an area where nitrate concentrations exceeded the EPA standard of 10 ppm in over 30% of area test wells in 1991. In conclusion, we describe conditions when water trade is most likely to generate positive versus negative water quality externalities. We also draw policy conclusions about the kinds of institutional rules best suited to balance trade-offs between gains to trade, water quality externalities, and transactions costs.

  6. The uncertainty effects of design flow on water quality management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2008-09-01

    In water quality management, pollution control strategies have been sought to accord with the assimilative capacity of water bodies so as to preserve water quality. The waste load allocation (WLA) is a useful approach to determine the allowable loading of pollution sources in water quality management. For any WLA, a particular water body condition is needed as a basic scenario under which the relevant parameters are fixed. The particular flow rate is known as design flow and usually set at low flow in order to be protective. The design flow is traditionally a particular deterministic value, such as Q (75), implying that it is expected that the probability of water quality violation is 25% in the long run. However, this long-term expectation might not be realized in individual years due to variability of natural flow. The flow variability will make a WLA plan overoptimistic or over-conservative in different years, suggesting that the deterministic design flow without uncertainty consideration might lead to an ineffective or inefficient decision-making. To address the problem, we explicate the relationship between flow variability, design flow and water quality with different flow distributions to facilitate the understanding of the process of a WLA. In order to manifest the uncertainty effects of design flow, the results from the annual flow duration curve (AFDC) is compared with the conventional flow duration curve (FDC). The AFDC approach is capable of obtaining the uncertainty level of the design flow by generating the confidence interval rather than a fixed value. The effect of different record lengths on design flow determination is estimated as well. Finally, a refined WLA process is proposed with a re-examination of water quality violation to improve the allocation decision under uncertainty. TaHan River Basin in northern Taiwan is used as a case study.

  7. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    PubMed Central

    Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; Spînu, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human involvement is undeniable, and subsequently, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve became one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. This review is an attempt to analyse the microbiological contamination and to identify the major role human activities play in altering the water quality of the rivers. PMID:23813274

  8. Redox processes and water quality of selected principal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions in 15 principal aquifer (PA) systems of the United States, and their impact on several water quality issues, were assessed from a large data base collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the USGS. The logic of these assessments was based on the observed ecological succession of electron acceptors such as dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate and threshold concentrations of these substrates needed to support active microbial metabolism. Similarly, the utilization of solid-phase electron acceptors such as Mn(IV) and Fe(III) is indicated by the production of dissolved manganese and iron. An internally consistent set of threshold concentration criteria was developed and applied to a large data set of 1692 water samples from the PAs to assess ambient redox conditions. The indicated redox conditions then were related to the occurrence of selected natural (arsenic) and anthropogenic (nitrate and volatile organic compounds) contaminants in ground water. For the natural and anthropogenic contaminants assessed in this study, considering redox conditions as defined by this framework of redox indicator species and threshold concentrations explained many water quality trends observed at a regional scale. An important finding of this study was that samples indicating mixed redox processes provide information on redox heterogeneity that is useful for assessing common water quality issues. Given the interpretive power of the redox framework and given that it is relatively inexpensive and easy to measure the chemical parameters included in the framework, those parameters should be included in routine water quality monitoring programs whenever possible.

  9. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.

    PubMed

    Seeboonruang, Uma

    2012-06-30

    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment.

  10. Water quality at and adjacent to the south Dade County solid-waste disposal facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance was conducted at the south Dade County solid-waste landfill near Goulds, Florida, from December 1977 through August 1978. The landfill is located directly on the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which, in the study area, is affected by saltwater intrusion. Water samples collected from six monitor well sites at two depths and four surface-water sites were analyzed to determine the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the ground water and surface water of the study area. Results indicated that water quality beneath the landfill was highly variable with location and depth. Leachate was generally more evident in the shallow wells and during the dry-season sampling, but was greatly diluted and dispersed in the deep wells and during the wet season. High concentrations of contaminants were generated primarily in areas of the landfill with the most recent waste deposits. Chloride (limited to the shallow wells and the dry season), alkalinity, ammonia, iron, manganese, lead, phosphorus, and organic nitrogen indicate leachate contamination of the aquifer. Water-quality characteristics in the surface waters were generally only slightly above background levels. (USGS)

  11. Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Impacts on beach water quality and human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verhougstraete, M.P.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.

  12. Water quality in shallow alluvial aquifers, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.; Bails, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Shallow ground water in areas of increasing urban development within the Upper Colorado River Basin was sampled for inorganic and organic constituents to characterize water-quality conditions and to identify potential anthropogenic effects resulting from development. In 1997, 25 shallow monitoring wells were installed and sampled in five areas of urban development in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, and Summit Counties, Colorado. The results of this study indicate that the shallow ground water in the study area is suitable for most uses. Nonparametric statistical methods showed that constituents and parameters measured in the shallow wells were often significantly different between the five developing urban areas. Radon concentrations exceeded the proposed USEPA maximum contaminant level at all sites. The presence of nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds indicate anthropogenic activities are affecting the shallow ground-water quality in the study area. Nitrate as N concentrations greater than 2.0 mg/L were observed in ground water recharged between the 1980s and 1990s. Low concentrations of methylene blue active substances were detected at a few sites. Total coliform bacteria were detected at ten sites; however, E. coli was not detected. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the effects of increasing urban development on the shallow ground-water quality in the study area.

  13. Associations of aquatic invertebrates and water quality in the ecology of an emerging tropical disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbow, M.; Merritt, R. W.; Kimbirauskas, R.; Kolar, R.

    2005-05-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection is commonly called Buruli ulcer, a rapidly emerging skin disease that is often disfiguring and causes severe and lasting morbidity in developing nations of the tropics and sub-tropics. Outbreaks of BU are nearly always associated with slow-flowing aquatic habitats affected by human-mediated landscape changes, and biting aquatic insects are thought to play a role in transmission. As a part of a World Health Organization initiative, we are determining landscape factors that determine water quality conditions conducive for enhanced M. ulcerans growth and abundance in the aquatic environment. In June 2004 we collected water quality and invertebrate data from 12 water bodies near Accra, Ghana, Africa. Preliminary analyses found predator-dominated communities (from 47% - 64%) with Hemiptera (e.g., Belostomatidae and Naucoridae) most often collected. Using exploratory canonical correspondence analysis, sites separated out by functional feeding groups and water quality variables. Higher water hardness and total suspended solids was most associated with scrapers (i.e., snails) and shrimp, respectively. PCR evidence suggests that M. ulcerans is found among snails, fish and invertebrates. Future studies are proposed that take a multi-scale, multidisciplinary approach for identifying disturbance metrics that can be used to predict human Buruli ulcer incidence near monitored water bodies.

  14. Causes of variations in water quality and aquatic ecology in rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, James R.

    1996-01-01

    Physical and aquatic biological conditions differ among the Mississippi River and its major tributaries (the St. Croix and Minnesota Rivers) in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The quality of surface water and the ecological condition of rivers affect the ways in which we use them. The St. Croix River is used for recreation; the Mississippi River is used for recreation and is a corridor for commerce; and the Minnesota River primarily drains agricultural lands. Analysis of the environmental framework of the basins and water-quality and ecological information by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program shows that the conditions of the rivers are a product of a combination of factors including climate, hydrology, geology, soils, land use, land cover, water management, and water use.

  15. Hydrologic and water quality sensitivity to climate and land ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes a current EPA ORD project. No project report or other download is available at this time. Please see the section Next Steps below for a timeline of anticipated products of this work. Background: Projected changes in climate during the next century could cause or contribute to increased flooding, drought, water quality degradation, and ecosystem impairment. The effects of climate change in different watersheds will vary due to regional differences in climate change, physiographic setting, and interaction with land-use, pollutant sources, and water management in different locations. EPA is conducting watershed modeling to develop hydrologic and water quality change scenarios for 20 relatively large U.S. watersheds. Watershed modeling will be conducted using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) and Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed models. Study areas range from about 10,000-15,000 square miles in size, and will cover nearly every ecoregion in the United States and a range of hydro-climatic conditions. A range of hydrologic and water quality endpoints will be determined for each watershed simulation. Endpoints will be selected to inform upon a range of stream flow, water quality, aquatic ecosystem, and EPA program management goals and targets. Model simulations will be conducted to evaluate a range of projected future (2040-2070) changes in climate and land-use. Simulations will include baseline conditions,

  16. Preimpoundment water quality in the Tioga River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Janice R.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of Hammond Lake water to the outflow from Tioga Lake will probably improve the water quality of the Tioga River below Tioga Dam. Releases from the multi-level withdrawal system will allow the water quality of the river to stabilize, and not be subject to the extreme low-flow conditions that have historically damaged aquatic life.

  17. CEER 2014 Dedicated Session Proposal: Restoring Water Quality along with Restoring the Gulf of Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session focuses on the importance of restoring water quality as part of the larger Gulf of Mexico restoration efforts. Water quality has been identified as a significant indicator of water body condition, and Gulf waters have been impacted by increased urban development, agr...

  18. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  19. Monitoring and assessment of water quality of Tasik Cempaka, Bangi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Nurul Ain Syahirah Mohamad; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Mat, Sohif

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the status of water quality of Tasik Cempaka which is a part of Sg. Air Itam, located near the Bangi industrial area. The study was carried out for eight months from May and to December 2013. Eight sampling stations were selected from upstream to downstream of Sg. Air Itam which represent the entire body of the lake water. There are 8 parameters measured and Water Quality Indices (WQI) was calculated and classified according to the National Water Quality Standard (NWQS). The physical and chemical parameters were temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), total suspended solid (TSS), ammoniacal nitrogen (AN), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Among parameters that are affected by pollution is AN, COD and BOD. Classification by WQI shows that the average for all sampling was 54 (dry) and 52 (wet). Both are of class III according to National Water Quality Standard (NWQS) indicating slightly polluted. This is mainly due to drainage from Bangi Golf Resort and Bangi-Putrajaya Hotel. Other factors are activities around Sg. Air Itam such as municipal activities, settlements and manufacturing industries.

  20. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  1. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge

  2. Decadal stream water quality trends under varying climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting in, Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Christopher; Bekins, Barbara; Kalkhoff, Stephen; Hirsch, Robert; Liao, Lixia; Barnes, Kimberlee

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in agricultural practices and climatic variations is important for improving water quality in agricultural settings. In the central United States, intensification of corn cropping in support of ethanol production led to increases in N application rates in the 2000s during a period including both extreme dry and wet conditions. To examine the effect of these recent changes, a study was conducted on surface water quality in 10 major Iowa Rivers. Long term (~20 to 30 years) water quality and flow data were analyzed with Weighted Regression on Time, Discharge and Season (WRTDS), a statistical method that provides internally consistent estimates of the concentration history and reveals decadal trends that are independent of random variations of stream flow from seasonal averages. Trends of surface water quality showed constant or decreasing flow-normalized concentrations of nitrate+nitrite-N from 2000 to 2012 in all basins. To evaluate effects of annual discharge and N loading on these trends, multiple conceptual models were developed and calibrated to annual concentrations. The recent declining concentration trends can be attributed to both very high and very low streamflow discharge in the 2000's and to the long (e.g. 8-year) subsurface residence times in some basins. Dilution of surface water nitrate and depletion of stored nitrate may occur in years with very high discharge. Limited transport of N to streams and accumulation of stored N may occur in years with very low discharge. Central Iowa basins showed the greatest reduction in concentrations, likely because extensive tile-drains limit the effective volumes for storage of N and reduce residence times, and because the glacial sediments in these basins promote denitrification. Changes in nitrogen fluxes resulting from ethanol production and other factors will likely be delayed for years or decades in peripheral basins of Iowa, and may be obscured in the central

  3. Unravel biophysical factors on river water quality response in Chilean Central-Southern watersheds.

    PubMed

    Yevenes, Mariela A; Arumí, José L; Farías, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the key anthropogenic (land uses) and natural (topography and climate) biophysical drivers affecting river water quality is essential for efficient management of water resources. We tested the hypothesis that water quality can be predicted by different biophysical factors. Multivariate statistics based on a geographical information system (GIS) were used to explore the influence of factors (i.e., precipitation, topography, and land uses) on water quality (i.e., nitrate (NO 3 (-)), phosphate (PO 4 (3-)), silicate (Si(OH)4), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (DO), temperature (T), conductivity (EC), and pH) for two consecutive years in the Itata and Biobío river watersheds, Central Chile (36° 00' and 38° 30'). The results showed that (NO 3 (-)), (PO 4 (3-)), Si(OH)4, TSS, EC, and DO were higher during rainy season (austral fall, winter, and spring), whereas BOD and temperature were higher during dry season. The spatial variation of these parameters in both watersheds was related to land use, topography (e.g., soil moisture, soil hydrological group, and erodability), and precipitation. Soil hydrological group and soil moisture were the strongest explanatory predictors for PO 4 (3-) , Si(OH)4 and EC in the river, followed by land use such as agriculture for NO 3 (-) and DO and silviculture for TSS and Si(OH)4. High-resolution water leaching and runoff maps allowed us to identify agriculture areas with major probability of water leaching and higher probability of runoff in silviculture areas. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that land uses (agriculture and silviculture) explained in 60 % the river water quality variation. Our finding highlights the vulnerability of Chilean river waters to different biophysical drivers, rather than climate conditions alone, which is amplified by human-induced degradation.

  4. Water Quality of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Tributary Streams, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and its tributaries during the period October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2007, to document existing water quality, determine relations between land use and water quality, and identify areas of water-quality concern. A tiered water-quality monitoring framework was used, with the tiers consisting of intensively sampled sites, gradient sites representing the range of land uses present in the basin, and regional stream-survey sites. Median nitrate and total phosphorous concentrations were 1.15 and 0.01 mg/L (milligrams per liter) for three sites on the mainstem Delaware River, 1.27 and 0.009 mg/L for the East Branch Delaware River, 2.04 and 0.01 mg/L for the West Branch Delaware River, and 0.68 and 0.006 mg/L for eight tributaries that represent the range of land uses resent in the basin, respectively. The percentage of agricultural land varied by basin from 0 to 30 percent and the percentage of suburbanization varied from 0 to 17 percent. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of agricultural land use in a basin and observed concentrations of acid neutralizing capacity, calcium, potassium, nitrate, and total dissolved nitrogen, whereas no correlation between the percentage of suburbanization and water quality was detected. Results of stream surveys showed that nitrate concentrations in 55 to 65 percent of the UPDE Basin exceeded the nitrate reference condition and a suggested water-quality guideline for ecological impairment in New York State (0.98 mg/L) during the spring. Many of the affected parts of the basin were more than 90 percent forested and showed signs of episodic acidification, indicating that the long-term effects of acid deposition play a role in the high nitrate levels. Nitrate concentrations in 75 percent of samples collected from agricultural sites exceeded the suggested nitrate water-quality guideline for ecological impairment

  5. Management of water quality for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cody L

    2007-03-01

    Drinking water is the primary source of water for most cattle. Unfortunately, water frequently contains various solutes and suspended particulate matter that can influence its appearance, odor, taste, and physical and chemical properties. Animals often react to such water impurities by decreasing water intake, and therefore feed intake, which diminishes animal performance. Thus, water quality can have a profound impact on animal health and performance. Routine monitoring of water sources and appropriate intervention can provide beef producers with a desirable return on investment. Careful thought should be incorporated into any capital improvements. This article discusses some of the most common factors that impact water quality for beef cattle and the methods of monitoring water quality, and proposes management solutions to address water quality concerns.

  6. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  7. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  8. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  9. Nonpoint Source: National Water Quality Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Water Quality Initiative (NWQI) is a collaborative between EPA and Natural Resource Conservation Service ( NRCS) that began in 2012. NWQI provides a means to accelerate voluntary, private lands conservation practices

  10. Reconnaissance of the effect of landfill leachate on the water quality of Marshall Brook, Southwest Harbor, Hancock County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Bruce P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a reconnaissance of surface-water quality in the Marshall Brook basin in Southwest Harbor, Maine. A small stream (2.2-square-mile drainage area) receiving leachate from a landfill was studied from August through November 1979 to determine the impact of the leachate on water quality. The presence of un-ionized ammonia, considered toxic to some aquatic vertebrates, was indicated in samples taken from sections of the stream affected by leachate. Some dissolved oxygen values did not meet the criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Many other dissolved constituents were present in elevated concentrations in the leachate-influenced reaches of the stream. Flow-data comparisons indicate that streamflow less than that observed will occur approximately 20% of the time. Leachate-affected stream conditions may deteriorate further during such low streamflow. Several areas with the potential for large sediment yields are present in the basin. (USGS)

  11. Model documentation for relations between continuous real-time and discrete water-quality constituents in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through May 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Johnson County is the fastest growing county in Kansas, with a population of about 560,000 people in 2012. Urban growth and development can have substantial effects on water quality, and streams in Johnson County are affected by nonpoint-source pollutants from stormwater runoff and point-source discharges such as municipal wastewater effluent. Understanding of current (2014) water-quality conditions and the effects of urbanization is critical for the protection and remediation of aquatic resources in Johnson County, Kansas and downstream reaches located elsewhere. The Indian Creek Basin is 194 square kilometers and includes parts of Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. Approximately 86 percent of the Indian Creek Basin is located in Johnson County, Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, operated a series of six continuous real-time water-quality monitoring stations in the Indian Creek Basin during June 2011 through May 2013; one of these sites has been operating since February 2004. Five monitoring sites were located on Indian Creek and one site was located on Tomahawk Creek. The purpose of this report is to document regression models that establish relations between continuously measured water-quality properties and discretely collected water-quality constituents. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during June 2011 through May 2013 at five new sites and June 2004 through May 2013 at a long-term site and analyzed for sediment, nutrients, bacteria, and other water-quality constituents. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physical properties to estimate concentrations of those constituents of interest that are not easily measured in real time

  12. Long-term water-quality changes in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee: background, trends, and potential biological consequences.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G; Loar, James M

    2011-06-01

    We review long-term changes that have occurred in factors affecting water quality in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC; in East Tennessee) over a nearly 25-year monitoring period. Historically, the stream has received wastewaters and pollutants from a major United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility on the headwaters of the stream. Early in the monitoring program, EFPC was perturbed chemically, especially within its headwaters; evidence of this perturbation extended downstream for many kilometers. The magnitude of this perturbation, and the concentrations of many biologically significant water-quality factors, has lessened substantially through time. The changes in water-quality factors resulted from a large number of operational changes and remedial actions implemented at the DOE facility. Chief among these were consolidation and elimination of many effluents, elimination of an unlined settling/flow equalization basin, reduction in amount of blow-down from cooling tower operations, dechlorination of effluents, and implementation of flow augmentation. Although many water-quality characteristics in upper EFPC have become more similar to those of reference streams, conditions remain far from pristine. Nutrient enrichment may be one of the more challenging problems remaining before further biological improvements occur.

  13. Total suspended solids concentrations and yields for water-quality monitoring stations in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. As of 2009, continuous streamflow and water-quality data as well as discrete water-quality samples were being collected for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. This report provides statistical summaries of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations for 730 stormflow and 710 base-flow water-quality samples collected between 1996 and 2009 for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. Annual yields of TSS were estimated for each of the 14 watersheds using methods described in previous studies. TSS yield was estimated using linear, ordinary least-squares regression of TSS and explanatory variables of discharge, turbidity, season, date, and flow condition. The error of prediction for estimated yields ranged from 1 to 42 percent for the stations in this report; however, the actual overall uncertainty of the estimated yields cannot be less than that of the observed yields (± 15 to 20 percent). These watershed yields provide a basis for evaluation of how watershed characteristics, climate, and watershed management practices affect suspended sediment yield.

  14. Santa Margarita Lagoon Water Quality Monitoring Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    potential eutrophication impairment. In particular, the Investigative Order directed the Santa Margarita Lagoon Stakeholder Group composed of Marine Corps...provide a long-term water quality dataset that can be used for calibrating a hydrodynamic and eutrophication numeric model of the lagoon. A secondary...objective of this project, to provide a long-term water quality dataset of sufficient quality for calibrating a hydrodynamic and eutrophication

  15. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest.

  16. Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun

    2011-12-01

    River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), commonly called Delhi (India), has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution due to the huge amount of domestic wastewater entering the river. Despite the persistent efforts in the form of the Yamuna Action Plan phase I and II (YAP) (since 1993 to date), the river quality in NCT has not improved. The restoration of river water quality has been a major challenge to the environmental managers. In the present paper, water quality index (WQI) was estimated for the River Yamuna within the NCT to study the aftereffects of the projects implemented during YAP I and II. The study was directed toward the use of WQI to describe the level of pollution in the river for a period of 10 years (2000-2009). The study also identifies the critical pollutants affecting the river water quality during its course through the city. The indices have been computed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season at four locations, namely Palla, ODRB, Nizamuddin and Okhla in the river. It was found that the water quality ranged from good to marginal category at Palla and fell under poor category at all other locations. BOD, DO, total and fecal coliforms and free ammonia were found to be critical parameters for the stretch.

  17. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein

    2016-12-01

    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  19. Skylab study of water quality. [Kansas reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of S-190A imagery from 1 EREP pass over 3 reservoirs in Kansas establishes a strong linear correlation between the red/green radiance ratio and suspended solids. This result compares quite favorably to ERTS MSS CCT results. The linear fits RMS for Skylab is 6 ppm as compared to 12 ppm for ERTS. All of the ERTS satellite passes yielded fairly linear results with typical RMS values of 12 ppm. However, a few of the individual passes did yield RMS values of 5 or 6 ppm which is comparable to the one Skylab pass analyzed. In view of the cloudy conditions in the Skylab photos, yet good results, the indications are that S-190A may do somewhat better than the ERTS MSS in determining suspended load. More S-190A data is needed to confirm this. As was the case with the ERTS MSS, the Skylab S-190A showed no strong correlation with other water quality parameters. S-190B photos because of their high resolution can provide much first look information regarding relative degrees of turbidity within various parts of large lakes and among smaller bodies of water.

  20. Stormwater Runoff and Water Quality Modeling in Urban Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Forman, B. A.; Natarajan, P.; Davis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization significantly affects storm water runoff through the creation of new impervious surfaces such as highways, parking lots, and rooftops. Such changes can adversely impact the downstream receiving water bodies in terms of physical, chemical, and biological conditions. In order to mitigate the effects of urbanization on downstream water bodies, stormwater control measures (SCMs) have been widely used (e.g., infiltration basins, bioswales). A suite of observations from an infiltration basin installed adjacent to a highway in urban Maryland was used to evaluate stormwater runoff attenuation and pollutant removal rates at the well-instrumented SCM study site. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate the performance of the SCM. An automatic, split-sample calibration framework was developed to improve SWMM performance efficiency. The results indicate SWMM can accurately reproduce the hydraulic response of the SCM (in terms of reproducing measured inflow and outflow) during synoptic scale storm events lasting more than one day, but is less accurate during storm events lasting only a few hours. Similar results were found for a suite of modeled (and observed) water quality constituents, including suspended sediment, metals, N, P, and chloride.

  1. Operational water quality forecasting with EnKF data assimilation in the Yeongsan river basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changmin; Kim, Kyunghyun; Min, Joong-Hyuk; Na, Eunhye; Park, Suyoung; Song, Hyunoh

    2016-04-01

    National institute of environmental research(NIER) have been operating the water quality forecasting to prevent water quality deterioration for the major rivers in South Korea through WQFS-NIER(Water Quality Forecasting System) which developed based on Delft-FEWS system by the international joint research with NIER and Deltares from 2011 to 2013 The coupled the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran(HSPF) and the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code(EFDC) models are being used to quantitatively predict the water quality. HSPF watershed model are used to generate the flows and water quality loads of the major tributaries which are used as the boundary conditions for EFDC model. The uncertainties in water quality forecasting are contributed by various factors such as input uncertainty, model structure uncertainty, parametric uncertainty, initial conditions uncertainty, of which to reduce uncertainty on the initial conditions is relatively effective in improving accuracy of short term water quality forecast. To reduce initial conditions uncertainties, ensemble Kalman filter(EnKF) data assimilation(DA) techniques are applied to the EFDC models. DA is to condition the model state on the observations to get a better estimate of state. Model error is assumed to come from uncertainties of the boundary conditions of EFDC model. The case study for Yeongsan river demonstrate that EnKF is successful in bringing the algae concentrations closer to the observations.

  2. Phosphorus Dynamic and Water Quality Paradigm. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    Depending on environmental conditions, stored nutrients and contaminants could be released from organic matrix through mineralization, and recycled within or exported from the ecosystems. The rates and duration of organic matter accumulations under changing hydro-climatic conditions are critical determinants of how a freshwater system functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Aquatic ecosystems such as freshwaters can be very sensitive to changes, e.g., water quality, quantity and temperature, induced by climatic changes. Phosphorus (P) influx in freshwater systems may occur as a byproduct of single or many activities such as urban development and/or loading from within the systems due to gradual or sudden changes in environmental conditions. Any direct or indirect alterations due to anthropogenic influences, including a global rise in temperature, pose a serious threat of accelerated eutrophication of freshwater systems mainly due to P loading, causing their ultimate destructions. Our studies showed that sediments/soils contain both organic P (e.g., sugar phosphates and nucleoside monophosphates) and inorganic P in significant proportions, as well as acquiring data on P sorption phenomena, phosphatase-induced hydrolysis along with relative composition of various P forms will be helpful to derive P Destabilization Index to aid to the freshwater ecosystem management. It is indicative that any mitigating strategies need to take into account the nonlinear behaviors of the ecosystem processes and components, and begin planning to minimize effects of the changes. Also, it is crucial to be ready to integrate if there may need of policy revisions or adoption of new approaches and technologies, as the ecosystem struggles to attain a new equilibrium.

  3. Water Quality Perceptions and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Goodale, Thomas L.

    1974-01-01

    An extensive survey of the marine recreational uses of the Bay of Green Bay was conducted to determine the knowledge, perception, and attitudes of adjacent populations. Findings indicated that environmental forces and problems are not well understood and that the condition of Green Bay is perceived differently by different users. (Author/MA)

  4. Water-quality investigation of the Yellville watershed, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, T.E.; Williams, C. Sue

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study of surface-water quality in the Yellville watershed are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service programs. Analyses of samples collected at three sites showed that water in Town Branch and East Prong Branch was of good quality except for bacteria, total residue, and sulfate concentrations, which at times exceeded criteria established by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Water Quality Studies: Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill Lakes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    studies at Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill lakes , Georgia and South Carolina. The study objectives were to document water quality conditions in each...Monitoring Program - Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake , Georgia and South Carolina" (Intra-Army Order No. PD-EI-84-07). Portions of these studies were...by the U. S. Army Corps of Engi- neers, is situated between Hartwell and Clarks Hill Lakes . 7. Concerns over the potential environmental and water

  6. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2012-01-01

    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

  7. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  8. Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper

  9. Pigmentation of massive corals as a simple bioindicator for marine water quality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Timothy F; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2012-01-01

    Photo-acclimatisation by the algal endosymbionts of scleractinian corals to changes in environmental conditions may influence their density and/or the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and hence coral brightness, on short time-scales. To examine coral pigmentation as a bioindicator of water quality, the brightness of massive corals was quantified using colour charts, concentrations of the pigment chlorophyll a and reflectance spectrometry in the field and with manipulative experiments. Along a water quality gradient, massive Porites became progressively lighter as nutrients decreased and irradiance increased. A laboratory experiment showed that Porites nubbins darkened within 25 days following exposure to reduced water quality. The results of a transplantation experiment of Porites nubbins in a manipulation incorporating multiple depths and zones of water quality confirmed colony brightness as a simple tool to monitor changes in marine water quality, provided effects due to other influences on pigmentation, e.g. seawater temperatures, are taken into consideration.

  10. Effects of variable climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting on decadal surface water quality trends, Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Kalkhoff, S.; Hirsch, R. M.; Liao, L.; Barnes, K.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen fluxes from agricultural lands are a major concern for ecological health and water quality. Understanding how these fluxes respond to changes in agricultural practices and climatic variations is important for improving water quality in agricultural settings. In the midwestern USA, intensification of corn cropping as a result of ethanol production led to increases in N application rates in the 2000s during a period including both extreme dry and wet conditions. To examine the effect of these recent changes, a study was conducted on surface water quality in 10 major Iowa Rivers. Long term (~20 to 30 years) water quality and flow data were analyzed with Weighted Regression on Time, Discharge and Season (WRTDS), a statistical method that provides internally consistent estimates of the concentration history and reveals decadal trends that are independent of random variations of stream flow from seasonal averages. Trends of surface water quality showed constant or decreasing flow-normalized concentrations of nitrate+nitrite-N from 2000 to 2012 in all basins. To evaluate effects of annual discharge and N loading on these trends, multiple conceptual models were developed and calibrated to annual concentrations. The recent declining concentration trends can be attributed to both very high and very low discharge in the 2000's and to the long (e.g. 8-year) subsurface residence times in some basins. Dilution of surface water nitrate and depletion of stored nitrate may occur in years with very high discharge. Limited transport of N to surface water and accumulation of stored N may occur in years with very low discharge. Central Iowa basins showed the greatest reduction in concentrations, likely because extensive tile drainage results in smaller storage volumes and shorter residence times, and the glacial sediments are naturally reducing. Effects of agricultural intensification from ethanol production and other factors will likely be delayed for years or decades in

  11. Determining Water Quality Trends in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Watershed in the Face of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kynett, K.; Azimi-Gaylon, S.; Doidic, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh (Delta) is the largest estuary on the West Coast of the Americas and is a resource of local, State, and national significance. The Delta is simultaneously the most critical component of California's water supply, a primary focus of the state's ecological conservation measures, and a vital resource deeply imperiled by degraded water quality. Delta waterbodies are identified as impaired by salinity, excess nutrients, low dissolved oxygen, pathogens, pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the impacts of existing stressors in the Delta and magnify the challenges of managing this natural resource. A clear understanding of the current state of the watershed is needed to better inform scientists, decision makers, and the public about potential impacts from climate change. The Delta Watershed Initiative Network (Delta WIN) leverages the ecological benefits of healthy watersheds, and enhances, expands and creates opportunities for greater watershed health by coordinating with agencies, established programs, and local organizations. At this critical junction, Delta WIN is coordinating data integration and analysis to develop better understanding of the existing and emerging water quality concerns. As first steps, Delta WIN is integrating existing water quality data, analyzing trends, and monitoring to fill data gaps and to evaluate indicators of climate change impacts. Available data will be used for trend analysis; Delta WIN will continue to monitor where data is incomplete and new questions arise. Understanding how climate change conditions may affect water quality will be used to inform efforts to build resilience and maintain water quality levels which sustain aquatic life and human needs. Assessments of historical and new data will aid in recognition of potential climate change impacts and in initiating implementation of best management practices in collaboration with

  12. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  13. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  14. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  15. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The

  16. Water quality monitor (EMPAX instrument)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Clark, Ben; Thornton, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The impetus of the Viking Mission to Mars led to the first miniaturization of a X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS). Two units were flown on the Viking Mission and successfully operated for two years analyzing the elemental composition of the Martian soil. Under a Bureau of Mines/NASA Technology Utilization project, this XRFS design was utilized to produce a battery powered, portable unit for elemental analysis of geological samples. This paper will detail design improvements and additional sampling capabilities that were incorporated into a second generation portable XRFS that was funded by the EPA/NASA Technology Utilization project. The unit, Environment Monitoring with Portable Analysis by X-ray (EMPAX), was developed specifically for quantitative determination of the need of EPA and and any industry affected by environmental concerns, the EMPAX fulfills a critical need to provide on-site, real-time analysis of toxic metal contamination. A patent was issued on EMPAX, but a commercial manufacturer is still being sought.

  17. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Ba...

  18. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  19. National Water Quality Laboratory - A Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) is a full-service laboratory that specializes in environmental analytical chemistry. The NWQL's primary mission is to support USGS programs requiring environmental analyses that provide consistent methodology for national assessment and trends analysis. The NWQL provides the following: high-quality chemical data; consistent, published, state-of-the-art methodology; extremely low-detection levels; high-volume capability; biological unit for identifying benthic invertebrates; quality assurance for determining long-term water-quality trends; and a professional staff.

  20. Linking water quality and well-being for improved assessment and valuation of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Bonnie L; Polasky, Stephen; Brauman, Kate A; Johnson, Kris A; Finlay, Jacques C; O'Neill, Ann; Kovacs, Kent; Dalzell, Brent

    2012-11-06

    Despite broad recognition of the value of the goods and services provided by nature, existing tools for assessing and valuing ecosystem services often fall short of the needs and expectations of decision makers. Here we address one of the most important missing components in the current ecosystem services toolbox: a comprehensive and generalizable framework for describing and valuing water quality-related services. Water quality is often misrepresented as a final ecosystem service. We argue that it is actually an important contributor to many different services, from recreation to human health. We present a valuation approach for water quality-related services that is sensitive to different actions that affect water quality, identifies aquatic endpoints where the consequences of changing water quality on human well-being are realized, and recognizes the unique groups of beneficiaries affected by those changes. We describe the multiple biophysical and economic pathways that link actions to changes in water quality-related ecosystem goods and services and provide guidance to researchers interested in valuing these changes. Finally, we present a valuation template that integrates biophysical and economic models, links actions to changes in service provision and value estimates, and considers multiple sources of water quality-related ecosystem service values without double counting.

  1. The water-quality monitoring program for the Baltimore reservoir system, 1981-2007—Description, review and evaluation, and framework integration for enhanced monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Baltimore, Maryland, and parts of five surrounding counties obtain their water from Loch Raven and Liberty Reservoirs. A third reservoir, Prettyboy, is used to resupply Loch Raven Reservoir. Management of the watershed conditions for each reservoir is a shared responsibility by agreement among City, County, and State jurisdictions. The most recent (2005) Baltimore Reservoir Watershed Management Agreement (RWMA) called for continued and improved water-quality monitoring in the reservoirs and selected watershed tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a retrospective review of the effectiveness of monitoring data obtained and analyzed by the RWMA jurisdictions from 1981 through 2007 to help identify possible improvements in the monitoring program to address RWMA water-quality concerns. Long-term water-quality concerns include eutrophication and sedimentation in the reservoirs, and elevated concentrations of (a) nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) being transported from the major tributaries to the reservoirs, (b) iron and manganese released from reservoir bed sediments during periods of deep-water anoxia, (c) mercury in higher trophic order game fish in the reservoirs, and (d) bacteria in selected reservoir watershed tributaries. Emerging concerns include elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, and disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the drinking water from both supply reservoirs. Climate change and variability also could be emerging concerns, affecting seasonal patterns, annual trends, and drought occurrence, which historically have led to declines in reservoir water quality. Monitoring data increasingly have been used to support the development of water-quality models. The most recent (2006) modeling helped establish an annual sediment Total Maximum Daily Load to Loch Raven Reservoir, and instantaneous and 30-day moving average water-quality endpoints for chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Loch Raven and Prettyboy

  2. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  3. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  4. Spatial and temporal water quality variability in aquatic habitats of a cultivated floodplain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floodplains of lowland rivers contain diverse aquatic habitats that provide valuable ecosystem services, but are perturbed when intensively cultivated. Hydrologic, water quality and biological (fish) conditions in five aquatic habitats along the Coldwater River, Mississippi were measured over four ...

  5. ASSESSING WATER CLARITY AS A COMPONENT OF WATER QUALITY IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) uses water clarity as a water quality indicator for integrated assessments. After the publication of the first National Coastal Condition Report, the national water clarity reference v...

  6. EFFECTS OF SEASONAL AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) AND ASSOCIATED FISH POPULATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of water quality and seasonal changes on disease prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, gonadal condition, recruitment potential, growth of caged juvenile oysters, and habitat suitability of reefs for fishes and macrobenthic invertebrates were measured in Callos...

  7. Effects of coal strip mining on stream water quality and biology, southwestern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuste, L.A.; Meyer, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Strip mining for coal in southwestern Washington may be affecting the water quality of streams. To investigate these possible effects, five streams were selected for study of water quality in each of the two coal bearing areas: the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, and Kelso-Castle Rock coal area. In the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, three of the streams have drainage basins in which mines are active. Water in streams that drain unmined basins is typical of western Washington streams and is characterized as a mixed water because calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate ions predominate. A change in anionic composition from bicarbonate to sulfate in streams draining mined areas was not sufficient to change the general water composition and thus make the streams acidic. The largest downstream changes in water quality in both mined and unmined drainage basins were observed during summer low-flow conditions, when minimal dilution, increased water temperatures, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations occurred. High dissolved solids were found in the mined drainage basins during this period. High concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were present in the bottom sediments of the mined basins. Moderate concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, and zinc were also found in the bottom sediments of a few unmined basins. Streams with substrates of gravel-cobble or gravel-coarse sand had the most diverse benthic fauna and a higher number of ubiquitous taxa than streams with sand-silt substrates, which had the most dissimilar fauna. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were rare at the site most affected by mining. The erosion potential of a basin appears to be related to the average basin slope and the amount of forested areas. Strip mining for coal in steep basins may lead to massive movements of unconsolidated spoils after vegetal cover is removed if the land disturbed is graded to pre-mining slopes. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  9. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be...

  10. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality standards. 130.3...

  11. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  12. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  13. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  14. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  15. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  16. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  17. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  18. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  19. Appraisal of storm-water quality near Salem, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Stormwater runoff for the period December 1979 to May 1981, at 13 sites (12 basins) in the vicinity of Salem, Oregon, was sampled and analyzed for water quality. Constituent concentrations for urban storm water were relatively small when compared to samples from Portland and Medford, Oregon and to samples from Denver, Colorado. The data indicated that levels of suspended sediment, ultimate CBOD (carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand), and total lead increased with increased urbanization. Much of the suspended sediment and related turbidity result from transport of basin soils rather than from the wash-off of dry fallout solids from impervious areas. Because of small chemical concentrations and winter high flow and low temperature conditions in the Willamette River, Salem storm water probably has little effect on biological or on most chemical conditions in the Willamette River. An analysis of data from a stormwater detention pond (originally designed to reduce peak flows) indicated that the facility was about 47% efficient in reducing suspended sediment loads. The facility also reduced such sediment-related constituent loads as total lead and total phosphorus. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ultimate CBOD loads that are transported mostly in the dissolved phase were not measurably affected by the detention pond. Precipitation samples collected at one site for a year were found to be acidic, with a median pH of 4.6. Median total lead concentration was 8 micrograms/L (ug/L) in precipitation, whereas the median total lead concentration in runoff from the 12 basins ranged from 8 to 110 ug/L. The median dissolved ammonia concentration in precipitation was larger than the median dissolved ammonia concentration at all 13 sites. In contrast, the median total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in precipitation samples was about half the median for streamwater concentrations. Median ratios of sulfate to chloride and nitrate to chloride in precipitation were much higher than ratios

  20. Physicochemical conditions in affecting the distribution of spring phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuqiu; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xue, Bing; Munir, Sonia; Sun, Jun

    2017-03-01

    To better understand the physicochemical conditions in affecting regional distribution of phytoplankton community, one research cruise was carried out in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during 3rd and 23th May, 2010. The phytoplankton community, including Bacillariophyta (105 taxa), Pyrrophyta (54 taxa), Chrysophyta (1 taxon) and Chlorophyta (2 taxa), had been identified and clearly described from six ecological provinces. And, the six ecological provinces were partitioned based on the top twenty dominant species related with notable physicochemical parameters. In general, the regional distributions of phytoplankton ecological provinces were predominantly influenced by the physicochemical properties induced by the variable water masses and circulations. The predominant diatoms in most of water samples showed well adaptability in turbulent and eutrophic conditions. However, several species of dinoflagellates e.g., Protoperidinium conicum, Protoperidinium triestinum, Protoperidinium sp. and Gymnodinium lohmanni preferred warmer, saltier and nutrient-poor environment. Moreover, the dinoflagellates with high frequency in the Yellow Sea might be transported from the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal distribution of phytoplankton was depicted by diatoms and controlled by phosphate concentration, while the vertical distribution was mainly supported by light and nutrients availability in the subsurface and bottom layers, respectively.

  1. Identification of water-quality trends using sediment cores from Dillon Reservoir, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greve, Adrienne I.; Spahr, Norman E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2001-01-01

    , chromium, copper, lead, and zinc in sediment samples from Dillon Reservoir exceeded the Canadian interim freshwater sediment-quality guidelines. Copper, iron, lithium, nickel, scandium, titanium, and vanadium concentrations in sediment samples decreased over time. Other elements, while no trend was evident, displayed concentration spikes in the down-core profiles, indicating loads entering the reservoir may have been larger than they were in 1997. The highest concentrations of copper, lead, manganese, mercury, and zinc were detected during the late 1970's and early 1980's. Elevated concentrations of trace elements in sediment in Dillon Reservoir likely resulted from historical mining in the drainage area. The downward trend identified for copper, iron, lithium, nickel, scandium, titanium, and vanadium may be due in part to restoration efforts in mining-affected areas and a decrease in active mining in the Dillon Reservoir watershed. Although many trace-element core-sediment concentrations exceeded the Canadian probable effect level for freshwater lakes, under current limnological conditions, the high core-sediment concentrations do not adversely affect water quality in Dillon Reservoir. The trace-element concentrations in the reservoir water column meet the standards established by the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission. Although many trace-element core-sediment concentrations exceeded the Canadian probable effect level for freshwater lakes, under current limnological conditions, the high core-sediment concentrations do not adversely affect water quality in Dillon Reservoir. The trace-element concentrations in the reservoir water column meet the standards established by the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission.

  2. Standardised survey method for identifying catchment risks to water quality.

    PubMed

    Baker, D L; Ferguson, C M; Chier, P; Warnecke, M; Watkinson, A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a systematic methodology to identify and quantify risks in drinking water and recreational catchments. The methodology assesses microbial and chemical contaminants from both diffuse and point sources within a catchment using Escherichia coli, protozoan pathogens and chemicals (including fuel and pesticides) as index contaminants. Hazard source information is gathered by a defined sanitary survey process involving use of a software tool which groups hazards into six types: sewage infrastructure, on-site sewage systems, industrial, stormwater, agriculture and recreational sites. The survey estimates the likelihood of the site affecting catchment water quality, and the potential consequences, enabling the calculation of risk for individual sites. These risks are integrated to calculate a cumulative risk for each sub-catchment and the whole catchment. The cumulative risks process accounts for the proportion of potential input sources surveyed and for transfer of contaminants from upstream to downstream sub-catchments. The output risk matrices show the relative risk sources for each of the index contaminants, highlighting those with the greatest impact on water quality at a sub-catchment and catchment level. Verification of the sanitary survey assessments and prioritisation is achieved by comparison with water quality data and microbial source tracking.

  3. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  4. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%.

  5. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: The Sacramento River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to identify the major natural and human factors that affect the quality of those resources. In addressing these goals, the program will provide a wealth of water- quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major asset of the NAWQA program is that it will allow for the integration of water-quality information collected at several scales. A major component of the program is the study-unit investigation-the foundation of national- level assessment. The 60 study units of the NAWQA program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems of the conterminous United States. These study units cover areas of 1,000 to more than 60,000 square miles and represent 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supplies. Investigations of the first 20 study units began in 1991. In 1994, the Sacramento River Basin was among the second set of 20 NAWQA study units selected for investigation.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence models in water quality forecasting.

    PubMed

    Yeon, I S; Kim, J H; Jun, K W

    2008-06-01

    The real-time data of the continuous water quality monitoring station at the Pyeongchang river was analyzed separately during the rainy period and non-rainy period. Total organic carbon data observed during the rainy period showed a greater mean value, maximum value and standard deviation than the data observed during the non-rainy period. Dissolved oxygen values during the rainy period were lower than those observed during the non-rainy period. It was analyzed that the discharge due to rain fall from the basin affects the change of the water quality. A model for the forecasting of water quality was constructed and applied using the neural network model and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Regarding the models of levenberg-marquardt neural network, modular neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, all three models showed good results for the simulation of total organic carbon. The levenberg-marquardt neural network and modular neural network models showed better results than the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model in the forecasting of dissolved oxygen. The modular neural network model, which was applied with the qualitative data of time in addition to quantitative data, showed the least error.

  7. Robust principal component analysis in water quality index development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Mengersen, Kerrie; Shitan, Mahendran; Juahir, Hafizan

    2014-06-01

    Some statistical procedures already available in literature are employed in developing the water quality index, WQI. The nature of complexity and interdependency that occur in physical and chemical processes of water could be easier explained if statistical approaches were applied to water quality indexing. The most popular statistical method used in developing WQI is the principal component analysis (PCA). In literature, the WQI development based on the classical PCA mostly used water quality data that have been transformed and normalized. Outliers may be considered in or eliminated from the analysis. However, the classical mean and sample covariance matrix used in classical PCA methodology is not reliable if the outliers exist in the data. Since the presence of outliers may affect the computation of the principal component, robust principal component analysis, RPCA should be used. Focusing in Langat River, the RPCA-WQI was introduced for the first time in this study to re-calculate the DOE-WQI. Results show that the RPCA-WQI is capable to capture similar distribution in the existing DOE-WQI.

  8. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) ~3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and ~6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  9. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  10. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  11. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  12. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  13. Examining issues with water quality model configuration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex watershed–scale, water quality models require a considerable amount of data in order to be properly configured, especially in view of the scarcity of data in many regions due to temporal and economic constraints. In this study, we examined two different input issues incurred while building ...

  14. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  15. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  16. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  17. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of contamination, simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. The goals of water quality are outlined in the Water Quality Multi-year Plan [http://intranet.epa.gov/ospintra/Planning/wq.pdf] and the research in this task falls under GPRA Goal 2, 2.3.2, Long Term Goals 1, 2, and 4. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG

  18. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  19. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  20. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  1. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  2. Water quality of the Fox River and four tributaries in Green Lake County, Wisconsin, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the water-quality data collected on the Fox River and its tributaries in Green Lake County, Wisconsin, from November 2001 through August 2002. The goals of the project were to (1) determine the current water quality of the Fox River and selected main tributaries in Green Lake County, (2) assess the spacial variation of the water-quality conditions of the main Fox River reach, and (3) build on the quantitative data base so that future monitoring can help detect and evaluate improving or declining water-quality conditions objectively.

  3. Geochemical evolution processes and water-quality observations based on results of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Fahlquist, Lynne; Houston, Natalie A.; Lindgren, Richard J.; Ging, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed groundwater samples during 1996-2006 from the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer of central Texas, a productive karst aquifer developed in Cretaceous-age carbonate rocks. These National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies provide an extensive dataset of groundwater geochemistry and water quality, consisting of 249 groundwater samples collected from 136 sites (wells and springs), including (1) wells completed in the shallow, unconfined, and urbanized part of the aquifer in the vicinity of San Antonio (shallow/urban unconfined category), (2) wells completed in the unconfined (outcrop area) part of the regional aquifer (unconfined category), and (3) wells completed in and springs discharging from the confined part of the regional aquifer (confined category). This report evaluates these data to assess geochemical evolution processes, including local- and regional-scale processes controlling groundwater geochemistry, and to make water-quality observations pertaining to sources and distribution of natural constituents and anthropogenic contaminants, the relation between geochemistry and hydrologic conditions, and groundwater age tracers and travel time. Implications for monitoring water-quality trends in karst are also discussed. Geochemical and isotopic data are useful tracers of recharge, groundwater flow, fluid mixing, and water-rock interaction processes that affect water quality. Sources of dissolved constituents to Edwards aquifer groundwater include dissolution of and geochemical interaction with overlying soils and calcite and dolomite minerals that compose the aquifer. Geochemical tracers such as magnesium to calcium and strontium to calcium ratios and strontium isotope compositions are used to evaluate and constrain progressive fluid-evolution processes. Molar ratios of magnesium to calcium and strontium to calcium in groundwater typically

  4. Analysis of ground-water-quality data of the Upper Colorado River basin, water years 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, an analysis of the existing ground-water-quality data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is necessary to provide information on the historic water-quality conditions. Analysis of the historical data provides information on the availability or lack of data and water-quality issues. The information gathered from the historical data will be used in the design of ground-water-quality studies in the basin. This report includes an analysis of the ground-water data (well and spring data) available for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit from water years 1972 to 1992 for major cations and anions, metals and selected trace elements, and nutrients. The data used in the analysis of the ground-water quality in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit were predominantly from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data bases. A total of 212 sites representing alluvial aquifers and 187 sites representing bedrock aquifers were used in the analysis. The available data were not ideal for conducting a comprehensive basinwide water-quality assessment because of lack of sufficient geographical coverage.Evaluation of the ground-water data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was based on the regional environmental setting, which describes the natural and human factors that can affect the water quality. In this report, the ground-water-quality information is evaluated on the basis of aquifers or potential aquifers (alluvial, Green River Formation, Mesaverde Group, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Leadville Limestone, and Precambrian) and land-use classifications for alluvial aquifers.Most of the ground-water-quality data in the study unit were for major cations and anions and dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifer with the highest median concentrations of

  5. [Relationship between landscape pattern and river water quality in Wujingang region, Taihu Lake watershed].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yang-fan; Sun, Xiang; Zhang, Fang-shan; Zhu, Hong-xing; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhuang, Min; Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2010-08-01

    Wujingang region was taken as the study area to explore the relationship between landscape pattern and river water quality. Remote sensing image was interpreted and buffer zones were constructed, and then landscape patterns characterized by land-use patterns and five selected landscape metrics including Number of patches (NP), Area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (FRAC _AM), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Shannon' s evenness index (SHEI), Contagion index (CONTAG) in each buffer zone were obtained. By employing the correlation analysis between the landscape pattern and river water quality, the results indicated that the river water quality was influenced by landscape pattern. The percentage of built-up area was positively related with water quality indicators, demonstrating that the percentage of built-up area was one of the key factors affecting the river water quality, while the percentage of cultivated land showed a negative relationship. Furthermore, the relationships between the selected five landscape metrics and water quality were also revealed. SHDI and SHEI were significantly positively related with water quality indicators, while CONTAG showed the opposite relationship.

  6. The effect of land use change on water quality: A case study in Ciliwung Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Setiawan, Yudi; Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Effendi, Hefni

    2017-01-01

    Ciliwung is the biggest river in Jakarta. It is 119 km long with a catchment area of 476 km2. It flows from Bogor Regency and crosses Bogor City, Depok City, and Jakarta before finally flowing into Java Sea through Jakarta Bay. The water quality in Ciliwung River has degraded. Many factors affect water quality. Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Ciliwung Watershed based on the water quality monitoring data and remote sensing data in 2010 and 2014. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The result can provide scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  7. Long-term variations of water quality in the Inner Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Akurut, Mary; Niwagaba, Charles B; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The water quality in the Inner Murchison Bay (IMB) located in Uganda on the northern shores of Lake Victoria is affected by a complex mixture of processes and driving factors including pollution, river inflows, lake water levels, wetland management and flora and fauna populations. This study attempts to explain long-term variations of the IMB water quality and to provide a plausible water quality model. Because intermittent monitoring around the Bay hinders accurate determination of pollution, concentrations at the extreme northern shores (hotspots) are considered indicative of the pollutant loading into the bay. Delft3D-Flow was applied to study the Bay hydrodynamics and coupled with the Delwaq module to investigate water quality processes related to oxygen: organic and nutrient components i.e. dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonium (NH4(+)). It is found that the IMB water quality deteriorated exponentially in the period 2001-2014 due to increased pollution and the high residence time of water. The worst water quality was in 2010 when diffuse pollution intensified due to the lining of more drainage channels within Kampala City in addition to the declining wetland effect. The water quality towards the Outer Murchison Bay (OMB) deteriorated over time with dilution accounting for 40-60% of pollutant reduction. Although the effect of lake level variations is negligible compared to pollution into the IMB, increased lake levels after 2011 improved DO levels and mixing and hence BOD levels in the IMB.

  8. Modeling relationships between catchment attributes and river water quality in southern catchments of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Hasani Sangani, Mohammad; Jabbarian Amiri, Bahman; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Sakieh, Yousef; Ashrafi, Sohrab

    2015-04-01

    Increasing land utilization through diverse forms of human activities, such as agriculture, forestry, urban growth, and industrial development, has led to negative impacts on the water quality of rivers. To find out how catchment attributes, such as land use, hydrologic soil groups, and lithology, can affect water quality variables (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), HCO 3 (-) , pH, TDS, EC, SAR), a spatio-statistical approach was applied to 23 catchments in southern basins of the Caspian Sea. All input data layers (digital maps of land use, soil, and lithology) were prepared using geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis. Relationships between water quality variables and catchment attributes were then examined by Spearman rank correlation tests and multiple linear regression. Stepwise approach-based multiple linear regressions were developed to examine the relationship between catchment attributes and water quality variables. The areas (%) of marl, tuff, or diorite, as well as those of good-quality rangeland and bare land had negative effects on all water quality variables, while those of basalt, forest land cover were found to contribute to improved river water quality. Moreover, lithological variables showed the greatest most potential for predicting the mean concentration values of water quality variables, and noting that measure of EC and TDS have inversely associated with area (%) of urban land use.

  9. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents.

  10. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; H