Science.gov

Sample records for affected age group

  1. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  2. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  3. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  4. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  5. Affect and Engagement during Small Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Rogat, Toni Kempler; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies (Study 1: n = 137; Study 2: n = 192) were conducted to investigate how upper-elementary students' affect during small group instruction related to their social-behavioral engagement during group work. A circumplex model of affect consisting of valence (positive, negative) and activation (high, low) was used to examine the relation of…

  6. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  7. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  8. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  9. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  10. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  11. Speeded Probed Recall Is Affected by Grouping.

    PubMed

    Morra, Sergio; Epidendio, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Most of the evidence from previous studies on speeded probed recall supported primacy-gradient models of serial order representation. Two experiments investigated the effect of grouping on speeded probed recall. Six-word lists, followed by a number between 1 and 6, were presented for speeded recall of the word in the position indicated by the number. Grouping was manipulated through interstimulus intervals. In both experiments, a significant Position × Grouping interaction was found in RT. It is concluded that the results are not consistent with models of order representation only based on a primacy gradient. Possible alternative representations of serial order are also discussed; a case is made for a holistic order representation.

  12. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  13. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  14. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  15. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  16. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  17. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  18. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  19. Age and Nursing Affect the Neonatal Porcine Uterine Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kathleen M; Camp, Meredith E; Prasad, Nripesh; McNeel, Anthony K; Levy, Shawn E; Bartol, Frank F; Bagnell, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated before birth, is completed postnatally. However, age- and lactocrine-sensitive elements of the neonatal porcine uterine developmental program are undefined. Here, effects of age and nursing on the uterine transcriptome for 48 h from birth (Postnatal Day [PND] = 0) were identified using RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Uterine tissues were obtained from neonatal gilts (n = 4 per group) within 1 h of birth and before feeding (PND 0), or 48 h after nursing ad libitum (PND 2N) or feeding a commercial milk replacer (PND 2R). RNAseq analysis revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with both age (PND 2N vs. PND 0; 3283 DEGs) and nursing on PND 2 (PND 2N vs PND 2R; 896 DEGs). Expression of selected uterine genes was validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Bioinformatic analyses revealed multiple biological processes enriched in response to both age and nursing, including cell adhesion, morphogenesis, and cell-cell signaling. Age-sensitive pathways also included estrogen receptor-alpha and hedgehog signaling cascades. Lactocrine-sensitive processes in nursed gilts included those involved in response to wounding, the plasminogen activator network and coagulation. Overall, RNAseq analysis revealed comprehensive age- and nursing-related transcriptomic differences in the neonatal porcine uterus and identified novel pathways and biological processes regulating uterine development.

  20. The age at which meat is first included in the diet affects the incidence of iron deficiency and ferropenic anaemia in a group of pre-school children from Madrid.

    PubMed

    Requejo, A M; Navia, B; Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, E; Gaspar, M J; Osorio, O

    1999-03-01

    A study was made into the effect of the age at which meat was first included in the diet on a series of haematological parameters and biochemical indicators of iron status in 94 pre-school children (aged 2-6 years) from Madrid (Spain). Those children who first took meat during their eighth month of life or earlier (Group A) showed better iron status that did those who were introduced to meat later (Group B). Significant differences were found in hemoglobin levels (P < 0.01), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P < 0.05), serum ferritin (P < 0.05), transferrin levels (P < 0.05) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) (P < 0.001). Some 13.8% of all subjects showed iron deficiency and 5.3% showed ferropenic anaemia. These latter subjects were the last to have meat included in their diets (9.3 +/- 1.2 months compared to 7.4 +/- 2.0 months in those without ferropenic anaemia) (P < 0.05). It would appear that the age at which meat is included in the diet has an important effect on iron status in pre-school children. Delaying its inclusion beyond the age of eight months seems to be associated with an impairment of later iron status.

  1. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... 64 have a heart attack. About half of women who have a heart attack before age 65 die within 8 years. Heart ... have another within 6 years. About half of women who have a heart attack will be disabled with heart failure within 6 ...

  2. Cognition, Affect, and Behavior in the Prediction of Group Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Research was designed to identify the cognitions (stereotypes and values), affects, and behavior associated by white college students (n=869) with 3 target groups: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans. Affect and behavior were the strongest predictors of attitudes toward minority groups; cognition made a minor contribution…

  3. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  4. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  5. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  6. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, Jack C; Begoli, Edmon; Jose, Ajith; Griffin, Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  7. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  8. Aging affects postural tracking of complex visual motion cues.

    PubMed

    Sotirakis, H; Kyvelidou, A; Mademli, L; Stergiou, N; Hatzitaki, V

    2016-09-01

    Postural tracking of visual motion cues improves perception-action coupling in aging, yet the nature of the visual cues to be tracked is critical for the efficacy of such a paradigm. We investigated how well healthy older (72.45 ± 4.72 years) and young (22.98 ± 2.9 years) adults can follow with their gaze and posture horizontally moving visual target cues of different degree of complexity. Participants tracked continuously for 120 s the motion of a visual target (dot) that oscillated in three different patterns: a simple periodic (simulated by a sine), a more complex (simulated by the Lorenz attractor that is deterministic displaying mathematical chaos) and an ultra-complex random (simulated by surrogating the Lorenz attractor) pattern. The degree of coupling between performance (posture and gaze) and the target motion was quantified in the spectral coherence, gain, phase and cross-approximate entropy (cross-ApEn) between signals. Sway-target coherence decreased as a function of target complexity and was lower for the older compared to the young participants when tracking the chaotic target. On the other hand, gaze-target coherence was not affected by either target complexity or age. Yet, a lower cross-ApEn value when tracking the chaotic stimulus motion revealed a more synchronous gaze-target relationship for both age groups. Results suggest limitations in online visuo-motor processing of complex motion cues and a less efficient exploitation of the body sway dynamics with age. Complex visual motion cues may provide a suitable training stimulus to improve visuo-motor integration and restore sway variability in older adults.

  9. Aging affects postural tracking of complex visual motion cues.

    PubMed

    Sotirakis, H; Kyvelidou, A; Mademli, L; Stergiou, N; Hatzitaki, V

    2016-09-01

    Postural tracking of visual motion cues improves perception-action coupling in aging, yet the nature of the visual cues to be tracked is critical for the efficacy of such a paradigm. We investigated how well healthy older (72.45 ± 4.72 years) and young (22.98 ± 2.9 years) adults can follow with their gaze and posture horizontally moving visual target cues of different degree of complexity. Participants tracked continuously for 120 s the motion of a visual target (dot) that oscillated in three different patterns: a simple periodic (simulated by a sine), a more complex (simulated by the Lorenz attractor that is deterministic displaying mathematical chaos) and an ultra-complex random (simulated by surrogating the Lorenz attractor) pattern. The degree of coupling between performance (posture and gaze) and the target motion was quantified in the spectral coherence, gain, phase and cross-approximate entropy (cross-ApEn) between signals. Sway-target coherence decreased as a function of target complexity and was lower for the older compared to the young participants when tracking the chaotic target. On the other hand, gaze-target coherence was not affected by either target complexity or age. Yet, a lower cross-ApEn value when tracking the chaotic stimulus motion revealed a more synchronous gaze-target relationship for both age groups. Results suggest limitations in online visuo-motor processing of complex motion cues and a less efficient exploitation of the body sway dynamics with age. Complex visual motion cues may provide a suitable training stimulus to improve visuo-motor integration and restore sway variability in older adults. PMID:27126061

  10. Group Composition Affecting Student Interaction and Achievement: Instructors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.; Kuestermeyer, Bailey N.; Westmeyer, Kara A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple research studies have been conducted that focus on various uses of collaborative learning in and out of the classroom in higher education institutions. The purpose of this article is to review previously published literature regarding group composition and how it affects student interaction and achievement. Group composition research has…

  11. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  12. Spaceflight and age affect tibial epiphyseal growth plate histomorphometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, Pauline J.; Durnova, G.

    1992-01-01

    Growth plate histomorphometry of rats flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044, a 14-day spaceflight, was compared with that of control groups. In growth plates of flight animals, there was a significant increase in cell number per column and height of the proliferative zone and a reduction in height and cell number in the hypertrophy/calcification zone. No significant differences were found in matrix organization at the ultrastructural level of flight animals, indicating that although spacefligfht continues to affect bone growth of 15-wk-old rats, extracellular matrix is not altered in the same manner as seen previously in younger animals. All groups showed growth plate characteristics attributed to aging: lack of calcification zone, reduced hypertrophy zone, and unraveling of collagen fibrils. Tail-suspended controls did not differ from other controls in any of the parameters measured. The results suggest that growth plates of older rats are less responsive to unloading by spaceflight or suspension than those of younger rats and provide new evidence about the modifying effect of spaceflight on the growth plate.

  13. Appendicitis in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Samuel B.; Nazem, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 35 patients aged 2 to 20 years who were seen at the District of Columbia General Hospital and Howard University Hospital over a three-year period (1984 to 1986) was performed. All patients were operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix was found in 17 percent of patients, of which the majority was adolescent girls. Of those patients with acute appendicitis, 41 percent had perforated appendices, and one half of these were judged to be complicated. At diagnosis or at reoperation, one half of the patients were maintained on single-antibiotic therapy, the other half were maintained on triple-antibiotic therapy. The average hospital stay was 26.6 days, with no significant difference between those patients on single- or triple-antibiotic coverage. The average hospital stay for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis was six days. PMID:3385787

  14. How Aging Affects the Recognition of Emotional Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulmann, Silke; Pell, Marc D.; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2008-01-01

    To successfully infer a speaker's emotional state, diverse sources of emotional information need to be decoded. The present study explored to what extent emotional speech recognition of "basic" emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, pleasant surprise, sadness) differs between different sex (male/female) and age (young/middle-aged) groups in a…

  15. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  16. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  17. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  18. The Educational Needs of the 16-19 Age Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Geminard, Lucien

    Reports for the Council of Europe were the basis for this study of the educational needs of the 16-19 age group. The first of four sections, on sociological aspects, contains five chapters: socio-cultural characteristics of the 16-19 age group; quantitative aspects of education; equality of educational opportunity; and an overview of the…

  19. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  20. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129

  1. Does handedness and altitude affect age at menarche?

    PubMed

    Orbak, Zerrin

    2005-08-01

    Although there is knowledge about earlier mean age at menopause among left-handed postmenopausal women, it is unclear from the literature whether age of menarche is influenced by the prenatal hormonal pattern and cerebral lateralization. We therefore planned to investigate the relation between age of menarche and cerebral lateralization in girls at an altitude of nearly 2000 m. Sixty-two girls, aged between 9.4 and 15.5 years, were interviewed by questionnaire about manual dominance and menarcheal age. All girls were divided into two groups: left-handers (n = 31) and right-handers (n = 31). It was shown that there was a significantly lower average age of menarcheal appearance (12.96 +/- 1.34 years) in the left-handers' compared with the right-handers' (13.72 +/- 1.41 years; p = 0.025). The earliest menarcheal age was 9.4 years in left-handers and 10.1 years in right-handers.A menarcheal age of 13.34 +/- 1.35 years was found for the whole group at an altitude of nearly 2000 m. This data leads us to believe the existence of a link between functional brain asymmetry and menarche. It would appear that the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is earlier in left-handed females than in right-handed females.

  2. Age-Specific Preferences for Infant-Directed Affective Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Christine; Lam, Christa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the developmental course of infants' attentional preferences for 3 types of infant-directed affective intent, which have been shown to be commonly used at particular ages in the first year of life. Specifically, Kitamura and Burnham (2003) found mothers' tone of voice in infant-directed speech is most comforting between birth…

  3. Physical and Psychological Decrements Affecting Reading in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Molly M.

    While reading has been recognized as a potentially useful and enjoyable pastime for the elderly, physical and psychological decrements affect the ability of the elderly to read. As the eyes age, near-point tasks become more difficult. In addition to reduced sensory intake, perceptual changes occur. The central nervous system slows, and data travel…

  4. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  5. Aging Affects Neural Synchronization to Speech-Related Acoustic Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Tine; Vercammen, Charlotte; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As people age, speech perception problems become highly prevalent, especially in noisy situations. In addition to peripheral hearing and cognition, temporal processing plays a key role in speech perception. Temporal processing of speech features is mediated by synchronized activity of neural oscillations in the central auditory system. Previous studies indicate that both the degree and hemispheric lateralization of synchronized neural activity relate to speech perception performance. Based on these results, we hypothesize that impaired speech perception in older persons may, in part, originate from deviances in neural synchronization. In this study, auditory steady-state responses that reflect synchronized activity of theta, beta, low and high gamma oscillations (i.e., 4, 20, 40, and 80 Hz ASSR, respectively) were recorded in young, middle-aged, and older persons. As all participants had normal audiometric thresholds and were screened for (mild) cognitive impairment, differences in synchronized neural activity across the three age groups were likely to be attributed to age. Our data yield novel findings regarding theta and high gamma oscillations in the aging auditory system. At an older age, synchronized activity of theta oscillations is increased, whereas high gamma synchronization is decreased. In contrast to young persons who exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for processing of high gamma range modulations, older adults show a symmetrical processing pattern. These age-related changes in neural synchronization may very well underlie the speech perception problems in aging persons. PMID:27378906

  6. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  7. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  8. How type of excuse defense, mock juror age, and defendant age affect mock jurors' decisions.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Pamela L; Heath, Wendy P; Grannemann, Bruce D

    2007-08-01

    The authors investigated the effects of mock juror age (younger vs. older), defendant age (22 vs. 65), and type of excuse defense used by defendants (a highly self-inflicted condition, Cocaine Dependency Disorder, vs. a less self-inflicted condition, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) on mock juror decisions. Ninety-six younger and 96 older adults read a scenario and answered a questionnaire. Results indicated that the defendant using the highly self-inflicted excuse was more likely to receive a guilty verdict and a longer sentence than was the defendant using the less self-inflicted excuse. Older jurors were more certain of their verdicts and saw the defendant as more responsible for his condition than did younger jurors. Defendant age did not affect juror decisions. In addition, excuse type and juror age affected the jurors' perceptions of the victim's responsibility for the attack. The authors discuss the potential influence of juror age on perceptions of defendant responsibility.

  9. Astaxanthin affects oxidative stress and hyposalivation in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuraji, Manatsu; Matsuno, Tomonori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half. The plasma d-ROMs values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated group measured before and 72 weeks after treatment increased. The diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) value of astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group was. The plasma biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated mice before and 72 weeks after treatment decreased. Moreover, the BAP value of the astaxanthin-treated group 72 weeks after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control was. Furthermore, the submandibular glands of astaxanthin-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells than the control did. Specifically, immunofluorescence revealed a significantly large aquaporin-5 positive cells in astaxanthin-treated mice. Our results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may prevent age-related decreased saliva secretion. PMID:27698533

  10. Astaxanthin affects oxidative stress and hyposalivation in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuraji, Manatsu; Matsuno, Tomonori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half. The plasma d-ROMs values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated group measured before and 72 weeks after treatment increased. The diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) value of astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group was. The plasma biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated mice before and 72 weeks after treatment decreased. Moreover, the BAP value of the astaxanthin-treated group 72 weeks after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control was. Furthermore, the submandibular glands of astaxanthin-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells than the control did. Specifically, immunofluorescence revealed a significantly large aquaporin-5 positive cells in astaxanthin-treated mice. Our results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may prevent age-related decreased saliva secretion.

  11. Positive affect and age as predictors of exercise compliance

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise is linked to individuals whose affect profiles are invariably positive and it induces anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic effects, buttressing blood–brain barrier intactness in both healthy individuals and those suffering from disorders accompanying overweight and obesity. In this regard, exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. In this brief report we present a self-reported study carried out on an adolescent and adult population (N = 280, 144 males and 136 females), which indicated that the propensity and compliance for exercise, measured as the “Archer ratio”, was predicted by a positive affect. This association is discussed from the perspective of health, well-being, affect dimensions, and age. PMID:25548730

  12. Performance of four age groups of normal elderly on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, M; Satz, P; Chervinsky, A; D'Elia, L

    1991-05-01

    This study explored effect of age on encoding, retention, and retrieval components of memory functioning in a sample of 156 healthy, elderly subjects between the ages of 57 and 85, partitioned into four age groups. Memory assessment was based on subjects' performance on the RAVLT, which consisted of five free-recall trials, recall after interference, and recognition trial. Significant group differences in recall were found on all five learning trials, whereas rates of learning, forgetting, and recognition did not differ for four age groups. In addition, primacy/recency effect was equally strong for all groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms, whereas encoding and retention processes did not prove to be affected by aging.

  13. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

  14. Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

    2012-03-01

    Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD.

  15. Diabetes prevention: Reproductive age women affected by insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; LoBue, Stephen; Henderson, Cassandra E

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, 29.1 million people are affected by diabetes, of which 95% have type 2 diabetes. There has been a fivefold increase in type 2 diabetes in the latter half of the 20th century, an increase strongly linked to the obesity epidemic in the United States. In addition, insulin resistance affects 86 million Americans, or more than one-third of the adult population, as manifested by impaired fasting glucose tolerance with random glucose values ranging from ⩾100 to <126 mg/dL. In all, 90% of those affected by impaired fasting glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes are unaware of their metabolic derangement. Although impaired fasting glucose tolerance increases one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes, once identified, application of lifestyle changes by affected individuals may avoid or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. For reproductive age women who are found to have impaired fasting glucose tolerance, lifestyle changes may be an effective tool to diminish the reproductive health consequences of insulin resistance related diseases. PMID:27638898

  16. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  17. Patient-centered care in affective, non-affective, and schizoaffective groups: patients' opinions and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Tempier, Raymond; Hepp, Shelanne L; Duncan, C Randy; Rohr, Betty; Hachey, Krystal; Mosier, Karen

    2010-10-01

    An outcome evaluation was conducted to obtain psychiatric inpatients' perspectives on acute care mental health treatment and services. The applicability of diagnostic categories based on affective, non-affective, and schizoaffective disorder were considered in the predictability of responses to treatment regimens and the related services provided in an inpatient psychiatric unit. A multidimensional approach was used to survey patients, which included the DAI-30, the BMQ, the SERVQUAL, and the CSQ-8. Overall, findings indicate that inpatient satisfaction could be improved with tailoring treatment to suit their respective symptoms. Furthermore, this exploratory study demonstrates some preliminary support for the inclusion of patients with a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder as a separate group toward improving acute mental health care while hospitalized. PMID:20480394

  18. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  19. Leadership in Groups of School-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cynthia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of leadership in school-age female groups. Subjects were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls enrolled in 16 Girl Scout troops. Leadership and personal characteristics were measured. Found a consistent relationship between leadership status and a managerial leadership style. Long-term informal leadership was…

  20. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  1. ERα Variants Affect Age at Onset of Alzheimer's Disease in a Multiethnic Female Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, S.C.; Park, N.; Cheng, R.; Clark, L.N.; Lee, J. H.; Schupf, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies of gene variants that affect estrogen activity investigate their association with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women of different ethnicities. We investigated the influence of ESR1 polymorphisms on age at onset of AD in a multiethnic cohort of women. Methods Among 1,436 women participating in the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), association with age at AD onset was assessed for 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ESR1 gene using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for presence of an APOE ε4 allele, years of education, and body mass index (BMI). Results Six SNPs in self-identified White women were protectively associated with delayed age of AD onset in this self-identified group, including the two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) (HR range 0.420 – 0.483). Two separate SNPs were found to affect age of AD onset in self-identified Black women. Conclusions ESR1 polymorphisms affect age of onset for AD in women, and risk alleles vary by ethnicity. These effects are possibly due to different linkage disequilibrium patterns or differences in comorbid environmental or cultural risk factors mediating SNP effect on risk for AD. PMID:24732579

  2. Advancing age progressively affects obstacle avoidance skills in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Nienhuis, Bart; Duysens, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adequately avoid obstacles while walking is an important skill that allows safe locomotion over uneven terrain. The high proportion of falls in the elderly that is associated to tripping over obstacles potentially illustrates an age-related deterioration of this locomotor skill. Some studies have compared young and old adults, but very little is known about the changes occurring within different age groups of elderly. In the present study, obstacle avoidance performance was studied in 25 young (20-37 years) and 99 older adults (65-88 years). The participants walked on a treadmill at a speed of 3 km/h. An obstacle was dropped 30 times in front of the left foot at various phases in the step cycle. Success rates (successful avoidance) were calculated and related to the time available between obstacle appearance and the estimated instant of foot contact with the obstacle (available response times or ARTs ranging from 200 to more than 350 ms). In addition, latencies of avoidance reactions, the choice of avoidance strategies (long or short step strategy, LSS or SSS), and three spatial parameters related to obstacle avoidance (toe distance, foot clearance, and heel distance) were determined for each participant. Compared to the young, the older adults had lower success rates, especially at short ARTs. Furthermore, they had longer reaction times, more LSS reactions, smaller toe and heel distances, and larger foot clearances. Within the group of elderly, only the 65-69 year olds were not different from young adults with respect to success rate, despite marked changes in the other parameters measured. In particular, even this younger group of elderly showed a dramatic reduction in the amount of SSS trials compared to young adults. Overall, age was a significant predictor of success rates, reaction times, and toe distances. These parameters deteriorated with advancing age. Finally, avoidance success rates at short ARTs were considerably worse in elderly

  3. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  4. How Age and Linguistic Competence Affect Memory for Heard Information

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bruce A.; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed. PMID:27242569

  5. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  6. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  7. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  8. Does age affect the stress and coping process? Implications of age differences in perceived control.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, C M

    1991-07-01

    The perceived controllability of situations is thought to influence the types of coping strategies used, and thus is important in adaptive processes. Elderly individuals are widely perceived to have less control over their environment than other adults. This lack of perceived control should have adverse affects on how they cope with stressful situations. However, most studies have shown that older adults differ little from younger adults in their approaches to coping with stress. This contradiction was investigated in a sample of 228 community-residing adults with a mean age of 42.16 (SD = 14.88). Path analysis revealed that appraisals and attributions do affect the use of coping strategies such as instrumental action and escapism in the expected directions, and age is negatively associated with perceived control. However, there was an independent and negative relationship between age and the reported use of escapist coping strategies, which mitigated the adverse effects of perceived lack of control. Neither age nor perceived controllability had direct effects on depression, but they had indirect effects through their influence on the use of coping strategies and perceived efficacy.

  9. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  10. Complex contexts and relationships affect clinical decisions in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Mcquaid, Nancy; Balfour, Louise

    2016-09-01

    Clinical errors tend to be underreported even though examining them can provide important training and professional development opportunities. The group therapy context may be prone to clinician errors because of the added complexity within which therapists work and patients receive treatment. We discuss clinical errors that occurred within a group therapy in which a patient for whom group was not appropriate was admitted to the treatment and then was not removed by the clinicians. This was countertherapeutic for both patient and group. Two clinicians were involved: a clinical supervisor who initially assessed and admitted the patient to the group, and a group therapist. To complicate matters, the group therapy occurred within the context of a clinical research trial. The errors, possible solutions, and recommendations are discussed within Reason's Organizational Accident Model (Reason, 2000). In particular, we discuss clinician errors in the context of countertransference and clinician heuristics, group therapy as a local work condition that complicates clinical decision-making, and the impact of the research context as a latent organizational factor. We also present clinical vignettes from the pregroup preparation, group therapy, and supervision. Group therapists are more likely to avoid errors in clinical decisions if they engage in reflective practice about their internal experiences and about the impact of the context in which they work. Therapists must keep in mind the various levels of group functioning, especially related to the group-as-a-whole (i.e., group composition, cohesion, group climate, and safety) when making complex clinical decisions in order to optimize patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631861

  11. Age and Diet Affect Gene Expression Profile in Canine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Middelbos, Ingmar S.; Vester, Brittany M.; Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K.; Schook, Lawrence B.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated gene transcription in canine skeletal muscle (biceps femoris) using microarray analysis to identify effects of age and diet on gene expression. Twelve female beagles were used (six 1-year olds and six 12-year olds) and they were fed one of two experimental diets for 12 months. One diet contained primarily plant-based protein sources (PPB), whereas the second diet contained primarily animal-based protein sources (APB). Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays were used to hybridize extracted RNA. Age had the greatest effect on gene transcription (262 differentially expressed genes), whereas the effect of diet was relatively small (22 differentially expressed genes). Effects of age (regardless of diet) were most notable on genes related to metabolism, cell cycle and cell development, and transcription function. All these genes were predominantly down-regulated in geriatric dogs. Age-affected genes that were differentially expressed on only one of two diets were primarily noted in the PPB diet group (144/165 genes). Again, genes related to cell cycle (22/35) and metabolism (15/19) had predominantly decreased transcription in geriatric dogs, but 6/8 genes related to muscle development had increased expression. Effects of diet on muscle gene expression were mostly noted in geriatric dogs, but no consistent patterns in transcription were observed. The insight these data provide into gene expression profiles of canine skeletal muscle as affected by age, could serve as a foundation for future research pertaining to age-related muscle diseases. PMID:19221602

  12. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs…

  13. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  14. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  15. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  16. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  17. Aging does not affect soluble guanylate cyclase redox state in mouse aortas.

    PubMed

    Shimosato, Takashi; Tawa, Masashi; Iwasaki, Hirotaka; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with endothelial dysfunction, defined as a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Although the redox state of the NO acceptor soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is another determinant factor for its bioavailability and is disturbed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) known to be increased with age, it is unclear whether aging actually has an impact on vascular sGC redox equilibrium. Therefore, this study investigated this issue using two different types of compounds, the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 and the sGC activator BAY 60-2770. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels were markedly higher in aged (19-20 months old) mice than in young (2-3 months old) mice, whereas superoxide levels in endothelium-denuded aortas were not different between the groups. The relaxant response of endothelium-denuded aortas to either BAY 41-2272 or BAY 60-2770 was identical in aged and young mice. In addition, the vascular cGMP production stimulated with BAY 41-2272 or BAY 60-2770 in aged mice was the same level as that in young mice. These findings suggest that aging accompanied by an increase in systemic oxidative stress does not affect vascular smooth muscle ROS generation and sGC redox equilibrium. Unless ROS are increased in vascular smooth muscle, the sGC redox equilibrium might remain unchanged.

  18. Affective and Motivational Outcomes of Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Minnaert, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Quality of Working in Groups Instrument (QWIGI) was used in this research to measure students' fluctuating psychological need states as well as their situational interest online. Based on previous research with the QWIGI, it was predicted that the variance in university sophomores' situational interest in each of the five different topics of…

  19. Body and carcass composition of Angus and Charolais steers as affected by age and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Evans, B C; Guenther, J J

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a low vs moderate rate of gain during the growing phase on empty body and carcass composition during finishing of Angus and Charolais steers of two ages. Forty-eight Angus and 48 Charolais steers that were either spring-born (OLDER) or fall-born (YOUNGER) were fed two diets (alfalfa pellets [CON] or cubed grass-alfalfa hay, wheat straw, cottonseed hulls, and soybean meal [RES]) for a growing period followed by a conventional feedlot period. The feedlot period started when the YOUNGER-CON steers weighed the same as the OLDER-RES steers. At that time, an interaction of age x diet occurred in empty body fat content (P < .10), whereas breed and age x diet affected carcass fat content (P < .01). OLDER-CON steers were larger (average 378 kg empty BW) and fatter than the other, smaller groups (average 222 kg). Angus carcasses were fatter than Charolais carcasses (P < .01). At the end of the finishing phase, compensating steers (OLDER-RES) had fatter carcasses than OLDER-CON steers. Empty body fat content was affected by a breed x age x diet interaction (P < .10). Allometric regressions (Y = aXb) of fat on empty BW indicated that empty body fat accretion was greater in Angus than in Charolais and in YOUNGER than in OLDER steers. A breed x age x diet interaction (P < .10) indicated that OLDER-Angus had higher fat accretive rates than YOUNGER-Angus, whereas OLDER-CON-Charolais steers deposited fat more slowly than the remaining groups. These data suggest that steers receiving feedlot diets at light weights, whether young in age or previously restricted, accumulate fat more rapidly than do larger steers. This feeding strategy may be an advantage in late-maturing types, but moderate growth through approximately 75% of slaughter weight is recommended for early-maturing types.

  20. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  1. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:24427146

  2. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases – many shared across species – and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:24427146

  3. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  4. Age affects chunk-based, but not rule-based learning in artificial grammar acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kürten, Julia; De Vries, Meinou H; Kowal, Kristina; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Flöel, Agnes

    2012-07-01

    Explicit learning is well known to decline with age, but divergent results have been reported for implicit learning. Here, we assessed the effect of aging on implicit vs. explicit learning within the same task. Fifty-five young (mean 32 years) and 55 elderly (mean 64 years) individuals were exposed to letter strings generated by an artificial grammar. Subsequently, participants classified novel strings as grammatical or nongrammatical. Acquisition of superficial ("chunk-based") and structural ("rule-based") features of the grammar were analyzed separately. We found that overall classification accuracy was diminished in the elderly, driven by decreased performance on items that required chunk-based knowledge. Performance on items requiring rule-based knowledge was comparable between groups. Results indicate that rule-based and chunk-based learning are differentially affected by age: while rule-based learning, reflecting implicit learning, is preserved, chunk-based learning, which contains at least some explicit learning aspects, declines with age. Our findings may explain divergent results on implicit learning tasks in previous studies on aging. They may also help to better understand compensatory mechanisms during the aging process.

  5. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  6. Does severity of dermatochalasis in aging affect corneal biomechanical properties?

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Kurşat; Gurez, Ceren; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Serefoglu Cabuk, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of a relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and different grades of dermatochalasis. Patients and methods Patients were assigned to four groups according to the severity of their dermatochalasis: normal (Group 1), mild (Group 2), moderate (Group 3), and severe (Group 4). An Ocular Response Analyzer device was used to measure corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc). Results We found no significant differences in the mean values of the CH, CRF, and IOPcc of all groups (P=0.75, P=0.93, and P=0.11, respectively). However, CH and IOPcc were negatively correlated in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 patients (P=0.013, r=−0.49; P=0.015, r=−0.52; and P=0.011, r=−0.47, respectively), but this correlation was not apparent in the Group 4 patients (P=0.57, r=0.12). CRF and IOPcc were correlated, but only in Group 4 (P=0.001, r=0.66). Conclusion Severe dermatochalasis was associated with altered corneal biomechanical properties. Some of the important visual consequences of dermatochalasis and related diseases (such as floppy eyelid syndrome) can be understood by considering corneal biomechanical alterations. PMID:27274214

  7. Psychopathological differences among three groups of school children affected by the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sikić, N; Javornik, N; Stracenski, M; Bunjevac, T; Buljan-Flander, G

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of extreme violence such as war torture affect children in different ways and may immediately manifest at the physical and/or psychologic level, or may remain hidden and unrecognized for years. The victims are usually very reluctant to speak about their traumatic experiences, and try to deny the existence of psychological disturbances. They often seek help for somatic problems. Taking these physical complaints seriously helps to progressively reach the psychological effects of violence. Therefore, identification of such children should be directed to more complete evaluation of their symptomatology and functioning. This can be done by: a) individual evaluation to get enough information on the historical events, functioning and symptoms of these children; and b) standardized instruments which may allow the children to disclose more about their psychological experiences during the war. In this study rating scales and assessment instruments for children aged < 15, such as CPRS with General Scoring Sheet (Fish, 1985), were used to assess the broad spectrum of psychopathology in this age group. These questionnaires were used in a large group of school children (N = 1888), 989 girls and 899 boys aged 7-16 years. The sample was divided into 3 groups: 843 non-displaced, 377 displaced and 669 refugee children. Results of statistical analysis (arithmetical mean and standard deviation of discriminative variables transformed in Z-values with F-ratio) showed the three groups of children (non-displaced, displaced and refugees) to significantly differ in 13 out of 15 psychopathologic clusters. Discriminative cannonic analysis of the 3 groups of children (non displaced, displaced and refugees) also showed significant differences. The first discriminative function (80.24% of total variance) indicated depression, violence and antisocial behavior to be rare in non-displaced children, more pronounced in displaced, and most pronounced in refugee children. The second

  8. Ability Grouping: 1970 -- II. The Impact of Ability Grouping on School Achievement, Affective Development, Ethnic Separation and Socioeconomic Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Warren G.; Bryan, Miriam M.

    In this comprehensive review, important studies from the literature relevant to the impact of ability grouping on students are summarized. The following are considered: the effect of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping practices on academic achievement and affective development; the tendency of ability grouping to produce separation of students…

  9. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  10. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  11. Grape juice, berries and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). A recent report has indicated that individuals who consumed a diet containing 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables/day...

  12. Professor Age Affects Student Ratings: Halo Effect for Younger Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janie H.; Beyer, Denise; Monteiro, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching provide valued information about teaching effectiveness, and studies support the reliability and validity of such measures. However, research also illustrates potential moderation of student perceptions based on teacher gender, attractiveness, and even age, although the latter receives little research attention. In…

  13. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  14. How evolutionary thinking affects people's ideas about aging interventions.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Josh

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary theory has guided the development of antiaging interventions in some conscious and some unconscious ways. It is a standard assumption that the body's health has been optimized by natural selection, and that the most benign and promising medical strategies should support the body's efforts to maintain itself. The very concept of natural healing is a reflection of evolutionary thinking about health. Meanwhile, a developing body of experimental evidence points to the startling hypothesis that aging is a metabolic program, under genetic control we are programmed for death. Evolution has provided that the aging program can be abated in times of stress, e.g., caloric restriction. CR mimetics are already recognized as a promising avenue for antiaging research. Beyond this, there are two ancient mechanisms of programmed death in protists that have survived half a billion years of evolution, and still figure in the aging of vertebrates today. These are apoptosis and replicative senescence via telomere truncation. Most researchers have been wary of modifying these mechanisms because they are known to play a stopgap role in cancer prevention. But intriguing evidence suggests that, despite some counter-carcinogenic function, the net result of both these mechanisms may be to shorten lifespan. Thus, interventions that suppress apoptosis and that preserve telomeres may be promising avenues for life extension research. A third element of the body's self-destruction program co-opts the inflammation response. Epidemiological evidence suggests that NSAIDs including aspirin protect against atherosclerosis, arthritis, and some forms of cancer. It may be that aging engages an autoimmune response that can be modified by drugs acting more narrowly on this same pathway. The existence of an evolutionary program that controls aging from the top down supports a new optimism concerning the types of antiaging interventions that are possible, and the likelihood that simple

  15. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  16. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  18. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  19. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  20. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.

  1. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions. PMID:19628102

  2. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  3. Online CME Series Can Nutrition Simultaneously Affect Cancer and Aging? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Aging is considered by some scientists to be a normal physiological process, while others believe it is a disease. Increased cancer risk in the elderly raises the question regarding the common pathways for cancer and aging. Undeniably, nutrition plays an important role in both cases and this webinar will explore whether nutrition can simultaneously affect cancer and aging. |

  4. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Prows, Daniel R; Gibbons, William J; Smith, Jessica J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35-45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6-12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that 'age at exposure' inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3-4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  5. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  6. Affect Trumps Age: A Person-in-Context Relational View of Age and Motivation in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfenninger, Simone E.; Singleton, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings (see, for example, Muñoz and Singleton, 2011) indicate that age of onset is not a strong determinant of instructed foreign language (FL) learners' achievement and that age is intricately connected with social and psychological factors shaping the learner's overall FL experience. The present study, accordingly, takes a…

  7. Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Hernandez, Alexander D; Huffman, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Parasites are characteristically aggregated within hosts, but identifying the mechanisms underlying such aggregation can be difficult in wildlife populations. We examined the influence of host age and sex over an annual cycle on the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of nematode parasites infecting wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Five species of nematode were recorded from 434 fecal samples collected from an age-structured group of 50 individually recognizable macaques. All parasites exhibited aggregated EPG distributions. The age-infection profiles of all three directly transmitted species (Oesophagostomum aculeatum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris trichiura) exhibited convex curves, but concavity better characterized the age-infection curves of the two trophically transmitted species (Streptopharagus pigmentatus and Gongylonema pulchrum). There was a male bias in EPG and prevalence of infection with directly transmitted species, except in the prevalence of O. aculeatum, and no sex bias in the other parasites. Infection with O. aculeatum showed a female bias in prevalence among young adults, and additional interactions with sex and seasonality show higher EPG values in males during the mating season (fall) but in females during the birth season (spring). These patterns suggest that an immunosuppressive role by reproductive hormones may be regulating direct, but not indirect, life-cycle parasites. Exposure at an early age may trigger an immune response that affects all nematodes, but trophically transmitted species appear to accumulate thereafter. Although it is difficult to discern clear mechanistic explanations for parasite distributions in wildlife populations, it is critical to begin examining these patterns in host species that are increasingly endangered by anthropogenic threats.

  8. A Sharing Experience: Development of a Group for Families Affected by HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Diane; Appleby, Sue

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment and development of a support group for the parents of children infected and/or affected by HIV infection. The group is hospital-based, meeting monthly since April 1992, facilitated by professionals but with a self-help and peer support emphasis. Explains the planning, setting, and running of the group. Identifies…

  9. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya--a blood group study in chikungunya affected families.

    PubMed

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Sarojamma, Vemula; Ramakrishna, Vadde

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO) tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antigens, the individuals were kept in four groups - A (108), B (98), AB (20) and O (243). The result obtained was showed all Rh positive blood group individuals are susceptible to chikungunya fever. Among ABO group, the blood group O +ve individuals are more susceptible to chikungunya than other blood groups. No blood group with Rh negative was affected with chikungunya, it indicates Rh -ve more resistance to chikungunya.

  10. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  11. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  12. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  13. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  14. AGING AFFECTS MORPHOLOGY BUT NOT STIMULATED SECRETION OF SALIVA IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Lasisi, T.J.; Shittu, S.T.; Oguntokun, M.M.; Tiamiyu, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of aging on the salivary gland function still remains controversial and inconclusive. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of aging on the morphology and secretion of salivary glands using male Wistar rats. Method: There were three age groups; group A (3 months old; n = 8), group B (6 months old; n = 8), and group C (9 months old; n = 8). Body weights, salivary gland weights, salivary flow rates, pH and salivary levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate and total protein were measured and compared. Hematoxylin-eosin stained histological slides of the salivary glands were assessed for morphological changes. Results: Body weights increased with age while mean parotid gland weight was significantly higher in group B than in groups A and C. Mean salivary flow rate was significantly higher in group B and C than in group A, and mean salivary pH was significantly higher in group B and C than group A. Analysis of salivary electrolytes and total protein showed that mean levels of sodium, potassium and bicarbonate increased with age significantly while mean levels of calcium, chloride, phosphate and total protein did not show significant change among the groups. Conclusion: These findings showed that varying changes were observed in the morphology of salivary glands of aging rats without impaired function. PMID:25960701

  15. Oocyte aging-induced Neuronatin (NNAT) hypermethylation affects oocyte quality by impairing glucose transport in porcine

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying-Ying; Chen, Li; Wang, Tao; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Zhang, Xia; Miao, Yi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating many physiological behaviors; however, few studies were focused on the changes of DNA methylation during oocyte aging. Early studies showed that some imprinted genes’ DNA methylation had been changed in aged mouse oocytes. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that oocyte aging would alter DNA methylation pattern of genes and disturb their expression in age oocytes, which affected the developmental potential of oocytes. We compared several different types of genes and found that the expression and DNA methylation of Neuronatin (NNAT) were disturbed in aged oocytes significantly. Additional experiments demonstrated that glucose transport was impaired in aged oocytes and injection of NNAT antibody into fresh oocytes led to the same effects on glucose transport. These results suggest that the expression of NNAT was declined by elevating DNA methylation, which affected oocyte quality by decreasing the ability of glucose transport in aged oocytes. PMID:27782163

  16. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  17. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  18. Age affects over-marking of opposite-sex scent marks in meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus

    PubMed Central

    Ferkin, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Models of age-related effects on behavior predict that among short-lived species younger adults are more attractive and attracted to opposite-sex conspecifics than are older adults, whereas the converse is predicted for long-lived species. Although most studies of age-related effects on behavior support these predictions, they are not supported by many studies of scent marking, a behavior used in mate attraction. Over-marking, a form of scent marking, is a tactic used by many terrestrial mammals to convey information about themselves to opposite-sex conspecifics. The present study tested the hypothesis that the age of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus; a microtine rodent, affects their over- and scent marking behaviors when they encounter the marks of opposite-sex conspecifics. Sex differences existed in the over-marking behavior of adult voles among the three different age groups that were tested. Male voles that were 5-7 mo-old and 10-12 mo-old over-marked a higher proportion of the marks of females than did 2-3 mo-old male voles. Female voles that were 2-3 mo-old, 5-7 mo-old, and 10-12 mo-old over-marked a similar number of marks deposited by male voles. Overall, the data were not consistent with models predicting the behavior of short-lived animals such as rodents when they encounter the opposite sex. The differences in over-marking displayed by older and younger adult male voles may be associated with life history tradeoffs, the likelihood that they will encounter sexually receptive females, and being selected as mates. PMID:20607141

  19. Children's nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Michelle A; Verly, Eliseu; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in nutritional studies focusing on children is estimating "true" intake because the type and amount of foods eaten change throughout growth and development, thereby affecting the variability of intake. The present study investigated the hypothesis that age and body weight status affect the ratio of the within- and between-subject variation of intakes (VR) as well as the number of days of dietary assessment (D) of energy and nutrients. A total of 2,981 Brazilian preschoolers aged 1-6 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Weighed food records and estimated food records were used to assess dietary intake inside and outside of school. Within- and between-subject variations of intakes were estimated by multilevel regression models. VR and D were calculated according to age group and body weight status. VR ranged from 1.17 (calcium) to 8.70 (fat) in the 1- to 2-year-old group, and from 1.47 (calcium) to 8.95 (fat) in the 3- to 6-year-old group. Fat, fiber, riboflavin, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron exhibited greater VR and D in the 3- to 6-year-old group. For energy, carbohydrates, and protein, both within- and between-subject variation increased with increasing age. In both body weight groups, calcium showed the lowest VR. Fat showed the highest VR in nonoverweight/obese children (9.47), and fiber showed the highest VR in overweight/obese children (8.74). For most nutrients, D = 7 was sufficient to correctly rank preschoolers into tertiles of intake. In conclusion, age and body weight status affected the within- and between-subject variation and the VR of energy and nutrient intakes among Brazilian preschool children.

  20. Group Modification of Affective Verbalizations: 'Here-and-Now' and Valence Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcy, Michael R.; Fromme, Donald K.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated two dimensions of the verbal exchange, "here-and-now" v "there-and-then" verbal content and positive v negative affective tone, through use of a feedback device developed by the second author. Feedback enhanced use of affective verbalizations. The positive here-and-now condition enhanced group cohesiveness most. (Author)

  1. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  2. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  3. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  4. Investigating the Effects of Sweat Therapy on Group Dynamics and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Eason, Evan A.; Winterowd, Carrie L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Cashel, Chris

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of sweat therapy on group dynamics and affect. Sweat therapy is the combination of intense heat exposure with psychotherapy or counseling (Colmant & Merta, 1999; 2000). Twenty-four undergraduates were separated by sex and randomly assigned to eight sessions of either a sweat or non-sweat group counseling…

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at New...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at New...

  15. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  16. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages.

  17. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  18. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  19. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  20. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    PubMed Central

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  1. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  2. Who saves the best for last? Age differences in preferences for affective sequences.

    PubMed

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Reed, Andrew E; Maresca, Skye N

    2012-12-01

    We examined age differences in preferences for the temporal sequence of emotional events. In 2 studies, participants were asked to select the order in which they would like to view a series of emotionally salient images. Study 1 (N = 87; aged 21-88 years) elicited sequence preferences both directly (via a sequence construction task) and indirectly (via a temporal discounting task). Study 2 (N = 90; aged 21-89 years) used a modified version of the sequence construction task in which the sequence was selected prospectively instead of concurrently. Across both studies, younger participants preferred increasingly positive sequences, but this preference was negatively associated with age. Future time perspective was associated with both age and sequence preferences. In contrast, age differences in sequence preferences were not explained by personality traits, affective responses, or age-related decrements in cognitive functioning.

  3. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  4. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  5. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  6. Parental age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-05-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  7. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  8. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  9. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  10. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  11. Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models for Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  12. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

    PubMed

    Grovenburg, Troy W; Monteith, Kevin L; Jacques, Christopher N; Klaver, Robert W; DePerno, Christopher S; Brinkman, Todd J; Monteith, Kyle B; Gilbert, Sophie L; Smith, Joshua B; Bleich, Vernon C; Swanson, Christopher C; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001-2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  13. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: Does model choice affect survival estimates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  14. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

    PubMed

    Grovenburg, Troy W; Monteith, Kevin L; Jacques, Christopher N; Klaver, Robert W; DePerno, Christopher S; Brinkman, Todd J; Monteith, Kyle B; Gilbert, Sophie L; Smith, Joshua B; Bleich, Vernon C; Swanson, Christopher C; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001-2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  15. Constraining the age of the Mitu Group, South-East Peru: U-Pb ages of detrital and igneous zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mariël.; Schaltegger, Urs; Spikings, Richard; Winkler, Wilfried; Carlotto, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Inverted extensional basins with continental deposits of the Mitu Group straddle the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. The present study investigates the Mitu Group of south-east Peru (13-16°S), which consists of continental clastic sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic to andesitic lavas. There is a paucity of geochemical and geochronological data from the Mitu Group, and the interpretation of its evolution is complicated by i) rapid changes in fault structure along-strike of the graben system, and ii) inversion during Andean orogenesis. Due to dominating coarse-grained clastics, the Mitu Group is devoid of fossils and its age is poorly bracketed to the Permo-Triassic, based on its stratigraphic relationships with the underlying Copacabana and overlying Pucará groups. The upper strata of the Copacabana Group have been constrained by palynology to the Artinskian, while marine fossils at the base of the Pucará Group indicate a Norian age. The Pucará Group is only present in northern Peru, whereas the Mitu Group has an erosional contact with overlying Cretaceous sandstones in the study area. Preliminary data suggest that the lower Mitu Group is middle Triassic, leaving a significant hiatus between the Copacabana and Mitu groups. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was utilized to characterize pre- and syn-rift detrital zircon assemblages in sandstones, as well as to date the syn-rift volcanic and plutonic activity. Detrital zircon U-Pb age histograms of medium grained sandstones in the pre-rift Ambo and Copacabana groups contain several age populations, which can be immediately linked to major events identified along the western Gondwanan margin, such as the Sunsas/Grenville (1 Ga) and Pampean (0.55 Ga) orogenies, as well as the Famatinian arc (0.45 Ga). The youngest zircon in the population assigns a maximum deposition age to the rock; these zircons are of late Mississippian age for the Ambo and latest Pennsylvanian for the Copacabana groups. The

  16. Fewer but better: Proportionate size of the group affects evaluation of transgressive leaders.

    PubMed

    Travaglino, Giovanni A; Abrams, Dominic; Randsley de Moura, Georgina; Yetkili, Orkun

    2016-06-01

    A group may be badly affected if its leader transgresses important rules. Nonetheless, an emerging body of evidence suggests that in intergroup contexts, group members apply a double standard when judging ingroup leaders - They respond less punitively to transgressions by their leader than by non-leaders. In this article, two experiments investigated how proportionate ingroup size affects reactions to transgressive ingroup leaders. We demonstrate that ingroup leaders from larger, but not smaller, groups benefit from the double standard. The experiments testing the effects of two different types of transgressions (nepotistic favouritism and corruption, respectively) show that transgressive leaders from larger groups are evaluated more positively than both comparable non-leaders and leaders from smaller groups. In contrast, transgressive leaders from smaller groups are evaluated similarly to comparable transgressive non-leaders. Experiment 2 investigated a potential explanation for this phenomenon. Faced with a transgressive leader, members of a smaller group report greater embarrassment than do members of larger groups in relation to the leaders' actions. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  18. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    PubMed

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging.

  19. Aging affects mechanical properties and lubricin/PRG4 gene expression in normal ligaments.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Gail M; Lemmex, Devin B; Ono, Yohei; Beach, Cara J; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Lo, Ian K Y

    2015-09-18

    Age-related changes in ligament properties may have clinical implications for injuries in the mature athlete. Previous preclinical models documented mechanical and biochemical changes in ligaments with aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on ligament properties (mechanical, molecular, biochemical) by comparing medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) from 1-year-old and 3-year-old rabbits. The MCLs underwent mechanical (n=7, 1-year-old; n=7, 3-year-old), molecular (n=8, 1-year-old; n=6, 3-year-old), collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content (n=8, 1-year-old; n=6, 3-year-old) and water content (n=8, 1-year-old; n=5, 3-year-old) assessments. Mechanical assessments evaluated total creep strain, failure strain, ultimate tensile strength and modulus. Molecular assessments using RT-qPCR evaluated gene expression for collagens, proteoglycans, hormone receptors, and matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. While total creep strain and ultimate tensile strength were not affected by aging, failure strain was increased and modulus was decreased comparing MCLs from 3-year-old rabbits to those from 1-year-old rabbits. The mRNA expression levels for lubricin/proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 increased with aging; whereas, the mRNA expression levels for estrogen receptor and matrix metalloproteinase-1 decreased with aging. Collagen and GAG content assays and water content assessments did not demonstrate any age-related changes. The increased failure strain and decreased modulus with aging may have implications for increased susceptibility to ligament damage/injury with aging. Lubricin/PRG4 gene expression was affected by aging and its speculated role in ligament function may be related to interfascicular lubrication, which in turn may lead to altered mechanical function with aging and increases in potential for injury.

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  2. Modification of 'Here-and-Now' Affective, Feedback and Empathic Verbalizations in Led and Leaderless Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Donald K.; And Others

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if a procedure could be devised to eliminate the need for a therapist in reinforcing for expressions of affect, feedback, or empathy. Twenty-six male and 22 female undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to 12 "human relations" groups, comprising three replications of four conditions: 1.…

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  4. How Does Tele-Mental Health Affect Group Therapy Process? Secondary Analysis of a Noninferiority Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Carolyn J.; Morland, Leslie A.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubbs, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Video teleconferencing (VTC) is used for mental health treatment delivery to geographically remote, underserved populations. However, few studies have examined how VTC affects individual or group psychotherapy processes. This study compares process variables such as therapeutic alliance and attrition among participants receiving anger…

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart U of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  6. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  7. Does neonatal morphine use affect neuropsychological outcomes at 8 to 9 years of age?

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joke; van Lingen, Richard A; Valkenburg, Abraham J; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Morphine is widely used to treat severe pain in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Animal studies suggest adverse long-term side effects of neonatal morphine, but a follow-up study of 5-year-old children who participated in a morphine-placebo controlled trial as newborns found no such effects on the child's general functioning. This study indicated that morphine may negatively affect response inhibition, a domain of executive functions. Therefore, we performed a second follow-up study in the same population at the age of 8 to 9 years, focused on the child's general functioning in terms of intelligence, visual motor integration, and behavior and on executive functions. Children in the morphine group showed significantly less externalizing problems according to the parents but more internalizing behavior according to the teachers, but only after adjustment for intelligence quotient (IQ), potential confounders using a propensity score, and additional open-label morphine. Morphine-treated children showed significantly fewer problems with executive functions in daily life as rated by parents for the subscales inhibition and organization of materials and for planning/organizing as rated by the teachers. After adjustment for IQ and the propensity score, executive functioning as rated by the parents remained statistically significantly better in the morphine-treated group. The influence of the additional morphine given was not of a significant influence for any of the outcome variables. Overall, the present study demonstrates that continuous morphine infusion of 10 μg/kg/h during the neonatal period does not harm general functioning and may even have a positive influence on executive functions at 8 to 9 years.

  8. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  9. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  10. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  11. [Comparative study of 2 groups of paranoid syndromes appearing at different ages].

    PubMed

    Gilliéron, E; Müller, C

    1976-01-01

    Clinical study of two groups of females beyond age of 65, institutionalized for delusional manifestations of schizophrenic nature and presenting also, at the time of examination, a pronounced paranoid state. In the first group: the manifestations had arisen before the age of 45. In the second group, after the age of 65. This study has demonstrated certain psychopathological characteristics suggesting the presence of personality problems definitely more profound in patients of the first group: autistic state, asthenia, thought disorder, incoherence and vagueness of delusional subjects, ordinarily much more unreal are characteristics of the first group in comparison to the second. This seems to bring evidence that these two paranoid states (paranoid schizophrenia in adult age and paranoid state in senility) are, at first sight, pathological entities based on personality problems of very different intensity.

  12. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness.

  13. Aging Affects Acquisition and Reversal of Reward-Based Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Julia A.; Bellebaum, Christian; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Reward-based associative learning is mediated by a distributed network of brain regions that are dependent on the dopaminergic system. Age-related changes in key regions of this system, the striatum and the prefrontal cortex, may adversely affect the ability to use reward information for the guidance of behavior. The present study investigated the…

  14. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  15. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  16. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  17. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  18. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  19. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  20. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify.

  1. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify. PMID:24171492

  2. Age differences in affective forecasting and experienced emotion surrounding the 2008 U.S. presidential election

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Susanne; Mata, Rui; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently make decisions based on tacit or explicit forecasts about the emotional consequences associated with the possible choices. We investigated age differences in such forecasts and their accuracy by surveying voters about their expected and, subsequently, their actual emotional responses to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. A sample of 762 Democratic and Republican voters aged 20 to 80 years participated in a web-based study; 346 could be re-contacted two days after the election. Older adults forecasted lower increases in high-arousal emotions (e.g., excitement after winning; anger after losing) and larger increases in low-arousal emotions (e.g., sluggishness after losing) than younger adults. Age differences in actual responses to the election were consistent with forecasts, albeit less pervasive. Additionally, among supporters of the winning candidate, but not among supporters of the losing candidate, forecasting accuracy was enhanced with age, suggesting a positivity effect in affective forecasting. These results add to emerging findings about the role of valence and arousal in emotional aging and demonstrate age differences in affective forecasting about a real-world event with an emotionally-charged outcome. PMID:21547760

  3. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Singh, K. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Results: Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) for overall disposal rate. Across different seasons of birth, overall disposal rates differed significantly (p<0.01) in different age group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (p<0.01) in 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18-3 year and 3-5 year age groups. Conclusion: Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause. PMID:27047071

  4. The Age of Cortical Neural Networks Affects Their Interactions with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tay, Andy; Kunze, Anja; Jun, Dukwoo; Hoek, Eric; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-07-01

    Despite increasing use of nanotechnology in neuroscience, the characterization of interactions between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and primary cortical neural networks remains underdeveloped. In particular, how the age of primary neural networks affects MNP uptake and endocytosis is critical when considering MNP-based therapies for age-related diseases. Here, primary cortical neural networks are cultured up to 4 weeks and with CCL11/eotaxin, an age-inducing chemokine, to create aged neural networks. As the neural networks are aged, their association with membrane-bound starch-coated ferromagnetic nanoparticles (fMNPs) increases while their endocytic mechanisms are impaired, resulting in reduced internalization of chitosan-coated fMNPs. The age of the neurons also negates the neuroprotective effects of chitosan coatings on fMNPs, attributing to decreased intracellular trafficking and increased colocalization of MNPs with lysosomes. These findings demonstrate the importance of age and developmental stage of primary neural cells when developing in vitro models for fMNP therapeutics targeting age-related diseases. PMID:27228954

  5. The Age of Cortical Neural Networks Affects Their Interactions with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tay, Andy; Kunze, Anja; Jun, Dukwoo; Hoek, Eric; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-07-01

    Despite increasing use of nanotechnology in neuroscience, the characterization of interactions between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and primary cortical neural networks remains underdeveloped. In particular, how the age of primary neural networks affects MNP uptake and endocytosis is critical when considering MNP-based therapies for age-related diseases. Here, primary cortical neural networks are cultured up to 4 weeks and with CCL11/eotaxin, an age-inducing chemokine, to create aged neural networks. As the neural networks are aged, their association with membrane-bound starch-coated ferromagnetic nanoparticles (fMNPs) increases while their endocytic mechanisms are impaired, resulting in reduced internalization of chitosan-coated fMNPs. The age of the neurons also negates the neuroprotective effects of chitosan coatings on fMNPs, attributing to decreased intracellular trafficking and increased colocalization of MNPs with lysosomes. These findings demonstrate the importance of age and developmental stage of primary neural cells when developing in vitro models for fMNP therapeutics targeting age-related diseases.

  6. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  7. Bone Formation is Affected by Matrix Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Mostafa, Ahmed Jenan; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Although previous evidence shows that the accumulation of AGEs in bone matrix may impose significant effects on bone cells, the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation in vivo is still poorly understood. To address this issue, this study used a unique rat model with autograft implant to investigate the in vivo response of bone formation to matrix AGEs. Fluorochrome biomarkers were sequentially injected into rats to label the dynamic bone formation in the presence of elevated levels of matrix AGEs. After sacrificing animals, dynamic histomorphometry was performed to determine mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralized surface per bone surface (MS/BS), and bone formation rate (BFR). Finally, nanoindentation tests were performed to assess mechanical properties of newly formed bone tissues. The results showed that MAR, MS/BS, and BFR were significantly reduced in the vicinity of implant cores with high concentration of matrix AGEs, suggesting that bone formation activities by osteoblasts were suppressed in the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In addition, MAR and BFR were found to be dependent on the surrounding environment of implant cores (i.e., cortical or trabecular tissues). Moreover, MS/BS and BFR were also dependent on how far the implant cores were away from the growth plate. These observations suggest that the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation is dependent on the biological milieu around the implants. Finally, nanoindentation test results indicated that the indentation modulus and hardness of newly formed bone tissues were not affected by the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In summary, high concentration of matrix AGEs may slow down the bone formation process in vivo, while imposing little effects on bone mineralization.

  8. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  9. Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) trainers' personality characteristics and affective profiles

    PubMed Central

    Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Åkerman, Jeanette; Eerikäinen, Peter; Ambjörnsson, Annika; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Mihailovic, Marko; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Understanding Group and Leader (UGL), provided by the Swedish National Defense College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA) to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1) to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2) to investigate differences in personal characteristics. Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153) and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police) completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA), high affective (high PA, high NA), low affective (high PA, low NA), and self-destructive (low PA, high NA). Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70%) than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%). UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR = 2.22, p < 0.05) and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfillment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfillment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuous training in awareness after

  10. Mood, motivation, and misinformation: aging and affective state influences on memory.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Emery, Lisa; Elliott, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Normative age differences in memory have typically been attributed to declines in basic cognitive and cortical mechanisms. The present study examined the degree to which dominant everyday affect might also be associated with age-related memory errors using the misinformation paradigm. Younger and older adults viewed a positive and a negative event, and then were exposed to misinformation about each event. Older adults exhibited a higher likelihood than young adults of falsely identifying misinformation as having occurred in the events. Consistent with expectations, strength of the misinformation effect was positively associated with dominant mood, and controlling for mood eliminated any age effects. Also, motivation to engage in complex cognitive activity was negatively associated with susceptibility to misinformation, and susceptibility was stronger for negative than for positive events. We argue that motivational processes underlie all of the observed effects, and that such processes are useful in understanding age differences in memory performance.

  11. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  12. An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

  13. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  14. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  15. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  16. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  17. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  18. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  19. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Zoer, I; Ruitenburg, M M; Botje, D; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between the aspects of psychosocial workload (distributed into tertiles) and health complaints were analysed by logistic regression analysis in four age groups (22-35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56-66 years old). In all age groups, worse work pressure was a significant risk factor for having mental health complaints. Worse emotional load in the younger employees and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of having mental health complaints. Age-specific preventive measures should be implemented on both individual and group levels. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: With an ageing workforce, understanding relationships between age and work-related health ailments is increasingly important. This study found that emotional workload in younger and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of mental health complaints. Work pressure was a risk factor in all age groups.

  20. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  1. Brain Processing of Emotional Scenes in Aging: Effect of Arousal and Affective Context

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

  2. Positive Affect and Social Anxiety Across the Lifespan: An Investigation of Age as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    WEISMAN, JACLYN S.; RODEBAUGH, THOMAS L.; BROWN, PATRICK J.; MULLIGAN, ELIZABETH A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature has supported a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and positive affect. It has been proposed, but not clearly established, that the inverse relationship between the constructs may be stronger in younger adults than in adults who are older. We tested this hypothesis in two archival data sets of community participants. The expected age-related interaction was not found in Study 1, which used a measure capturing a conflation of valence and arousal known as activated positive affect. Conversely, the interaction was present in Study 2, in which the positive affect measure was primarily based on valence. We found only partial support for the hypothesis, and results highlight the need for a more comprehensive measure of positive affect.

  3. Positive Affect and Social Anxiety Across the Lifespan: An Investigation of Age as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    WEISMAN, JACLYN S.; RODEBAUGH, THOMAS L.; BROWN, PATRICK J.; MULLIGAN, ELIZABETH A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature has supported a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and positive affect. It has been proposed, but not clearly established, that the inverse relationship between the constructs may be stronger in younger adults than in adults who are older. We tested this hypothesis in two archival data sets of community participants. The expected age-related interaction was not found in Study 1, which used a measure capturing a conflation of valence and arousal known as activated positive affect. Conversely, the interaction was present in Study 2, in which the positive affect measure was primarily based on valence. We found only partial support for the hypothesis, and results highlight the need for a more comprehensive measure of positive affect. PMID:27642226

  4. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  5. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  6. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  7. Age differences affecting induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes by methaqualone and phenobarbital in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P P; Boren, J A; Smyth, R D; Reavey-Cantwell, N H

    1975-05-01

    Methaqualone pretreatment for 3 or 6 days caused an induction of hepatic enzymes in the young male rat as measured by a reduction in hexobarbital-hypnosis. However, methaqualone pretreatment had no effect on the hexobarbital-hypnotic response in older male rats. Phenobarbital was a more potent enzyme inducer than methaqualone, and caused induction of liver enzymes in both age groups.

  8. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  9. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  10. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  11. An Approach to the Management of Gonorrhea in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Alice Faye

    1981-01-01

    Gonorrhea is becoming more important to the pediatrician. Not only is the incidence of this disease greatest in the adolescent group, but it has become more frequent in young children as well. The author outlines an approach to managing gonococcal disease in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. PMID:7193742

  12. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  13. Curriculum Construction for Non-formal Education for the Age-Group 15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Satyen

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the need for nonformal education curriculum development for illiterate Indians in the 15-25 age group. Certain characteristics of this group are noted and curriculum development is discussed in terms of definition, components, objectives, content, methods, and evaluation. (SH)

  14. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  15. The Isochronal Age Scale of Young Moving Groups in the Solar Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (<~ 200 Myr), nearby (<~ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-T eff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.

  16. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  17. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  18. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  19. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  20. Measurement of Affective and Activity Pain Interference Using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI): Cancer and Leukemia Group B 70903*

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Thomas M.; Halabi, Susan; Bennett, Antonia V.; Rogak, Lauren; Sit, Laura; Li, Yuelin; Kaplan, Ellen; Basch, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was designed to yield separate scores for pain intensity and interference. It has been proposed that the pain interference factor can be further broken down into unique factors of affective (e.g., mood) and activity (e.g., work) interference. The purpose of this analysis was to confirm this affective/activity interference dichotomy. Patients and Methods A retrospective confirmatory factor analysis was completed for a sample of 184 individuals diagnosed with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (Age 40–86, M = 65.46, 77% White Non-Hispanic) who had been administered the BPI as part of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 9480. A one-factor model was compared against two-factor and three-factor models that were developed based on the design of the instrument. Results Root mean squared error of approximation (0.075), comparative fit index (0.971), and change in chi-square, given the corresponding change in degrees of freedom (13.33, p < .05) values for the three-factor model (i.e., pain intensity, activity interference, and affective interference) were statistically superior in comparison to the one- and two-factor models. This three-factor structure was found to be invariant across age, mean PSA and hemoglobin levels. Conclusions These results confirm that the BPI can be used to quantify the degree to which pain separately interferes with affective and activity aspects of a patient's everyday life. These findings will provide clinical trialists, pharmaceutical sponsors, and regulators with confidence in the flexibility of the BPI as they consider the use of this instrument to assist with understanding the patient experience as it relates to treatment. PMID:23110676

  1. Folic acid supplementation for 4 weeks affects liver morphology in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Roncalés, María; Achón, María; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Maestro de las Casas, Carmen; Ramírez, Carmen; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Julia

    2004-05-01

    Several countries have approved universal folic acid (FA) fortification to prevent neural tube defects and/or high homocysteine levels; this has led to a chronic intake of FA. Traditionally, the vitamin is considered to be safe and nontoxic, except for the potential masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Recent reports from our laboratories showed several effects of high-dose folate supplementation in rats. In this work, we compared the effect of FA on the liver of weanling (3 wk) and aged (18 mo) male rats fed either a diet supplemented with 40 mg FA/kg diet or a control diet (1 mg FA/kg diet) for 4 wk. FA supplementation did not alter serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, glucose oxidase, total bilirubin, or uric acid. Routine histological staining as well as immunohistochemistry with proliferating cell nuclear antibody for dividing cells, and cytokeratin-8 against bile ductal cells, showed that aged, supplemented rats had the same number of hepatocytes as both control and supplemented weanling rats, and tended to have more (17%, P = 0.07) hepatocytes than aged, control rats. Moreover, the bile duct cells of aged, control rats proliferated and transformed into cholestatic rosettes at a higher frequency than in aged, supplemented rats. The morphology of the liver in weanling rats was similar in both diet groups, and comparable to the supplemented, aged rats, thus indicating that a high intake of FA improves normal liver morphology in livers of aged rats.

  2. Age-related affective modulation of the startle eyeblink response: older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Michelle C; Courtney, Christopher G; Mather, Mara; Dawson, Michael E; Davison, Gerald C

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies reveal age by valence interactions in attention and memory, such that older adults focus relatively more on positive and relatively less on negative stimuli than younger adults. In the current study, eyeblink startle response was used to measure differences in emotional reactivity to images that were equally arousing to both age groups. Viewing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System had opposite effects on startle modulation for older and younger adults. Younger adults showed the typical startle blink pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing negative pictures compared to positive pictures. Older adults, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing positive pictures compared to viewing negative and neutral pictures. Potential underlying mechanisms for this interaction are evaluated. This pattern suggests that, compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to spontaneously suppress responses to negative stimuli and process positive stimuli more deeply.

  3. The Impact of Affect on Out-Group Judgments Depends on Dominant Information-Processing Styles: Evidence From Incidental and Integral Affect Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Linda M; Lair, Elicia C; Rovenpor, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    Two studies tested the affect-as-cognitive-feedback model, in which positive and negative affective states are not uniquely associated with particular processing styles, but rather serve as feedback about currently accessible processing styles. The studies extend existing work by investigating (a) both incidental and integral affect, (b) out-group judgments, and (c) downstream consequences. We manipulated processing styles and either incidental (Study 1) or integral (Study 2) affect and measured perceptions of out-group homogeneity. Positive (relative to negative) affect increased out-group homogeneity judgments when global processing was primed, but under local priming, the effect reversed (Studies 1 and 2). A similar interactive effect emerged on attributions, which had downstream consequences for behavioral intentions (Study 2). These results demonstrate that both incidental and integral affect do not directly produce specific processing styles, but rather influence thinking by providing feedback about currently accessible processing styles. PMID:26984013

  4. The Ages of A-Stars. I. Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities (v{sin}i ≳ 170 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars’ observed photometric energy distributions, and v{sin}i values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as opposed to those that are several times larger than the limit. Under the assumption of coevality, the spread in ages can be used as a test of both the prescription presented here and the MESA evolutionary code for rapidly rotating stars. With our validated technique, we combine these age estimates and determine the age of the moving group to be 414 ± 23 Myr, which is consistent with, but much more precise than previous estimates.

  5. Joint attention initiation with and without positive affect: risk group differences and associations with ASD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Devon N; Ibañez, Lisa V; Messinger, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of anticipatory smiling at 8, 10, and 12 months in infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) and without ASD (low-risk siblings). High-risk siblings produced less anticipatory smiling than low-risk siblings, suggesting early differences in communicating preexisting positive affect. While early anticipatory smiling distinguished the risk groups, IJA not accompanied by smiling best predicted later severity of ASD-related behavioral characteristics among high-risk siblings. High-risk infants appear to show lower levels of motivation to share positive affect with others. However, facility with initiating joint attention in the absence of a clear index of positive affective motivation appears to be central to the prediction of ASD symptoms. PMID:24281421

  6. Justice between age groups: an objection to the prudential lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Societal aging raises challenging ethical questions regarding the just distribution of health care between young and old. This article considers a proposal for age-based rationing of health care, which is based on the prudential life span account of justice between age groups. While important objections have been raised against the prudential life span account, it continues to dominate scholarly debates. This article introduces a new objection, one that develops out of the well-established disability critique of social contract theories. I show the implications of this critique for the prudential life span account and for the special case of age-group justice. The result is that age-based rationing based on the prudential life span approach is not supported, and that the prudential life span approach itself is not the best way to think about allocating health care between age groups. I propose an alternative approach that avoids the disability objection, and consider its implications for specific proposals for age-based rationing of health care.

  7. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  8. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  9. Meat quality traits in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) as affected by muscle type and animal age.

    PubMed

    Berge, P; Lepetit, J; Renerre, M; Touraille, C

    1997-02-01

    Meat quality traits were determined in the major muscles of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) at different slaughter ages (6, 10, 14, 17 or ≥20 months). A mean ultimate pH value of 5.5 was reached within around 3 h post mortem, but this value was 6.1 in animals that had suffered a preslaughter stress (transportation and fasting). The collagen and pigment contents varied widely among the muscles. The protein and pigment contents increased with animal age, but this effect was perceptible only between 6 and 14 months. The other chemical constituents were little affected by muscle type or animal age. The intense red colour of emu meat, due to a high pigment content, was very sensitive to oxidation, thus limiting the storage of fresh meat under aerobic conditions to short periods of time. Despite a rapid post-mortem tenderization (≤24 h), the residual myofibrillar strength obtained after extended ageing remained intermediate between those reported for chicken and beef. The tenderness of meat, cooked to 60 °C, differed between muscles and decreased with increasing age, thus reflecting the changes occuring in the concentration and in the heat stability of the intramuscular connective tissue.

  10. The neural mechanisms underlying the aging-related enhancement of positive affects: electrophysiological evidences

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianxin; Yang, Jiemin; Cai, AYan; Ding, XinSheng; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Hong; Yuan, JiaJin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that old adults, relative to young adults, showed improvement of emotional stability and increased experiences of positive affects. Methods: In order to better understand the neural underpinnings behind the aging-related enhancement of positive affects, it is necessary to investigate whether old and young adults differ in the threshold of eliciting positive or negative emotional reactions. However, no studies have examined emotional reaction differences between old and young adults by manipulating the intensity of emotional stimuli to date. To clarify this issue, the present study examined the impact of aging on the brain’s susceptibility to affective pictures of varying emotional intensities. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) for highly negative (HN), mildly negative (MN) and neutral pictures in the negative experimental block; and for highly positive (HP), mildly positive (MP) and neutral pictures in the positive experimental block, when young and old adults were required to count the number of pictures, irrespective of the emotionality of the pictures. Results: Event-related potentials results showed that LPP (late positive potentials) amplitudes were larger for HN and MN stimuli compared to neutral stimuli in young adults, but not in old adults. By contrast, old adults displayed larger LPP amplitudes for HP and MP relative to neutral stimuli, while these effects were absent for young adults. In addition, old adults reported more frequent perception of positive stimuli and less frequent perception of negative stimuli than young adults. The post-experiment stimulus assessment showed more positive ratings of Neutral and MP stimuli, and reduced arousal ratings of HN stimuli in old compared to young adults. Conclusion: These results suggest that old adults are more resistant to the impact of negative stimuli, while they are equipped with enhanced attentional bias for positive stimuli. The implications of these results

  11. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration.

  12. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236

  13. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  14. The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates the consequence of stereotype threat on the well-being of older adults. Older adults were tested on their recall of a prose passage under normal or stereotype threatening conditions. Memory decrements for those in the threat condition were moderated by perceived stereotype threat such that greater decrements were seen for those who reported greater perceived threat. A similar pattern was observed for negative emotion, such that those in the threat condition who reported higher perceptions of threat experienced a greater decrease in positive emotions. Age group identification also proved to be an important factor, with the strongly identified performing worse than the weakly identified. As well, high age-group identification buffered some of the negative affective consequences associated with stereotype threat, which is consistent with some models of coping with stigma.

  15. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RETINA IN CHRONIC STRESS IN LABORATORY RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, A A; Yermilov, V V; Tiurenkov, I N; Smirnov, A V; Grigoriyeva, N V; Zagrebin, V L; Rogova, L N; Antoshkin, O N; Dovgalyov, A O

    2016-01-01

    The retina was studied in albino laboratory male rats of two age groups (12 and 24 months), 10 animals in each subjected to chronic combined stress. The stress was caused in animals by simultaneous exposure to pulsed light, loud sound, swinging and restriction of mobility for 7 days, 30 mm daily. The retina of intact rats of the corresponding age groups (n = 20) served as control. Enucleated eyes of stressed and control animals were processed with standard histological technique and stained with Nissl's method and hematoxylin-eosin. The retina of the stressed animals of both age groups showed the decrease in the number of cells and the disarrangement of its layers, most pronounced in the layers of photoreceptor neurons and ganglion cells. The comparative morphometric analysis demonstrated a reduction of the layer thickness and cell numerical density in the retina of stressed animals, both young (12 months) and old (24 months), as compared to that of control animals. PMID:27487662

  16. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  17. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  18. A Search for Impact Debris in the Pliocene Age Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Boyd, Hiram

    2003-01-01

    The Sirius Group is a mixed sequence of interbedded diamictite and mudstone of Pliocene age found at scattered locations along the length of the Transantarctic Mountains. Sirius Group rocks are usually considered tillites, but contain some very "un-tillite" elements. Within section and from site to site, Sirius Group rocks vary considerably in terms of texture and relative abundance of clast lithologies, recording a history that includes shifting influences of glacial, lacustrine, fluvial and wetland processes. The colorful heritage of the Sirius Group has generated a lot of interest due to its potential as a record of changes in the behavior of the East Antarctic icesheet during a climatologically interesting period.

  19. Luminous AGB Stars beyond the Local Group: Tracers of Intermediate-age Populations in the Cen A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Rejkuba, M.; Grebel, E. K.; da Costa, G.; Jerjen, H.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the resolved stellar content of three predominantly old and metal-poor early-type dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group (at a distance of ˜4 Mpc). Our goal is to estimate the fraction of the intermediate-age populations (IAPs) and the period of most recent star formation from their luminous AGB stars. We combine optical HST/ACS and near-infrared VLT/ISAAC images to identify AGB star candidates. The first dataset provides high-resolution photometry while the second one permits us to disentangle the galaxies’ stellar content from the foreground contamination and to characterize the IAPs. The IAP fraction is found to be very low in the target galaxies (up to ˜15%). We compare the results to our own Local Group.

  20. Age-related differences in valence and arousal ratings of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS): do ratings become more extreme with age?

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel; Scheibe, Susanne

    2008-05-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) has been widely used in aging-oriented research on emotion. However, no ratings for older adults are available. The aim of the present study was to close this gap by providing ratings of valence and arousal for 504 IAPS pictures by 53 young and 53 older adults. Both age groups rated positive pictures as less arousing, resulting in a stronger linear association between valence and arousal, than has been found in previous studies. This association was even stronger in older than in young adults. Older adults perceived negative pictures as more negative and more arousing and positive pictures as more positive and less arousing than young adults did. This might indicate a dedifferentiation of emotional processing in old age. On the basis of a picture recognition task, we also report memorability scores for individual pictures and how they relate to valence and arousal ratings. Data for all the pictures are archived at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  1. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  2. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats. PMID:24652515

  3. Age affects not only metabolome but also metal toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda cultures.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Responses of Scenedesmus quadricauda grown in vitro and differing in age (old culture-13 months, young culture-1 month) to short-term cadmium (Cd) or nickel (Ni) excess (24h) were compared. Higher age of the culture led to lower amount of chlorophylls, ascorbic acid and glutathione but higher signal of ROS. Surprisingly, sucrose was detected using DART-Orbitrap MS in both old and young culture and subsequent quantification confirmed its higher amount (ca. 3-times) in the old culture. Cd affected viability and ROS amount more negatively than Ni that could arise from excessive Cd uptake which was also higher in all treatments than in respective Ni counterparts. Surprisingly, nitric oxide was not extensively different in response to age or metals. Strong induction of phytochelatin 2 is certainly Cd-specific response while Ni also elevated ascorbate content. Krebs cycle acids were more accumulated in the young culture but they were rather elevated in the old culture (citric acid under Ni excess). We conclude that organic solid 'Milieu Bristol' medium we tested is suitable for long-term storage of unicellular green algae (also successfully tested for Coccomyxa sp. and Parachlorella sp.) and the impact of age on metal uptake may be useful for bioremediation purposes. PMID:26687303

  4. An anatomy of old-age disability: Time use, affect and experienced utility.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; Ingenhaag, Michael; Maurer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Complementing the commonly used concepts of evaluative wellbeing and decision utility, emotional wellbeing and experienced utility are important welfare criteria to assess individuals' subjective wellbeing, especially for valuing health and disability. Yet, almost all empirical evidences on the link between disability and experienced wellbeing come from developed countries. This paper studies the relationship between old-age disability and experienced utility in five low- and middle-income countries. Using data on individual time use and activity-specific affective experiences from an abbreviated version of the Day Reconstruction Method, we document a strong negative association between disability and experienced utility. These differences in experienced utility by disability status are exclusively due to worse activity-specific affective experiences among persons with disabilities. By contrast, disability-related differences in time use provide small compensating effects. Interventions or technologies that facilitate daily life hold most promise to improve experienced utility among persons with disabilities in the developing world.

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the...

  9. Expression of groups I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat brain during aging.

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Agnes; Ngomba, Richard T; Storto, Marianna; Catania, Maria V; Miller, Laura A; Youngs, Brian; DiGiorgi-Gerevini, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Sun, Grace Y

    2005-05-10

    Age-dependent changes in the expression of group I and II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were studied by in situ hybridization, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Male Fisher 344 rats of three ages (3, 12 and 25 months) were tested. Age-related increases in mGlu1 receptor mRNA levels were found in several areas (thalamic nuclei, hippocampal CA3) with parallel increases in mGlu1a receptor protein expression. However, a slight decrease in mGlu1a receptor mRNA expression in individual Purkinje neurons and a decline in cerebellar mGlu1a receptor protein levels were detected in aged animals. In contrast, mGlu1b receptor mRNA levels increased in the cerebellar granule cell layer. Although mGlu5 receptor mRNA expression decreased in many regions, its protein expression remained unchanged during aging. Compared to the small changes in mGlu2 receptor mRNA levels, mGlu3 receptor mRNA levels showed substantial age differences. An increased mGlu2/3 receptor protein expression was found in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus and corpus callosum in aged animals. These results demonstrate region- and subtype-specific, including splice variant specific changes in the expression of mGlu receptors in the brain with increasing age. PMID:15862522

  10. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  11. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  12. Older and wiser? An affective science perspective on age-related challenges in financial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Munnell, Alicia H.; Sass, Steven A.; Dickerson, Brad C.; Wright, Christopher I.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Financial planning decisionss are fundamentally affective in nature; they are decisions related to money, longevity and quality of life. Over the next several decades people will be increasingly responsible for managing their own assets and investments, and they will be subject to the affective influences on active, personal decision-making. Many of these crucial decisions are made and revised across the lifespan, including when to buy or sell a home, how to save for childrens’ education, how to manage healthcare costs, when to retire, how much to save for retirement and how to allocate retirement funds. As average life expectancy increases, many retirees will be faced with inadequate savings to live comfortably until the end of their lives. In the current article, we examine the problems of and potential solutions to inadequate financial planning through the lens of affective science, with an emphasis on how brain-based changes in affective processing with age might contribute to the challenge of financial planning. PMID:20587596

  13. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  14. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  15. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  16. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  17. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  18. [Detection of influenza B virus antibodies in different age groups using hemagglutination inhibition tests].

    PubMed

    Sonuvar, S; Kocabeyoğlu, O; Emekdaş

    1991-01-01

    Antibody levels against influenza B virus were investigated by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HA-I) tests in 402 sera obtained from different age groups. Hemagglutination antigens were obtained by production of influenza B virus (B/Singapur/LLC 6201) in trypsinized Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell cultured and they were used in tests. In 355 out of 402 sera (88.3%) antibodies against influenza B virus were detected at titers varying between 1/20 and 1/1280. However in 47 sera (11.7%) no antibodies were detected at 1/20 titer. High titers of antibody (1/640-1/1280) were not detected in none of the sera obtained from an age group between 1 and 14. However high titer antibodies were detected in 15.6% of the sera from an age group between 26 and 35, in the 17.3% of the sera from a group above 50 years of age. Our findings suggest that the increase in the rates of seropositivity against influenza B virus depends on getting older and, that the infections by this virus may be widely seen in our country.

  19. A Comparison of Speech Synthesis Intelligibility with Listeners from Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Beukelman, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the intelligibility of three different types of speech synthesizers (Echo II+, Votrax Personal Speech System, and DECtalk) with children at two different age groups and adults. Results are reported in terms of their educational application with communication disordered persons. (Author/DB)

  20. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  1. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  2. Age, sources, and provenances of protoliths of metasedimentary rocks of the Dzheltulak group, Dzheltulak suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Larin, A. M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Wang, K. L.; Salnikova, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    The results of Sm-Nb isotopic-geochemical studies of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Dzheltulak Group of the central part of the Dzheltulak suture, as well as geochronological U-Th-Pb (LA ICP MS) studies of detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks, which are considered as Paleoproterozoic in current stratigraphic schemes, are presented. The age of the youngest zircons is 170-190 Ma, whereas the age of the last stage of regional metamorphism is 140-150 Ma. Thus, the Dzheltulak Group hosts metasedimentary rocks, the age of the protolith of which ranges from 140-150 to 170-190 Ma. The detrital zircons derived from intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Selenga-Stanovoi and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi superterranes.

  3. The age rank of the nearest pre-main-sequence groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Warrick A.; Lyo, A.-Ran; Bessell, M. S.

    2009-11-01

    We address the age rank of the nearest pre-main-sequence (PMS) associations, using low-resolution spectrophotometry to measure gravity-sensitive indices in these stars. We compare spectral index-colour sequences for the PMS populations and rank them according to the strength of their gravity-sensitive features. The age rank using the gravity method is in general agreement with the ranking of these groups suggested by colour-magnitude (CM) diagram placement. Several of the groups have a kinematic origin in the Oph-Sco-Cen OB association. For three of them, their age rank is also in agreement with epochs resulting from a formation scenario for the OB association.

  4. Age class differences in the feeding behavior of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscataia) in the forested and nonvegetated enclosure groups.

    PubMed

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Age class differences in feeding behavior of primates are affected by many factors, including feeding competition, foraging skills, habitat type, food abundance and distribution, body mass, and food types. Two captive groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), one housed in a forested enclosure and the other in a nonvegetated enclosure, were studied to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on age class differences in feeding behavior. Although there was no significant age class difference in time spent feeding on provisioned foods in either enclosure, the feeding rate (intake of unit food/minute) of adults consuming provisioned monkey chow was significantly higher than that of immatures in both enclosures, and was faster for both age groups in the nonvegetated than in the forested enclosure. Overall, feeding time was greatly extended for individuals of both age classes in the forested enclosure compared with their counterparts in the nonvegetated enclosure. Immatures in the forested enclosure utilized a significantly greater number of plant species and food items, exploiting many food items available among the terminal branches, and spent significantly more time feeding than adults. Perhaps constrained by larger body size, adults fed more often on the ground or middle height of the trees, likely reducing competition over plant food resources between adults and immatures. The natural vegetation played an important role in extending feeding time and segregating substrate use during feeding by adults and immatures. This study revealed the benefits concerning environmental enrichment of a naturally forested enclosure, which provides captive primates the opportunity to exhibit age class and species-typical feeding behaviors of importance for their dietary maintenance and general health.

  5. An evaluation of some factors affecting the detection of blood group antibodies by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, J; Nordhagen, R

    1975-01-01

    Some factors affecting the sensitivity of the automated methods for blood group antibody detection have been evaluated. The experiments revealed influencing differences between various albumin preparations. In the BMC method, one lot of albumin permitted no significant antibody detection. In the LISP technique, a plateau of maximum Polybrene activity was found. The beginning of this plateau depended on both the albumin preparation and the Polybrene lot. In the BMC method, methyl cellulose gave optimal sensitivity within a concentration range of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. The stability of test cells stored in ACD at 4 C was studied. All test cells could be used safely up to two weeks. Cells from different donors showed variable reactivity after three weeks. PMID:1101466

  6. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  7. Aging and physical mobility in group-housed Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Willard, Stephanie L; Register, Thomas C; Bennett, Allyson J; Pierre, Peter J; Laudenslager, Mark L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    While indices of physical mobility such as gait speed are significant predictors of future morbidity/mortality in the elderly, mechanisms of these relationships are not understood. Relevant animal models of aging and physical mobility are needed to study these relationships. The goal of this study was to develop measures of physical mobility including activity levels and gait speed in Old World monkeys which vary with age in adults. Locomotor behaviors of 21 old ([Formula: see text] = 20 yoa) and 24 young ([Formula: see text] = 9 yoa) socially housed adult females of three species were recorded using focal sample and ad libitum behavior observation methods. Self-motivated walking speed was 17% slower in older than younger adults. Likewise, young adults climbed more frequently than older adults. Leaping and jumping were more common, on average, in young adults, but this difference did not reach significance. Overall activity levels did not vary significantly by age, and there were no significant age by species interactions in any of these behaviors. Of all the behaviors evaluated, walking speed measured in a simple and inexpensive manner appeared most sensitive to age and has the added feature of being least affected by differences in housing characteristics. Thus, walking speed may be a useful indicator of decline in physical mobility in nonhuman primate models of aging.

  8. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  9. Aging and the environment affect gamete and embryo potential: can we intervene?

    PubMed

    Meldrum, David R; Casper, Robert F; Diez-Juan, Antonio; Simon, Carlos; Domar, Alice D; Frydman, Rene

    2016-03-01

    Optimal maturation of the oocyte depends on its environment and determines embryo competence, because the embryonic genome is not active until the cleavage stage and new mitochondria are not produced until blastulation. Adverse environmental factors include aging, andropause, oxidative stress, obesity, smoking, alcohol, and psychologic stress, whereas androgen supplementation, a prudent diet, exercise, nutritional supplements, and psychologic interventions have beneficial effects. Mitochondrial function and energy production deteriorate with age, adversely affecting ovarian reserve, chromosome segregation, and embryo competence. In aging mice, the mitochondrial cofactor coenzyme Q10 reverses most of these changes. Early human experience has been encouraging, although only a small study using a shorter duration of intervention compared with the murine model has been carried out. Mitochondrial metabolic stress can result in an abnormal compensatory increase in mitochondrial DNA, which can be assessed in biopsied blastomeres of trophectoderm as a predictive biomarker of implantation failure. Psychologic stress may reduce oocyte competence by shifting blood flow away from the ovary as part of the classic "fight or flight" physiologic response, and methods to reduce stress or the body's reaction to stress improve pregnancy success. Enhancing oocyte competence is a key intervention that promises to reduce the number of euploid embryos failing to produce viable deliveries.

  10. Can chlorofluorocarbon sorption to black carbon (char) affect groundwater age determinations?

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Allen-King, Richelle M

    2010-06-15

    Although adsorption is not generally considered important in low f(oc) (fraction organic carbon) aquifers, we show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) adsorption to black carbon (BC) is sufficiently large to retard transport and affect groundwater ages obtained with CFCs. Sorption isotherms of CFC-11, -12, and -113 to synthetic wood char were nonlinear (Freundlich n = 0.71-0.94) while humic acid isotherms were linear. Moreover, sorption to char was 10-1000 times greater than to humic acid for all three CFCs at the lowest observed concentrations, C(w)/S approximately 10(-8)-10(-7). We used the observed isotherms for char and humic acid to represent sorption to BC and amorphous organic matter, respectively, in a dual mode model to estimate retardation factors for a low f(oc) aquifer (= 0.06% gC g(-1)). The estimated retardation factors for the char-containing aquifer (presumed BC fraction = 9% of f(oc)) were approximately 6.8-10.6 at C(w)/S = 10(-8) and >5 times those estimated assuming amorphous organic matter partitioning only. The results indicate that unless CFC adsorption to BC is evaluated in transport, the groundwater age determined may be biased toward older than true ages. The CFC data archived in BC-containing aquifers may contain information about its adsorbent properties that could be useful to predict retardation of other chlorinated organic contaminants.

  11. Aging and the environment affect gamete and embryo potential: can we intervene?

    PubMed

    Meldrum, David R; Casper, Robert F; Diez-Juan, Antonio; Simon, Carlos; Domar, Alice D; Frydman, Rene

    2016-03-01

    Optimal maturation of the oocyte depends on its environment and determines embryo competence, because the embryonic genome is not active until the cleavage stage and new mitochondria are not produced until blastulation. Adverse environmental factors include aging, andropause, oxidative stress, obesity, smoking, alcohol, and psychologic stress, whereas androgen supplementation, a prudent diet, exercise, nutritional supplements, and psychologic interventions have beneficial effects. Mitochondrial function and energy production deteriorate with age, adversely affecting ovarian reserve, chromosome segregation, and embryo competence. In aging mice, the mitochondrial cofactor coenzyme Q10 reverses most of these changes. Early human experience has been encouraging, although only a small study using a shorter duration of intervention compared with the murine model has been carried out. Mitochondrial metabolic stress can result in an abnormal compensatory increase in mitochondrial DNA, which can be assessed in biopsied blastomeres of trophectoderm as a predictive biomarker of implantation failure. Psychologic stress may reduce oocyte competence by shifting blood flow away from the ovary as part of the classic "fight or flight" physiologic response, and methods to reduce stress or the body's reaction to stress improve pregnancy success. Enhancing oocyte competence is a key intervention that promises to reduce the number of euploid embryos failing to produce viable deliveries. PMID:26812244

  12. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  13. How the linguistic intergroup bias affects group perception: effects of language abstraction on generalization to the group.

    PubMed

    Assilaméhou, Yvette; Lepastourel, Nadia; Testé, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether the impact of the Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB; Maass, 1999) is related to the effects of linguistic abstraction on social attribution (Yzerbyt & Rogier, 2001). We did this by assessing the impact of abstract descriptions versus concrete descriptions on the generalization of a group member's behaviors to the whole group. A target's behaviors were more attributed to the group when the description was abstract than when it was concrete, and this effect of language abstraction was stronger when the description was positive than when it was negative. Our results provide an insight into how the LIB is involved in the perpetuation of intergroup bias.

  14. The Effects of T-Group Training and Group Video Recall Procedures on Affective Sensitivity, Openmindedness and Self-Perception Change in Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerra, Patrick Frank

    This study investigated the relative effect of T group training and Group Video Recall (GVR) procedures in the growth of affective sensitivity, openmindedness, and self-perception in 17 Indiana University students majoring or minoring in Counseling and Guidance. Relationships among the three behaviors were also sought. The Rokeach Dogmatism Scale…

  15. Does smoking, age or gender affect the protein phenotype of extracellular vesicles in plasma?

    PubMed

    Bæk, R; Varming, K; Jørgensen, M M

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in several diseases, which have formed the basis for the potential use of EV analyses in a clinical setting. The protein phenotype of EVs can provide information on the functionality of the vesicles and may be used for identification of disease-related biomarkers. With this extensive study of 161 healthy individuals it was elucidated that certain markers of plasma EVs are influenced by demographic variations such as gender, age and smoking status. When the purpose is to use EVs as a diagnostic tool, it should be emphasized how important it is to choose the correct demographic group when comparing marker levels of plasma EVs. PMID:27470710

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  17. The Effect of Grouping and Program Type on Scholastic and Affective Outcomes in the Mawhiba Schools Partnership Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have struggled for decades to determine whether ability grouping is helpful or harmful; however, study findings have been inconsistent. To assess the effect of grouping and program type on scholastic and affective outcomes, three grouping types (gifted separate-class enrichment, pull-out gifted enrichment, and no enrichment), three…

  18. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment...: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group...

  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment...: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group...

  20. Coronary, aortic and cerebral atherosclerosis in swine of 3 age-groups: implications*

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, H. L.; Luginbühl, H.; Pivnik, L.

    1970-01-01

    Coronary, aortic and intercranial atherosclerosis has been compared in swine maintained under the following conditions: (1) adequate food and housing but animals held in test social situations for 1 year; postmortem examination at ages of 13 to 15 months; (2) food and management designed for high productivity; postmortem examination at ages of 6 to 9 years; (3) an outdoor system of husbandry and a cooked garbage diet; postmortem examination at ages of 8 to 14 years. Extramural coronary, aortic and intracranial atherosclerosis was most advanced in swine that were fed garbage. Cerebral infarction (cerebromalacia) also was most advanced in these swine but developed in swine of the younger groups in which it was associated with atherosclerosis of small intracranial extracerebral arteries rather than with stenosis of the larger intracranial extracerebral arteries as in the oldest swine. The lesions of atherosclerosis in swine of these 3 age-groups form a continuous series and are morphologically identical with corresponding stages of atherosclerosis of man. It is concluded that swine can replace non-human primates as subjects for studies of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and that experimental designs must allow for age and behaviour patterns of the species. ImagesFIG. 4-7FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5310139

  1. Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr; 31-35 yr; 36-40 yr; 41-42 yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages.

  2. Aging affects epidermal Langerhans cell development and function and alters their miRNA gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Ping; Qi, Rui-Qun; Chen, Wenbin; Shi, Yuling; Cui, Zhi-Zhong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Immunosenescence is a result of progressive decline in immune system function with advancing age. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), belonging to the dendritic cell (DC) family, act as sentinels to play key roles in the skin immune responses. However, it has not been fully elucidated how aging affects development and function of LCs. Here, we systemically analyzed LC development and function during the aging process in C57BL/6J mice, and performed global microRNA (miRNA) gene expression profiles in aged and young LCs. We found that the frequency and maturation of epidermal LCs were significantly reduced in aged mice starting at 12 months of age, while the Langerin expression and ability to phagocytose Dextran in aged LCs were increased compared to LCs from < 6 month old mice. The migration of LCs to draining lymph nodes was comparable between aged and young mice. Functionally, aged LCs were impaired in their capacity to induce OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of miRNAs in aged epidermal LCs showed a distinct profile compared to young LCs. Most interestingly, aging-regulated miRNAs potentially target TGF-β-dependent and non- TGF-β-dependent signal pathways related to LCs. Overall, our data suggests that aging affects LCs development and function, and that age-regulated miRNAs may contribute to the LC developmental and functional changes in aging.

  3. Maternal age and in vitro culture affect mitochondrial number and function in equine oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, W Karin; Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Paris, Damien B B P; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J; Stout, Tom A E

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age and in vitro embryo production (IVP) predispose to pregnancy loss in horses. We investigated whether mare age and IVP were associated with alterations in mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number or function that could compromise oocyte and embryo development. Effects of mare age (<12 vs ≥12 years) on mtDNA copy number, ATP content and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial replication (mitochondrial transcription factor (TFAM), mtDNA polymerase γ subunit B (mtPOLB) and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)), energy production (ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial-like (ATP-synth_F6)) and oxygen free radical scavenging (glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3)) were investigated in oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM), and in early embryos. Expression of TFAM, mtPOLB and ATP-synth-F6 declined after IVM (P<0.05). However, maternal age did not affect oocyte ATP content or expression of genes involved in mitochondrial replication or function. Day 7 embryos from mares ≥12 years had fewer mtDNA copies (P=0.01) and lower mtDNA:total DNA ratios (P<0.01) than embryos from younger mares, indicating an effect not simply due to lower cell number. Day 8 IVP embryos had similar mtDNA copy numbers to Day 7 in vivo embryos, but higher mtPOLB (P=0.013) and a tendency to reduced GPX3 expression (P=0.09). The lower mtDNA number in embryos from older mares may compromise development, but could be an effect rather than cause of developmental retardation. The general down-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial replication and function after IVM may compromise resulting embryos. PMID:25881326

  4. Telomere protein RAP1 levels are affected by cellular aging and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark J.; Baribault, Michelle E.; Israel, Joanna N.; Bae, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are important for maintaining the integrity of the genome through the action of the shelterin complex. Previous studies indicted that the length of the telomere did not have an effect on the amount of the shelterin subunits; however, those experiments were performed using immortalized cells with stable telomere lengths. The interest of the present study was to observe how decreasing telomere lengths over successive generations would affect the shelterin subunits. As neonatal human dermal fibroblasts aged and their telomeres became shorter, the levels of the telomere-binding protein telomeric repeat factor 2 (TRF2) decreased significantly. By contrast, the levels of one of its binding partners, repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1), decreased to a lesser extent than would be expected from the decrease in TRF2. Other subunits, TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2 and protection of telomeres protein 1, remained stable. The decrease in RAP1 in the older cells occurred in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress was used as an artificial means of aging in the cells, and this resulted in RAP1 levels decreasing, but the effect was only observed in the nuclear portion. Similar results were obtained using U251 glioblastoma cells treated with H2O2 or grown in serum-depleted medium. The present findings indicate that TRF2 and RAP1 levels decrease as fibroblasts naturally age. RAP1 remains more stable compared to TRF2. RAP1 also responds to oxidative stress, but the response is different to that observed in aging. PMID:27446538

  5. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  6. Lung vitamin E transport processes are affected by both age and environmental oxidants in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Valacchi, Giuseppe . E-mail: gvalacchi@ucdavis.edu; Vasu, Vihas T.; Yokohama, Wallace; Corbacho, Ana M.; Phung, Anh; Lim, Yunsook; Aung, Hnin Hnin; Cross, Carroll E.; Davis, Paul A.

    2007-07-15

    Despite the physiological importance of alpha-tocopherol (AT), the molecular mechanisms involved in maintaining cellular and tissue tocopherol levels remain to be fully characterized. Scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1), one of a large family of scavenger receptors, has been shown to facilitate AT transfer from HDL to peripheral tissues via apo A-1-mediated processes and to be important in the delivery of AT to the lung cells. In the present studies the effects of age and two environmental oxidants ozone (O{sub 3}) (0.25 ppm 6 h/day) and cigarette smoke (CS) (60 mg/m{sup 3} 6 h/day) for 4 days on selected aspects of AT transport in murine lung tissues were assessed. While AT levels were 25% higher (p < 0.05) and 15% lower (p < 0.05) in plasma and lung tissue, respectively, in aged versus young mice, acute environmental exposure to O{sub 3} or CS at the doses used had no effect. Gene expression levels, determined by RT-PCR of AT transport protein (ATTP), SRB1, CD36, ATP binding cassette 3 (ABCA3) and ABCA1 and protein levels, determined by Western blots for SRB1, ATTP and ABCA1 were assessed. Aged mouse lung showed a lower levels of ATTP, ABCA3 and SRB1 and a higher level CD36 and ABCA1. Acute exposure to either O{sub 3} or CS induced declines in ATTP and SRB1 in both aged and young mice lung. CD36 increased in both young and aged mice lung upon exposure to O{sub 3} and CS. These findings suggest that both age and environmental oxidant exposure affect pathways related to lung AT homeostasis and do so in a way that favors declines in lung AT. However, given the approach taken, the effects cannot be traced to changes in these pathways or AT content in any specific lung associated cell type and thus highlight the need for further follow-up studies looking at specific lung associated cell types.

  7. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  8. Using Korotkoff Sounds to Detect the Degree of Vascular Compliance in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principle behind the generation of the Korotkoff sounds is the turbulence of blood flowing through a partially occluded area in the artery. With increasing age, the vascular wall compliance is expected to decrease, which is due to the thickening of the vessel wall, due to which the amplitude of the transmitted Korotkoff sounds is decreased. There is also an accompanying rise in the systolic B.P. and pulse pressure. Aim To record and compare the amplitudes of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds and the blood pressures in individuals of the two age groups, and calculate the pulse pressure and determine whether they vary in relation to the amplitude of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds recorded. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 young subjects (15-25 years) and 50 older subjects (50-70 years). The mid arm circumference was measured using a tape. A phonoarteriogram was placed over the left brachial artery and the sphygmomanometer cuff was tied 2cm above the cubital fossa of the left arm. The blood pressure was recorded using the Lab Tutor software. The Korotkoff sounds picked up and transmitted by the phonoarteriogram are represented as distinct lines on the graphical recording. Statistical Analysis Independent samples t-test to look for significant mean amplitude differences and for correlating mean amplitude and pulse pressure. Null hypothesis rejected at p<0.05. Data analysed using the SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results There was a significant difference in the mean amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds among the different age groups (p=0.001) and subject categories (p=0.043 among males, p=0.037 among females). A significant difference in pulse pressures was also seen among different age groups and subject categories. The decrease in the amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds in the older age group accompanies the increase in pulse pressures seen in this group and the same was seen among the different age groups within

  9. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  10. Fructose and glucose differentially affect aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress parameters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Lozinska, Liudmyla M; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-05-15

    Fructose is commonly used as an industrial sweetener and has been excessively consumed in human diets in the last decades. High fructose intake is causative in the development of metabolic disorders, but the mechanisms underlying fructose-induced disturbances are under debate. Fructose compared to glucose has been found to be a more potent initiator of the glycation reaction. Therefore, we supposed that glucose and fructose might have different vital effects. Here we compare the effects of glucose and fructose on yeast cell viability and markers of carbonyl/oxidative stress. Analysis of the parameters in cells growing on glucose and fructose clearly reveals that yeast growing on fructose has higher levels of carbonyl groups in proteins, α-dicarbonyl compounds and reactive oxygen species. This may explain the observation that fructose-supplemented growth as compared with growth on glucose resulted in more pronounced age-related decline in yeast reproductive ability and higher cell mortality. The results are discussed from the point of view that fructose rather than glucose is more extensively involved in glycation and ROS generation in vivo, yeast aging and development of carbonyl/oxidative stress. It should be noted that carbohydrate restriction used in this study does not reveal a significant difference between markers of aging and carbonyl/oxidative stress in yeasts cultivated on glucose and fructose.

  11. Aging affects B-cell antigen receptor repertoire diversity in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Hazanov, Lena; Schiby, Ginette; Rosenthal, Noemie; Rakovsky, Aviya; Michaeli, Miri; Shahaf, Gitit Lavy; Pickman, Yishai; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Melamed, Doron; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Mehr, Ramit; Barshack, Iris

    2016-02-01

    The elderly immune system is characterized by reduced responses to infections and vaccines, and an increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Age-related deficits in the immune system may be caused by peripheral homeostatic pressures that limit bone marrow B-cell production or migration to the peripheral lymphoid tissues. Studies of peripheral blood B-cell receptor spectratypes have shown that those of the elderly are characterized by reduced diversity, which is correlated with poor health status. In the present study, we performed for the first time high-throughput sequencing of immunoglobulin genes from archived biopsy samples of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues in old (74 ± 7 years old, range 61-89) versus young (24 ± 5 years old, range 18-45) individuals, analyzed repertoire diversities and compared these to results in peripheral blood. We found reduced repertoire diversity in peripheral blood and lymph node repertoires from old people, while in the old spleen samples the diversity was larger than in the young. There were no differences in somatic hypermutation characteristics between age groups. These results support the hypothesis that age-related immune frailty stems from altered B-cell homeostasis leading to narrower memory B-cell repertoires, rather than changes in somatic hypermutation mechanisms.

  12. Children with cerebral palsy and periventricular white matter injury: does gestational age affect functional outcome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrienne R; Randall, Melinda; Reid, Susan M; Lee, Katherine J; Imms, Christine; Rodda, Jillian; Eldridge, Beverley; Orsini, Francesca; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in functional profiles and movement disorder patterns in children aged 4-12 years with cerebral palsy (CP) and periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) born >34 weeks gestation compared with those born earlier. Eligible children born between 1999 and 2006 were recruited through the Victorian CP register. Functional profiles were determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF). Movement disorder and topography were classified using the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) classification. 49 children born >34 weeks (65% males, mean age 8 y 9 mo [standard deviation (SD) 2 y 2 mo]) and 60 children born ≤ 34 weeks (62% males, mean age 8 y 2 mo [SD 2 y 2 mo]) were recruited. There was evidence of differences between the groups for the GMFCS (p=0.003), FMS 5, 50 and 500 (p=0.003, 0.002 and 0.012), MACS (p=0.04) and CFCS (p=0.035), with a greater number of children born ≤ 34 weeks more severely impaired compared with children born later. Children with CP and PWMI born >34 weeks gestation had milder limitations in gross motor function, mobility, manual ability and communication compared with those born earlier.

  13. Aging affects spatial distribution of leg muscle oxygen saturation during ramp cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 ± 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 ± 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution.

  14. Group composition affects male reproductive partitioning in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    PubMed

    Heg, Dik; Jutzeler, Eva; Bonfils, Danielle; Mitchell, Jeremy S

    2008-10-01

    Individuals within groups of cooperatively breeding species may partition reproduction, with the dominant pair often taking the largest share. The dominant's ability to reproductively control subordinates may depend on differences in competitive ability, due to, e.g. body size differences, but may also depend on the number of same-sex competitors inside the group. We tested experimentally whether subordinates reproduce more when these subordinates are large or when a second subordinate of the same sex need to be controlled by the dominants, using the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Dominant pairs were assisted by a large and a small unrelated subordinate; sexes of these fish were varied in a full-factorial design (giving four treatments). Dominant males lost significantly more parentage to the large subordinate male when a small subordinate male was also present, compared to when a small subordinate female was present. However, subordinate paternity was generally low and did not significantly curb total dominant male reproductive output, which was more affected by the sizes and numbers of reproductive females present inside his group. Dominant female maternity, clutch sizes and total output did not depend on the treatments. Subordinate-subordinate reproduction was virtually absent (one out of 874 offspring). Female subordinates were more likely to provide care for their own broods. In contrast, male subordinates did not adjust their level of care to their parentage. Variability in female subordinate alloparental brood care was particularly high, with females showing more care than males in general. We also detected effects of growth rate and food ration on parentage independent of the treatments, most notably: (i) a trade-off between dominant male growth rate and paternity; (ii) a decrease in dominant male paternity with increasing food ration; (iii) a positive effect of growth rate on paternity in small males. We conclude that dominant males

  15. Age Group, Location or Pedagogue: Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Kindergartens in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teszenyi, Eleonora; Hevey, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Hungary has experienced significant political, economic, demographic and social changes since the end of Soviet domination in the 1990s. The gradual move towards liberal democracy has been accompanied by growing emphasis on individualism, choice and diversity. Universal kindergarten provision for five- to six-year-olds is a long established…

  16. Changes in the constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on memory across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Toyota, H

    2001-06-01

    20 college undergraduates, 25 sixth-grade, and 31 second-grade students studied targets embedded in three types of sentence contexts and then performed free recall and cued recall tests. Although there were no differences in performance of free recall among sentence types within each age group, the differences in cued recall among sentence types were observed. For sixth graders and undergraduates, both semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences and semantically incongruous/syntactically congruous sentences led to a better cued recall of targets than semantically incongruous/syntactically incongruous sentences. Second graders performed better in a cued recall of targets in semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences than for the other two sentence types. The results were interpreted as indicating changes across age groups in constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on the spreading activation of targets in memory. PMID:11453195

  17. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  18. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  19. Morphological study of extrauterine length of the fallopian tube at different age group in Bangladeshi people.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Islam, M S; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Zaman, U K; Rahman, M M; Sen, S

    2010-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done to see the length of the right & left fallopian tube in Bangladeshi female and to increase the knowledge regarding variational anatomy in our country. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected by non random or purposive sampling technique from cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formol saline solution. This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2006 to June 2007. Gross and fine dissection was carried out to study the length of fallopian tube (right & left). In this study our findings were compared with those of the standard text books. Maximum length of fallopian tube was found in middle age group (B = 13 to 45 years). It is about 9.19 cm in right side and 8.82 cm in left side. It is also important to note that more kinking was observed in middle age group. PMID:20046169

  20. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend et al. (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  1. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-04-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend, Carrithers, and Bever (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  2. Nurses' views of factors affecting sleep for hospitalized children and their families: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Stremler, Robyn; Adams, Sherri; Dryden-Palmer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Light, noise, and interruptions from hospital staff lead to frequent awakenings and detrimental changes to sleep quantity and quality for children who are hospitalized and their parents who stay with them overnight. An understanding of nurses' views on how care affects sleep for the hospitalized child and parent is crucial to the development of strategies to decrease sleep disturbance in hospital. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain an understanding of nurses' views on their role in and influence on sleep for families; perceived barriers and facilitators of patient and parent sleep at night; strategies nurses use to preserve sleep; the distribution, between parent and nurse, of care for the child at night; views of the parent as a recipient of nursing care at night; and the nature of interactions between nurses and families at night. Thirty registered nurses from general pediatric and critical care units participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Four main influences on sleep were identified: child factors; environmental factors; nurse-parent interaction factors; and nursing care factors. Some of these restricted nurses' ability to optimize sleep, but many factors were amenable to intervention. Balancing strategies to preserve sleep with the provision of nursing assessment and intervention was challenging and complicated by the difficult nature of work outside of usual waking hours. Nurses highlighted the need for formal policy and mentoring related to provision of nursing care at night in pediatric settings.

  3. Phenotype, donor age and gender affect function of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are attractive for cell-based therapies ranging from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to immunomodulation. However, clinical efficacy is variable and it is unclear how the phenotypes defining bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs as well as donor characteristics affect their functional properties. Methods BM-MSCs were isolated from 53 (25 female, 28 male; age: 13 to 80 years) donors and analyzed by: (1) phenotype using flow cytometry and cell size measurement; (2) in vitro growth kinetics using population doubling time; (3) colony formation capacity and telomerase activity; and (4) function by in vitro differentiation capacity, suppression of T cell proliferation, cytokines and trophic factors secretion, and hormone and growth factor receptor expression. Additionally, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Prdm14 and SOX2 mRNA was compared to pluripotent stem cells. Results BM-MSCs from younger donors showed increased expression of MCAM, VCAM-1, ALCAM, PDGFRβ, PDL-1, Thy1 and CD71, and led to lower IL-6 production when co-cultured with activated T cells. Female BM-MSCs showed increased expression of IFN-γR1 and IL-6β, and were more potent in T cell proliferation suppression. High-clonogenic BM-MSCs were smaller, divided more rapidly and were more frequent in BM-MSC preparations from younger female donors. CD10, β1integrin, HCAM, CD71, VCAM-1, IFN-γR1, MCAM, ALCAM, LNGFR and HLA ABC were correlated to BM-MSC preparations with high clonogenic potential and expression of IFN-γR1, MCAM and HLA ABC was associated with rapid growth of BM-MSCs. The mesodermal differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs was unaffected by donor age or gender but was affected by phenotype (CD10, IFN-γR1, GD2). BM-MSCs from female and male donors expressed androgen receptor and FGFR3, and secreted VEGF-A, HGF, LIF, Angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and NGFB. HGF secretion correlated negatively to the expression of CD71, CD140b and

  4. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  5. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  6. Factors Affecting Age at ASD Diagnosis in UK: No Evidence That Diagnosis Age Has Decreased between 2004 and 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Denise; Warnell, Frances; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical initiatives have aimed to reduce the age at ASD diagnosis in the UK. This study investigated whether the median age at diagnosis in childhood has reduced in recent years, and identified the factors associated with earlier diagnosis in the UK. Data on 2,134 children with ASD came from two large family databases. Results showed that the age…

  7. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  8. Factors Affecting Age at ASD Diagnosis in UK: No Evidence that Diagnosis Age has Decreased Between 2004 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Brett, Denise; Warnell, Frances; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R

    2016-06-01

    Clinical initiatives have aimed to reduce the age at ASD diagnosis in the UK. This study investigated whether the median age at diagnosis in childhood has reduced in recent years, and identified the factors associated with earlier diagnosis in the UK. Data on 2134 children with ASD came from two large family databases. Results showed that the age of ASD diagnosis has not decreased. The median age of diagnosis of all ASDs was 55 months. Factors associated with earlier age of diagnosis were autism diagnosis (compared with other ASD), language regression, language delay, lower socioeconomic status, and greater degree of support required. Effective clinical strategies are needed to identify children with characteristics that have in the past delayed ASD diagnosis.

  9. Beyond the "Classic" Nurture Group Model: An Evaluation of Part-Time and Cross-Age Nurture Groups in a Scottish Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen; Lee, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study begins to explore ways in which the principles underpinning the traditional "nurture group" model could be altered and age ranges extended while continuing to deliver the proven success of nurture groups in promoting children's social and emotional development. Part-time nurture groups were established in four different primary schools…

  10. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Winsauer, Peter J.; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Weed, Peter F.; Sutton, Jessie L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to Δ9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD) 75–180 (early adulthood onward) or PD 35–140 (adolescence onward). During this time, the four groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC) were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for Δ9-THC (0.56–56 mg/kg) and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (0.32–10 mg/kg). Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic Δ9-THC, all of the Δ9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic Δ9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R) and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1) was affected more by OVX than chronic Δ9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity. PMID:26191005

  11. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  12. Do Forest Age and Soil Depth Affect Carbon and Nitrogen Adsorption in Mineral Horizons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, P. G.; Lovett, G. M.; Fuss, C. B.; Goodale, C. L.; Lang, A.; Fahey, T.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral soils retain large amounts of organic matter through sorption on the surfaces of mineral soils, the largest pools of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the forests of the northeastern U.S. In addition to determining organic matter storage, adsorption and desorption processes are important controllers of runoff chemistry. We are studying adsorption dynamics of mineral soils collected from a chronosequence of hardwood forest sites in the White Mountains, NH to determine how soils vary in their DOM adsorption capacities as a function of effective C and N saturation. We hypothesize that forest age determines proximity to saturation because young forests may need to mine soil organic matter (SOM) in mineral soils to obtain nitrogen to meet growth demands, while the soils of older forests have had time to reaccumulate SOM, eventually reaching C and N saturation. Consequently, we expect adsorption capacities to first increase with forest age in young forests, as the trees mine C and N from mineral surfaces. They will then decrease with forest age in older forests as mining slows and C and N begin to re-accumulate. Batch experiments were conducted with mineral soil samples and dilutions of forest floor leachate. However, preliminary results from a mature forest site (about 100 years old), which we predicted to be a low point of C and N saturation from decades of mining, contradict expectations. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) adsorption in its shallow mineral soil layers (0-3 cm below E or A horizons) are lower than younger sites ranging from 20 to about 40 years old. In addition to forest age, soil depths also affect N retention dynamics in forest soils. We hypothesized that deeper mineral soils might have greater adsorption capacities due to the fact that they are exposed to less DOC and DON leaching from organic layers and therefore less saturated. Results from the same mature forest site confirm this. Soils from 3-10 cm depth have more potential to adsorb DOC and

  13. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  14. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes.

  15. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  16. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  17. Factors affecting the glucosinolate content of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala group).

    PubMed

    Velasco, Pablo; Cartea, María Elena; Gonzalez, Carmen; Vilar, Marta; Ordas, Amando

    2007-02-01

    Kales (Brassica oleracea acephala group) are important vegetable crops in traditional farming systems in the Iberian Peninsula. They are grown throughout the year to harvest their leaves and flower buds. The glucosinolate content of kales is dependent upon the environmental factors, plant part examined, phenological stage of plant growth, and level of insect damage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in the total and individual glucosinolate concentrations during plant development and to determine if significant variation of glucosinolate levels can be explained by insect pests attack and other environmental factors in four locations in northwestern Spain. The total glucosinolate concentration in leaves of B. oleracea increased with plant age from seedling to early flowering stages. At that stage, the aliphatic glucosinolate content in leaves of B. oleracea declined drastically over time as the content in the flower buds increased. The highest contents of indolyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin) and of the aromatic glucosinolate occurred in leaves harvested at the optimum consumption stage while flower buds contained the highest concentration of aliphatic glucosinolates, especially sinigrin. Sinigrin is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. There appears to be a loss of total and individual glucosinolate concentrations related to pest attack. Leaves damaged by lepidopterous pests contained a lower total glucosinolate content (25.8 micromol g-1 dw) than undamaged leaves (41 micromol g-1 dw). The amounts of sinigrin, glucoiberin, and glucobrassicin were also lowest in insect-damaged leaves. Environmental factors such as soil properties and temperature appear to influence the glucosinolate content in leaves although more research on this subject is needed.

  18. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  19. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of...

  4. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  5. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group.

    PubMed

    Hajong, Ranendra; Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-08-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  6. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  7. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  8. [Psychophysiological characteristics of professional burnout syndrome in doctors of various specialties and different age groups].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    Based on clinical psychopathology, psycho-physiological and medical tests the risk factors of professional burnout among medical professionals of all ages were revealed and the assessment of their impact on the formation of adverse functional status of physicians under research was conducted. The role of psycho-physiological factors (neuro-psychological stability, coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, psychosemantic self-relation space, asthenic, obsessive-phobic, hypothymic, anancastic symptoms, the dynamic characteristics of the inhibitory processes, and emotional lability) in the formation of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and elderly age was defined. Neurophysiological markers of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and old age, which are characterized by lower levels of reserve capacity of the cerebral cortex of alpha-rhythm, the prevalence and strength of excitation and balance of beta-rhythm were examined. It was shown that clinical examination of medical specialists of different age groups with symptoms of professional burnout should include the clinical-psychopathological and psychophysiological examinations to determine the psychopathological and personal features, psychological and emotional states of the border areas, which help to identify reactive neurotic disorders and conduct its targeted correction.

  9. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  10. Sertoli cell glycosylation patterns as affected by culture age and extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Page, K C; Killian, G J; Nyquist, S E

    1990-10-01

    This study evaluated the responsiveness of Sertoli cell glycosylation in vitro to changes in culture age and to the presence of a reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) or collagen IV/laminin substrata. Primary Sertoli cell cultures were prepared from 20-day-old rats and incubated with [3H]mannose, a monosaccharide specific for asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. The cells were harvested on Days 4, 6, or 10 of culture life. A supernatant enriched in cell-surface glycopeptides (the trypsinate) and a cell pellet stripped of surface glycoconjugates were evaluated separately. Glycopeptides derived from a Pronase digest of the two samples were fractionated using concanavalin-A lectin affinity chromatography into three major classes: multiantennary complex-type, biantennary complex-type, and high-mannose-type oligosaccharide structures. The proportion of radiolabeled glycopeptides appearing in each of the three classes did not differ between Days 4 and 6 of culture. In contrast, a significant increase in the percentage of radiolabeled glycopeptides containing multiantennary complex-type oligosaccharides was observed in cells harvested from the 10-day-old cultures. In other experiments, Sertoli cells were grown on various substrata: plastic; collagen IV/laminin; or Matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane (RBM) composed of laminin, collagen IV, proteoglycan sulfate, entactin, and nidogen. Growth on RBM significantly increased multiantennary complex-type oligosaccharide formation compared to plastic, whereas the high-mannose-type glycopeptides increased in cells grown on collagen IV/laminin. These studies suggest that environmental and physiological conditions such as culture age and the presence of extracellular matrix significantly affect glycosylation patterns in Sertoli cell cultures.

  11. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  12. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  13. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/− SD) 16.9 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/− 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  14. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  15. Health practice correlates in three adult age groups: results from two community surveys.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Lefebvre, R C; Assaf, A R; Lasater, T M; Carleton, R A

    1990-01-01

    Independently done surveys of a target population can make an important contribution to knowledge about the determinants of personal health behavior by highlighting variables that consistently emerge as significant predictors. This investigation examined the correlates of four health practice and knowledge indices related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in two baseline community surveys of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program (N = 2,413; N = 2,808). An additional dimension was the use of three adult age groups (18-29, 30-49, 50-64) in conducting the analyses. Results of both surveys showed that sex was the strongest correlate of the four indices--knowledge of CVD, encouraging health practice changes in others, dietary intake, and exercise. The four indices related to CVD were also associated with years of education, primary language, and whether or not a recent cholesterol measurement had been obtained, although these relationships were not as consistent as the results for sex. Overall, about half of each survey's significant associations were also found in the other survey (survey 1, 30 of 62; survey 2, 30 of 56). Consistency of significant results between surveys was best for the group ages 30-49. In either survey, it was rare for an association between a predictor and behavioral index to appear in each of the three age groups. This study supports the importance of the subjects' sex in research on personal health practices, suggests the potential for independence even among health-related indices pertinent to a single type of illness, and emphasizes the usefulness of utilizing independent samples to identify important correlates of health behavior. PMID:2120725

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Instability of Water-Quenched U-6wt% Nb Alloy Affected by Long-Term Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Zhou, J

    2005-12-06

    A combinative approach of microhardness testing, tensile testing, and TEM microstructural analysis was employed to study the microstructure and mechanical instability of a water-quenched U-6wt.% Nb (WQ-U6Nb) alloy subjected to different aging schedules including artificial aging at 200 C, 15-year natural aging at ambient temperatures, and 15-year natural aging followed by accelerative aging at 200 C. The changes in mechanical property during and after the aging processes were examined using microhardness and tensile-testing methods. During the early stages of artificial aging at 200 C, the microhardness of WQ-U6Nb alloy increased, i.e., age hardening, as a result of the development of nanoscale modulation caused by spinodal decomposition. Coarsening of the modulated structure occurred after a prolonged aging at 200 C for 16 hours, and it led to a decrease of microhardness, i.e., age softening. Phase instability was also found to occur in WQ-U6Nb alloy that was subjected to a 15-year natural aging at ambient temperatures. The formation of partially ordered domains resulting from a spinodal modulation with an atomic-scale wavelength rendered the appearance of swirl-shape antiphase domain boundaries (APBs) observed in TEM images. Although it did not cause a significant change in microhardness, 15-year natural aging has dramatically affected the aging mechanisms of the alloy isothermally aged at 200 C. Microhardness values of the NA alloy continuously increased and no age softening was found after isothermal aging at 200 C for 96 hours as a result of the phase decomposition of partially ordered domains into Nb-depleted {alpha} phase and Nb-enriched U{sub 3}Nb ordered phase in the alloy. It is concluded that the long-term natural aging changes the transformation pathway of WQ-U6Nb, and it leads to order-disorder transformation, precipitation hardening, and ductility embrittlement of WQ-U6Nb alloy.

  17. Temporary versus permanent group membership: how the future prospects of newcomers affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence.

    PubMed

    Rink, Floor A; Ellemers, Naomi

    2009-06-01

    Three studies examine how the future prospects of new group members affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence. In Study 1, participants anticipate accepting temporary newcomers less easily than permanent newcomers because they expect temporary newcomers to differ from the group. In Study 2, the effects of newcomer entry in three-person groups are examined. Results show that groups perceived temporary newcomers as more involved in a judgmental decision-making process than permanent newcomers. In Study 3, a hidden profile task confirms that temporary newcomers indeed shared more unique knowledge during discussions than permanent newcomers and that this enhanced the groups' decision quality. However, compared to permanent newcomers, temporary newcomers caused teams to experience more conflict and less group identification, illustrating the tension between innovative group performance and group cohesion. The results are discussed in light of the social identity perspective and research on minority influence.

  18. Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

  19. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  20. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  1. Immigrant Differences in School-Age Children's Verbal Trajectories: A Look at Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups--White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans)…

  2. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

  3. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  4. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  5. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  6. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  7. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  8. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  9. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  10. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  11. Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children – bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) – were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840

  12. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (<10 %). Because of the great reproductive potential of daughter mites, their inclusion in assessments of grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  13. Visual Contextual Effects of Orientation, Contrast, Flicker, and Luminance: All Are Affected by Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bao N.; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    The perception of a visual stimulus can be markedly altered by spatial interactions between the stimulus and its surround. For example, a grating stimulus appears lower in contrast when surrounded by a similar pattern of higher contrast: a phenomenon known as surround suppression of perceived contrast. Such center–surround interactions in visual perception are numerous and arise from both cortical and pre-cortical neural circuitry. For example, perceptual surround suppression of luminance and flicker are predominantly mediated pre-cortically, whereas contrast and orientation suppression have strong cortical contributions. Here, we compare the perception of older and younger observers on a battery of tasks designed to assess such visual contextual effects. For all visual dimensions tested (luminance, flicker, contrast, and orientation), on average the older adults showed greater suppression of central targets than the younger adult group. The increase in suppression was consistent in magnitude across all tasks, suggesting that normal aging produces a generalized, non-specific alteration to contextual processing in vision. PMID:27148047

  14. MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES AFFECTING PROPERTIES AND AGING OF TRITIUM-EXPOSED AUSTENTIC STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Michael Morgan, M

    2004-01-10

    A project to implement a life-cycle engineering approach to tritium reservoirs has been initiated through the DOE - Technology Investment Projects. The first task in the project was to develop a comprehensive list of microstructural features that impact the aging performance of the tritium reservoirs. Each of the participating sites (SRNL, SNL, LANL, KCP) independently developed a list of features deemed integral to tritium reservoir performance based upon operational and design experience. An integrated list of features was ultimately developed by the project team that could be included in the modeling process. The features of interest were chosen based upon their impact on the following key factors in controlling crack growth: (1) the H/He solubility or diffusivity within the materials, (2) the stress/strain state at the crack tip, (3) material threshold for crack extension, and (4) microstructure based fracture distance, commonly estimated by grain size for intergranular fracture. Wherever possible, key references were identified to substantiate the effects on the tritium embrittlement phenomenon of the various microstructural features. Each of these features was chosen based upon their impact to the cracking phenomenon of interest. The features chosen were typically associated with orientation, morphology, and distribution of phases and inclusions, grain and grain boundary characteristics, and initial mechanical properties. Phase and inclusion content and distribution were determined to play a key role in the cracking phenomenon. The presence of {delta}-ferrite in the weld and strain-induced martensite in the primarily austenitic matrix are known to facilitate hydrogen diffusion and the interfaces have been observed as a hydrogen assisted fracture path. The morphology, size, and distribution of inclusions and precipitates, particularly on the grain boundaries, influence cracking since they trap hydrogen and facilitate intergranular fracture. Compositional

  15. Factors Affecting Neurobehavioral Responses of Preterm Infants at Term Conceptional Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assesses the effects of gestational age, race, and sex on neurobehavorial responses of 510 singleton infants who were evaluated at term conceptual age using a modified Prechtl Neurologic Examination. Results suggest that gestational age at birth is the most influential variable; race is also important, but gender has minimum impact. (Author/CB)

  16. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  17. Affecting Attitudes toward the Poor through Group Process: The Alternative Break Service Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpert, Joanne; Kraybill-Greggo, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The intensive group process inherent in alternative break service trips offers a unique opportunity to foster transformative learning in undergraduate students. This exploratory study focuses on a two-year project in which graduate students who were professionally educated in group work led undergraduate students in national and international…

  18. Life-long environmental enrichment differentially affects the mnemonic response to estrogen in young, middle-aged, and aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Gresack, Jodi E; Kerr, Kristin M; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether life-long exposure to standard or enriched housing affects the ability of estrogen to improve spatial and object memory throughout the lifespan. Three-week-old female mice were maintained in standard or enriched housing up to and through ovariectomy and behavioral testing at 5, 17, or 22 months of age. Spatial memory was tested in the Morris water maze and object memory was tested using an object recognition task. Immediately after training each day, mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle or 0.2 mg/kg 17beta-estradiol. Among young females, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol alone, an effect that was reduced by enrichment. In contrast, spatial water maze performance was impaired by estradiol alone, but improved by the combination of both estradiol and enrichment. At middle-age, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol or enrichment alone, and the combination of both treatments. Spatial memory in the water maze was also improved by both treatments at middle-age, but the beneficial effects of estradiol were limited to standard-housed females. Finally, whereas enrichment in aged females significantly enhanced performance in both tasks, estradiol had no effect at this age in either task. In total, the data indicate that life-long enrichment can significantly alter the extent to which estradiol affects memory in mice throughout the lifespan. Importantly, the interaction between these treatments is highly dependent on age and type of memory tested.

  19. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  1. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  2. Testing, time limits, and English learners: does age of school entry affect how quickly students can learn English?

    PubMed

    Conger, Dylan

    2009-06-01

    Using data on young English learners (EL) who enroll in the New York City public school system, I examine how long it takes students to become minimally proficient in English and how the time to proficiency differs for students by their age of school entry. Specifically, I follow four recent entry cohorts of ELs ages 5-10 and use discrete-time survival analysis to model the rate at which different age groups acquire proficiency. I find that approximately half of the students become proficient within three years after school entry and that younger students learn more quickly than older students. Age of entry differences are robust to controls for observed differences between age of entry groups in their economic and demographic characteristics, their disabilities, and the schools they attend. The results lend support to the theory that older students face developmental barriers to learning new languages quickly.

  3. Knockdown of prodynorphin gene prevents cognitive decline, reduces anxiety, and rescues loss of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in aging.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Tse, Yiu Chung; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Herzog, Herbert; Schwarzer, Christoph; Wong, Tak Pan; Quirion, Rémi

    2013-07-31

    Expression of dynorphin, an endogenous opioid peptide, increases with age and has been associated with memory impairments in rats. In human, prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene polymorphisms might be linked to cognitive function in the elderly. Moreover, elevated dynorphin levels have been reported in postmortem samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the cellular and molecular processes affected by higher dynorphin levels during aging remain unknown. Using Pdyn(-/-) mice, we observed significant changes in the function and expression of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates, we found increased expression of mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the hippocampus and cortex of old, but not young, Pdyn(-/-) mice. Increased Group 1 mGluR expression in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced mGluR-mediated long-term depression, a form of synaptic plasticity. Notably, whereas aged WT mice developed spatial and recognition memory deficits, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice performed similarly as young mice. Pharmacological treatments with 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide, a positive modulator of mGlu5 receptors, or norbinaltorphimine, an antagonist for dynorphin-targeted κ-opioid receptor, rescued memory in old WT mice. Conversely, mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride impaired spatial memory of old Pdyn(-/-) mice. Intact cognition in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice paralleled with increased expression of Group 1 mGluR-related genes Homer 1a and Arc. Finally, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice displayed less anxiety-related behaviors than age-matched WT mice. Together, our results suggest that elevated Pdyn expression during normal aging reduces mGluR expression and signaling, which in turn impairs cognitive functions and increases anxiety.

  4. Fatigue and mood correlates of sleep length in three age-social groups: School children, students, and employees.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Pokorski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to trace the consequences of insufficient sleep, in terms of chronic sleep reduction rather than acute sleep deprivation, on fatigue, mood, cognitive performance self-estimations, and daytime sleepiness in different age-social groups. The age group of the subjects reflects their social situation and their working time organization: adolescents (n = 191) obeyed the strict school schedules with starting times often before 08:00 h; university students (n = 115) had more flexible timetables; young employees (n = 126) were engaged in regular morning schedules or irregular daytime hours or day and night shifts. A questionnaire study determined the declared need of sleep, self-reported sleep length, chronic fatigue (using a scale comprised of eight fatigue symptoms and four mood and three cognitive items), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). The declared need for sleep decreased in subsequent age groups from 9 h 23 min in school children to 8 h 22 min in university students and to 7 h 37 min in young employees. Consequently, the discrepancy between preferred and real sleep length (sleep deficit) was the largest in adolescents: 106 min. Females showed a greater need of sleep than males (p = .025) and significantly more fatigue, mood, and cognitive problems; they also exhibited higher level of daytime sleepiness (p < .000). The sleep index (reported sleep length related to requirements) correlated significantly with all health issues in women (p < .000), while only with fatigue symptoms in men (p = .013). Actual sleep length was unrelated to mood and fatigue issues; the declared individual need of sleep and sleep index showed significant associations, especially in the group of adolescents. The most frequent complaints of adolescents included tiredness on awakening (46%), nervousness, and general weakness; university students reported excessive drowsiness (50%), tension, and nervousness; employees suffered mostly from negative moods

  5. Social group size affects Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Wei, Gao; Cox, D R; Bourne, F John; Burke, Terry; Butlin, Roger K; Cheeseman, C L; Gettinby, George; Gilks, Peter; Hedges, Simon; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; McInerney, John P; Morrison, W Ivan; Pope, Lisa C

    2009-07-01

    1. In most social animals, the prevalence of directly transmitted pathogens increases in larger groups and at higher population densities. Such patterns are predicted by models of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles). 2. We investigated the relationship between badger abundance and M. bovis prevalence, using data on 2696 adult badgers in 10 populations sampled at the start of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial. 3. M. bovis prevalence was consistently higher at low badger densities and in small social groups. M. bovis prevalence was also higher among badgers whose genetic profiles suggested that they had immigrated into their assigned social groups. 4. The association between high M. bovis prevalence and small badger group size appeared not to have been caused by previous small-scale culling in study areas, which had been suspended, on average, 5 years before the start of the current study. 5. The observed pattern of prevalence might occur through badgers in smaller groups interacting more frequently with members of neighbouring groups; detailed behavioural data are needed to test this hypothesis. Likewise, longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the size of infected groups might be suppressed by disease-related mortality. 6. Although M. bovis prevalence was lower at high population densities, the absolute number of infected badgers was higher. However, this does not necessarily mean that the risk of M. bovis transmission to cattle is highest at high badger densities, since transmission risk depends on badger behaviour as well as on badger density. PMID:19486382

  6. Social group size affects Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Wei, Gao; Cox, D R; Bourne, F John; Burke, Terry; Butlin, Roger K; Cheeseman, C L; Gettinby, George; Gilks, Peter; Hedges, Simon; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; McInerney, John P; Morrison, W Ivan; Pope, Lisa C

    2009-07-01

    1. In most social animals, the prevalence of directly transmitted pathogens increases in larger groups and at higher population densities. Such patterns are predicted by models of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles). 2. We investigated the relationship between badger abundance and M. bovis prevalence, using data on 2696 adult badgers in 10 populations sampled at the start of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial. 3. M. bovis prevalence was consistently higher at low badger densities and in small social groups. M. bovis prevalence was also higher among badgers whose genetic profiles suggested that they had immigrated into their assigned social groups. 4. The association between high M. bovis prevalence and small badger group size appeared not to have been caused by previous small-scale culling in study areas, which had been suspended, on average, 5 years before the start of the current study. 5. The observed pattern of prevalence might occur through badgers in smaller groups interacting more frequently with members of neighbouring groups; detailed behavioural data are needed to test this hypothesis. Likewise, longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the size of infected groups might be suppressed by disease-related mortality. 6. Although M. bovis prevalence was lower at high population densities, the absolute number of infected badgers was higher. However, this does not necessarily mean that the risk of M. bovis transmission to cattle is highest at high badger densities, since transmission risk depends on badger behaviour as well as on badger density.

  7. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  8. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  9. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  10. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  11. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  12. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    PubMed

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  13. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  14. Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

  15. Joint Attention Initiation with and without Positive Affect: Risk Group Differences and Associations with ASD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Devon N.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of…

  16. Ecological and Dynamical Study of the Creative Process and Affects of Scientific Students Working in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peilloux, Aurélien; Botella, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Although creativity has drawn the attention of researchers during the past century, collaborative processes have barely been investigated. In this article, the collective dimension of a creative process is investigated, based on a dynamic and ecological approach that includes an affective component. "Dynamic" means that the creative…

  17. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  18. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  19. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  20. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures.

  1. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.

  2. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  3. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  4. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-05-16

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel.

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ppp of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing and New Affected Sources 3 Table 3 to Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  7. Effect of Teacher Structure, Teacher Affect, Cognitive Level of Questions, Group Size and Student Social Status on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Mary; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    The effects of student socioeconomic status (SES) and four teacher behaviors--teacher structure, teacher affect, cognitive level of questions, and group size--on student reading achievement were analyzed. Subjects were 36 fifth and sixth grade classroom teachers and their 820 students. Data were collected with the Reading Comprehension Subtest…

  8. Elevated fracture of skull in pediatric age group: A series of five patients with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jayendra; Prakash, Anand; Harsh, Viraat; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fractures of skull in pediatric age group are rarely reported in the literature. In view of rarity, we present a series of five cases of elevated skull fracture in pediatric age group. Over a period of 1-year, we operated on five such cases. In this article, we have discussed the mode, mechanism and extent of injury, its clinico-radiological findings, course of the disease, and the management outcome. Four out of five cases improved after surgery and did not suffer any complications. Early recognition and appropriate management of compound elevated fracture in pediatric age group comes with good outcome and prevents unwanted morbidity and mortality. PMID:26889296

  9. An analysis of the rollover backstroke turn by age-group swimmers.

    PubMed

    Blanksby, Brian; Skender, Simon; Elliott, Bruce; McElroy, Keith; Landers, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic (3-D force plate), kinematic (videography) and temporal characteristics of backstroke turns by 20 male and 16 female swimmers were recorded to identify and describe key elements of backstroke turning performance. Data were recorded during a 50 m maximum effort swim in a 25 metre pool. A Pearson product moment correlation matrix revealed that the 5 m RTT was significantly correlated with anthropometric measures of height, mass, trochanteric height and age; kinetic measures of horizontal impulse and peak force; and kinematic measures of wall contact time and peak velocity. The stepwise multiple regression equation to predict 5 m RTT was: 19.6-0.75 trochanteric height-1.8 wall exit velocity-0.03 peak vertical force. Four key factors were identified from a principle components factor analysis--anthropometry and force, post-turn velocity, force preparation and rotational skills. Implications from the findings were that age-group backstrokers should 'hit the wall hard' with relatively extended legs to reduce swim distance and push-off deceleration; use minimal wall contact time, and maximise forces to develop high horizontal velocities in a streamlined position. PMID:15079984

  10. The dental health of a group of adults approaching retirement age in Hertfordshire, England.

    PubMed

    Clouting, D W

    1989-12-01

    A socio-dental investigation involving a clinical examination and structured interview was carried out during 1986 on a sample of 83 people aged between 55 and 64 years in Hertfordshire. The sample was not representative of the population; subjects were employed on the staff of two retailing chains. The main purpose of the study was to estimate likely future needs of older people in such a sample. The clinical examination showed a proportion of individuals with natural and heavily restored teeth. Most subjects had one or more exposed non-carious root surfaces. The periodontal condition of the sample was favourable. Problems could occur in the future as this group ages if their currently favourable dental health deteriorates and root surfaces become carious in large numbers or the periodontal condition worsens. Conservative treatment, if required in the future, especially for housebound people, may be a problem unless domiciliary services are planned to this end. A preventive approach may help to limit operative requirements. PMID:2696575

  11. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  12. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet - Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  13. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT.

  14. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5–14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  15. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-08-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5-14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  16. [Anthropometric-nutritional status of a Spanish middle-class juvenile population. Study by age and sex groups].

    PubMed

    Gargallo Fernández, M A; de la Cruz Iglesias, A I; Garrudo Benito, D; de Cos Blanco, A I

    1993-01-01

    To make an initial approach to the current nutritional situation of the Spanish infant population, we carried out an anthropometric study of the children from 6 to 15 years of age in two schools in Fuenlabrada (Madrid) in a middle to lower class social environment. A total of 1,026 children were studied, to determine weight, height, tricipital fold and arm circumference. These parameters were used to calculate the weight/height ratio (w/h) and the muscular circumference of the arm. All these parameters were tabulated in percentile terms for comparison. The sample was divided into groups according to sex and to age (under 9, 9 to 12 and over 12). We found an overall w/h ratio of 108.8 +/- 17.4, more than the theoretical 100% (p < 0.001); 20.6% of the children over 120%. The Tricipital Fold (TFp) percentile was 62.5 +/- 27, with no differences according to age or sex. The percentile for arm muscular circumference (AMCp) was 48.8 +/- 27 for girls and 41.6 +/- 28 for boys (p < 0.001). Finally, we found a positive and significant correlation (p < 0.05) between w/h and AMCp (r = 0.51) and between w/h and TFp (r = 0.57). We conclude that the population studied is significantly overweight, confirming previous studies. Girls showed better nutritional parameters than the boys, apparently less nutritionally affected by the middle to low social environment. Finally, the w/h ratio, as an isolated parameter, is a good overall index of the nutritional state of children.

  17. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  18. Differences in Affective and Behavioral Health-Related Variables Associated with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Although considerable data exist linking individual lifestyle variables to health outcomes, little is known about how the elderly differ from younger adults with respect to both their health seeking behavior and their beliefs about health. A national survey contrasted 155 persons aged 65 years of age or older with 1100 younger adults in order to…

  19. Can Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Affect Developmental Abilities in Younger School-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðokovic, Sanja; Gligorovic, Milica; Ostojic, Sanja; Dimic, Nadežda; Radic-Šestic, Marina; Slavnic, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The research study was conducted for the purpose of examining the influence of mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (MBSNHL) on developmental abilities of younger school-age children. The sample encompassed 144 children with MBSNHL, aged 7.5-11 (M = 8.85). MBSNHL (20-40 dB HL) was identified by pure tone audiometry. The control group…

  20. Age Differences in Affective Decision Making as Indexed by Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Claus, Eric; Banich, Marie T.; Graham, Sandra; Woolard, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives on age differences in risk taking, informed by advances in developmental neuroscience, have emphasized the need to examine the ways in which emotional and cognitive factors interact to influence decision making. In the present study, a diverse sample of 901 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30 were administered a…

  1. Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Bashey, Farrah; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-05-01

    Selection is recognized to operate on multiple levels. In disease organisms, selection among hosts is thought to provide an important counterbalance to selection for faster growth within hosts. We performed three experiments, each selecting for a divergence in group size in the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. These nematodes infect and kill insect larvae, reproduce inside the host carcass, and emerge as infective juveniles. We imposed selection on group size by selecting among hosts for either high or low numbers of emerging nematodes. Our goal was to determine whether this trait could respond to selection at the group level, and if so, to examine what other traits would evolve as correlated responses. One of the three experiments showed a significant response to group selection. In that experiment, the high-selected treatment consistently produced more emerging nematodes per host than the low-selected treatment. In addition, nematodes were larger and they emerged later from hosts in the low-selected lines. Despite small effective population sizes, the effects of inbreeding were small in this experiment. Thus, selection among hosts can be effective, leading to both a direct evolutionary response at the population level, as well as to correlated responses in populational and individual traits.

  2. Factors Affecting the Adequacy and Preferability of Semiparametric Groups-Based Approximations of Continuous Growth Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Baldasaro, Ruth E.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have long been interested in characterizing individual differences in change over time. It is often plausible to assume that the distribution of these individual differences is continuous in nature, yet theory is seldom so specific as to designate its parametric form (e.g., normal). Semiparametric groups-based trajectory models…

  3. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  4. Learning in the Laboratory: How Group Assignments Affect Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Team projects can optimize educational resources in a laboratory, but also create the potential for social loafing. Allowing students to choose their own groups could increase their motivation to learn and improve academic performance. To test this hypothesis, final grades and feedback from students were compared for the same course in two…

  5. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  6. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  7. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  8. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  9. Understanding Process and Affective Factors in Small Group versus Individual Learning with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Yiping

    2004-01-01

    Based on 198 independent findings from 71 studies with experimental or statistical controls, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that, on average, students learning with computers in small groups attempted a greater amount of task (d + = +0.15), used more learning strategies (d + = +0.36), had more positive attitude toward small group…

  10. Age-related changes to TNF receptors affect neuron survival in the presence of beta-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha R.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation including local accumulations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a part of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology and may exacerbate age-related neurodegeneration. Most studies on TNFα and TNF neuronal receptors are conducted using embryonic neurons. Few studies consider age-related deficits that may occur in neurons. Age-related changes in susceptibility to TNFα through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression could increase susceptibility to β-amyloid (1-42, Abeta42). Evidence is conflicting about which receptor mediates survival and/or apoptosis. We determined how aging affects receptor expression in cultured adult rat cortical neurons. Old neurons were more susceptible to Abeta42 toxicity than middle-age neurons and the addition of TNFα was neuroprotective in middle-age, but exacerbated the toxicity from Abeta42 in old neurons. These pathologic and protective responses in old and middle-age neurons respectively correlated with higher starting TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA levels in old versus middle-age neurons. Middle-age neurons treated with TNFα plus Abeta42 did not show an increase in either TNFR1 or TNFR2 mRNA but old neurons showed an upregulation in TNFR2 mRNA and not TNFR1 mRNA. Despite these mRNA changes, surface immunoreactivity of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 increased with dose of TNFα in middle-age neurons. However, middle-age neurons treated with TNFα plus Abeta42 showed an upregulation in both TNFR1 and TNFR2 surface expression, whereas old neurons failed to upregulate surface expression of either receptor. These findings support the hypothesis that age-related changes in TNFα surface receptor expression contribute to the neuronal loss associated with inflammation in AD. PMID:18418902

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment. PMID:25288547

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment.

  13. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  14. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  15. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P < 0.001). This enables informative evaluation of anatomical regions outside of the hippocampus. To assess the morphology of brain microvasculature far more rigorously than what is possible using semi-quantitative pathological scoring, we applied digital pathological (Aperio ScanScope) methods on a subsample of frontal cortex sections from hippocampal sclerosis of ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections

  16. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    PubMed Central

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  17. Affect and Mood Problems Related to School Aged Youth. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This introductory packet provides an introduction to affect and mood problems, framing the discussion within the classification scheme developed by the American Pediatric Association. Included is information on the symptoms and severity of a variety of affect and mood problems, as well as information on interventions ranging from environmental…

  18. Affective Factors and the Problem of Age in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1975-01-01

    Based on a synopsis of research studies, the relationship of second language learning to affective factors, such as language shock, attitude motivation, ego permeability, etc., is examined. Also, it is suggested that affective variables may be more important than maturation in the problems of adults in learning a second language. (MS)

  19. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  20. Genetic variants near MLST8 and DHX57 affect the epigenetic age of the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ake T.; Hannon, Eilis; Levine, Morgan E.; Hao, Ke; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Lunnon, Katie; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Mill, Jonathan; Dracheva, Stella; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation (DNAm) levels lend themselves for defining an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the ‘epigenetic clock'. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cerebellar epigenetic age acceleration identifies five significant (P<5.0 × 10−8) SNPs in two loci: 2p22.1 (inside gene DHX57) and 16p13.3 near gene MLST8 (a subunit of mTOR complex 1 and 2). We find that the SNP in 16p13.3 has a cis-acting effect on the expression levels of MLST8 (P=6.9 × 10−18) in most brain regions. In cerebellar samples, the SNP in 2p22.1 has a cis-effect on DHX57 (P=4.4 × 10−5). Gene sets found by our GWAS analysis of cerebellar age acceleration exhibit significant overlap with those of Alzheimer's disease (P=4.4 × 10−15), age-related macular degeneration (P=6.4 × 10−6), and Parkinson's disease (P=2.6 × 10−4). Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a new paradigm for understanding aging and age-related diseases: it will be fruitful to use epigenetic tissue age as endophenotype in GWAS. PMID:26830004

  1. Aging and cytomegalovirus infection differentially and jointly affect distinct circulating T cell subsets in humans.

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, Anne M; Bennett, Michael S; Park, Byung; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L; Martinez, Carmine; Pulko, Vesna; Currier, Noreen L; Nikolich-Žugich, Dragana; Kaye, Jeffrey; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2014-03-01

    The impact of intrinsic aging upon human peripheral blood T cell subsets remains incompletely quantified and understood. This impact must be distinguished from the influence of latent persistent microorganisms, particularly CMV, which has been associated with age-related changes in the T cell pool. In a cross-sectional cohort of 152 CMV-negative individuals, aged 21-101 y, we found that aging correlated strictly to an absolute loss of naive CD8, but not CD4, T cells but, contrary to many reports, did not lead to an increase in memory T cell numbers. The loss of naive CD8 T cells was not altered by CMV in 239 subjects (range 21-96 y), but the decline in CD4(+) naive cells showed significance in CMV(+) individuals. These individuals also exhibited an absolute increase in the effector/effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells with age. That increase was seen mainly, if not exclusively, in older subjects with elevated anti-CMV Ab titers, suggesting that efficacy of viral control over time may determine the magnitude of CMV impact upon T cell memory, and perhaps upon immune defense. These findings provide important new insights into the age-related changes in the peripheral blood pool of older adults, demonstrating that aging and CMV exert both distinct and joint influence upon blood T cell homeostasis in humans. PMID:24501199

  2. Genetic variants near MLST8 and DHX57 affect the epigenetic age of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ake T; Hannon, Eilis; Levine, Morgan E; Hao, Ke; Crimmins, Eileen M; Lunnon, Katie; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Mill, Jonathan; Dracheva, Stella; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation (DNAm) levels lend themselves for defining an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the 'epigenetic clock'. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cerebellar epigenetic age acceleration identifies five significant (P<5.0 × 10(-8)) SNPs in two loci: 2p22.1 (inside gene DHX57) and 16p13.3 near gene MLST8 (a subunit of mTOR complex 1 and 2). We find that the SNP in 16p13.3 has a cis-acting effect on the expression levels of MLST8 (P=6.9 × 10(-18)) in most brain regions. In cerebellar samples, the SNP in 2p22.1 has a cis-effect on DHX57 (P=4.4 × 10(-5)). Gene sets found by our GWAS analysis of cerebellar age acceleration exhibit significant overlap with those of Alzheimer's disease (P=4.4 × 10(-15)), age-related macular degeneration (P=6.4 × 10(-6)), and Parkinson's disease (P=2.6 × 10(-4)). Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a new paradigm for understanding aging and age-related diseases: it will be fruitful to use epigenetic tissue age as endophenotype in GWAS. PMID:26830004

  3. Genetic variants near MLST8 and DHX57 affect the epigenetic age of the cerebellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ake T.; Hannon, Eilis; Levine, Morgan E.; Hao, Ke; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Lunnon, Katie; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Mill, Jonathan; Dracheva, Stella; Horvath, Steve

    2016-02-01

    DNA methylation (DNAm) levels lend themselves for defining an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the `epigenetic clock'. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cerebellar epigenetic age acceleration identifies five significant (P<5.0 × 10-8) SNPs in two loci: 2p22.1 (inside gene DHX57) and 16p13.3 near gene MLST8 (a subunit of mTOR complex 1 and 2). We find that the SNP in 16p13.3 has a cis-acting effect on the expression levels of MLST8 (P=6.9 × 10-18) in most brain regions. In cerebellar samples, the SNP in 2p22.1 has a cis-effect on DHX57 (P=4.4 × 10-5). Gene sets found by our GWAS analysis of cerebellar age acceleration exhibit significant overlap with those of Alzheimer's disease (P=4.4 × 10-15), age-related macular degeneration (P=6.4 × 10-6), and Parkinson's disease (P=2.6 × 10-4). Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a new paradigm for understanding aging and age-related diseases: it will be fruitful to use epigenetic tissue age as endophenotype in GWAS.

  4. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  5. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  6. Does family group decision making affect child welfare outcomes? Findings from a randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs (FGDM; Fresno n = 60; Riverside n = 50) administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that children were not worse than those receiving traditional services; outcomes examined were related to child safety, placement stability, and permanence. PMID:19391466

  7. Ageing affects event-related potentials and brain oscillations: a behavioral and electrophysiological study using a haptic recognition memory task.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Manuel; Reales, José M; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2011-12-01

    In this electrophysiological study, we investigated the effects of ageing on recognition memory for three-dimensional (3D) familiar objects presented to touch in a continuous paradigm. To examine changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain oscillations, we recorded the EEGs of healthy groups of young (n=14; mean age=32.3 years) and older adults (n=14; mean age=65.1). Both age groups exhibited similar accuracy and exploration times when making old-new judgments. Young and older participants showed a marginally significant ERP old/new effect widely distributed over the scalp between 550-750 ms. In addition, the elders showed lower amplitude than younger participants within 1200-1500 ms. There were age-related differences in brain oscillations as measured by event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP). Older adults showed greater alpha and beta power reductions than young participants, suggesting the recruitment of additional neural resources. In contrast, the two age groups showed a reliable old/new effect in the theta band that temporarily overlapped the ERP old/new effect. The present results suggest that despite similar behavioral performance, the young and older adults recruited different neural resources to perform a haptic recognition task. PMID:22027172

  8. Imprinting disorders: a group of congenital disorders with overlapping patterns of molecular changes affecting imprinted loci.

    PubMed

    Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R; Temple, I Karen; Tümer, Zeynep; Monk, David; Mackay, Deborah J G; Grønskov, Karen; Riccio, Andrea; Linglart, Agnès; Netchine, Irène

    2015-01-01

    Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA sequence shown to disturb imprinted gene expression, and the correspondingly broad range of resultant clinical syndromes. At the same time, however, it has become clear that this diversity of IDs has common underlying principles, not only in shared molecular mechanisms, but also in interrelated clinical impacts upon growth, development and metabolism. Thus, detailed and systematic analysis of IDs can not only identify unifying principles of molecular epigenetics in health and disease, but also support personalisation of diagnosis and management for individual patients and families. PMID:26583054

  9. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    PubMed

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. PMID:23501257

  10. Normal Adult Aging and the Contextual Influences Affecting Speech and Meaningful Sound Perception

    PubMed Central

    Aydelott, Jennifer; Leech, Robert; Crinion, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that hearing loss increases markedly with age, beginning in the fourth decade ISO 7029 (2000). Age-related hearing loss is typified by high-frequency threshold elevation and associated reductions in speech perception because speech sounds, especially consonants, become inaudible. Nevertheless, older adults often report additional and progressive difficulties in the perception and comprehension of speech, often highlighted in adverse listening conditions that exceed those reported by younger adults with a similar degree of high-frequency hearing loss (Dubno, Dirks, & Morgan) leading to communication difficulties and social isolation (Weinstein & Ventry). Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. In this article, we review findings from the psycholinguistic literature predominantly over the last four years and present a pilot study illustrating how normal age-related changes in cognition and the linguistic context can influence speech-processing difficulties in older adults. For significant progress in understanding and improving the auditory performance of aging listeners to be made, we discuss how future research will have to be much more specific not only about which interactions between auditory and cognitive abilities are critical but also how they are modulated in the brain. PMID:21307006

  11. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  12. Normal adult aging and the contextual influences affecting speech and meaningful sound perception.

    PubMed

    Aydelott, Jennifer; Leech, Robert; Crinion, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    It is widely accepted that hearing loss increases markedly with age, beginning in the fourth decade ISO 7029 (2000). Age-related hearing loss is typified by high-frequency threshold elevation and associated reductions in speech perception because speech sounds, especially consonants, become inaudible. Nevertheless, older adults often report additional and progressive difficulties in the perception and comprehension of speech, often highlighted in adverse listening conditions that exceed those reported by younger adults with a similar degree of high-frequency hearing loss (Dubno, Dirks, & Morgan) leading to communication difficulties and social isolation (Weinstein & Ventry). Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. In this article, we review findings from the psycholinguistic literature predominantly over the last four years and present a pilot study illustrating how normal age-related changes in cognition and the linguistic context can influence speech-processing difficulties in older adults. For significant progress in understanding and improving the auditory performance of aging listeners to be made, we discuss how future research will have to be much more specific not only about which interactions between auditory and cognitive abilities are critical but also how they are modulated in the brain. PMID:21307006

  13. Intrahippocampal glucocorticoids generated by 11β-HSD1 affect memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, Joyce L W; Wheelan, Nicola; Noble, June; Walker, Brian R; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Ludwig, Mike; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) locally amplifies active glucocorticoids within specific tissues including in brain. In the hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 messenger RNA increases with aging. Here, we report significantly greater increases in intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in aged wild-type (WT) mice during the acquisition and retrieval trials in a Y-maze than age-matched 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice, corresponding to impaired and intact spatial memory, respectively. Acute stress applied to young WT mice led to increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels similar to the effects of aging and impaired retrieval of spatial memory. 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice resisted the stress-induced memory impairment. Pharmacologic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 abolished increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels during the Y-maze trials and prevented spatial memory impairments in aged WT mice. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that dynamic increases in hippocampal 11β-HSD1 regenerated CORT levels during learning and retrieval play a key role in age- and stress-associated impairments of spatial memory.

  14. Two-dimensional grouping affects perisaccadic perception of depth and synchrony.

    PubMed

    Aruga, Reiko; Saito, Hideo; Ando, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Junji

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that, when visual stimuli are presented around the time of a saccade, spatial and temporal perceptions of them are distorted. However, only a small number of previous studies have addressed the perception of a visual image induced by a saccade eye movement (visual image that is dynamically drawn on the retina during a saccade at the speed of the eye movement). Here we investigated three-dimensional and temporal perceptions of the saccade-induced images and found that perceptual grouping of objects has a significant effect on the perceived depth and timing of the images.

  15. Do Age and Weight Bearing Films Affect Lateral Joint Space and Fibular Height Measurements in Patients with Discoid Lateral Meniscus?

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Krochak, Ryan; Duarte, Andrew J.; Marchese, Joseph; Pace, James Lee; Broom, Alexander M.; Solomito, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Several radiographic parameters have been associated with discoid lateral meniscus. We sought to determine the effect of age and weight bearing (WB) on radiographic parameters associated with lateral discoid menisci in pediatric patients. Methods: Radiographs of patients with arthroscopically confirmed lateral discoid meniscus were compared to age, side, sex matched individuals with confirmed normal menisci. The radiographs were measured by a pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine attending and two orthopaedic residents for the following parameters: lateral joint space width (LJSW), fibular head height (FHH), width of the distal femur (WDF), tibial spine height (TSH), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (CLTP), and obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (OLTP). The results of this review focus on FHH and LJSW only. Results: 68 knees with discoid lateral menisci with a mean age of 11.6 ± 3.3 (15 WB films) were compared to 67 control knees with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.2 (15 WB films). Results indicated that there were significant differences between the discoid and control groups when comparing LJSW (8.7 ± 2.2 mm discoid compared to 7.6 ± 2.1 mm control p=0.002) and FHH (13.5 ± 4.5 mm discoid compared to 18.6 ± 3.9 mm control p<0.001). Inter-rater reliability was satisfactory for LJSW and FHH (ICC 0.635 and 0.759 respectively). WB films were noted to have better inter-rater reliability compared to NWB films for LJSW (ICC 0.729 vs 0.514 respectively) but reduced inter-rater reliability for FHH (ICC 0.625 vs 0.868 respectively). Subgroup analysis based on age was also done comparing patients under 10 years old, patients between 10-14 years old, and patients over 14 years old. The FHH measurement was significantly decreased (indicative of a high fibular head) in the discoid group in all age groups. However, LJSW was only noted to be significantly different in patients over the age of 14. Conclusion: Increased lateral joint space width and a high

  16. Identification of genes affecting expression of phosphoglycerate kinase on the surface of group B streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Boone, Tyler J; Tyrrell, Gregory J

    2012-04-01

    Group B streptococcal phosphoglycerate kinase (GBS-PGK), a glycolytic enzyme, has previously been identified on the surface of group B streptococcus (GBS). To identify genes involved in surface expression of GBS-PGK, we performed Tn917 mutagenesis followed by quantification of PGK expressed on the GBS surface. Tn917 mutagenesis identified 4 genes (sag0966, sag0979, sag0980, and sag1003) that when disrupted, alter expression of GBS-PGK on the bacterial surface. Three of the identified genes were localized to a region of the GBS genome containing genes (sag0973-sag0977) predicted to be involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides. One mutant isolate, designated NCS13sag1003::Tn917, was found to have increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial peptides bacitracin and nisin. In addition, all of the mutant strains assayed were found to have decreased β-hemolysis. In conclusion, we have identified genes involved in surface expression of GBS-PGK. These genes also appear to be involved in antimicrobial peptide resistance and regulate expression of the β-hemolysin. PMID:22444251

  17. Diversity is in the eye of the beholder: how concern for the in-group affects perceptions of racial diversity.

    PubMed

    Unzueta, Miguel M; Binning, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    The reported studies suggest that concern for the in-group motivates Asian Americans and African Americans to define diversity specifically, that is, as entailing both minorities' numerical and hierarchical representation, while motivating White Americans to define diversity broadly, that is, as entailing either minorities' high numerical and/or hierarchical representation in an organization. Studies 2-4 directly assess if a concern for the in-group affects conceptions of diversity by measuring Black and White participants' racial identity centrality, an individual difference measure of the extent to which individuals define themselves according to race. These studies suggest that the tendency to conceive diversity in ways protective of the in-group is especially pronounced among individuals who identify strongly with their racial in-group. PMID:21868494

  18. Decreased vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in knockout mice affects aging of dopaminergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. S.; Itokawa, K.; Schmitt, A.; Moessner, R.; Sora, I.; Lesch, K. P.; Uhl, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2). These transporters work at the plasma and vesicular membranes of dopaminergic neurons, respectively, and thus regulate levels of DA in neuronal compartments that include the extravesicular cytoplasmic compartment. DA in this compartment has been hypothesized to contribute to oxidative damage that can reduce the function of dopaminergic neurons in aging brains and may contribute to reductions in dopaminergic neurochemical markers, locomotor behavior and responses to dopaminergic drugs that are found in aged animals. The studies reported here examined aged mice with heterozygous deletions of VMAT2 or of DAT, which each reduce transporter expression to about 50% of levels found in wild-type (WT) mice. Aged mice displayed reduced locomotor responses under a variety of circumstances, including in response to locomotor stimulants, as well as changes in monoamine levels and metabolites in a regionally dependent manner. Several effects of aging were more pronounced in heterozygous VMAT2 knockout (KO) mice, including aging induced reductions in locomotion and reduced locomotor responses to cocaine. By contrast, some effects of aging were reduced or not observed in heterozygous DAT KO mice. These findings support the idea that altered DAT and VMAT2 expression affect age-related changes in dopaminergic function. These effects are most likely mediated by alterations in DA compartmentalization, and might be hypothesized to be more exacerbated by other factors that affect the metabolism of cytosolic DA. PMID:23978383

  19. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  20. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  1. Molecular mechanism of extrinsic factors affecting anti-aging of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tzyy Yue; Solis, Mairim Alexandra; Chen, Ying-Hui; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that stem cells possess the anti-aging ability to self-renew and maintain differentiation potentials, and quiescent state. The objective of this review is to discuss the micro-environment where stem cells reside in vivo, the secreted factors to which stem cells are exposed, the hypoxic environment, and intracellular factors including genome stability, mitochondria integrity, epigenetic regulators, calorie restrictions, nutrients, and vitamin D. Secreted tumor growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor-2 are reported to play a role in stem cell quiescence. Extracellular matrices may interact with caveolin-1, the lipid raft on cell membrane to regulate quiescence. N-cadherin, the adhesive protein on niche cells provides support for stem cells. The hypoxic micro-environment turns on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 to prevent mesenchymal stem cells aging through p16 and p21 down-regulation. Mitochondria express glucosephosphate isomerase to undergo glycolysis and prevent cellular aging. Epigenetic regulators such as p300, protein inhibitors of activated Stats and H19 help maintain stem cell quiescence. In addition, calorie restriction may lead to secretion of paracrines cyclic ADP-ribose by intestinal niche cells, which help maintain intestinal stem cells. In conclusion, it is crucial to understand the anti-aging phenomena of stem cells at the molecular level so that the key to solving the aging mystery may be unlocked. PMID:25815136

  2. Molecular mechanism of extrinsic factors affecting anti-aging of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tzyy Yue; Solis, Mairim Alexandra; Chen, Ying-Hui; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei

    2015-03-26

    Scientific evidence suggests that stem cells possess the anti-aging ability to self-renew and maintain differentiation potentials, and quiescent state. The objective of this review is to discuss the micro-environment where stem cells reside in vivo, the secreted factors to which stem cells are exposed, the hypoxic environment, and intracellular factors including genome stability, mitochondria integrity, epigenetic regulators, calorie restrictions, nutrients, and vitamin D. Secreted tumor growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor-2 are reported to play a role in stem cell quiescence. Extracellular matrices may interact with caveolin-1, the lipid raft on cell membrane to regulate quiescence. N-cadherin, the adhesive protein on niche cells provides support for stem cells. The hypoxic micro-environment turns on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 to prevent mesenchymal stem cells aging through p16 and p21 down-regulation. Mitochondria express glucosephosphate isomerase to undergo glycolysis and prevent cellular aging. Epigenetic regulators such as p300, protein inhibitors of activated Stats and H19 help maintain stem cell quiescence. In addition, calorie restriction may lead to secretion of paracrines cyclic ADP-ribose by intestinal niche cells, which help maintain intestinal stem cells. In conclusion, it is crucial to understand the anti-aging phenomena of stem cells at the molecular level so that the key to solving the aging mystery may be unlocked.

  3. Microviscosity of plasmalemmas in rose petals as affected by age and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Borochov, A; Halevy, A H

    1978-05-01

    The microviscosity of the plasmalemma of protoplasts isolated from rose (Rosa hyb. cv. Golden Wave) petals was measured by fluorescence depolarization. The plasmalemma's microviscosity was found to increase in petals which were allowed to age on cut flowers or after isolation as well as in isolated protoplasts aged in an aqueous medium. Increasing the temperature of the cut flowers or the isolated protoplasts enhanced the increase of the microviscosity of the protoplast plasmalemma. The mole ratio of free sterol to phospholipid was greater in protoplasts isolated from old flowers or in protoplasts aged after isolation than in protoplasts isolated from younger flowers. Microviscosity was greatest when protoplasts were aged at pH 4.4 and in the presence of Ca(2+). Artificial alterations of the sterol to phospholipid ratio in the protoplasts, induced by treatment with liposomes, caused similar changes in their measured microviscosity.These findings strongly suggest that the increase in the petal plasmalemma microviscosity with age is associated with an increase in the sterol to phospholipid ratio which results, at least partially, from the activity of endogenous phospholipases.

  4. Approach/Avoidance Orientations Affect Self-Construal and Identification with In-group

    PubMed Central

    Nussinson, Ravit; Häfner, Michael; Seibt, Beate; Strack, Fritz; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two basic motivational orientations. Their activation influences cognitive and perceptive processes: Previous work suggests that an approach orientation instigates a focus on larger units as compared to avoidance. Study 1 confirms this assumption using a paradigm that more directly taps a person’s tendency to represent objects as belonging to small or large units than prior studies. It was further predicted that the self should also be represented as belonging to larger units, and hence be more interdependent under approach than under avoidance. Study 2 supports this prediction. As a consequence of this focus on belonging to larger units, it was finally predicted that approach results in a stronger identification with one’s in-group than avoidance. Studies 3 and 4 support that prediction. PMID:22844229

  5. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy. PMID:26317608

  6. Affective Balance, Team Prosocial Efficacy and Team Trust: A Multilevel Analysis of Prosocial Behavior in Small Groups.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on how individual- and team-level characteristics jointly influence, via interaction, how prosocially individuals behave in teams and few studies have considered the potential influence of team context on prosocial behavior. Using a multilevel perspective, we examined the relationships between individual (affective balance) and group (team prosocial efficacy and team trust) level variables and prosocial behavior towards team members. The participants were 123 students nested in 45 small teams. A series of multilevel random models was estimated using hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Individuals were more likely to behave prosocially towards in-group members when they were feeling good. Furthermore, the relationship between positive affective balance and prosocial behavior was stronger in teams with higher team prosocial efficacy levels as well as in teams with higher team trust levels. Finally, the relevance of team trust had a stronger influence on behavior than team prosocial efficacy.

  7. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  8. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly.

  9. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  10. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  11. Age and genetic selection affect auto-immune profiles of chickens.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Henk K; Harms, Elmer; Lammers, Aart; Nieuwland, Mike G B

    2014-12-01

    Specificity, antibody isotype distribution and levels, of natural autoantibodies (NAAb) may be potential informative parameters for immune mediated natural disease resistance, immune modulation, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. In a previous study we detected IgM and IgG antibodies to liver antigens in plasma from 1 year old chickens. Auto-immune profiles directed towards liver antigens differed between chicken lines divergently selected for specific antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. In the present study we measured the presence and typed levels and antibody isotypes (IgG and IgM) of NAAb binding the 'auto-antigen' complex chicken liver cell lysate (CLL) in plasma samples obtained from chickens at 5 weeks and at 1-year of age, respectively, by quantitative western blotting. Extensive staining patterns of plasma antibodies binding CLL were found for both isotypes and at both ages in all birds. At both ages, IgM and IgG bound similar numbers of CLL antigens, which remained almost constant for IgM, whereas the number of IgG stained bands in time was enhanced. Significant differences of binding patterns of NAAb (stained antigen fragments of CLL and staining intensity) were detected between the three different chicken lines at both ages and between both ages, and lines could be clustered on the basis of their auto-antibody profile. The present results indicate that analysis of the plasma NAAb repertoire of poultry like in mammals could provide a way of distinguishing differences of immune competence (as reflected by the selection criterion of antibody responses) between individuals and lines, and could provide tools to select individual birds for health and other traits. The age-dependency of the auto-immune profile suggest that such profiles may also reflect immune maturation, which should be taken into account when relating an auto-immune profile with other traits.

  12. Group Size and Nest Spacing Affect Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) Infection in Nestling House Sparrows

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Valerie A.; Brown, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow), perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the “dilution effect,” in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host. PMID:21966539

  13. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) infection in nestling house sparrows.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Valerie A; Brown, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow), perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  14. Standards of Fair Play in Same- and Mixed-Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children do not use the same standards of fair play in mixed-age situations as in same-age situations. It was further hypothesized that in mixed-age encounters, younger children would use cues associated with older children (i.e., physical size) as a basis for reward deservingness. Older children,…

  15. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  16. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  17. Factors affecting the identification of phytoplankton groups by means of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Ellen C.; Wrigley, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on the state of the art as to whether or not information about communities and populations of phytoplankton in aquatic environments can be derived by remote sensing. In order to arrive at this goal, the spectral characteristics of various types of phytoplankton were compared to determine first, whether there are characteristic differences in pigmentation among the types and second, whether such differences can be detected remotely. In addition to the literature review, an extensive, but not exhaustive, annotated bibliography of the literature that bears on these questions is included as an appendix, since it constitutes a convenient resource for anyone wishing an overview of the field of ocean color. The review found some progress has already been made in remote sensing of assemblages such as coccolithophorid blooms, mats of cyanobacteria, and red tides. Much more information about the composition of algal groups is potentially available by remote sensing particularly in water bodies having higher phytoplankton concentrations, but it will be necessary to develop the remote sensing techniques required for working in so-called Case 2 waters. It is also clear that none of the satellite sensors presently available or soon to be launched is ideal from the point of view of what we might wish to know; it would seem wise to pursue instruments with the planned characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Tilt (MODIS-T) or Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS).

  18. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: The example of Cabo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, João Filipe G.; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R.; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Methods Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Results Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95%CI:1.36–1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95%CI:7.8–8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios targeting FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence. PMID:25838121

  19. Leaving Group Ability Observably Affects Transition State Structure in a Single Enzyme Active Site.

    PubMed

    Roston, Daniel; Demapan, Darren; Cui, Qiang

    2016-06-15

    A reaction's transition state (TS) structure plays a critical role in determining reactivity and has important implications for the design of catalysts, drugs, and other applications. Here, we explore TS structure in the enzyme alkaline phosphatase using hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics simulations. We find that minor perturbations to the substrate have major effects on TS structure and the way the enzyme stabilizes the TS. Substrates with good leaving groups (LGs) have little cleavage of the phosphorus-LG bond at the TS, while substrates with poor LGs have substantial cleavage of that bond. The results predict nonlinear free energy relationships for a single rate-determining step, and substantial differences in kinetic isotope effects for different substrates; both trends were observed in previous experimental studies, although the original interpretations differed from the present model. Moreover, due to different degrees of phosphorus-LG bond cleavage at the TS for different substrates, the LG is stabilized by different interactions at the TS: while a poor LG is directly stabilized by an active site zinc ion, a good LG is mainly stabilized by active site water molecules. Our results demonstrate the considerable plasticity of TS structure and stabilization in enzymes. Furthermore, perturbations to reactivity that probe TS structure experimentally (i.e., substituent effects) may substantially perturb the TS they aim to probe, and thus classical experimental approaches such as free energy relations should be interpreted with care. PMID:27186960

  20. Sublethal effects of aged oil sands-affected water on white sucker (Catostomus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Arens, Collin J; Hogan, Natacha S; Kavanagh, Richard J; Mercer, Angella G; Kraak, Glen J Van Der; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    To investigate impacts of proposed oil sands aquatic reclamation techniques on benthic fish, white sucker (Catostomus commersonii Lacépède, 1803) were stocked in 2 experimental ponds-Demonstration Pond, containing aged fine tailings capped with fresh water, consistent with proposed end-pit lake designs, and South Bison Pond, containing aged unextracted oil sands material-to examine the effects of unmodified hydrocarbons. White sucker were stocked from a nearby reservoir at both sites in May 2010 and sampled 4 mo later to measure indicators of energy storage and utilization. Comparisons were then made with the source population and 2 reference lakes in the region. After exposure to aged tailings, white sucker had smaller testes and ovaries and reduced growth compared with the source population. Fish introduced to aged unextracted oil sands material showed an increase in growth over the same period. Limited available energy, endocrine disruption, and chronic stress likely contributed to the effects observed, corresponding to elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids, aromatic compounds in bile, and increased CYP1A activity. Because of the chemical and biological complexity of these systems, direct cause-effect relationships could not be identified; however, effects were associated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and high pH. Impacts on growth have not been previously observed in pelagic fishes examined in these systems, and may be related to differences in sediment interaction. PMID:25545538

  1. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  2. Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Memory Performance, and Depressive Affect in Old Age: A Change-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimprich, Daniel; Martin, Mike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether and how subjective cognitive complaints are related to actual cognitive performance represents a central issue in applied cognitive aging research. Until recently, however, many studies have failed to find a strong association between subjective cognitive complaints and actual cognitive performance. In our study, we examine…

  3. Factors Affecting the Successful Employment of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; Crudden, Adele

    2009-01-01

    The following variables were found to be associated with employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments who are served by vocational rehabilitation agencies: work experience, academic competence, self-determination, use of assistive technology, and locus of control. Self-esteem and involvement with the counselor were not associated…

  4. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  5. Factors Affecting the Processing of Intensity in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W., III; Grose, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thresholds of school-aged children are elevated relative to those of adults for intensity discrimination and amplitude modulation (AM) detection. It is unclear how these findings are related or what role stimulus gating and dynamic envelope cues play in these results. Two experiments assessed the development of sensitivity to intensity…

  6. Factors Affecting the Age at Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenette, Priscilla; Dodds, Linda; MacPherson, Kathleen; Flowerdew, Gordon; Hennen, Brian; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    While early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is essential for ensuring timely access to early intervention services, there is limited existing literature investigating factors that delay this diagnosis. This population-based cohort study explored the age at which children in Nova Scotia, Canada, are diagnosed with ASDs and the factors…

  7. Evidence that PICALM affects age at onset of Alzheimer's dementia in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L; Mok, Kin; Hanney, Marisa; Harold, Denise; Sims, Rebecca; Williams, Julie; Ballard, Clive

    2013-10-01

    It is known that individuals with Down syndrome develop Alzheimer's disease with an early age at onset, although associated genetic risk factors have not been widely studied. We tested whether genes that increase the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease influence the age at onset in Down syndrome using genome-wide association data for age at onset of dementia in a small sample of individuals (N = 67) with Down syndrome. We tested for association with loci previously associated with Alzheimer's disease risk and, despite the small size of the study, we detected associations with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome with PICALM (β = 3.31, p = 0.011) and the APOE loci (β = 3.58, p = 0.014). As dementia in people with Down syndrome is relatively understudied, we make all of these data publicly available to encourage further analyses of the problem of Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome.

  8. Age, Sex, and Verbal Abilities Affect Location of Linguistic Connectivity in Ventral Visual Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Douglas D.; Minas, Taylor; Bolger, Donald J.; Booth, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the "strength" of connectivity between regions can vary depending upon the cognitive demands of a task. In this study, the "location" of task-dependent connectivity from the primary visual cortex (V1) was examined in 43 children (ages 9-15) performing visual tasks; connectivity maxima were identified for a visual…

  9. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Vosti, Steve A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Undernutrition during early life contributes to more than 200 million children globally not fulfilling their developmental potential. Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with several formulations of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which differed in dose per day and milk content, positively affect infant development in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 1932 infants age 6 months to receive one of the following for 12 months: 10, 20 g, or 40 g/day milk-containing LNS, 20 g or 40 g/day milk-free LNS, or no supplement until 18 months of age (control group). We assessed motor, language, socio-emotional, and executive function at age 18 months. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat and we also examined 13 potential effect modifiers, including the child's initial nutritional status and level of developmental stimulation. The study is registered as clinical trial NCT00945698. Results We found no significant differences between intervention groups in any scores. The difference in mean z-scores between children in the control group and children in the intervention groups ranged from -0.08 to 0.04 for motor development (p = 0.76), -0.05 to 0.01 for language development (p = 0.97), -0.15 to 0.11 for socio-emotional development (p = 0.22), and -0.02 to 0.20 for executive function (p = 0.24). We did not find that initial nutritional status, developmental stimulation, or other factors modified the effect LNS versus control group. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that in a population such as this one, provision of LNS from age 6 to 18 months would not affect motor, language, socio-emotional, or executive function skills at age 18 months.

  10. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Vosti, Steve A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Undernutrition during early life contributes to more than 200 million children globally not fulfilling their developmental potential. Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with several formulations of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which differed in dose per day and milk content, positively affect infant development in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 1932 infants age 6 months to receive one of the following for 12 months: 10, 20 g, or 40 g/day milk-containing LNS, 20 g or 40 g/day milk-free LNS, or no supplement until 18 months of age (control group). We assessed motor, language, socio-emotional, and executive function at age 18 months. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat and we also examined 13 potential effect modifiers, including the child's initial nutritional status and level of developmental stimulation. The study is registered as clinical trial NCT00945698. Results We found no significant differences between intervention groups in any scores. The difference in mean z-scores between children in the control group and children in the intervention groups ranged from -0.08 to 0.04 for motor development (p = 0.76), -0.05 to 0.01 for language development (p = 0.97), -0.15 to 0.11 for socio-emotional development (p = 0.22), and -0.02 to 0.20 for executive function (p = 0.24). We did not find that initial nutritional status, developmental stimulation, or other factors modified the effect LNS versus control group. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that in a population such as this one, provision of LNS from age 6 to 18 months would not affect motor, language, socio-emotional, or executive function skills at age 18 months. PMID:27395385

  11. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  12. Racial Differences Affecting Night Time Blood Pressure Dipping Groups in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, LH; Elaine, Huang; Kong, RT

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm, with dipping of BP at night. However, little has been done to show how the dipping groups vary amongst the White and Asian population at different periods of the year. This study aims to examine the pattern of nocturnal dipping between the White and Asian population, as well as to compare it to the different timings of the year, between summer and winter. Methods Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor recordings were obtained from 220 patients, half were White patients obtained from Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland and half were Asian patients from National Heart Centre, Singapore during the summer period from May to June and the winter period from October to December. Results Both the Irish and Singaporeans exhibit a decrease in total number of reverse dipper from summer to winter. However, the redistribution of reverse dipper was mainly to the dippers in Singapore, while in Ireland it was to both the extreme dipper and dipper. Irish seasonal changes also resulted in an increase in nocturnal diastolic pressure (95% CI, 0.72 to 6.03, 3.37 mm Hg; p<0.05) and a change in the duration of dipping at night (95% CI, 0.045 to 1.01, 0.53 Hours; p<0.05). Conclusion Regardless of race or temperature, reverse dippers seem to decrease in winter. However, the racial differences dictate the redistribution of the fall in number of dippers. This has implications on how reverse dippers should be treated at different periods of the year. PMID:26989605

  13. Changing the demand on specific muscle groups affects the walk-run transition speed.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jamie L; Kram, Rodger

    2008-04-01

    It has been proposed that muscle-specific factors trigger the human walk-run transition. We investigated if changing the demand on trigger muscles alters the preferred walk-run transition speed. We hypothesized that (1) reducing the demand on trigger muscles would increase the transition speed and (2) increasing the demand on trigger muscles would decrease the transition speed. We first determined the normal preferred walk-run transition speed (PTS) using a step-wise protocol with a randomized speed order. We then determined PTS while subjects walked with external devices that decreased or increased the demand on specific muscle groups. We concurrently measured the electromyographic activity of five leg muscles (tibialis anterior, soleus, rectus femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius) at each speed and condition. For this study, we developed a dorsiflexor assist device that aids the dorsiflexor muscles. A leg swing assist device applied forward pulling forces at the feet thus aiding the hip flexors during swing. A third device applied a horizontal force near the center of mass, which impedes or aids forward progression thus overloading or unloading the plantarflexor muscles. We found that when demand was decreased in the muscles measured, the PTS significantly increased. Conversely, when muscle demand was increased in the plantar flexors, the PTS decreased. However, combining assistive devices did not produce an even faster PTS. We conclude that altering the demand on specific muscles can change the preferred walk-run transition speed. However, the lack of a summation effect with multiple external devices, suggests that another underlying factor ultimately determines the preferred walk-run transition speed.

  14. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  15. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  16. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  17. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  18. Lipid Domains in Intact Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes Isolated from Cortical and Nuclear Regions of Human Eye Lenses of Donors from Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2015-01-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors’ age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors’ age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  19. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  20. Tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and host affected by temperature and age in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Kai-Jun; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-11-01

    A phage density model of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which means lytic phages reduce bacterial density associated with CI, significantly enhances our understanding of the tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia and host. However, WO may alternate between lytic and lysogenic life cycles or change phage production under certain conditions including temperature, host age and host species background. Here, extreme temperatures can induce an alteration in the life cycle of WO and change the tripartite associations among WO, Wolbachia and CI. Based on the accumulation of the WO load, WO can transform into the lytic life cycle with increasing age. These findings confirmed that the environment plays an important role in the associations among WO, Wolbachia and host. PMID:22669278

  1. Tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and host affected by temperature and age in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Kai-Jun; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-11-01

    A phage density model of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which means lytic phages reduce bacterial density associated with CI, significantly enhances our understanding of the tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia and host. However, WO may alternate between lytic and lysogenic life cycles or change phage production under certain conditions including temperature, host age and host species background. Here, extreme temperatures can induce an alteration in the life cycle of WO and change the tripartite associations among WO, Wolbachia and CI. Based on the accumulation of the WO load, WO can transform into the lytic life cycle with increasing age. These findings confirmed that the environment plays an important role in the associations among WO, Wolbachia and host.

  2. Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Margotta, Joseph W; Pittman, Jean M; Danka, Robert G; Tarver, Matthew R; Ottea, James A; Healy, Kristen B

    2015-01-01

    The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (<1-fold), moderate differences in pyrethroid bioassays (1.5 to 3-fold), and dramatic differences in neonicotinoid bioassays (3.4 to 33.3-fold). Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide, amitraz, and coumaphos showed increased phenothrin sensitivity in all stocks and also demonstrated further physiological differences between stocks. In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature. PMID

  3. Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Margotta, Joseph W; Pittman, Jean M; Danka, Robert G; Tarver, Matthew R; Ottea, James A; Healy, Kristen B

    2015-01-01

    The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (<1-fold), moderate differences in pyrethroid bioassays (1.5 to 3-fold), and dramatic differences in neonicotinoid bioassays (3.4 to 33.3-fold). Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide, amitraz, and coumaphos showed increased phenothrin sensitivity in all stocks and also demonstrated further physiological differences between stocks. In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature.

  4. Genetics, Synergists, and Age Affect Insecticide Sensitivity of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Margotta, Joseph W.; Pittman, Jean M.; Danka, Robert G.; Tarver, Matthew R.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2015-01-01

    The number of honey bee colonies in the United States has declined to half of its peak level in the 1940s, and colonies lost over the winter have reached levels that are becoming economically unstable. While the causes of these losses are numerous and the interaction between them is very complex, the role of insecticides has garnered much attention. As a result, there is a need to better understand the risk of insecticides to bees, leading to more studies on both toxicity and exposure. While much research has been conducted on insecticides and bees, there have been very limited studies to elucidate the role that bee genotype and age has on the toxicity of these insecticides. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in insecticide sensitivity between honey bees of different genetic backgrounds (Carniolan, Italian, and Russian stocks) and assess if insecticide sensitivity varies with age. We found that Italian bees were the most sensitive of these stocks to insecticides, but variation was largely dependent on the class of insecticide tested. There were almost no differences in organophosphate bioassays between honey bee stocks (<1-fold), moderate differences in pyrethroid bioassays (1.5 to 3-fold), and dramatic differences in neonicotinoid bioassays (3.4 to 33.3-fold). Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide, amitraz, and coumaphos showed increased phenothrin sensitivity in all stocks and also demonstrated further physiological differences between stocks. In addition, as bees aged, the sensitivity to phenothrin significantly decreased, but the sensitivity to naled significantly increased. These results demonstrate the variation arising from the genetic background and physiological transitions in honey bees as they age. This information can be used to determine risk assessment, as well as establishing baseline data for future comparisons to explain the variation in toxicity differences for honey bees reported in the literature. PMID

  5. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141

  6. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  7. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets. PMID:16772447

  8. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  9. Molecular size and molecular size distribution affecting traditional balsamic vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Pasquale Massimiliano; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-08-27

    A first attempt at a semiquantitative study of molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) in cooked grape must and traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) with increasing well-defined age was performed by high-performance liquid size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using dual detection, that is, differential refractive index (DRI) and absorbance (UV-vis) based detectors. With this aim, MW and MWD, including number- and weight-average MW and polydispersity, were determined with respect to a secondary standard and then analyzed. All investigated vinegar samples were recognized as compositionally and structurally heterogeneous blends of copolymers (melanoidins) spreading over a wide range of molecular sizes: the relative MW ranged from 2 to >2000 kDa. The extent of the polymerization reactions was in agreement with the TBV browning kinetics. MWD parameters varied asymptotically toward either upper or lower limits during aging, reflecting a nonequilibrium status of the balance between polymerization and depolymerization reactions in TBV. MWD parameters were proposed as potential aging markers of TBV. PMID:18656930

  10. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

  11. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers.

  12. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  13. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  14. Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ERα/ERβ Balance in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novensà, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2− production in young females, while increased O2− in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ERβ/ERα) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ERβ/ERα in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2−. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5′flanking region of ERα gene. PMID:21966501

  15. Social cognition in parents: inferential and affective reactions to children of three age levels.

    PubMed

    Dix, T; Ruble, D N; Grusec, J E; Nixon, S

    1986-08-01

    The present research proposes and tests an attributional model of parent cognition. Derived from correspondent inference theory, the model emphasizes that parents assess children's behavior primarily by determining whether that behavior reflects children's intentions and dispositions or, instead, constraints on children's control of behavior from situational pressures or developmental limitations in knowledge and ability. In 2 studies, support was obtained for 4 predictions. First, findings show that parents' assessments of children's behavior are closely tied to the developmental level of the child. As children developed, parents thought children's behavior was increasingly caused by personality dispositions and was increasingly intentional, under the child's control, and, for misconduct, understood to be wrong. Second, parents' affective reactions to misconduct were related to their assessments of its cause and, third, became increasingly negative as children developed. Positive affect, in contrast, was unrelated to attributions for children's positive behavior. Fourth, parents' assessments of children's behavior were affected by the behavior's desirability. Parents thought children's altruism was more intentional, dispositional, and under the child's control than children's misconduct. Implications for how parents assess and react to children's behavior are discussed.

  16. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  17. The Age of the Ursa Major Moving Group from Interferometric Measurements of Its A-type Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schaefer, Gail; Baines, Ellyn K.; Ireland, Michael; Patience, Jenny; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo

    2015-01-01

    A set of six A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group have been observed and spatially resolved with the CHARA Array, using the Classic and/or CLIMB beam combiners. At least four of these stars are rapidly rotating (vsini ≥ 170 kms-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements and the stars' observed photometric energy distributions (PEDs) are used to construct oblate star models from which stellar properties (R(θ), T(θ), etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine mass and age. This analysis provides an independently determined mean age estimate for the Ursa Major moving group of 490 Myr with a standard deviation of 98 Myr, consistent with previous age estimates. This validated technique can be used to provide independent age estimates of field A-stars, including those that host directly imaged substellar companions (e.g. HR 8799, κ And).

  18. Astrocytic β2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene Deletion Affects Memory in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Cathy Joanna; Demol, Frauke; Bauwens, Romy; Kooijman, Ron; Massie, Ann; Villers, Agnès; Ris, Laurence; De Keyser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2). Assessments using the modified SHIRPA (SmithKline/Harwell/Imperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment) test battery, swimming ability test, and accelerating rotarod test, performed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks, 6 and 12 months after tamoxifen (or vehicle) administration did not reveal any differences in physical health or motor functions between the knock-out mice and controls. However deficits were found in the cognitive ability of aged, but not young adult mice, reflected in impaired learning in the Morris Water Maze. Similarly, long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in hippocampal brain slices of aged knock-out mice maintained in low glucose media. Using microdialysis in cerebellar white matter we found no significant differences in extracellular lactate or glucose between the young adult knock-out mice and controls, although trends were detected. Our results suggest that β2-adrenergic receptor expression on astrocytes in mice may be important for maintaining cognitive health at advanced age, but is dispensable for motor function. PMID:27776147

  19. Age and skeletal sites affect BMP-2 responsiveness of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Osyczka, Anna Maria; Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Wojtowicz, Aleksandra; Akintoye, Sunday O

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contain osteoprogenitors responsive to stimulation by osteogenic growth factors like bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). When used as grafts, BMSCs can be harvested from different skeletal sites such as axial, appendicular, and orofacial bones, but the lower therapeutic efficacy of BMPs on BMSCs-responsiveness in humans compared to animal models may be due partly to effects of skeletal site and age of donor. We previously reported superior differentiation capacity and osteogenic properties of orofacial BMSCs relative to iliac crest BMSCs in same individuals. This study tested the hypothesis that recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) stimulates human BMSCs differently based on age and skeletal site of harvest. Adult maxilla, mandible, and iliac crest BMSCs from same individuals and pediatric iliac crest BMSCs were comparatively assessed for BMP-2 responsiveness under serum-containing and serum-free insulin-supplemented culture conditions. Adult orofacial BMSCs were more BMP-2-responsive than iliac crest BMSCs based on higher gene transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteogenic transcription factors MSX-2 and Osterix in serum-free insulin-containing medium. Pediatric iliac crest BMSCs were more responsive to rhBMP-2 than adult iliac crest BMSCs based on higher expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin in serum-containing medium. Unlike orofacial BMSCs, MSX-2 and Osterix transcripts were similarly expressed by adult and pediatric iliac crest BMSCs in response to rhBMP-2. These data demonstrate that age and skeletal site-specific differences exist in BMSC osteogenic responsiveness to BMP-2 stimulation and suggest that MSX-2 and Osterix may be potential regulatory transcription factors in BMP-mediated osteogenesis of adult orofacial cells.

  20. Bilateral deep neck space infection in the paediatric age group: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Songu, M; Demiray, U; Adibelli, Z H; Adibelli, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep neck space infections can occur at any age but require more intimate management in the paediatric age group because of their rapidly progressive nature. Concurrent abscess in distinct neck spaces has rarely been reported in healthy children. Herewith, a rare case of bilateral neck abscess is reported in a 16-month-old female and the clinical presentation and management are discussed with a review of the literature.